The Prevention of Audience Perception of Narrative Construction in the films Tarkovsky's “Mirror”

and Wenders' “Kins of the !oad”" “Alice in the Cities” and “Paris" Te#as”
$riinally su%mitted in part fulfilment of the re&uirements of the Animation MA" !oyal Collee of Art'
( )oshua Wedlake" *+,*
http-..///'0osh/edlake'com
Word Count 1+21
Contents
Thesis
1. An Introduction to the Notion of Construction . . . . . 2
2. Ambiguity and Perception . . . . . . . 5
3. Questioning Narratie . . . . . . . 1!
". Approaches to #tory . . . . . . . . 11
5. #tories $ithin #tories . . . . . . . . 15
%. The &ffect of Content and 'enre on Construction in (enders) *i+ms . . 1,
-. The &ffect of *orm on Construction in (enders) *i+ms . . . 21
,. The &ffect of Content on the Construction of Tar.os.y)s /0irror1 . . 2"
2. The &ffect of *orm on the Construction of Tar.os.y)s /0irror1 . . 2-
1!. &3perimenta+ &idence for Postu+ations . . . . . 3!
11. *ina+ 4emar.s . . . . . . . . 33
5ib+iography . . . . . . . . . . 35
Appendices
A. #tructura+ Ana+ysis of /0irror1. . . . . . . 3-
5. &3periment Phase 16 Part 1 . . . . . . . "2
C. &3periment Phase 16 Part 2 . . . . . . . 53
7. &3periment Phase 16 Part 28 Normatie Narratie #chema Ana+ysis . . 55
&. &3periment Phase 2 . . . . . . . . -2
*. Introduction to #hot9by9#hot Ana+yses . . . . . ,1
'. 4o++ Charts for #hot9by9#hot Ana+yses . . . . . ,2
:. #hot9by9#hot Ana+ysis of /A+ice in the Cities18 A+ice)s 'oodnight #tory . . ,%
I. #hot9by9#hot Ana+ysis of /A+ice in the Cities18 (upperta+ Caf; #cene . . 2!
<. #hot9by9#hot Ana+ysis of /=ings of the 4oad18 Character Introductions . . 2%
=. #hot9by9#hot Ana+ysis of /=ings of the 4oad18 The (ido$er . . . 111
>. #hot9by9#hot Ana+ysis of /Paris6 Te3as18 &nding #e?uence . . . 123
@n the 7A7
Chrono+ogica+ 4e9edit of Tar.os.y)s 0irror
7ata and Interface 7emos for &3periments
1
1. An Introduction to the Notion of Construction
(hen :itchcoc.)s Psycho
1
$as first re+eased6 audiences $ere terrified by it
2
. Though
Psycho is sti++ he+d in high regard today6 to a contemporary audience the fi+m is no$here
near as thri++ing. This is in part because contemporary cinema9goers are $e++ a$are of
ho$ Psycho manipu+ates their emotionsB they are a$are of the fi+m)s narrative construction
and devices. &3cept in cases $here fi+ms de+iberate+y ma.e an audience a$are of their
construction for effect
3
6 this a$areness tends to detract from their e3perience6 a+ienating
them from the $or+d of the fi+m6 a++o$ing form to distract from content6 disrupting their
immersion6 and negating the rea+ity of the fi+m. Though to some e3tent6 audiences)
a$areness of construction is dependent on their fami+iarity $ith screen +anguage6 narratie
form6 dramatic conentions6 editing deices and so on6 I be+iee that techni?ues e3ist
$hich do not re+y on this +ac. of fami+iarity and enab+e fi+ms to be made $hich concea+ their
construction. 5y ana+ysing seera+ fi+ms $hich I interpreted as being unconstructed6 I hope
to reea+ the methods and techni?ues by $hich these fi+ms use to preent audiences from
detecting the i++usion of rea+ity $hich they portray.
(hen I first sa$ Tar.os.y)s Mirror
"
6 I found it to be incredib+y captiating and beautifu+
throughout6 yet after I fe+t as though I had ery +itt+e understanding of the eents depicted
$ithin it. (hat surprised me6 $as that my immersion in Mirror did not seem to hae been
at a++ affected by my inabi+ity to gather the gist
5
of the narratie8 I $as unab+e to summarise
the fi+m in a concise $ay $hich maintained any simi+arity to the e3perience of $atching the
fi+m. I do not be+iee that my enCoyment of Mirror $as entire+y do$n to the immediate
1 :itchcoc.6 A+fred. Psycho. :orror6 0ystery6 Thri++er6 12%!.
2 /:o$ Psycho Changed Cinema.1 BBC6 Apri+ 16 2!1!6 sec. 0agaDine.
http8EEne$s.bbc.co.u.E1EhiEmagaDineE,5235!,.stm.
3 In particu+ar6 Aerfremdungseffe.ts8 for e3amp+e6 Cump cuts in /5reath+ess1 F'odard6 <ean9>uc.
Breathless. Crime6 7rama6 4omance6 12%1.G6 or the set in /7ogi++e1 FTrier6 >ars on. Dogville. 7rama6
2!!3.G
" Tar.os.y6 Andrey. Mirror (Зеркало)6 12-5.
5 p.1%. 5ranigan6 &d$ard. arrative Co!"rehension and #il!. 4out+edge6 1222.
2
sensory appea+ of its sur$ace structure
%
6 or the co++ectie impression of the hea"
-
of isua+s
bui+t up by the end of the fi+m. @n my first ie$ing of /0irror1 I $as bare+y ab+e to
comprehend it as a co++ection of e"isodes
,
. I fe+t that despite not being ab+e to sense the
director)s hand organising the e+ements of the fi+m6 Mirror)s appea+6 and the $ay it
captiates its audiences6 must be re+iant on some .ind of under+ying structure6 een if it is
not readi+y apparent to the ie$er. I $as fascinated to .no$ $hy Mirror $or.s the $ay it
does. In %cul"ting in &i!e Tar.os.y te++s of the difficu+ty of editing Mirror
'
6 suggesting that
a ast reordering $as re?uired to ma.e the fi+m comprehendab+e. 5y contrast6 others
hae suggested that Tar.os.y de+iberate+y obfuscated $hat $as other$ise a +inear p+ot in
order to aoid the censors
1!
. In my attempt to re9edit Mirror to be chrono+ogica+
11
6 I $as
unab+e to reea+ a conentiona+ narratie structure6 and the fi+m on+y seemed +ess po$erfu+
and more contried as a resu+t of my changes.
A fe$ months after seeing Mirror6 I $atched (im (enders) 12-% road moie6 (ings o$ the
)oad
12
. I $as ta.en abac. by the +ee+ of rea+ism in the narratie. The p+ot arc neer
made itse+f eident6 yet the fi+m $as sti++ fi++ed $ith intrigue6 and neer fe+t ramb+ing or +ost.
The portraya+ of time fe+t continuous6 and the p+aces rea+. 0y emotions seemed entire+y
due to a shared empathy $ith the characters6 rather than being forced on me by the fi+m)s
director. I $as neer a$are of the characters seeming manipu+ated by a director6 or of
them as puppets acting out a story. After $atching I confirmed ana+ytica++y that the fi+m
does indeed contain a fu++ sca+e narrative6 and is not Cust a $ocused chain
13
. The +ee+ of
dia+ogue in the fi+m is a far c+oser representation of ho$ much of our +ies $e actua++y
% p.15. 5ranigan.
- p.12. 5ranigan.
, p.2!. 5ranigan.
2 Tar.os.y6 A.6 12-5. 0irror FHIJKLMNG.
1! Tar.os.y is ?uoted as haing said8 O7o you .no$ $hat I)++ do P$ith 0irrorQR I)++ mi3 it a++ up6 so that no9
one $i++ understand a b+oody thing... I)++ moe the end to the beginning6 and the midd+e to the end.O p.55.
Soya in the mirror8 >eo Arnshtam)s inf+uence on Andrei Tar.os.y. 4ogatches.i6 Andrei6 in 7unne6 N
FedG. 2!!,. Tar.os.y. 5+ac. 7og6 >ondon.
11 #ee 7A7 for fi+m6 and Appendi3 A for editing notes.
12 (enders6 (im. (ings o$ the )oad (*! +au$ der ,eit)6 12-%.
13 p.2!. 5ranigan.
3
spend in si+ence6 thus suggesting that the unconstructedness might be due to ho$ much of
the narratie information is communicated subte3tua++y.
I fe+t simi+ar+y about -lice in the Cities
1"
6 a fi+m $hich forms part of the same tri+ogy as
(ings6 and fee+s $onderfu++y obserationa+. I didn)t perceie the fi+m as a heai+y designed
drama6 but rather a series of truthfu+ obserations about a dee+oping re+ationship.
(enders gies the ie$er time to +oo. for themse+es6 rather than forcing conc+usions on
them. In Paris. &e/as
15
6 $hich (enders made seera+ years after (ings6 on his rise to
fame6 I noticed a different unconstructed fee+8 the mystery of Trais) past $as neer
pushed out of proportion as I focussed on Trais) re+ationship $ith :unter6 and fo++o$ed
him on his ?uest to find <ane. (hen Trais fina++y finds <ane6 a +ands+ide of e3position
re+ating to their past emerges. >oo.ing c+oser at the fi+m
1%
I rea+ised that the maCority of the
it is deoid of action6 and that the c+ima3 is primari+y erba+. The fi+m doesn)t so much te++
the story itse+f6 as a++o$ the characters to e3posit the eents $hich e3p+ain the current
situation6 creating an incredib+y intense and moing story entire+y $ithin the audience)s
imagination.
A commona+ity amongst the unconstructed fi+ms is that the concept of a strict+y unified p+ot6
$hich eerything in the fi+m points to$ards6 is noticeab+y absent. Instead the fi+ms)
narraties +eae options open. Norma++y if a rea+9+ife happening $as adapted into a fi+m6 it
$ou+d be condensed into a p+ot containing on+y the most e3citing6 re+eant or uni?ue
action6 and in the e3treme e3amp+e of :o++y$ood6 the p+ot $ou+d be further reduced to a
/high9concept1
1-
. 4ea+ +ife contains many ambiguities6 and een $hen heightened drama
1" (enders6 (im. -lice in the Cities (-lice in Den %t0dten)6 12-".
15 (enders6 (im. Paris. &e/as. 7rama6 12,".
1% #ee Appendi3 >.
1- A /high9concept1 fi+m is one $hich can easi+y be described by a succinct+y stated premise. 1a2s is a
prime e3amp+e. The narratie structure of 1a2s is ana+ysed in Appendi3 7. #pie+berg6 #teen. 1a2s.
Thri++er6 12-5. #ee a+so8 (yatt6 <ustin. 3igh Conce"t4 Movies and Mar5eting in 3olly2ood. Tniersity of
Te3as Press6 122".
4
is occurs6 that drama is not the on+y cause of eents. I do not be+iee that in order to ma.e
fi+ms seem unconstructed they must be deoid of p+ot6 but rather that a p+ot cannot be the
so+e cause of drama6 and that ambiguities and unfocussed action must be inc+uded so that
eents in the fi+m do not ma.e the p+ot obtrusie.
2. Ambiguity and Perception
The birth of fi+m6 and its /$or+d of triumphant i++usions and dreams1
1,
6 $as short+y fo++o$ed
by the start of Cubism6 a moement that 'ombrich describes as /the most radica+ attempt
to stamp out ambiguity and to enforce one reading of the picture 9 that of a man made
construction6 a co+oured canas1
12
. 0any of the ear+y e3periments $ith fi+m6 and the
industry $hich sprung up short+y after the inention of cinema6 $ere chief+y concerned $ith
portraying unambiguous narraties. *i+m grammar dee+oped6 and a+though some
techni?ues6 for e3amp+e 'riffith)s use of c+ose9ups6 re?uired audiences to fami+iarise
themse+es $ith the ne$ screen +anguage6 much understanding seemed to be innate. In
122! 6nhoo5ing the 3oo52or!
2!
$as re+eased6 a fi+m intended to educate rura+ peop+e
about hea+thcare issues. @fficia+s initia++y thought that naUe audiences /$ou+d strugg+e to
understand the comp+e3ities of PtheQ )sophisticated) fi+m techni?ues1
21
uti+ised. In fact6 the
reerse turned out to be true6 as the fi+m $as /particu+ar+y inf+uentia+1
22
on those $ho had
neer seen fi+ms before8 een at the most basic +ee+ it $ou+d seem that fami+iarity $ith
construction detracts from cinema)s effect. The discoery a+so reea+ed that an
understanding of fi+m is to some e3tent innate and app+ies uniersa++y across audiences6 to
the e3tent that if a fi+m9ma.er fo++o$s certain ru+es6 they can be confident that their $or.
$i++ be unambiguous.
1, p.2!5. 0arsha++ 0c>uhan6 &he Mediu! is the Message. in (ardrip9fruin6 Noah. &he e2 Media )eader.
:arECdr. 0IT Press6 2!!3.
12 p.2-. 'ombrich6 &. :. -rt and *llusion. Princeton Tniersity Press6 2!!!.
2! 6nhoo5ing the 3oo52or!. #i+ent6 b+ac. and $hite. Internationa+ :ea+th 7iision of the 4oc.efe++er
*oundation6 122!.
21 p.,. 5urns6 <ames. /Tnhoo.ing the :oo.$orm8 The 0a.ing and Tses of a Pub+ic :ea+th *i+m16 2!!2.
22 p.1!. 5urns.
5
The innate understanding of fi+m is due to the fact that brain)s abi+ity to comprehend
narratie is independent from the medium $hich de+iers it
23
. The cognitie facu+ties $hich
process narratie in fi+ms are identica+ to those $hich ma.e the $or+d around us inte++igib+e.
Thus the prob+em of deice a$areness is separate to that of narratie design. If a++
deices are +eft unused by a fi+m6 reducing it to a static sing+e shot6 it $ou+d sti++ be possib+e
for the fi+m to fee+ comp+ete+y constructed if the narratie sho$n $ithin the frame appeared
obious or artificia+. This suggests that in order to maintain unconstructedness regard+ess
of the deices used6 the brain must be a++o$ed to indu+ge in the actiity of sorting re+eant
data to achiee /)0eaning)...$hen pattern e3ists1
2"
. 7ata must therefore be proided from
$hich a pattern can emerge6 but is not necessari+y immediate+y apparent. An obious
narratie is one in $hich the pattern is a+ready apparent in the data6 and the data)s
ordering a+igns c+ose+y $ith the schema by $hich the mind usua++y organises narratie
data.
