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Penguins adapt in order to live in harsh environments both extremes

either hot or cold. The Emperor penguin lives in Antarctic which is below
freezing so they must have special adaptations to be able to live in harsh
environments. Same with the Rockhopper penguin. This penguin lives in
South America, South America is very di!erent from the Antarctic. Both
the Emperor and Rockhopper are penguins they have evolved to better
cope with there environments.

Emperor Penguins live in a cold temperatures. They even breed in the
depths of the Antarctic winter at temperatures of -30°C (Stephanie). That's
very cold but how do they survive in that cold of a place? Humans
couldn't live in a place that cold! Well through adaptations called
evolution. Animals living in Antarctica have outer layers of dense fur or
water-repellent feathers. Under this fur or feather layer is a thick layer of
insulating fat penguins got this thick layer of fat by adapting to there cold
environment the fat keeps them warm. penguins, for example, have
circulatory systems adapted to conserve heat. Their veins wrap around
their arteries, warming the blood in the arteries and saving energy
(Stephanie) . By there vines wrapping around there arteries this saves
energy and keeps them from freezing to death. Emperor penguins rest
their entire weight on their heels and tail, reducing contact of their feet
with the icy surface. They can also tuck their flippers in close to their
bodies and shiver to generate additional heat. And they have very
powerful noses! Emperor penguins are able to recapture 80% of heat
escaping in their breath through a complex heat exchange system in their
nasal passages (Stephanie). They also huddle close together in a large
group. Using these adaptations the males are able to keep warm during
the months it takes to hatch there eggs while the mothers are o! eating.
This is how Emperor penguins stay warm in very cold environments.

How do rockhopper penguins stay cool in warm environments? To cool
o!, penguins can ru#e their feathers, breaking up the insulating air layer
next to the skin and releasing heat. Penguins can also hold their flippers
away from their bodies. Rockhopper are smaller in size to they have less
To cool down compared to larger penguins. Rock hoppers like other
penguins spend a lot of time in the water catching fish to eat.



Similarities and di!erences of penguins that live in di!erent environments.
As seen in the graph both eat fish and swim in the ocean to catch there
pray. Both birds are carnivores which means they only eat meat. Both
animals are both predators and prey. Seals eat penguins which makes
them prey but they both eat fish which are living so that makes them
predators. Both of them have color adaptations to make it harder for
predators to see them while they are swimming in the ocean. All types of
penguins have a speado type body, very sleek to help them guild through
the water. Overlapping feathers create a surface that is almost
impenetrable to wind or water. The greasy layer over their feathers
provides waterproofing.(Stephanie)

In conclusion penguins have adapted to their environment in order to
better there chance at life in order to pass on there genes and reproduce.
Penguins are complex creatures of the undersea world. Learning how
creatures like penguins evolve to better our understanding of how we
evolved and what our common ancestor is.