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Introduction for manual handling.

Usually, a load or item that has to be shifted, lifted, carried and held can be
handled easier manually. Nevertheless, such handling commonly affects workers saf
ety and health..
Definition of manual handling is any lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, moving
, shifting, holding or supporting a load that is done manually. For instance is
lifting a box, pushing, pulling a trolley. . END..
1) OSHA 1994.
Section 15 (2) (b) : general duty of employers and the self-employed to make arr
angements for ensuring, so far as practicable, safety and absence of risks to he
alth in connection with the use or operation, handling, storage and transport of
plant and substances..
2) FMA 1967.
Section 12 : no person shall be employed to lift, carry or move any load so heav
y as to be likely to cause bodily injury to him. END..
EXPLANATION: Roles and Responsibilities...
Line Managers/Supervisors are responsible for:
>ensuring manual handling hazards are identified.
>completing risk assessments.
>ensuring staff and Health and Safety representatives are consulted in relation
to the manual handling hazards and the development of risk control measures.
Employees are responsible for:
>not placing themselves or others at risk of injury.
>reporting hazards associated with manual handling and consulting with Line Mana
gers and Supervisors in relation to appropriate risk control measures.
Health and Safety Representatives are responsible for:
>assisting Line Managers and Staff in the identification and assessment of manua
l handling health and safety risks.
>assisting with the implementation of risk control measures associated with manu
al handling.
Common accidents:
>Release of the load being held.
>Crushed by load being put down.
>Falling together with the load being handled.
>Contact with sharp surfaces of the load.
EXPLANATION: Anatomy of the Back..
Why do injuries occur?
For Knowing what causes back injuries can help you prevent them.
Anatomy of the Back..
The Forces Involved..
The amount of force you place on your back in lifting may surprise you!
Think of your back as a lever..
With the fulcrum in the center, it only takes ten pounds of pressure to lift a t
en pound object. .
If you shift the fulcrum to one side, it takes much more force to lift the same
object. Your waist acts like the fulcrum in a lever system, on a 10:1 ratio. .
Lifting a ten pound object puts 100 pounds of pressure on your lower back. .
When you add in the 105 pounds of the average human upper torso, you see that li
fting a ten pound object actually puts 1,150 pounds of pressure on the lower bac
If you were 25 pounds overweight, it would add an additional 250 poundsof pressu
re on your back every time you bend over. . END..
EXPLANATION: Common Causes of Back Injuries....
Anytime you find yourself doing one of these things, you should think: DANGER! M
y back is at risk!
First is Try to avoid heavy lifting.Especially repetitive lifting over a long pe
riod of time. ..
Second is Twisting at the waist while lifting or holding a heavy load, this freq
uently happens when using a shovel..
Third is Reaching and lifting over your head, across a table, or out the back of
a truck ..
Fourth is Lifting or carrying object with awkward or odd shapes ..
Five is Working in awkward, uncomfortable positions ..
Six is Sitting or standing too long in one position, sittingcan be very hard on
the lower back ..
seven is It is also possible to injure your back when slipping on a wet floor or
ice . .
1) Load condition.
2) Environmental conditions.
3) Workers factors (Human factors).
4) Other factors..
1. Load Condition..
a] Size of the load.
>Large or small a 50kg bag of cement and 50kg of cotton has the same weight are
different in size.
b] Physical condition of the load.
>Liquid/solid/gas the load must be balanced when carried.
c] Physical shape of the load.
>Round/edged (rectangle, triangle)/flat/oval/tall and thin.
d] Weight of the load.
>Must be determined before lifting to determine the method of handling and the c
apability of the handler.
e] Level of firmness of the load.
>The load must be in a firm state to ensure, if not (changes shape when carryin
g), it can cause difficulties to the handler when holding and gripping it.
f] External surface of the load.
>Rough/smooth may differ depending on the type of packaging, .e.g. sacks made of
plastic, gunny or paper, metal tin packaging.
g] Position of the load .
>Whether it is below (on the work floor) or above head level (on a rack).. END.
2. Environmental Condition.
a] Floor surface.
>Smooth/soft/uneven balancing in manual handling is dependent on the stability o
f the floor surface.
b] Sufficient head space.
>Majority of work involves limited head space must be sufficient for worker to p
erform their work safely, without the need to avoid obstacles/objects in their w
c) Ambient temperature.
>Hot/cold can influence the style and speed of movement of the worker.
Cold environment worker may feel muscular strain.
Warmer environment may lose excessive fluids from the body due to perspiration.
d) Sufficient lighting.
>Dark work surrounding can cause accidents as workers may not be able to properl
y see the access paths and identify any obstructions on the work floor.
3. Workers Factors.
a] Physical and mental fitness of worker.
Age, health level, physical strength employers need to ensure the selection of w
orkers is suitable for the particular activity.
b] Workers clothing.
>Must be suitable for the work , comfortable yet able to protect workers from th
e hazards of handling. This includes PPE.