If $e consider fi+mic deices to .no$n $ays of arranging data6 then $e can define
fami+iarity to be the efficiency $ith $hich the data proided by the fi+mic deice is
remapped into a recognisab+e pattern. Thus the more an audience practices their facu+ty
of remapping data from a specific fi+mic deice6 the more fami+iar that deice becomes6
both reducing the cha++enge of comprehending the fi+m6 and $ith each use of the
remapping6 ma.ing the audience conscious of the rote nature of the remapping)s
app+ication. The remapping procedure for each fi+mic deice is dee+oped by intuition6 as
for each ne$ fi+mic deice and data9set6 the brain attempts different remappings unti+ a
specific remapping occurs $hich creates patterns for a++ cases of the deice9data9set
pairings in ?uestion. The process of dee+oping the remapping is interesting in itse+f8 put
23 /Narratie is a fundamenta+ $ay of organiDing data.1 p.16 5ranigan.
2" p.1"6 5ranigan.
6
simp+y it is more enCoyab+e to dee+op a+gorithms to so+e puDD+es for yourse+f6 than to be
sho$n puDD+es $hich you a+ready .no$ ho$ to so+e.
To ta.e this a step further6 I $ou+d suggest that fi+mic deices do not necessari+y hae to
hae comp+ete+y constant remappings to be comprehensib+e. *i+mma.ers can preent the
audience from dee+oping too great a fami+iarity $ith each deice6 and so preent the
deice)s app+ication from becoming boring6 by constant+y subt+y redefining $hat each
deice imp+ies6 or a+tering its imp+ementation. In this $ay the remappings associated $ith
each deice must be re9e3amined each time they are a+tered6 and so the brain must p+ay
catch up8 a director $ho reuses c+ich;d deices $ithout innoation6 thus becomes boring
?uic.+y.
4eturning to the ana+ogy of a puDD+e6 consider the app+ication of a remapping a fi+mic
deice)s data9set to be +i.e p+aying tic9tac9toe. @nce the tic9tac9toe p+ayer has +earnt the
method by $hich they can consistent+y $in or dra$ at tic9tac9toe6 the game of tic9tac9toe in
itse+f becomes boring. :o$eer6 not a++ puDD+es $i++ eentua++y become boring in the same
$ay that tic9tac9toe does8 $hi+e some puDD+es can be so+ed by app+ying a+gorithms6 there
are many e3amp+es of mathematica+ prob+ems to $hich no e+egant so+utions e3ist.
25
I
be+iee that it is possib+e for fi+mic deices to e3ist $hich cannot be so+ed by a consistent
remapping6 and thus these fi+mic deices neer become fami+iar6 or6 as a resu+t6 boring.
Another $ay of .eeping a puDD+e interesting6 and thus preenting the so+ution from being
reachab+e by a triia+ app+ication of an a+gorithm6 is to a++o$ the data to become fuDDy. *or
e3amp+e6 imagine if the numbers in a sudo.u grid $ere occasiona++y a+tered random+y to
preent the p+ayer from eer reaching the fina+ so+ution. In this $ay it doesn)t matter ho$
25 *or e3amp+e6 many of :i+bert)s prob+ems hare remained unso+ed for oer 1!! years. 7aid :i+bert.
/0athematische Prob+eme.1 78ttinger achrichten F12!!G8 pp. 253V22-.
7
fami+iar the brain is $ith the puDD+e so+ing method6 as the data itse+f is constant+y s+ipping.
App+ying this concept to a narratie8 if the data proided by the fi+m is .ept ambiguous6
then the rearrangement procedure cannot produce a stab+e pattern6 and so the audience
neer fee+s as if the p+ot e3posed by the narratie has become predictab+e.
(hen $atching Mirror6 one of the $ays in $hich the fi+m becomes captiating6 is the
constant cognitie cha++enge of trying to dee+op a gist from the eents depicted. As sho$n
in Appendi3 A6 there are so many possib+e causa+ or associatie connections that the
audience can ma.e6 many of $hich ma.e up independent e"isodes or un$ocussed chains
$hich oer+ap $ith each other6 that een if on+y a sma++ fraction of the data gains 0eaning6
there is sti++ as much satisfaction from accomp+ishing the menta+ gymnastics as might be
gained from fo++o$ing a more conentiona+ narratie structure. As the fragmentation of
Mirror ma.es it c+ear that the primary purpose of the fi+m is not to coney a sing+e unified
narrative6 there is no disappointment $hen the gist of one cannot be achieedB $hether an
a++9inc+usie narrative een e3ists in Mirror is ?uestionab+e. The fact that +arge amounts of
data remains ambiguous+y connected6 .eeps the co++ection of patterns unstab+e and thus
a+ie.
Ambiguity in fi+m can hae purposes other than simp+y +eaing the audience unab+e to
predict a narratie)s outcome. <oce+yn Cammac. discusses the menta+ s+ippages $hich
occur $hen s$itching bet$een the t$o interpretations of /unstab+e images1
2%
6 or $hen
$atching isua+ ambiguities in Tati)s /P+aytime1
2-
6 as fo++o$s8 The /.ind of uncertainty6 that
sort of fragi+ity... is a para++e+ e3perience... for something that is embedded in the
e3perience of beauty6 there is a certain fragi+ity about the moment $e e3perience beauty
$hich means $e ?uite donWt .no$ it6 $e donWt ?uite understand it6 and this state of not
2% eg. The duc.9rabbit or the face9ase.
2- Tati6 <ac?ues. Play &i!e9 12-3.
8
.no$ing... is a ery beautifu+ state1
2,
. The interpretation of a situation $hich cou+d at any
minute eaporate has a para++e+ in the f+eeting beauty of 4omanticism. Interesting+y6 in
terms of fi+m6 Cammac. be+iees that the beauty e3ists on+y on the first ie$ing. (hen
you see these isua+ ambiguities in a fi+m again6 the ambiguity is so+ed /itWs not un.no$n
to you any more and you no$ understand it... itWs neer ?uite the same.1
22
This suggests
that for fi+m to uti+ise ambiguity effectie+y6 the audience must not be so confused as to
need to see the fi+m a second time. A+ternatie+y there $ou+d need to be ne$ ambiguities
$hich on+y ma.e themse+es apparent on subse?uent ie$ings8 I $ou+d argue that for a
fi+m as dense as Mirror6 that een after seera+ ie$ings the narratie schema sti++
dee+ops as yet more information comes to +ight.
0ainstream fi+m9ma.ers often de+iberate+y try to preent ambiguities by emp+oying arious
dramaturgica+ deices $hich audiences hae become fami+iar $ith6 and understand to be
symbo+ic representations of certain situations6 re+ationships or emotions. The audience
can on+y interpret this .ind of /+ight entertainment1 fi+m6 $ith its obious construction6 in an
e3treme+y +imited $ay6 compared to ho$ they interpret the rea+ $or+d6 using para+anguage6
pro3emics and .inesics. *ortunate+y against this trend6 many fi+m9ma.ers hae come to
appreciate that /the unspo.en minutiae of human gesture and moement1
3!
hae a great
importanceB none of these minutiae hae fi3ed interpretations6 and as such6 using them to
their fu++ e3tent can he+p to preent a fi+m from fee+ing constructed. #ontag obseres that
/in teaching us a ne$ isua+ code6 photographs a+ter and en+arge our notion of $hat is
$orth +oo.ing at /
31
B if a fi+m encourages an audience to +oo. c+oser6 they $i++. The
simp+icity of e3p+icit representation in fi+m ignores that $e hae a common unspo.en
.no$+edge to reference. 5y contrast6 $ith regards to Mirror) /$e share so many of the
2, p.2. Cammac.6 <oce+yn. /'raity16 Pea. >ecture Theatre6 *ebruary 1-6 2!11.
http8EEgraity21.orgEcammac..pdf.
22 p.2. Cammac..
3! 7iscussing <armusch on p.132. Andre$6 'eoff. %tranger &han Paradise4 Maveric5 #il!:!a5ers in
)ecent -!erican Cine!a. Prion 5oo.s >td6 122,.
31 p.3. #ontag6 #usan. ;n Photogra"hy. Ne$ &d. Penguin6 12-2.
9
protagonist)s chi+dhood memories1
32
.
3. Questioning Narrative
Cammac. states that fi+m seems to /e3ist in this space some$here bet$een seeing and
thin.ing.1
33
. A fi+m re?uires the audience to $atch6 see6 thin. and then .no$
3"
. (enders
states that /seeing is an immersion in the $or+d6 and thin.ing is a+$ays a process of
gaining distance from it1
35
6 and so $hen $e comprehend a narratie $e are being as.ed to
both see and thin. at the same time. If $e are re?uired to perform too much or too +itt+e of
either6 then our immersion in the fi+m disintegratesB $e can be oer$he+med by imagery6
subsumed by reasoning6 or +eft searching or bored.
The ?uestion remains as to $hether narratie is een the main attraction or purpose of
cinema6 or if it is6 as Cubitt suggests6 it is mere+y a /secondary effect1
3%
$hich audiences
hae come to e3pect6 +ed on by mar.eting and industry pressure. 7oes a narratie hae to
be consistent and comp+ete to engross an audienceR (hat is considered a deiation or
distraction6 either from the e3pected arc6 or in terms of misinformation $hich upsets $hat
has a+ready been estab+ished
3-
R In either of these cases6 does the e3tra reasoning
re?uired of the ie$er destroy their immersion in the fi+mR The ba+ance of imp+icit and
e3p+icit dramaturgy a+so becomes important8 if the fi+m is too e3p+icit the ie$er can fee+
+ectured6 but conerse+y6 $ith the maCority imp+icit6 they may hae to reason so much so as
to be unimmersed. In the 12%!s fi+m9ma.ers /attempted so comp+ete+y to consign to the
32 p.%5. Turos.aCa6 0aCa. &ar5ovs5y4 Cine!a as Poetry. 4eised ed. *aber and *aber6 12,2.
33 p.2. Cammac..
3" (enders e3presses a simi+ar sentiment in (enders6 (im. 6ntil the <nd o$ the =orld. 7rama6 #ci9*i6
1221.
35 p.%!. (enders6 (im. &he -ct o$ %eeing4 <ssays and Conversations. Trans+ated by 0ichae+ :ofmann.
*aber X *aber6 122-.
3% /It is important to recogniDe that narratie is neither primary nor necessary to cinema... but on+y a
potentia+ and secondary ?ua+ity arising from the production of time in the differentiation $ithin and
bet$een frames.1 p.3,. Cubitt6 #ean. &he Cine!a <$$ect. Ne$ &d. 0IT Press6 2!!5.
3- /Comprehension s+o$s $hen e3p+icit propositions constructed ear+ier must be reactiated... B or $hen
preious inferences are indirect+y disconfirmed... B or $hen a perceier must ma.e noe+ inferences1
p.1%. 5ranigan6 &d$ard. arrative Co!"rehension and #il!. 4out+edge6 1222.
10
dustbin the schema of c+osed romantic rea+ism1
3,
. As much as the idea of a c+osed
narratie is in some $ay romantic6 the mechanisms by $hich it is constructed are often
c+assica+6 and the accidenta+ e3posure of these mechanisms can easi+y reea+ the fa+sity of
the romanticism. In both (enders)
32
and Tar.os.y)s $or. romanticism e3ists not on+y in
the narratiesB as 7yer states )0irror) is a fi+m /uni?ue+y he+d together by the director)s
sty+e... rather than by the mechanica+ demands of narratie1
"!
.
(atching a fi+m is a+$ays to some e3tent an e3ercise in cognitie estrangement6 as the
audience must +earn to understand the ru+es of a ne$ $or+d. :o$ different that $or+d is
from our o$n sets out e3pectations of $hat is p+ausib+e $ithin it. Anything $hich fa++s
outside of these e3pectations $i++ reduce our immersion in the narratie as $e reca+ibrate
our perception and assumptions about the $or+d of the fi+mB simi+ar to a paradigm shift6
$hen /one conceptua+ $or+d ie$ is rep+aced by another1
"1
.
4. Approaches to tory
(enders categorises his fi+ms into t$o groups6 /A1 and /51
"2
. /=ings1 fa++s into the /A1
grouping6 $hich (enders describes as being high+y improised6 haing undecided
endings6 undesigned narratie arcs and being produced $ith minima+ budgets and +o$
shooting ratios. In these fi+ms e3perimentation ta.es p+ace bet$een shots6 to decide on
the ne3t beat6 rather than once the camera starts ro++ing $here e3perimentation cou+d on+y
affect de+iery or $ording. 5y contrast6 (enders /51 grouping6 $hich inc+udes fi+ms +i.e
/Paris16 is characterised by a +ong preproduction process6 forma+ scripts6 dee+oped
storyboards6 and high budgets6 $hich despite the fi+ms) pre9p+anned nature at a +arger
3, p.2%,. Cousins6 0ar.. &he %tory o$ #il!. Pai+ion 5oo.s6 2!!".
32 /das die 4omanti.er Du einer mythischen >andschaft erhoben1 p.-!. 5uch.a6 Peter. -ugen (ann Man
icht (au$en4 =i! =enders 6nd %eine #il!e. :anser6 12,3.
"! p.22. 7yer6 'eoff. ,ona4 - Boo5 ->out a #il! ->out a 1ourney to a )oo!. Canongate 5oo.s >td6 2!12.
"1 p.1!. =uhn6 Thomas #. &he %tructure o$ %cienti$ic )evolutions. #econd &dition6 &n+arged. Tniersity of
Chicago Press6 12-!.
"2 /Impossib+e #tories1 in (enders6 (.6 1221. The +ogic of images 8 essays and conersations. *aber and  
*aber6 >ondonB 5oston.
11
sca+e6 often a++o$ for e3perimentation at a sma++er sca+e on set.
Para++e+ing the /A951 counterpoint in the production methods of (enders) fi+ms is another
counterpoint in their content. In his essay /for1 Ingmar 5ergman
"3
he describes t$o
opposing methods of $or.ing $ith fi+m8 /surface1 images and /psycho+ogy1. (enders)
Custification of his o$n processes aries most fre?uent+y in his attitude to story
""
6 and his
interna+ conf+icts are e3pressed by these groupings. The /surface1 group consists of
c+assica++y constructed narraties6 often part+y conceied by others6 and produced in a $ay
$hich treats the director so+e+y as the metteur9en9scene6 +eft on+y to e3p+ore the narratie
$ith emphatic and unambiguous images6 much in the sty+e of the output of the :o++y$ood
studio system. The content of fi+ms in the other grouping6 /psycho+ogy16 more c+ose+y
resemb+es that of fi+ms by auteurs6 and is fre?uent+y based on romanticist6 metaphysica+6
and persona+ or dream +i.e poetic images. (enders refers to Tar.os.y
"5
as being a maCor
inf+uence on his fi+m9ma.ing6 and this undoubted+y comes across in the fi+ms in this group.
(hat is interesting is that the /A951 grouping does not a+$ays corre+ate $ith the c+assica+9
romantic diide. In (ings6 (enders arises at a c+assica+ narratie after a high+y
improisationa+ process. =ings o$ Desire ree+s in romanticism despite being firm+y in the
/51 group6 $hi+e Paris6 a+so in the /51 group6 is much c+oser to the c+assica+ end of the
sca+e. The connection bet$een (enders) $or.ing method and his resu+t is not as
straightfor$ard as $e might e3pect. :is approaches and resu+ts are no$here near a
consistent as Tar.os.y6 $hose fi+ms6 though regu+ar+y high+y romanticist in their content6
and at times f+o$ing +i.e streams of consciousness6 are ery rare+y improised6 $ith the
"3 p.,". (enders6 (.6 1221. The +ogic of images 8 essays and conersations. *aber and *aber6 >ondonB  
5oston.
"" /The theoretica+ ?uestion most consistent+y under discussion6 and to $hich (enders neer appears to
find an ans$er $ith $hich he is fu++y satisfied6 has been the incompatibi+ity6 or conf+ict6 that he perceies
to e3ist bet$een the fi+mic image and the fi+mic story1. p.1. 'raf6 A.6 2!!2. The cinema of (im (enders8
the ce++u+oid high$ay. (a++f+o$er Press.
"5 /AndreC1 Tar.os.y is +isted as one of (enders) /Ange+s1 in the c+osing tit+e se?uence for (enders6 (im.
=ings o$ Desire. *antasy6 7rama6 4omance6 12,,.
12
shooting ratio for Mirror around 381
"%
. 7espite Tar.os.y)s open praise for the mystery of
art
"-
6 and his preference not to pragmatise6 he genera++y spent a great dea+ of time
preparing his ideas and tended to $or. $ith ery detai+ed shooting scripts
",
. Tn+i.e
(enders6 Tar.os.y does not be+iee that it is possib+e to simp+y /ta.e to the streets $ith a
camera and shoot a fi+m1 $ithout a script. /I doubt it. It $i++ ta.e years1
"2
he says $hen
+ecturing on )#cenario).
As a young fi+m9ma.er (enders) initia+ preoccupation $as simp+y to obsere6 stating that
/noticing or reea+ing things is actua++y more precious to me than getting oer some .ind of
messageO
5!
6 but $ith his student fi+m %ilver City
51
he rea+ised that een if the fi+m9ma.er
didn)t intend for there to be a story6 the audience /$ou+d see entire+y fancifu+ connections
bet$een scenes and interpret them as haing narratie intentions1
52
6 a phenomenon
.no$n as Apophenia6 the /unmotiated seeing of connections1
53
6 often emp+oyed
de+iberate+y by fuDDy p+otters. (enders came to rea+ise that in an audience)s search for
order6 stories are /$hat peop+e re?uire Pfrom fi+mQ more than anything e+se1
5"
. A+e3ander
'raf as.s $hat .ind of stories (enders can te++
55
if he can say on one hand6 /I tota++y reCect
stories1
5%
6 but a+so that he does6 in fact6 try to te++ stories6 in order to /presere something
"% O-5!! meters of =oda. stoc. $ere a++ocatedO6 rough+y enough for 3 ta.es. p.11". <ohnson6 Aida T.6 and
'raham Petrie. &he #il!s o$ -ndrei &ar5ovs5y4 - ?isual #ugue. Indiana Tniersity Press6 122".
"- /Thousands of pages $ritten about 5ach6 >eonardo and To+stoy6 but in the end no one cou+d figure it out.
No6 than. 'od6 I cou+d not find a touch of truth to touch the essence of their creatiityY This proes once
again that the mirac+e is ine3p+icab+e.1 p.1".Tar.os.ii6 A.A.6 1223. ZJNK[ JI\[]]^J_ F>e.tsii Po
=inoreDhissure6 >essons on *i+m 7irectingG.
", The po+itica+ situation in the T##4 meant that Tar.os.y $as often +eft $ith much time bet$een fi+ms to
dee+op ideas. (ith regards to his scripts8 /the director)s script6 or shooting script6 contained dia+ogue6
p+aces of action and descriptie passagesB it a+so inc+uded number6 +ength Fin metresG and type of shot
F...G6 type of +ens to be used6 and a description of the soundtrac.. #ometimes it inc+uded dra$ings for
indiidua+ scenes.1 p.3i. Tar.os.ii6 A.A.6 1222. Co++ected screenp+ays. *aber and *aber6 >ondonB Ne$
`or..
"2 p.1-. Tar.os.ii6 A.A.6 1223. ZJNK[ JI\[]]^J_ F>essons on *i+m 7irectingG.
5! @n his first eer e3perience using a camera. p3. (enders6 (.6 1221. The +ogic of images 8 essays and  
conersations. *aber and *aber6 >ondonB 5oston.
51 (enders6 (.6 12%,. #i+er City.
52 p.52. (enders6 (.6 1221. The +ogic of images 8 essays and conersations. *aber and *aber6 >ondonB  
5oston.
53 =+aus Conrad6 125,.
5" p.2-. (enders6 (.6 122-. The Act of #eeing8 &ssays and Conersations. *aber X *aber.
55 p.%. 'raf6 A.6 2!!2. The cinema of (im (enders8 the ce++u+oid high$ay. (a++f+o$er Press.
5% p.52. (enders6 (.6 1221. The +ogic of images 8 essays and conersations. *aber and *aber6 >ondonB  
5oston.
13
he has discoered1
5-
.
In (enders) unp+anned fi+ms6 his )discoeries) often occur on a geographica+ Courney.
(enders) use of /roadmaps instead of scripts1
5,
6 resu+ts in his images being re+iant on the
ie$er possessing $hat 'ui+iana 5runo refers to as a /modern memory1
52
of simi+ar
p+aces. 7e+euDe uses -lice and (ings to i++ustrate ho$ /the essence of the cinematic
moement9image +ies in e3tracting P...Q from moements the mobi+ity $hich is their
essence1
%!
$hich6 according to 0u+ey6 combined $ith /the successie order of fi+m6
merges easi+y into the order of narratie1
%1
6 as if to say that it is the constant moement
and continuing Courney $hich gies the sensation of a +inear+y progressing narratie6 een
if there is no constructed p+ot. In addition 5runo e3p+ains the emotiona+ dra$ of the road
moie8 /motion produces emotion6 and ... corre+atie+y6 emotion contains a moement1
%2
.
5runo refers to the fi+mic path as /the modern ersion of the architectura+ itinerary6 $ith its
o$n montage of cu+tura+ space1
%3
. It is easy to see ho$ the +in.s bet$een montage and
architecture e3p+ored by &isenstein
%"
cou+d be e3tended to dee+op the naigation of a
road Courney into a narratie.
(enders disputes the supposed /obCectiity1
%5
of the cinema6 due to the use of story8 /our
P&uropean directors)Q stories $ere a++ subCectie1. :e describes the maCor achieement of
the studio system6 $hich he considers to be unsurpassed by /the &uropean fi+m or the
)auteur)16 to be /the co++ectie narratie1
%%
. (enders) narraties are far from /co++ectie1 as
5- p.122. 4eitD6 &.6 1225. 5i+der in 5e$egung. &ssays. 'esprache Dum =ino. 4o$oh+t Tb.
5, p.%-. (enders6 (.6 1221. The +ogic of images 8 essays and conersations. *aber and *aber6 >ondonB  
5oston.
52 5runo6 '.6 2!!". Cities6 cinema8 Image of f+o$s6 *+o$s of images. At+as of &motion.
%! p.23. 7e+euDe6 '.6 12,%. Cinema 18 The 0oement9Image6 1st ed. Tni @f 0innesota Press.
%1 p.%2. 0u+ey6 >.6 2!!%. 7eath 2"3 a second8 sti++ness and the moing image. 4ea.tion 5oo.s.
%2 5runo6 '.6 2!!". Cities6 cinema8 Image of f+o$s6 *+o$s of images. At+as of &motion.
%3 5runo6 '.6 2!!". Cities6 cinema8 Image of f+o$s6 *+o$s of images. At+as of &motion.
%" &isenstein6 #.0.6 123,. 0ontage and Architecture. Assemb+age 1!6 11!V131.
%5 5aDin6 Andre. =hat *s Cine!a@ Trans+ated by :ugh 'ray. Tniersity of Ca+ifornia Press6 12%,.
%% p."-. (enders6 (im. &he logic o$ i!ages 4 essays and conversations   . >ondonB 5oston8 *aber and
*aber6 1221.
14
they often re+y on his persona+ e3periences6 $hi+e his characters are occasiona++y
proCections of himse+f6 a practice strong+y reCected by directors of mainstream commercia+
cinema
%-
. *or e3amp+e6 there are para++e+s bet$een (enders F/but for roc. music I)d hae
gone craDy...1
%,
G and 5runo F/...that)s $hy 5runo .eeps a Cu.ebo3 in the bac. of his truc.1
%2
G
in (ings6 $here the scene at border guard)s hut6 is said to contain $ithin it /the $ho+e
dia+ectic of (enders) $or+d1
-!
. In the (upperta+ caf; scene in -lice (analysed in -""endi/
*)6 (enders is represented by the 7utch boy +eaning on the Cu.ebo36 $hich is p+aying a
song $hich sums up the narratie drie of the entire fi+m. The use of persona+ memories
as a method for ensuring a narratie)s authenticity is high+y prea+ent in Mirror6 $here
scenes might appear unconstructed due to their nature of being based on rea+ eents in
Tar.os.y)s +ife
-1
. >i.e (enders6 Tar.os.y reCects theatrica+ characters6 $hich he
be+iees +eae fi+ms fee+ing /terrib+y fa+se PandQ schematic1
-2
. :e does ho$eer sometimes
a++o$ his characters to /become mouthpieces... uttering his thoughts6 his $ritings6 his
be+iefs and his fears1
-3
.
!. tories "ithin tories
In (enders) fi+ms6 narraties often become ?uite comp+e3 and mu+ti9+ayered. Characters
proide e3position re+ating to the oera++ narratie6 in the form of a sma++er sub9narraties6
for e3amp+e6 in Paris $hen Trais te++s :unter about ho$ his father used to describe his
mother6 he uses a narratie form FAppendi3 >6 #hots "-952G. In this $ay6 actors6 $ho for
most of the fi+m are portraying characters $ith rea+ism6 no$ portray characters $ho are
acting6 and as such $e +o$er our e3pectations of them. (enders a+so uses meta9narratie
%- /in the ear+y stages of e3perimenting $ith storyte++ing6 the beginner chooses a protagonist that in
psycho+ogica+ terms is something of a proCection of his o$n point of ie$... a thin+y disguised or idea+ised
ersion of themse+es.1 p.1-. 0ac.endric.6 A.6 2!!%. @n *i+m9ma.ing. *aber and *aber.
%, p.1-. (enders6 (.6 1221. The +ogic of images 8 essays and conersations. *aber and *aber6 >ondonB  
5oston.
%2 p.1-. (enders6 (.6 1221. The +ogic of images 8 essays and conersations. *aber and *aber6 >ondonB  
5oston.
-! 4oddic.6 N.6 2!!,. The 4oad 'oes on *oreer. #ight and #ound.
-1 In Appendi3 A the para++e+s bet$een Tar.os.y)s +ife and A+e3ei)s are described.
-2 p.2". Tar.os.ii6 A.A.6 1223. ZJNK[ JI\[]]^J_ F>essons on *i+m 7irectingG.
-3 p.33. Tar.os.ii6 A.A.6 1222. Co++ected screenp+ays. *aber and *aber6 >ondonB Ne$ `or..
15
structures to subt+y e3p+ain the oera++ narratie in a microcosmic e3amp+e6 $hich a+so
contributes bac. to the main narratie. In -lice6 Phi+ip te++s A+ice a bedtime story in order to
persuade her to go to s+eep FAna+ysed in Appendi3 :G. At first the content of his story
seems to be inconse?uentia+6 as if he is mere+y comp+eting yet another a comp+icating
action on the $ay to achieing his goa+ of reuniting A+ice $ith her mother. As his story
dra$s to a conc+usion it becomes c+ear that the protagonist in Phi+ip)s story represents an
idea+ised A+ice6 and that the truc. drier is Phi+ip.
In (ings6 the audience $aits patient+y for the first hour of the fi+m to find out $ho 4obert is6
and $hy he is behaing as he doesB the comp+icating action has in effect begun before the
audience has found their feet. &entua++y 4obert gies a ery brief one +ine reason for his
behaiour6 /I +eft my $ife in 'enoa16 $ithout e3panding at a++ on ho$ this has effected him
emotiona++y. The thro$a$ay nature of his remar. suggests that this fact $i++ be +eft to fade
into the bac.ground6 and might u+timate+y be +ost from the audience)s "ush:do2n stac5s
before it ac?uires any significance in the gist9 <ust before $e +ose sight of it6 4obert is
isited in his bed by the (ido$er $ho6 in an incredib+y moing mono+ogue Fana+ysed in fu++
in Appendi3 =G6 describes his $ife)s recent suicide. Not on+y does his story seem so rea+
that the thought of it eer haing been constructed as a fiction bare+y crosses the
audience)s minds6 but it a+so e3p+ains the $ho+e premise of the fi+m6 $hi+e the $ay 4obert
reacts to it fi++s in his missing character description. This $ay (enders aoids haing to
proide character e3position in the defau+t format at the standard introductory point in a
normatie narratie. Throughout the (ido$er)s story6 $e are +eft to imagine a++ the detai+s
of his $ife)s suicide. The doub+e b+o$ comes in a dream9+i.e se?uence $hich fo++o$s
une3pected+y6 sho$ing a $inds$ept 5runo stumb+ing around the crash site at night to
emotiona++y manipu+atie music6 repeating the horror of $hat $e hae Cust imagined.
Though at this point (enders forces emotions upon us6 $e are sti++ ree+ing in shoc. from
16
the preious narration $hich $as de+iered in such a forma++y restrained $ay6 that our
immersion b+inds us to this construction.
0eta9narraties are at their most po$erfu+ $hen they a+so de+ier the outcome of the main
narratie in an imp+icit $ay6 a++o$ing for freedom in their interpretation6 and thus ambiguity
in the fi+m)s +arger structures. It shou+d be noted that use of a meta9narratie a+one is not
enough to hide the construction of a conc+usion
-"
. In Paris6 the meta9narratie $hich
Trais de+iers in the c+osing se?uence Fana+ysed in fu++ in Appendi3 >G6 not on+y comp+etes
his goa+6 by reuniting :unter and <ane6 but a+so proides e3position as to the eents $hich
hae caused the e?ui+ibrium disruption
-5
$hich occurred years before $e Coined Trais in
media res in the desert. After obsering Trais as a peacefu+ character for the $ho+e fi+m6
his io+ence e3posited in this meta9narratie causes us to comp+ete+y reassess eerything
$e hae seen of him so far
-%
. It een raises the ?uestion as to $hether any of his meta9
narratie is metaphorica+
--
. In addition6 the +ies in his meta9narratie create een more
ambiguity
-,
. (hen Trais te++s of <ane te++ing him of her dream6 he nests a sub9meta9
narratie. A+though this seems comp+icated $hen dissected structura++y6 the s.i++ of a great
director +ies not in inenting comp+e3 structures6 but rather in enab+ing the audience to
fo++o$ them +ucid+y6 mare++ing at ho$ easi+y they so+ed the apparent puDD+esB the
audience is foo+ed into se+f9praise.