4. Other Factors.
a] Lifting equipment.
>Trolleys and pulleys to assist manual handling activities.
>It also Must be of suitable design and properly maintained...END..
>Strategies for manual handling need to be formulated and observed to ensure tha
t activities can be conducted safely.
1] Identify the load/material that needs to be handled.
2] Identify the destination of the load/material that needs to be handle.
3] Assess the risks that may be faced.
4] Select the most appropriate handling method.
5] Make safety arrangements before beginning the activity.
6] Monitor the activity that is being performed.. END..
Before handling:
1] Examine whether the weight of the load can be shifted.
2] Modify the shape of large loads for easier gripping.
3] Modify the arrangement of workplaces and work stations.
4] Provide a work surface that is appropriate to the working height.
5] Find the best method to handle the load push, pull, others.
6] Study the lifting techniques use appropriate posture movements and lifting ca
7] Modify the work methods by using assisting tools wedge, hook or crow bars.
8] Provide training related to the work at hand to the workers involved SOP, saf
e work systems, reporting, handling etc.
During handling:
1] Use the correct methods and techniques.
2] Ensure that the work plan is followed.
3] Continuously monitor the techniques and procedures being practiced.
QUESTION: How to Prevent Back Injuries?..
a] Avoid lifting and bending whenever you can.
b] Place objects up off the floor.
c] Raise/lower shelves.
d] Use carts and trolleys.
e] Use cranes, hoists, lift tables, and other lift-assist devices whenever you c
f] Test the weight of an object before lifting.
g] Get help if its too heavy for you to lift it alone.
h] How to Prevent Back Injuries.
i] Use proper lift procedures. Follow these steps when lifting.
j] Take a balanced stance, feet shoulder-width apart.
k] Squat down to lift, get as close as you can.
L] Get a secure grip, hug the load.
m] Lift gradually using your legs, keep load close to you, keep back and neck st
n] Once standing, change directions by pointing your feet and turn your whole
o] Avoid twisting at your waist.
p] To put load down, use these guidelines in reverse.
QUESTION: Things You Can Do To Help Your Back..
1] You can minimize problems with your back by exercises that tone the muscles i
n your back, hips and thighs.
2] Before beginning any exercise program, you should check with your doctor and
follow his/her advice concerning any exercise program. With his/her approval you
Exercise regularly, every other day.tHE FOLLOWING IS:
+ Warm up slowly . . . walking is a good way to warm up.
+ Inhale deeply before each repetition of an exercise and exhale when performing
each repetition..END.
QUESTION: Take care of your bacK And it will take care of you..
1] Exercise daily.
2] Avoid Heavy Lifting.
3] Get Help with heavy or bulky objects..
4] If you must bend over, do it properly.
5] Avoid twisting at the waist when carrying objects.
6] Always watch where youre going.
QUESTION: The preferred strategy for the management of manual handling hazards i
s to :
1] Eliminate risk or where possible re-design the tasks to remove as much as pos
sible the manual handling elements identified to be a significant risk, and .
2] Where possible provide mechanical aids to assist staff to safely perform the
manual handling tasks.
3] Where work requirements are such that manual handling remains a component of
the work task, manual handling training shall be provided to staff in correct bi
omechanics and posture and the manual handling methods needed to do the work saf
1] Appropriate reach distance for sitting and standing workers.
2] Placement of tools in working table.
3] Recommended Dimensions for Seated Tasks.
4] Recommended dimensions for standing tasks.
5] Leg space and foot space for both sitting and standing workers.
6] Elbow Rule for the Hand Height.
7] The working height can be at elbow level or a little lower depending on the t
ype of standing work.
8] Different display areas in a typical visual layout for a worker.
9] Arrangement of dials and switches to minimize mistake.....END..
Manual handling can cause injuries to the worker and may affect their health if
not conducted according to the recommended work safety methods.
There are manual handling safety regulations under OSHA 1994 and FMA 1967 that o
utline the obligations of employers.
Several factors and conditions related to the load, worker, environment and equi
pments must be considered to ensure the safety of the worker, followed by safety
measures before and during the course of the implementation of the manual handl
ing works.
are consulted = dirujuk.
sacks = kampit/ guni.
muscular strain = ketegangan otot.
due to perspiration = desebabkan oleh peluh.
need to be formulated and observed = perlu digubal dan dipatuhi.
easier gripping = mudah menggenggam.
wedge, hook or crow bars = baji, cangkuk atau bar gagak.
bending = lenturan.
shelves = rak.
hoists = pesawat angkat.
thights = peha.
waist = pinggang.
repetitive = berulang-ulang.
Release of the load being held = melepaskan beban ditahan.
crushed by load being put down = dihimpit oleh beban yang sedang diletakkan.
sharp surfaces = permukaan tajam.
lever = tuil.
slipping on a wet floor = tergelincir atas lantai basah.