-" An e3amp+e of this in a constructed fi+m is the summing up of =ithnail and * Fana+ysed in Appendi3 7G
$hich is proided by t$o meta9narraties. *irst 7anny)s speech describes the fi+m)s conc+usion in ie$ of
the Deitgeist F/$e hae fai+ed to paint it b+ac.1G. In this case the meta9narratie on+y confirms something
$hich has a+ready been reea+ed. #econd+y (ithnai+)s recitation of :am+et to the $o+es reea+s that he
is6 despite our misinformed opinions of him6 a ery capab+e actor. 5y this point the main narratie is
a+ready oer6 so this +ast minute rea+isation has a comic effect as it reerses our impression of him.
-5 /51 in symbo+iDed Todoro6 p.56 5ranigan.
-% The method of hiding construction $hich recurs here is the bui+ding up of the gist on an unstab+e or
incomp+ete base6 +eaing the gist open for +ater rearrangement. A simi+ar e3amp+e to this is the
introduction of <ane into the narratie6 +ong before she is sho$n. The audience bui+ds up an e3pectation
of her $hich must be adCusted $hen she is fina++y sho$n.
-- *or e3amp+e6 $hether <ane rea++y tried to burn Trais a+ie or not.
-, Trais +ies to <ane6 te++ing her that he did not isit her before. This confuses <ane6 but not the audience6
though it does bring the truthfu+ness of the rest of his testimony into doubt. #ee Appendi3 >6 #hot ,1.
17
#. $he %ffect of Content and &enre on Construction in 'enders( )i*ms
5uch.a be+iees that -lice co++ects a++ of the moties and themes of the Ne$ 'erman
Cinema FN7*G8 unease about persona+ fantasy6 the inabi+ity of peop+e to communicate6 the
sense+ess one sidedness of the media6 the torn re+ationship bet$een man and $oman6 the
search for home and the deep +in.s bet$een dreams6 $riting and trae+.
-2,!
0any of these
concerns re+ate specifica++y to the po+itica+ and historica+ conte3t of the fi+m6 and not to my
$or+d6 yet $ith I sti++ find the fi+m immersie. *or each fi+m there is an idea+ ie$er8
someone $ho can share the most empathy $ith the protagonists. At the point at $hich the
ie$er cannot empathise at a++6 the fi+m is reduced to a game of chess6 a fascination of
+ogica+ reasoning6 a pure functiona+ construct +eaing on+y core humanistic themes to
concea+ the construction.
5uch.a describes the three most important e+ements of (enders) fi+m as8 a genre +i.e
basis FfictionG6 an e3act ie$ of a rea+ p+ace $here the action unfo+ds FdocumentationG6 and
connection to the indiidua+
,1
. The second t$o of these e+ements are a+so found in
Tar.os.y)s Mirror. Though Tar.os.y often uses but distorts fami+iar genres
,2
6 it $ou+d be
hard to define a base genre for Mirror. (enders p+ays a game of adaptation to
circumnaigate our e3pectations. (e might e3pect -lice to go do$n the same road as
+olita
,3
6 and for (ings to fo++o$ <asy )ider
,"
but instead (enders cares an entire+y ne$
path6 adapting the genre to a specifica++y &uropean sensibi+ity. (e are not on a narratie
arc $e hae trae++ed do$n before. (enders Fand N7* in genera+G doesn)t reCect America
-2 p.5,. 5uch.a.
,! #imi+ar to Thomas &+saesser)s ie$ that N7* is /about a $or+d of fa+se images and rea+ emotions6 pub+ic
fai+ures and priate fantasies1 ?uoted in the author)s essay on N7*6 unpub+ished p.353. Cousins.
,1 /eine genrehafte Ausgangssituation F*i.tionG6 der genaue 5+ic. auf den .on.reten @rt der :and+ung
F7o.umentationG und sch+iess+ich die forcierte Aerbindung Dur eigenen Person1 p."3. 5uch.a.
,2 p.3ii. Christie6 Ian. *ntroduction9 in Turos.aCa.
,3 =ubric.6 #tan+ey. +olita. 7rama6 4omance6 12%2.
," :opper6 7ennis. <asy )ider. Crime6 7rama6 12%2.
18
comp+ete+y
,5
6 as /his fi+ms contain innumerab+e references to 4ay and <ohn *ord1
,%
6 but in
adapting their fi+m +anguage6 (enders creates a $ho+e ne$ .ind of sensitiity $hich
doesn)t e3ist in the presence of the ery isib+e construction of the American fi+ms.
Perhaps the attraction (enders) fi+ms hae is created by imbuing desire. (enders
be+iees that <asy )ider is po+itica+ because /it is beautifu+... the images the fi+m gies of
the country...6 the music you hear in the fi+m...6 because Peter *onda moes in a beautifu+
$ay1
,-
. &merging from the naUe sentimenta+ity of :eimat fi+m6 the dreamers of the N7*
/$anted to be free to get on the road6 to hae se3 $ith $homeer they desired6 to p+ay
+oud music6 as their occupiers once did1
,,
. Cousins be+iees that (enders ?uotes ear+ier
fi+ms by >eo 0cCarey as if to say to the audience6 /)remember $hat it $as +i.e to fee+)1
,2
6
the images of happiness are unab+e to insti+ emotions themse+es6 but rather to remind
audiences of memories of happiness6 or prior fi+mic representations thereof6 an indirect
deice $hich aoids te++ing the audience ho$ to fee+. (enders ta.es the themes of the
*rench Ne$ (ae after 'odard6 /Pthe fi+mma.ersQ themse+es6 their erotic imagination6
their fragi+ity and a+ienation1
2!
6 but emp+oys them $ith ast+y suppressed and unf+amboyant
emotions.
In a sense both Mirror and (ings share the subCect matter of coming to terms $ith facticityB
in Mirror a mother raises a fami+y in #oiet 4ussia $ithout her husband presentB in (ings
the post9$ar boom in e3istentia+ism6 a reaction against the techno+ogy of $arfare6 catches
t$o men in their o$n pasts thereby stopping them from progressing. /I am my history1
21

,5 /The idea+ is to ma.e fi+ms as beautifu+ as America)s6 but to moe the content to other areas1 pp.29-.
Tony 4ayns. /*orms of Address.1 %ight and %ound6 (inter 12-"95.
,% p.1!. 'raf6 A+e3ander. &he Cine!a o$ =i! =enders4 &he Celluloid 3igh2ay. (a++f+o$er Press6 2!!2.6
see a+so Appendi3 =6 #hot %2 regarding the 0itchum poster foreshado$ing 5runo)s homecoming.
,- Quoted on p.2. 'raf.
,, p.353. Cousins.
,2 p.355. Cousins.
2! p.2-1. Cousins.
21 !!85!83%. /Ich bin meine 'eschichteY1 (enders. 12-%.
19
cries 4obert. In #atre6 /the for9itse+f is6 so to spea.6 perpetua++y striing to escape from the
prison of facticity $ithout eer being ab+e to do so1
22
. In (ings6 there are three catac+ysmic
moments $hich pu++ the ie$er out of the humdrum of the protagonists) dai+y rote6 each
fu+fi++ing one of 5ranigan)s conditions for narratie
23
8 4obert)s =ami.aDee attempt
Fcondition 1G6 the $ido$er)s story6 and admission Fcondition 3G /7idn)t she understandR
There is on+y +ife. 7eath doesn)t e3ist.1
2"
fo++o$ed soon after by the incredib+y haunting and
surrea+ shot of 5runo inspecting the $rec.age of her suicide car6 an indirect6 but strong
reminder of 4obert)s ear+ier attempt6 and fina++y6 5runo)s taunting in the bun.er Fcondition
5G /you)re +i.e a corpse6 hae you no desireR1
25
. The +o$ intensity bet$een these moments
of tension6 and the imp+icit fu+fi+ment of conditions 2
2%
6" and %
2-
6 especia++y $ith regard to
on+y ob+i?ue+y informing us of the characters) goa+s6 and the partia+ omission of condition -
he+ps to ma.e the events in (ings fee+ +ess e3pected6 $ithout ma.ing their e3tremity
un$arranted.
Throughout (ings (enders neer ma.es the characters) inner thoughts e3p+icit6 and the
use of e3positiona+ dia+ogue is +imited and often cryptic
2,
. This uncertainty brings a fee+ing
of rest+essness6 and a ision of /+ife as a road moie through home+essness1 perades the
fi+m6 as 5runo and 4obert are permanent+y engaged in a /departure for the un.no$n1
22
.
The core theme of +ife as a search for home
1!!
runs through -lice as $e++. The dream
space of Mirror re+ates to (ings through the no9man)s +and around the &ast9(est border
22 p.%%. Co36 'ary. %artre4 - 7uide $or the Per"le/ed. Continuum Internationa+ Pub+ishing 'roup6 2!!%.
23 /1. introduction of characters and settings6 2. e3p+anation of a state of affairs6 3. an initiating eent6 ".
emotiona+ response or statement of a goa+ by the protagonist6 5. comp+icating actions6 %. outcome6 -.
reactions to the outcome.1 p.1". 5ranigan. #ee Appendi3 7 for app+ication of this to normatie
narraties.
2" !18!2811. (enders. 12-%.
25 !2831812. (enders. 12-%.
2% The narratie begins $hen Todoro)s subtraction F/9A1 in 5raniganG to the e?ui+ibrium has a+ready
occurred8 4obert le$t his $ife before the start.
2- Todoro)s addition6 the return to FbG/A1 in 5ranigan)s symbo+s6 is neer sho$n6 $e Cust see the intention
for it in 4obert)s note8 O&erything must change. #o +ong6 4.O !283,81!. (enders. 12-%.
2, *or e3amp+e /7o you .no$ $hat )+oon) meansR16 in this conte3t the ans$er being a $ater bird6 but the
meaning /craDy person1 is a+so imp+ied. !!83582%. (enders. 12-%.
22 p.2. =+aus #chuster6 Peter. -ngles9 in (enders6 (im. Pictures $ro! the %ur$ace o$ the <arth. *irst ed.
#chirmerE0ose+ Aer+ag 'mbh6 2!!3.
1!! According to 5uch.a6 a++ of +ife is a search for home8 /a++es >eben ist der Aersuch1 in p.3,. 5uch.a.
20
and the image of 4obert)s $ife)s house $hich he tears up
1!1
6 and in -lice through the
imagined past of A+ice)s grandmother)s house in (upperta+
1!2
. Tar.os.y)s scenes in
Mirror /+i.e @Du)s intermediate spaces6 are detached from the +itera+ story of his
imagination1
1!3
6 $hereas the detached space in (enders) fi+ms is seen most+y in
photographs or at a distance6 e3cept perhaps in the border guard)s hut $here the c+ima3 of
(ings ta.es p+ace. (hat is +eft unto+d by the imp+ied mystica+ nature of these imagined
p+aces
1!"
+eaes the audience to imagine6 rather than be to+d.
+. $he %ffect of )orm on Construction in 'enders( )i*ms
5uch.a e3p+ains ho$ (enders) transition from critic to director has +ed him to ma.e fi+ms
$hich are centred on his o$n obserations
1!5
. In $atching his fi+ms the audience is
effectie+y fo++o$ing his gaDe6 +oo.ing $ith him as he sho$s rather than te++s. It is
ineitab+e that much of $hat he +oo.s at is the $or. of other fi+m9ma.ers6 and so fre?uent
citations are present. *ortunate+y rather than the $ea. imitations or repetition $e see in
the $or. of many fi+m9ma.ers
1!%
6 (enders) citations often register $ith the audience
subconscious+y6 and his co++ectie fi+m grammar ma.es the fi+m f+uid and fami+iar6 hiding
that the construction of the fiction is the act of an indiidua+ $riter. In cases $here
references re+y on outside .no$+edge6 for e3amp+e $hen in (ings6 5runo is fre?uent+y
seen reading from &he =ild Pal!s
1!-
6 they are neer obstructie if the audience does not
recognise them. #ometimes (enders) references appear as if they shou+d be obious in
retrospect6 for e3amp+e6 the +yrics of the diegetic song /If I Cou+d 4ead :er 0ind1
1!,
c+ear+y
describe ma+e re+ationship issues6 but the notion that this is of immediate re+eance to
1!1 <ust before 4obert ends his Courney in the +a.e6 he rips up the image /Derreict er das 5i+d on dem
:aus1 p.-5. 5uch.a.
1!2 /der &indruc. eines Niemands+andes1 p.%1. 5uch.a.
1!3 p.3!%. Cousins.
1!" This idea cou+d be e3panded to inc+ude the +ot in Trais) photograph in (enders6 (im. Paris. &e/as.
7rama6 12,".
1!5 p.-. 5uch.a.
1!% *or e3amp+e the fre?uent use of 'odard scenes in 5erto+ucci6 5ernardo. &he Drea!ers. 7rama6
4omance6 2!!3.
1!- A tragic +oe9road9story $hich ends $ith the accidenta+ death of the $oman during a botched abortion.
*au+.ner6 (i++iam. &he =ild Pal!s6 1232.
21
4obert is not c+ear unti+ +ater in the fi+m.
In &he %tory o$ #il!6 Cousins describes the N7* as a /cinema of unease1
1!2
. -lice has a
strong sense of the un.no$n as the e3position $e receie in response to (inter)s
?uestioning is often incorrect and inconsistent6 crucia++y though not because the narratie
itse+f is f+a$ed6 but instead due to the fa++ibi+ity of A+ice)s o$n memory. The audience
accepts this type of unpredictabi+ity in a $ay in $hich they might not if the confusion $as
pure+y structura+. Added to this is (inter)s temperamenta+ity6 and as $ith the moodiness in
(ings6 $e are at the protagonists) $him6 much as $e are $hen fo++o$ing Tar.os.y)s
#ta+.er around the Done
11!
. (enders notes that $ith %tal5er 6Tar.o.sy ta.es cinema to
/an utter+y ne$ terrain1 $here /eery step cou+d be your +ast1
111
. Tne3pectedness he+ps to
disso+e the narratie arc6 as $e++ as encouraging audiences to pay attention to aoid
missing information $ithout $hich the rest of the fi+m cou+d be rendered incomprehensib+e.
<ust as Tar.os.y aoids using reaction shots6 due to his be+ief that &isensteinian montage
/preents the audience from +etting their fee+ings be inf+uenced by their o$n reaction to
$hat they see1
112
6 (enders) cinematographer 4obby 0d++er aoids the c+ose9up6 $hich he
describes as a.in to using /one $ord too often PsoQ it +oses its meaning1
113
referring instead
to his preference for improisation and genuine reactions on set. 0d++er describes
storyboards as /stupid1
11"
preferring to a++o$ for spontaneity. (hen 0u++er fi+ms a scene he
often uses on+y a master shot so the actors can /free+y react bet$een each other1
115
. The
1!, Improed #ound >imited. *$ * Could )ead 3er Mind. 4athbone :ote+. >ong :air 4ecords6 12-%. An
ana+ysis of the shot in $hich this occurs is aai+ab+e in Appendi3 <6 #hot ,%9,,. The shot in $hich it
becomes re+eant again is featured in Appendi3 =6 #hot 2.
1!2 p.353. Cousins.
11! In Tar.os.y6 Andrey. %tal5er. Adenture6 7rama6 *antasy6 0ystery6 #ci9*i6 12,!.
111 p."2. (enders6 (im. &he -ct o$ %eeing4 <ssays and Conversations. *aber and *aber6 122-. as ?uoted
p.13,. 7yer.
112 p.11,. Tar.os.y6 Andrey. %cul"ting in &i!e4 )e$lections on the Cine!a. Trans+ated by =itty :unter 5+air.
Ne$ ed. Tniersity of Te3as Press6 12,2.
113 0d++er6 4obby. *ntervie2 2ith director o$ "hotogra"hy )o>>y MAller6 2!!2 on <armusch6 <im. Do2n >y
+a2. Criterion6 2!!2.
11" 0d++er.
115 0d++er.
22
inabi+ity of the cre$ and cast to predict $hat $i++ happen ne3t $ith regards to framing6
+ighting6 acting and so on imbues itse+f in the finished fi+m. (enders is comfortab+e using
montage and :o++y$ood fi+m +anguage F/America as the country $here ision $as set
free1
11%
G6 ho$eer Tar.os.y reCects /the princip+es of montage cinema as they do not a++o$
... the audience to bring persona+ e3perience to bear on $hat is in front of them1
11-
. (here
(enders aimed to presere a discoery in his stories6 Tar.os.y tried to access the
/emotiona+ nature of memory1
11,
6 but6 acute+y a$are of the prob+ems of isib+e construction
in fi+ms6 he cautions against trying to /reconstruct ruins1
112
.
(enders) use of standard :o++y$ood continuity editing is apparent in Paris6 $here our
fami+iarity of it does not cause an a$areness of construction6 but instead its use becomes
tota++y transparent6 as it is rare+y emp+oyed for dramatic effect. The contrast bet$een the
c+arity of the continuity edit6 and the incomp+ete narratie is reso+ed $hen the
conentiona+ narratie structure is fu+fi++ed after the fina+ act)s e3position
12!
. Prior to this it
$as not possib+e for the audience to fu++y assemb+e the narratie pattern6 .eeping them in
+imbo. Pertinent information $as .ept fresh in their "ush:do2n stac5s by sho$ing them
recurring une3p+ained motifs
121
6or by giing data re+eance $hich enab+ed it to be attached
to a catalogue
BCC
.
11% (enders6 (.6 12,". 7er Ameri.anische Traum.
11- p.11,. Tar.os.y6 A.6 12,2. #cu+pting in Time8 4ef+ections on the Cinema6 Ne$ ed. Tniersity of Te3as
Press.
11, Termino+ogy used in Tar.os.y6 A.6 12,2. #cu+pting in Time8 4ef+ections on the Cinema6 Ne$ ed.
Tniersity of Te3as Press.
112 p.3i3. Tar.os.ii6 A.A.6 1222. Co++ected screenp+ays. *aber and *aber6 >ondonB Ne$ `or..
12! Ana+ysed in Appendi3 >.
121 This is the case $ith Trais) photograph6 $hich +ater comes to symbo+ise $hat is at sta.e8 a possib+e
future +iing together $ith <ane and :unter in Paris.
122 An e3amp+e of a catalogue in Paris is the co++ection of fragments $hich re+ate to Trais) past8 The +and
+in.s to the story of Trais) parents6 $hich hints at menta+ i++ness in the fami+y. The +and is isua++y simi+ar
to shots of Trais) time $andering in the desert. (hen e3tra information is added to the fragments in this
catalogue6 a narratie appears.
23
,. $he %ffect of Content on the Construction of $ar-ovs-y(s ./irror0
Tar.os.y)s origina+ intention $ith Mirror $as to depict his mother as the /+yrica+ hero of
+iterature and poetry16 e3p+oring the /importance of chi+dhood memories... PandQ the need to
re$or. them into a reconstruction of the past informed by art1
123
. @rigina++y he hoped to
ma.e a /?uestionnaire fi+m1
12"
6 $hich $ou+d /sho$ his mother as he remembered her1
125
.
The fi+m reo+es around e3position6 but in Tar.os.y)s origina+ documentary9+i.e proposa+6
een he as the director $ou+d not hae been sure of the ans$ers to the ?uestions he
p+anned to as. of /the fi+m)s heroine6 the ie$er6 and Pthe fi+m9ma.erFsGQ1
12%
. (here
(enders) ?uestioners are the protagonists6 in Mirror the protagonist is the ?uestioned. Its
interesting to compare the en?uiring nature of Mirror to 0ar.er)s %unless
12-
$here /a
persistent+y intimate and ?uestioning tone preai+s1
12,
. (enders fre?uent+y stops short of
achieing narratie c+osure
122
6 as his omission of 5ranigan)s seenth stage
13!
6 preents his
fi+ms from fee+ing constructed6 from heading to$ards a catharsis6 an ineitab+e /death or
marriage1
131
ending. #imi+ar+y6 )0irror) remains inconc+usie8 /there are no ans$ers to the
?uestions posed1
132
.
A comparison of Mirror to its +iterary script6 - =hite. =hite Day
133
6 reea+s the script to be
ast+y easier to schematise6 and +arge+y deoid of ambiguity $ith regard to re+ationships
bet$een characters and chrono+ogica+ conte3t. :o$eer6 +i.e my structura+ brea.do$n of
Mirror
13"
6 it +ac.s the metaphysica+ presence the fi+m has6 $hich emerges from the b+urring
123 p.251. Tar.os.ii6 Andrei ArsenWeich. Collected screen"lays. >ondonB Ne$ `or.8 *aber and *aber6
1222.
12" p.%1. Turos.aCa.
125 p.253. Tar.os.ii. 1222.
12% p.2%1. Tar.os.ii. 1222.
12- 0ar.er6 Chris. %ans %oleil. 7ocumentary6 12,3.
12, p.". =ear6 <on. %unless. Non 5asic #toc. >ine6 122,.
122 T+timate+y the audience neer finds out $hether 5runo and 4obert)s decision to part $ays a++o$ed them
to moe on6 or if A+ice and her mother are reunited6 or $hether Trais eer goes bac. to <ane. The
characters hae stories $hich $i++ continue a$ay from the $atchfu+ eyes of the audience.
13! p.1". 5ranigan.
131 p.-1. 0u+ey6 >aura. Death CD/ a %econd4 %tillness and the Moving *!age. 4ea.tion 5oo.s6 2!!%.
132 p.%,. Turos.aCa..
133 In Tar.os.ii6 Andrei ArsenWeich. Collected screen"lays. >ondonB Ne$ `or.8 *aber and *aber6 1222.
13" Appendi3 A.
24
of detai+s by the oneric choreography. Tar.os.y)s opinion that /chi+dren understand my
pictures ery $e++1
135
6 suggests that he neer intended Mirror to be understood in the
narratie sense $hich 5ranigan defines. (hen fo++o$ing a narratie /certain information...
is e+aborate+y processed and assigned to a hierarchy in $or.ing memory according to
re+atie importance $hi+e much e+se is discarded1
13%
. (hen ie$ing Mirror6 c+ear+y the
audience does not interpret it in the narratie mode $here eerything e3cept gist9re+ated
structure $ou+d be +ost6 but instead the fi+m is remembered using the associatie imagery
of poetry or dreams $hich resu+ts in /an understanding so comp+ete that you yourse+f
become part of the dramaturgy1
13-
. Tar.os.y de9emphasiDes narratie by dec+ining to
accentuate character motiations to the point $here drama $ou+d dee+op. :is characters
$ho do hae goa+s6 and more often Cust hopes6 don)t seem as if they $i++ accomp+ish them
$ithin the scope of the fi+mB A+e3ei +ac.s motiation to apo+ogise to his mother in the post9
$ar scenes6 $hi+e 0aria rea+ises that her marriage $ith her husband is oer.
(ithin 0irror characters fre?uent+y recur $ho hae no p+ot9orientated reason to e3ist in the
$or+d of the fi+m. *or e3amp+e6 =+anya6 is sho$n $andering round the 7acha in seera+
scenes6 yet she bare+y interacts $ith the other characters. Tar.os.y)s reasoning for
inc+uding her is straightfor$ard8 the 7acha is her home. 5y contrast6 some characters $ho
do hae an ino+ement in the narratie are neither named nor gien any bac.ground. A
strange $oman appears from no$here in A+e3ei)s apartment and tries to tie Ignat to his
cu+tura+ heritage by as.ing him to read from Push.in. >ater she appears again in a
seeming+y unre+ated ro+e6 as.ing the doctor about A+e3ei)s gui+t. Tar.os.y seems to treat
her character definition as being tota++y irre+eant to her actions.
#imi+ar+y to %unless6 $eaed scenes /Courney through the +abyrinth of time and memory1
13,
6
135 p.33ii. Christie6 Ian. *ntroduction9 in Turos.aCa.
13% p.15. 5ranigan.
13- p.%2. *anu6 0ar. >e. &he Cine!a o$ -ndrei &ar5ovs5y. 1st ed. 5*I Pub+ishing6 12,-.
13, p.3. =ear6
25
in both cases they are part+y fictiona+6 but entire+y be+ieab+e. The fee+ing of naigating a
maDe a+so appears in (enders) fi+m through the /dia+ectic bet$een sedentarism and
nomadism1
132
B a constant search ensues. In %unless6 /through the b+ending of
documentary form and ideo+ogica+ criti?ue $ith poetic reerie and fiction1
1"!
a commentary
of memories is dee+oped6 $hi+e /for Tar.os.y a++ art6 in the end6 is based on memory1
1"1
.
(hereas %unless +oo.s at the e3tremes of suria+6 and features de+iberate /b+o$s1 such
as the /terror of seeing the :ornet1
1"2
6 the remoa+ of the fantastica+ or anything that cou+d
distract
1"3
6 +eaes Mirror nosta+gic6 but a+so in some $ay time+ess. In a simi+ar $ay6
(enders) cinematographer 0d++er aoids the beautifu+
1""
$here it cou+d distract.
Tar.os.y)s use of the same actors to p+ay mu+tip+e ro+es in Mirror
1"5
might create menta+
s+ippages possessing a simi+ar beauty to those discussed by Cammac. in terms of the
unstab+e image. In Tar.os.y)s proposa+ for Mirror6 Con$ession
BDE
6 he p+anned to ?uestion
his rea+ mother by pro3y of an actor impersonating a psycho+ogistB in Mirror6 0aria is
?uestioned repeated+y by the doctor6 >isa and then NadeDhda. Mirror contains a cata+ogue
of e3positions regarding 0aria)s +ife6 $hich the audience compares and confuses $ith
those re+ating to Nata+ia6 as ambiguities and para++e+s start to b+end together. This $or.s in
a surprising+y simi+ar $ay to my concept of the meta9character of the Protagonist in Pul"
#iction
BDF
Fdetai+ed in Appendi3 7G.
132 /die 7ia+e.ti. on #echaftig.eit und Nomadentum1 p.%, 5uch.a.
1"! p.2. =ear.
1"1 p.253. Mirror in Tar.os.ii. 1222.
1"2 p.-"!. 0aor6 Caro+. /:appiness $ith a >ong Piece of 5+ac. >eader8 Chris 0ar.erWs #ans #o+ei+.1 -rt
3istory 3!6 no. 5 FNoember 126 2!!-G8 -3,V-5%.
1"3 The screenp+ay for - =hite. =hite Day features references to techno+ogy $hich are subse?uent+y pared
do$n in )0irror)8 /(hat do you thin. about space trae+R1 and /napa+m... radioactie dust16 both p.3!3
Tar.os.ii. 1222.
1"" 0d++er.
1"5 0argarita Tere.hoa p+ays 0aria and Nata+ia6 $hi+e Ignat 7ani+tse p+ays A+e3ei and Ignat. The subt+est
of differences a++o$ identification6 for e3amp+e6 0aria smo.es $hi+e Nata+ia doesn)t.
1"% Tar.os.ii6 A.A.6 1222. Co++ected screenp+ays. *aber and *aber6 >ondonB Ne$ `or..
1"- Tarantino6 Quentin. Pul" #iction. Crime6 Thri++er6 122".
26
1. $he %ffect of )orm on the Construction of $ar-ovs-y(s ./irror0
The basis for Tar.os.y)s theory of cinema is that /$hat the fi+m camera records is time1
1",
.
*i+m /a++o$s time to f+o$ in any direction1
1"2
6 and6 as Tar.os.y demonstrates $ith )0irror)6
possib+y his u+timate e3periment in manipu+ating time6 at any speed
15!
. 4ather than
dra$ing attention to spectac+e and mas.ing the passing of time as /intensified continuity1
151

does6 Tar.os.y)s +ong ta.es +eae time for the ie$er to meditate and thin. things
through8 /$hat a person norma++y goes to the cinema for is time6 $hether for time $asted6
time +ost6 or time that is yet to be gained1
152
.
Tar.os.y be+ieed that if you increase shot +ength then at first peop+e $i++ become bored6
but past boredom the shot $i++ gain more interest6 unti+ fina++y it gathers /a specia+ intensity
of attention1
153
. :o$eer Tar.os.y seems to use this intensity on eery shot6 ery rare+y
inc+uding short ta.es. 4ather than concea+ing cuts it cou+d potentia++y +eae the audience
ho+ding their breath. 5;+a Tarr)s +ast fi+m6 /The Turin :orse1
15"
6 contains many shots $here
characters +eae the frame one by one unti+ it is empty6 $ith the effect that the audience
then anticipates either a cut or the return of a foca+ point. There are the simi+arities
bet$een the $ay Tar.os.y se+ects $hich moments to inc+ude in his fi+ms6 and <armusch)
tendency to de9dramatise6 both directors managing to /focus our attention on those
seeming+y dead moments1
155
. @ften in Mirror $e are +eft to fee+ +ong moments of
atmospheric sound $ithout speech6 and at other times scenes $ith oer+apped bi+ingua+
dia+ogue
15%
remind us that rea+ity does not consist of uninterrupted dia+ogue. In (enders)
fi+ms6 gaps often occur bet$een +ines of speech and $hen oer+aps occur they do so $ith
1", p.33. Christie6 Ian. *ntroduction9 in Turos.aCa.
1"2 p.%,. Turos.aCa.
15! In )0irror) Tar.os.y fre?uent+y oercran.s the camera.
151 5ord$e++6 7aid. /Intensified Continuity Aisua+ #ty+e in Contemporary American *i+m.1 #il! Guarterly 556
no. 3 F0arch 16 2!!2G8 1%V2,.
152 p.15. 7yer.
153 Tar.os.ii. 1222.
15" Tarr6 5;+a6 and egnes :ranitD.y. &he &urin 3orse. 2!11.
155 p.132. Andre$.
15% #panish tenants in A+e3ei)s apartment.
27
momentary co++isions6 not $ith the fu++ f+o$ simu+taneity of an A+tman fi+m
15-
.
@ne $ay in $hich Tar.os.y aoids cutting is through carefu+ choreography. Through
s.etching storyboards for the trae++ing doctor se?uence in 0irror I became a$are of the
cease+ess reorganisation of the e+ements $ithin each shot. Actors $a+. in front of each
other as they ta.e focus6 moe in and out of +ight and shado$6 and occasiona++y $e een
catch their eyes staring straight do$n the barre+ of the +ens6 dra$ing us into
15,
Tar.os.y)s
memory6 and encountering the ?uestioning gaDe of the /&go9Idea+1
152
. A++ of this he+ps to
direct the human eye6 $hich constant+y see.s out moement6 contrast in +ight6 and faces.
Tar.os.y uses the $ipe of a character s$eeping across the frame as other directors
might use a cut. The effect of this sort of focus refresh is c+ear+y demonstrated by the eye
trac.ing e3periments
1%!
. >i.e (enders) cinematographer 0d++er6 $ho insists on +ighting
$ide shots $ith immense attention to detai+ /other$ise you see it)s fi+m and it brea.s the
mystery6 the dream1
1%1
6 Tar.os.y studied +ighting intense+y
1%2
. Tar.os.y rare+y resorts to
c+ose ups6 due to his be+ief that $ider shots a++o$ the audience to form their o$n thoughts.
Though this aoidance certain+y hides the fi+m)s construction6 I $ou+d argue that it gies
the fi+m9ma.er no +ess contro+ oer the audience)s thoughts.
1%3
7espite Tar.os.y)s insistence that he does not $ish to force ideas upon the audience6 he
sti++ uses deices $hich manipu+ate emotions8 in Mirror6 the +ine is crossed in a+arming
15- *or e3amp+e6 A+tman6 4obert. ashville. 7rama6 0usic6 12-5.
15, In contrast to the ie$ presented in 4o+and 5arthes. /4ight in the &yes16 12--. $hich dictates that it is
forbidden for an actor to +oo. straight into the camera6 brea.ing the fourth $a++ in this case actua++y
increases our immersion in Tar.os.y)s persona+ memories.
152 /&go9Idea+ is the agency $hose gaDe I try to impress $ith my ego image16 p.,!. SiDe.6 #+aoC6 and
Critch+ey6 #imon. 3o2 to )ead +acan. 1st ed. (. (. Norton X Company6 2!!-.
1%! As can be seen from the 7I&0 proCect)s studies6 as characters $ipe the frame6 they tend to s$eep gaDe
+ocations $ith them6 either to the edge of the frame6 or to a ne$ foca+ point $hich emerges from behind
the moing obCect. The 7I&0 ProCect. &here =ill Be Blood 2ith 7aHe +ocations o$ BB ?ie2ers6 2!11.
https8EEimeo.comE12-,,132. http8EEthediemproCect.$ordpress.comE.
1%1 0d++er
1%2 Chiaramonte6 'ioanni6 and Tar.os.y6 Andrey. *nstant +ight &ar5ovs5y Polaroids. *irst ed. Thames X
:udson >td6 2!!".
1%3 A good e3amp+e of director $ho demonstrates ho$ emotiona+ manipu+ation is sti++ possib+e een in fi3ed
camera6 $ide ang+e6 f+at +it shots is 4oy Andersson. 7espite his pared do$n approach6 +i.e sub+imina+
propaganda he sti++ manages6 to coney ery strong messages6 crucia++y $ithout fee+ing forced.
28
situations
1%"
. A+though he c+aims to reCect the princip+e of inte++ectua+ montage6 he creates
a sound9image Cu3taposition $hen a poem about immorta+ity is read oer archie footage
of so+diers in >a.e #iash. The combination has c+ear ironic oertones. :e indicates a
cut9a$ay to concurrent eents by a++o$ing Asafye to brea. the fourth $a++6 and
Cu3taposing the scene of the boys) rif+e training $ith images of suffering so+diers6 seen $ith
our post ((II benefit of hindsight. <ust as Tar.os.y creates re+ationships bet$een t$o
different characters by using the same actor6 he a+so creates re+ationships bet$een
different times by reorganising them6 a traersa+ /bringing them into a dia+ectic re+ationship
$ith each other1
1%5
. Cuts from scenes of A+e3ei and 0aria to those of Ignat and Nata+ia
emphatica++y suggest this. Though reordering time is c+ear+y usefu+ to ma.e imp+icit
references6 the fragmentation of time a+one does not necessari+y he+p to decrease
audience perception of construction. Pul" #iction FAna+ysed in Appendi3 7G6 is an e3amp+e
of ho$ a fi+m can be chrono+ogica++y reconfigured6 yet sti++ fee+ high+y constructed.
5aDin stated that /photography... emba+ms time1 presering a moment6 so that cinema
becomes /obCectiity in time1
1%%
. Tar.os.y)s use of the +ong ta.e is distinct from
neorea+ism and can be described as /mystica+ rea+ism1
1%-
. In this ne$ cinematic +anguage
he is ab+e to ignore continuity6 to adantage his associatie editing. :e doesn)t a+ert the
audiences to time changes
1%,
6 as he often runs themes or ideas across scenes $hich are
set in different time9frames
1%2
$hose conte3t can often on+y be immediate+y ascertained by
1%" (hen 0aria te++s the chi+dren about the fire in the barn6 as they Cump out of their seats to run to the
$indo$6 and a cut across the +ine emphasiDes the shoc.. A simi+ar cut across the +ine occurs $hen
NadheDda fai+s to recognise A+e3ei and 0aria6 in doing so a+ienating them.
1%5 p.-. =ear.
1%% p.1"915. &he ;ntology o$ the Photogra"hic *!age in 5aDin6 Andre. =hat *s Cine!a@ Trans+ated by :ugh
'ray. Tniersity of Ca+ifornia Press6 12%,.
1%- 5eas+ey90urray6 <on. =hatever 3a""ened to eorealis!@ BaHin. DeleuHe. and &ar5ovs5yIs +ong &a5e
in /'i++es 7e+euDe6 Phi+osophe 7u Cin;ma E 'i++es 7e+euDe6 Phi+osopher of Cinema.1 &d. 7. N.
4odo$ic.. *ris6 no. 23 F#pring 122-G.
1%, *or e3amp+e6 fo++o$ing her conersation $ith the Trae++ing 7octor6 0aria stares at the camera6 then
after a cut9a$ay to a different +ocation6 she $a+.s bac. into frame. There is nothing to indicate $hether
this is an e++ipsis or een a scene brea..
29
cues in their co+our pa+ette
1-!
. The rests in Mirror are not the discontinuities in diegetic
time6 but rather the thematic boundaries. Tar.os.y suberts the point9of9ie$ shot $hen
he uses a +ong gaDe6 often into a mirror6 to indicate that the ne3t /reerse1 shot $i++ sho$ a
dream or ision
1-1
. *ree roaming cameras are often used to sho$s memories of a
particu+ar time6 as the ie$er is carried a+ong $ith an out9of9body f+oating sensation6
unab+e to interact $ith the scene6 on+y to obsere it6 and neer from the most conenient
ie$. Though the camera moe indicates a specific mode of ie$ing6 it isn)t used in itse+f
to suggest emotions
1-2
6 as it dee+ops no specific a++egiance to any one theme6 by contrast6
for e3amp+e6 to the comp+ementary pair of ped and ti+t moes in (enders) Paris Fsee
Appendi3 >6 shots %5 X %-G.
12. %3perimenta* %vidence for Postu*ations
@ne of the most basic components of fi+m construction is the cut. According to Anderson
/cuts become acceptab+e on+y $hen the genera+ patterns of +ight in the t$o shots are
sufficient+y different1. The comp+ete change of image across a cut is a.in to the isua+ data
+ost across a saccade6 /thus6 $e accept a disrupted f+o$ ?uite natura++y1
1-3
as /human
1%2 *or e3amp+e6 after A+e3ei6 $ho is +ying on his deathbed6 thro$s a bird up in the air6 the cut on the
camera)s motion $ou+d norma++y suggest a continuity edit6 yet time Cumps bac. from the 12-!s to around
1222. There is ery +itt+e indication of the geography of the 12-!s scene6 so the audience automatica++y
sites it /near1 the geography of the ne3t shot. After the pan across the 1222 scene reaches 0aria6 it is
reea+ed she is $ith her husband6 so initia++y the audience can on+y date the scene as pre91235. @n+y
$hen they discuss 0aria)s pregnancy does it becomes obious that the scene is set in 12226 and that
A+e3ei6 on his deathbed6 is +oo.ing bac. to his conception6 and seeing his mother cry about her son6 $ho
in this scene6 is yet to be born.
1-! *or e3amp+e6 an e3terior shot in 1235 is indicated by the green buc.$heat and the red s.y.
1-1 *or e3amp+e6 A+e3ei dreams of the redhead as he $aits for his mother at NadeDhda)s houseB the dream
is indicated by his +ong stare into the mirror6 then the image of a burning hand. Another e3amp+e
demonstrates a ariation on this deice8 0aria +ies in the grass $ith her husband. #he ho+ds a stare
a$ay from the camera6 so that rather than her gaDe $e see the bac. of her head. In the dream $hich
fo++o$s she sees herse+f as an o+d $omen6 sti++ +oo.ing after her chi+dren6 $ho haen)t gro$n up. As she
+eads her chi+dren up to the 7acha she rea+ises that it is in ruins.
1-2 An e3treme e3amp+e of an emotion being +in.ed to a specific camera moe can be found in 5arry
>yndon6 $here ominous bac.$ards trac.ing shots sho$ a character)s gaDe as they +oo. past the +imits
of the camera frame6 $hi+e $a+.ing to$ards the camera $hich stays ahead of them. The character)s
face is isib+e6 and so our mirror neurons cause us to react to their emotiona+ e3pressions6 yet $e cannot
see $ho or $hat they are approaching. The shot is used seera+ times to $arn of an upcoming due+6 or
an imminent death. @nce its meaning has been estab+ished6 it is immediate+y foreboding. #ee =ubric.6
#tan+ey. Barry +yndon. Adenture6 7rama6 4omance6 (ar6 12-5.
1-3 p.12. <oseph 7. Anderson6 5arbara *isher Anderson6 and 7aid 5ord$e++. Moving *!age &heory4
<cological Considerations. #IT Press6 2!!-.
30
perceptua+ systems are a+ready segmenting ongoing actiity into discrete eents1
1-"
. A
Cump cut is disruptie as it resu+ts in /a certain .ind of irre+eant motion... beta motion1
1-5

$hich is usua++y un$anted by the narratie. /Continuity editing techni?ues are successfu+
in perceptua++y smoothing oer fu++9fie+d isua+ discontinuities1
1-%
6 but not necessari+y
audib+e discontinuities
1--
. It is a+so obious that as /scene boundaries re?uire a brea. in
action1
1-,
6 a cut may fo++o$ after an action is comp+ete. In this case the absence of a cut
can become more noticeab+e than its presence as audiences become a$are that the +imits
of their gaDe are the edges of the frame and the end of the shot.
I $as interested to .no$ ho$ an audience)s perception of time differs bet$een an edited
scene6 and the same action sho$n in +ong shot. I carried out an e3periment $hich is
coered in detai+ in Appendi3 A. In most cases6 an edited ersion of eents is usua++y
shorter than the same eents in +ong shot as dead time and inconse?uentia+ action is
remoed in the editing process. :o$eer6 (enders often reerses this in his s+o$9paced
fi+ms6 by cutting out the action6 and +eaing in the dead time. #ometimes he doesn)t een
use e++ipses6 but simp+y cuts a2ay to a para++e+ scene of dead time6 then +ater returns to the
first scene after a change in it has occurred. Not on+y does he sho$ less action6 but he
a+so +ets it ta.e longer. In my e3periment I found that audiences did not genera++y perceie
a great difference in the running time of an edited ideo of an action6 compared $ith an
e?ua+ +ength +ong shot ideo of the same eents. There $as a more significant difference
bet$een the running time estimated for the first ideo seen6 and that for the second8
participants genera++y found the second ideo in the series shorter though I cannot e3p+ain
$hy.
1-" p."32. 5acci6 *rancesca6 and 7aid 0e+cher. -rt and the %enses. @3ford Tniersity Press6 2!11.
1-5 p.12. Anderson. 2!!-.
1-% p.""3. 5acci6 *rancesca6 and 7aid 0e+cher. -rt and the %enses. @3ford Tniersity Press6 2!11.
1-- /a brea. in isua+ f+o$ is usua++y +ess noticeab+e than a brea. in the stream of sound... $e b+in.
fre?uent+y6 usua++y $ithout a$areness6 but ... $e hae no para++e+ anatomica+ structure for our ears.1
p.,!. Anderson6 <oseph. &he )eality o$ *llusion4 -n <cological -""roach to Cognitive #il! &heory. #IT
Press6 122,.
1-, p.""3. 5acci.
31
In the second phase of the e3periment6 $hich is detai+ed in appendi3 &6 ie$ers $ere
tested on their perception of cuts $hich $ere not $e++ hidden. Aery fe$ ie$ers estimated
more cuts than $ere present6 and most estimated correct+y or s+ight+y fe$er. &en gien
that the editing of the test ideos in this phase of the e3periment $as de+iberate+y Carring6 I
$as surprised ho$ $e++ participants remembered the cuts. I had assumed that at +east a
fe$ poor matches might s+ip by unnoticed. The resu+ts suggest that the g+itches in (ings
Ffor e3amp+e see Appendi3 <6 #hot -!G6 and possib+y een the mirrored shots in Paris Ffor
e3amp+e see Appendi3 >6 shot ,!G might disturb audiences. The participants) abi+ity to
reca++ seera+ detai+s from each ideo $as a+so tested. In genera+ this $as dependant on
ho$ prominent+y the detai+s $ere framed in specific shots6 rather than being dependant on
$hether the ideo $as an edited ersion or a +ong shot. I am not sure if this effect $ou+d
continue oer the +ength of a $ho+e fi+m composed of +ong shots6 or if audiences $ou+d
become +ess obserant $hen cuts don)t occur regu+ar+y.
I a+so tested ho$ $e++ audiences $ere ab+e to reca++ timings of specific eents in popu+ar
mainstream fi+ms. I $as interested to .no$ ho$ $e++ normatie narratie structures cou+d
be reca++ed. #eera+ case studies and the resu+ts for this phase of the e3periment are
sho$n in Appendices C and 7. It $ou+d be interesting to find out ho$ heai+y re+ated the
abi+ity to remember a narratie is to the +ee+ of immersion in that narratie $hich the
ie$er e3perienced $hi+e perceiing it. The genera+ trend seems to be that ie$ers $ere
more ab+e to remember timings $hen the narratie structure $as +inear+y chrono+ogica++y
ordered6 had acts of rough+y een +engths6 and the eents $ere in some $ay re+ated to the
act structure.
32
11. )ina* 4emar-s
The prob+em of audience a$areness of construction can be diided into t$o main issues.
*irst+y6 due to the fi+m)s content being unrea+istic in some $ay6 $hether it is too simp+e or
too contried. #econd+y6 due to a ie$er9and9deice9dependent fami+iarity $ith the forms
used to e3press the content.
Narraties are c+ear+y an essentia+ $ay in $hich $e understand the $or+d around us6
ho$eer6 from my inestigation into Mirror6 it becomes c+ear that fi+m can be intriguing
despite an incomp+ete narratie structure. The c+osest 0irror comes to an oera++
narratie6 is the causa+ +in. $hich imp+ies that due to 0aria)s diorce and A+e3ei)s
subse?uent upbringing6 A+e3ei has diorced from Nata+ia6 and is no$ unab+e to
communicate $ith his mother. In (enders) fi+ms a ariety of comp+e3 but f+uid+y organised
structures often hide the fact that the fi+m is based on a ery simp+e premise. (hi+e
Tar.os.y dee+ops his o$n screen +anguage6 (enders app+ies a :o++y$ood tradition so
indifferent+y that it becomes transparent. A++ four of the fi+ms ana+ysed here focus on
re+ationships as opposed to action6 and I be+iee that this bias more accurate+y ref+ects
ie$ers) +ies6 and thus the fi+ms) content is a c+oser representation of rea+ity.
At a basic +ee+ I be+iee that stories become engaging $hen they te++ us about +ife itse+f6
and I propose that $e are interested in the fate of others to he+p us +earn about ho$ to
react in different situationsB $e fo++o$ stories to derie /if9then1 +ogic structures from them6
$hich $e can app+y to our dai+y +ies. I be+iee that $hen a fi+m)s construction is not
isib+e6 the fi+m is perceied as an i++usion of rea+ity6 and so instead of being a+uab+e for
entertainments sa.e a+one6 it is a+uab+e as a cognitie+y e3pansie e3perience.
(hen a fi+m fee+s constructed6 it means that $e are a$are of a pattern $hich $e a+ready
33
.no$ about 9 be it an oft9?uoted narratie $hich $e hae heard many times before6 or an
intrusie fi+mic deice $hich preents us from ie$ing the under+ying content of the fi+m as
rea+ity. 0a.ing a fi+m cou+d be ie$ed as the act of constructing of abstract eent
scenarios F$hich together are part of a p+otG6 and the p+acement of these eents in time
and space in such a $ay that there are no inconsistencies. To +oo. at the process in
another $ay $hich I fee+ is more representatie of ho$ fi+ms $hich appear unconstructed
are put together8 ma.ing a fi+m is the act of se+ecting segments of a character)s time6 $hich
contains both p+ot9re+eant eents6 and eents $hich sho$ that the characters hae a +ife
of their o$n.
34
5ib*iography
Anderson6 <oseph 7.6 5arbara *isher Anderson6 and 7aid 5ord$e++. Moving *!age &heory4 <cological
Considerations. #IT Press6 2!!-.
Anderson6 <oseph. &he )eality o$ *llusion4 -n <cological -""roach to Cognitive #il! &heory. #IT Press6
122,.
Andre$6 'eoff. %tranger &han Paradise4 Maveric5 #il!:!a5ers in )ecent -!erican Cine!a. Prion 5oo.s
>td6 122,.
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5aDin6 Andre. =hat *s Cine!a@ Trans+ated by :ugh 'ray. Tniersity of Ca+ifornia Press6 12%,.
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Cousins6 0ar.. &he %tory o$ #il!. Pai+ion 5oo.s6 2!!".
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(enders6 (im. &he -ct o$ %eeing4 <ssays and Conversations. Trans+ated by 0ichae+ :ofmann. *aber X
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`arro$6 =ie+an6 Patric. :aggard6 4on :ea+6 Peter 5ro$n6 and <ohn C. 4oth$e++. /I++usory Perceptions of
#pace and Time Presere Cross9saccadic Perceptua+ Continuity.1 ature "1"6 no. %,%1 FNoember 156
2!!1G8 3!2V3!5.
SiDe.6 #+aoC6 and #imon Critch+ey. 3o2 to )ead +acan. 1st ed. (. (. Norton X Company6 2!!-.
36
Analysis of “Mirror”
In order to re-edit “Mirror” into chronological order, it was first necessary to date each
scene which occurs in the film. The evidence gathered for this process is presented
below. As the film is semi-autobiographical, the events which tae place in the film share a
loose similarity with the events which occurred in Tarovsy!s own life. In cases where no
other information was available, the events of Tarovsy!s life have been been used as
reference. I believe that the information presented here is more complete and correct than
any other publicly available documents on Mirror.
Characters by Generation
For each fictional character that represents a member of Tarkovsky's real family, the name of the family
member represented is listed in square brackets below.. Character relationships within the fictional scope of
the film are listed in parentheses. The family name used in the film, “Nikolaevna, is similar to the town
where !ndrei Tarkovsky's father, !rseny, was sent for e"ecution, “Nikolayev.
1: Adults in 1935
Maria "iolaevna #Mariya Ivanova $ishnyaova b.%&'() *the stepdaughter of Matvey Ivanov+
Ale,ei!s father - Maria!s .,-husband #Arseny Alesandrovich Tarovsy b.%&'()
!Aunt! /unya 0orchaov *Maria!s sister*-in-law1++
!2ncle! 3asha 0orchaov #3ossibly $ladimir $ishnyaova) *Maria!s brother*-in-law1++
4eli5avet 3avlovna *Maria!s colleague, 6isa+
Travelling /octor
"ade5hda 3etrovna *who Maria visits for the earring sale+
2: Adults in 1965
Ale,ei #Andrei Arsenevich Tarovsy b.%&78) *Maria!s son+
Marina #Marina Tarovsy b.%&79) *Ale,ei!s brother, Marina!s daughter+
Asafyev *the boy at military training with Ale,ei+
Ale,ei!s wife "atalia #Irma 4a. :ausch b.%&;')
The <trange =oman *who ass Ignat to read, and discusses Ale,ei!s health with the doctor+
3: Youner than 25 in 1965
The <tutterer *4uri >hary from ?harov, 2raine+
Ignat #Arseny Tarovsy b.%&;8) *Ale,ei! son+
.vents in @ilm Arder
!"cene 1# colour!
%. Ignat age %8, watches the treatment of the <tutterer on T$.
8. The <tutterer is put into a trance.
7. The <tutterer proves he is cured by saying the phrase BI can speaB loudly and clearly.
!Credits!
9. Apening Credits, with Dach!s /as ArgelbEchlein "o. %;, B/as alte Fahr vergangen istB-BThe Ald 4ear
has 3assedB.
!"cene 2# colour# $re%ar c1935# near the &acha!
#!le"ei's father has 'left' this year. Tarkovsky's father divorced when !ndrei was a child in $%&'. The actor
who plays !le"ei in the $%&( scenes is )hilip *ankovsky +b. $, -ct $%./0. 1e would have been ( turnin2 .
years old at the time of filmin2.3
G. Maria sits on wooden fence smoing, looing out at the road which goes from Ignatievo station
*3latforma Ignat!evo+ to Tomshino.
;. A train whistle is audible in the distance.
(. The Travelling /octor wals across the field of bucwheat towards the bush *Tarovsy was born in
the house of his mother!s mother!s second husband, a doctor, possibly e,plaining the /octor!s roleH
Maria!s mother!s husband is formally referred to as Matvey Ivanov in the film+.
I. A "arrator *an older Ale,ei+ e,plains that if the /octor turns at the bush, he is liely to be !father!
*Ale,ei!s father+, as he would be heading for the house *the /acha, which is based on Tarovsy!s
37
grandmother!s houseH in the film the narrator later e,plains that this house is his grandmother!s
house where he was born+.
&. The /octor wals up to Maria and ass the way to Tomshino.
%'. Maria tells the /octor that he Bshouldn!tB have taen a turn at the bush. It is implied that he has gone
the wrong way, and also that he shouldn!t be intruding on Maria.
%%. The /octor seems overly friendly. Je ass for a nail and a screwdriver to open his case of
instruments for which he has forgotten the ey.
%8. Maria tells him that she doesn!t have any nails.
%7. The /octor ass Maria to give him her hand, and tells her that he is a doctor.
%9. Maria threatens to fetch her husband *who she is in fact recently separated from+.
%G. The /octor notices that Maria isn!t wearing a ring, but remars that not everyone wear rings now.
%;. The /octor ass for and receives a cigarette.
%(. The /octor loos over Maria!s shoulder which prompts Maria to also loo bac to see Ale,ei *in a
beige lace up light shirt and shorts+ and his sister Marina *younger, shorter, wearing a light blue
striped dress+ asleep in a hammoc.
%I. The /octor sits on the fence ne,t to Maria and it gives way. Doth of them fall to the ground.
%&. The /octor contrasts the calmness of the plants and the trees to human activity.
8'. Maria maes reference to Chehov!s B=ard <i,B, hinting that the /octor is mad.
8%. The /octor claims he is immune to insanity.
88. The /octor tells Maria to come to Tomshino as they have Bgood timesB there.
87. Maria watches the /octor leave and a gust of wind *or his own decisionH this is left ambiguous+
causes him to pause and turn bac towards Maria.
89. A different "arrator *Arseny Tarovsy possibly representing Ale,ei!s @ather+ reads his own poem
about meeting someone *possibly Andrei Tarovsy!s mother, or in the scope of this film, Maria+ and
falling in love.
8G. Maria moves towards the house. <omething falls from the window. As Maria loos bac at the
camera the scene cuts.
!"cene 2'# colour# $re%ar c1935# near the &acha!
#! possible time ellipsis since the last scene as 4arina is now asleep on a pile of hay in a kennel.3
8;. Two young children with shaved heads, Ale,ei, staring Kust below the camera, and his sister Marina,
are outside. There are small fires out of focus behind.
8(. A lady with dar hair, a dar dress and a dar top *probably /ounya+ pics up the girl and follows
Ale,ei towards the house.
8I. Inside Ale,ei!s sister Marina eats berries in cream-mil, a blac cat lics spilt cream-mil, and Ale,ei
pours a white powder, probably flour, on the blac cat!s head.
8&. Maria is inside looing forlorn. <he sits by a window, outside of which is her ironing and the
perimeter fence.
7'. Maria begins to cry, presumably over her broen marriage, while the poem reaches its clima,.
7%. 3asha shouts for /ounya offscreen.
78. Maria tells the two children at the table, Ale,ei and his sister Marina, that there is a fire, but they
must be Luiet. A cut breas the %I' rule. The children come running.
77. Ale,ei and Marina watch the barn burn. This is shown in a reflection in a mirror hung on a door.
79. /ounya worries about $itya *male+ who she thins might have burnt, and ?lanya *named as 3asha
and /ounya!s si, year old daughter in the script+. 3asha calls for ?lanya.
7G. ?lanya emerges from behind the mirrored door wearing a fur coat.
7;. /ounya and 3asha watch the barn burn from outside, as does nearby Maria.
7(. Maria wals over to a well and tips the bucet to tae a drin and wash her face. <he sits on the
edge of the well while 3asha trots past her towards the barn.
!"cene 3'# colour# $re%ar before 1935# in the &acha!
#)robably immediately after !le"ei's dream which is shown in 5cene &3
7I. A younger Ale,ei sits up in bed.
!"cene 3# blac( and %hite drea)# $re%ar before 1935# in the &acha!
#)rior to !le"ei's father's departure.3
7&. *slow motion+ Trees blowing near the /acha.
9'. A younger Ale,ei sits up in bed, then wals towards the door frame as a dove flies past.
9%. *slow motion+ Maria is washing her hair with the help of her husband.
98. *slow motion+ The ceiling collapses as it rains inside.
97. Maria wals past several mirrors in a shawl, then in the last of the series of mirrors, she sees herself
as an old woman.
38
!"cene *# colour# conte)$orary after 1966 before 19+*# 6$) in the e,enin# Ale-ei.s a$art)ent!
#6ated by the !ndrei 7ublev poster.3
99. The sound of a tram, a shot of a hand as if holding fire /"cene *'0, then a phone rings.
9G. The camera passes a poster on the wall for Andrei :ublev.
9;. Ale,ei answers the phone, it is his mother Maria. Ale,ei has a sore throat and hasn!t spoe to
anyone for 7 days. Je says he thins it is good to eep Luiet as words can!t e,press everything.
9(. Ale,ei ass his mother which year his father left, the answer is %&7G, the same year the barn burned
down *dating <cene 8 M 8D+.
9I. Ale,ei!s mother is calling to say that 6isa, who she wored with at the printers, died this morning at
(am.
9&. Ale,ei has lost trac of time and thins it is now the morning. Jis mother says it is ;pm.
G'. Ale,ei ass his mother if they can stop fighting. Je apologises for anything he has done wrong.
Maria hangs up the phone.
!"cene 5# blac( and %hite drea)# $re%ar /date uncertain0# 1rintin 1ress in Mosco%!
#Tarkovsky's mother moved to 4oscow where she worked at the )rintin2 )ress in $%&(. 8n the script 4aria
is said to be in 4oscow in $%9&, thou2h it is not necessarily implied that this is the period when 4aria works
at the )rintin2 )ress. The )rintin2 )ress is .,km from 82natievo station, which is within hearin2 distance of
the 6acha +2iven the train whistle sound in 5cene :0, so it is unlikely that 4aria would have commuted
durin2 the years of the film in which she lives in the 6acha. 8n 5cene $' 4aria says that +up to0 two years
before she lived in 4oscow, which dates this scene prior to 5cene $' and after 5cene $:.3
G%. A tram bell rings, this is the stop for the 3rinting 3ress, and the ne,t stop is <erpuhovsaya *in
Moscow+.
G8. Maria is running through leaves. It starts to rain.
G7. A guard on the building who checs her entrance card-I/ ass her what the rush is and she doesn!t
answer.
G9. Maria demands the 3roofs from a girl who is at the des ne,t to hers.
GG. The girl tells her to wait, and that B4eli5avet 3avlovnaB *6isa+ is here.
G;. *fast motion+ Together Maria, 6isa and the unnamed girl wal to find the 3roofs.
G(. The unnamed girl is cryingH 6isa tells her to Bshut up, you idiotB.
GI. *slow motion+ 6isa runs ahead.
G&. A man *Ivan 0avrilovic+ tries to chec the proofs for 6isa, but she wants to do it herself. Je
comments on everyone rushing and tells the unnamed girl to go bac to wor and let Maria worry.
;'. Maria finds the page in Luestion and there is no error.
;%. Maria wals bac to her des with the "arrator *Arseny Tarovsy+ reading a poem. The narrator
*presumably Ale,ei!s father+ was waiting for someone *presumably Maria+ yesterday when there was
Bholiday weatherBH now when they are here the weather is gloomy.
;8. Dac at her des and laughing through tears she is Koined by 6isa, who is smoing. Maria whispers
the misprint she had imagined to 6isaN B<hralinB, e,crement instead of <talin.
;7. Maria and 6isa laugh, then they are Koined by Ivan 0avrilovic who brings them pure alcohol and tells
Maria that she loos lie a scarecrow.
;9. Maria says she will tae a shower and ass those around her where her comb is *twice+.
;G. 6isa tells Maria that she reminds her of Maria Timofeyevna *Captain 6ebyadin!s sister in
/ostoevsy!s “The /evils”-”/emons”+, a woman who was always demanding things.
;;. Maria doesn!t now who Maria Timofeyevna was.
;(. 6isa tells Maria that in her case, unlie in Timofeyevna!s, people do as she says. 6isa says that she
is ama5ed at the patience of Maria!s e,-husband.
;I. Maria gets up and goes to have a shower. 6isa tries to follow her but Maria locs her out of the
shower.
;&. 6isa turns bac down the corridor and utters the opening lines of /ante!s Inferno, BMidway on our
life!s Kourney I found myself in a dar woodsB as she sips from side to side.
('. Maria laughs and cries in the shower.
!"cene 6# colour# $re%ar $robably 1935# near the &acha!
#)ossibly connected to 5cenes : ; '< due to the location, the colour palette, the fire, and the time of day.3
(%. In the middle distance a fire burns in a field of bucwheat. The camera is under telegraph poles and
in the far bacground is the woods. @ade to blac.
!"cene +# colour# conte)$orary and $ost di,orce of 2atalia and Ale-ei# in Ale-ei.s a$art)ent!
#=ocation confirmed in $%/( interview +8ll2;Neu2er,$%/'0, possibly follows 5cene 9.3
(8. "atalia and her husband Ale,ei are arguing. "atalia is looing in the mirror, moving her head around
to e,amine her face.
39
(7. Ale,ei says that "atalia resembles his mother, "atalia says that apparently this is why she and
Ale,ei are divorced
(9. "atalia is concerned *she says Bwith horrorB+ that Ignat is becoming lie Ale,ei.
!"cene +'# colour# $re%ar 1935# outside the &acha!
#)robably immediately after 5cenes :< or ..3
(G. /ounya carries Marina inside, while Maria carries a bucet waling with the 3asha towards the
house.
!"cene +# continued!
(;. Ignat appears, he has been listening in. Je is told to put the glass down.
((. "atalia tells Ale,ei that he seems to thin his presence will mae everyone happy, and that he only
nows how to demand *echoing 6isa!s earlier statement to Maria+.
(I. Ale,ei claims that this is because he was brought up by women *implying without a father+. Je tells
"atalia to get married as soon as possible or give Ignat to him.
(&. "atalia ass Ale,ei why he hasn!t made up with his mother.
I'. Ale,ei says that it!s because his mother thins she nows how he should live best. Ale,ei says that
he is becoming more distant from his mother.
#possible time lapse3
I%. Ignat eats an apple and watches the <panish tenants who live in his father!s apartment.
I8. Ale,ei ass "atalia to distract one of them who is taling about <pain again.
I7. "atalia ass Ale,ei if Ignat can stay with him for a wee as they are redecorating.
I9. "atalia breathes onto the mirror and the shot cuts.
!"cene +C# blac( and %hite archi,e footae# date un(no%n# "$ain!
IG. A bullfight. This footage loos too old to be of 3alomo 6inares, a fighter who is referred to
immediately after this scene. 6inares only began fighting in %&;G.
!"cene +# continued!
I;. "atalia, who is amused by one of the tenants who is acting out 3alomo 6inares! moves, ass another
tenant what is happening.
!"cene +&# blac( and %hite archi,e footae# c1936!1939# "$ain!
#this is loosely interspersed with 5cene ' in several sections3
I(. <panish Civil =ar
!"cene +# continued!
II. Ane of the Tenants e,plains that the other Tenant was most e,cited by the farewell he was given
when leaving <pain. Je new he might never see his mother again after he had left.
I&. The daughters of the <panish Tenants dance to flamenco music. Ane of the Tenants, who taught the
girls to dance, accuses them of mocing him.
&'. A <panish woman called 6ouisa e,plains to "atalia that she can!t return to <pain as she has a
:ussian husband and :ussian children.
&%. The <panish woman runs from the room, "atalia follows and tells the <panish woman!s husband
that she will tal to her.
!"cene +3# blac( and %hite archi,e footae# c193*!1939 /$ossibly includin 19*10# "$ain45""6!
&8. To flamenco music people run for cover as bombs are dropped. <panish civil war footage is mi,ed
with footage of :ussian children being evacuated during ==II *possibly the Moscow evacuation of
%&9%+.
&7. A stratospheric balloon Kourney showing one of the B2<<:-B series of balloonsH 3ossibly the failed
2<<:-7 flight of %&7(.
&9. Cloudhopper balloonists attempt to untangle cables. This is set to music by 3ergolesi, “<tabat
Mater”, "o %8N “Ouando corpus morietur fac ut animae donetur paradisi gloria” - “=hile my body here
decays, may my soul Thy goodness praise, safe in 3aradise with TheeP”
&G. A ticer tape parade, either for May /ay %&7& in :ed <Luare *p.9%I,:obinsonH p.79,<ynessiosH
p.%88,FohnsonM3etrie+, or for the aviator $alerii ChalovQs return to Moscow after his ;7-hour flight
across the "orth 3ole in %&7( *p.%%&,<aovH p.9;,Dird refers to %&7;, the year Chalov was made a
BJero of the <oviet 2nionB+ *sources disagree+.
40
!"cene 7# colour# se,eral years after 1935# location un(no%n!
#!le"ei is now $: years old +p.$:&,4artin, thou2h evidence is not 2iven to confirm the date0, placin2 this
scene durin2 the war. The room he is in, and the window he walks up to, thou2h out of focus, doesn't
resemble the interior of the 6acha as we have seen it so far. 8t is possible that he is in 4oscow now, prior to
the evacuation mentioned in 5cene $', thou2h the a2e of the book contradicts this, as in 5cene $:, which is
prior to the move to 4oscow, when !le"ei is also c$: years old, the book looks much older and more
dama2ed.3
&;. Ale,ei leafs through a boo of 6eonardo da $inci reproductions. Je wals up to a window wearing a
fur coat.
!"cene 9# colour# conte)$orary $resu)ably after "cene +# Ale-ei.s a$art)ent!
&(. "atalia tells Ignat that she is leaving. Ignat is sat at a different windowsill to the one Ale,ei was at.
&I. As "atalia drops her purse the music ceases.
&&. Ignat helps "atalia put her possessions bac in her purse, as "atalia comments how she is always
in a rush *echoing criticism of Maria in <cene G+.
%''. Ignat says he felt a shoc as if he had piced up coins before *a possible reference to <taler, or to
the earrings in <cene %(+.
%'%. "atalia leaves telling Ignat that if BMaria "iolaevnaB *Maria, Ale,ei!s grandmother+ comes, he should
tell her to wait.
%'8. The apartment loos dilapidated in subseLuent shots. There is no time Kump here as we hear the
door close after "atalia.
%'7. Ignat is running his hands over some boos. Je loos round and Kumps as he sees two women, one
dressed as a Maid serving a cup from a tray, the other, the <trange =oman, resembles a photograph
of the poet Anna Ahmatova *%I&I-%&;;+, a figure condemned and censored by the <talinist
Authorities *Tarovsy has denied this resemblance in a %&IG interview *IllgM"euger,%&I(+ and
instead pointed out that she is simply someone trying to tie the boy to certain cultural conditions+.
%'9. The <trange =oman tells Ignat to come in and ass the Maid for another cup.
%'G. The <trange =oman tells Ignat to fetch a noteboo *which has handwritten pages+ and read a
passage aloud. Je reads aloud, first a sentence in which :ousseau states that the arts and sciences
have a negative effect on morals.
%';. The <trange =oman then ass him to read only what is underlined. The passage is from 3ushin!s
letter to Chaadayev, Act %&, %I7;, which describes how :ussia survived the Tatar invasion saving
Christian civili5ation. 3ushin states that although he is not delighted with the present leaders of
:ussia, he would not wish to switch his home country or have any other history. <unlight levels in
the room vary as the seated lady listens. Ignat leans against a wall on which hangs a photograph of
Tarovsy!s real mother as a young woman.
%'(. The <trange =oman sends Ignat to open the door. Maria *in her old age, as seen in the dream in
<cene 7+ is at the door. <he doesn!t recognise Ignat and says that she has the wrong address.
Ignat doesn!t recognise his grandmother either.
%'I. =hen Ignat returns to the room, the <trange =oman is no longer there, but a circle of fast
evaporating steam remains where her cup was.
%'&. The phone rings, and Ignat has a conversation with his father, Ale,ei. Ale,ei ass Ignat if BMaria
"iolaevnaB *Maria, Ale,ei!s mother+ has arrived yet.
%%'. Ignat says no, but tells his father that an old lady came to the wrong address.
%%%. Ale,ei tells Ignat to find something to do and ass if he nows any girls.
%%8. Ignat says he doesn!t and grins.
%%7. Ale,ei tells Ignat that during the war he was in love with a :edhead with chapped lips, a girl who was
also chased by Ale,ei!s Military Instructor, a man who suffered from shell-shoc.
!"cene 18# colour# after the start of the 9eninrad 'loc(ade 19*1!19**# :inter# $robably near
Mosco%!
#Tarkovsky would have been & in $%&(, thou2h !le"ei appears to be sli2htly older in 5cene :<, perhaps a2e
(>' which would make him $: in $%9:>993
%%9. The teenage :edhead wals away in the snow. <he is a significantly different age to both Ale,ei and
the Instructor. In the script she is referred to as "ina 3etrovna.
%%G. In voiceover Ale,ei ass if Ignat is still listening.
%%;. %8 year old Ale,ei *played by the same actor as %8 year old Ignat+ watches the :edhead.
%%(. :ifle practice, with music from 3urcell!s “The Indian Oueen”, Act I$, BThey tell us that your mighty
powersB.
%%I. The military Instructor reprimands a boy for firing up, not at the target, rising hitting someone.
%%&. In the drill routine a boy called Asafyev consistently turns the wrong way in the about-turn.
%8'. The Instructor threatens to send the boy home to his parents.
%8%. Another boy reveals that Asafyev!s parents died in the 6eningrad Dlocade.
41
%88. Asafyev, now in tears, removes a grenade from his bag.
%87. In a confusing series of shots a child!s hand pics up the grenade, another child pulls the pin, and
another rolls down the slope and throws the grenade. A child yells BAsafyev, don!t do itB suggesting
that it is Asafyev who pulls the pin though this is not entirely clear.
%89. The boys drop to the ground as the Instructor throws himself down in front of the grenade and we
hear his heart beat.
%8G. The grenade fails to go off, Asafyev reveals that it was a dummy.
%8;. The Instructor says to Asafyev BAnd you say you!re from 6eningrad and have been under siege...B.
%8(. The :edhead wipes blood from her split lip and stares into the camera.
!"cene 18'# blac( and %hite archi,e footae# durin ::;;# location un(no%n!
%8I. A naed man carries a wooden bo, down a slope to a pier on which partially clothed soldiers stand
carrying weapons.
%8&. <oldiers fall from the pier into the river as firing is heard.
!"cene 18# continued!
%7'. The echo of firing rings over into this shot. Asafyev leaves the firing range and the other boys stand
up.
!"cene 18C# blac( and %hite archi,e footae# c19*3# ,arious ::;; locations!
%7%. <oldiers push a canon along a trac.
%78. The <oviet crossing of 6ae <ivash in Crimea, %&97.
%77. A poem is read by Arseny Tarovsy featuring the lines BThere is no death. =e!re all immortal... @ear
not death at seventeen, "or at seventy...B
!"cene 11# colour# $robably consecuti,e to "cene 18# $robably near Mosco%!
%79. Asafyev slips as he wals up a hill which resembles a Dreugel painting.
%7G. As Asafyev reaches the camera we see that he is whistling but that he also has tears on his chees.
Je stares as if he is watching the following <cene, %%D.
!"cene 11'# blac( and %hite archi,e footae circa# c19*5!6# ,arious locations!
%7;. :ussian tans in the liberation of 3rague in %&9G.
%7(. The dead !Jitler! double is photographed *p.%87,Martin+.
%7I. @irewors in Moscow in %&9G.
%7&. The Atomic Domb dropping on Jiroshima *p.%8;,Fohnson M 3etrie+, or possibly the test e,plosion at
Diini Atoll in %&9;.
!"cene 11# continued!
%9'. Asafyev stops staring and turns his bac to the camera and wals towards the slope.
%9%. A bird comes to perch on his hat *after a hidden cut+.
!"cene 11C# blac( and %hite archi,e footae# fro) $ossibly as early as c19*5 to 1969# ,arious
locations!
%98. Crowds carrying portraits of Mao. <hots of statues of Mao.
%97. :ussian soldiers try to hold bac Chinese waving red boos *published %&;9+ on /amansy Island
*>henbao Island+ a disputed :ussian-Chinese territory, %&;&. This echoes the 3ushin letter!s
sentiment regarding eeping others out of .urope.
!"cene 12# colour# date un(no%n# in the &acha!
#)robably after the war in $%9(, certainly after 5cene %.3
%99. Maria is on the floor of a dilapidated barn. <he gathers scrap wood and starts to cut it.
%9G. Jer husband appears in a military uniform and ass where the children are. Maria loos shoced.
%9;. Ale,ei!s sister Marina threatens to tell everyone that Ale,ei stole the boo. Ale,ei and Marina
Luarrel, Ale,ei pushes Marina away leaving her to sul.
%9(. Ale,ei and Marina!s father calls for Marina. Marina hears but loos confused.
%9I. Ale,ei and Marina both start running towards the voice, Ale,ei pushing Marina out of the way as he
runs.
%9&. Ale,ei leaves his 6eonardo da $inci boo behind. It now loos more tattered than in <cene &.
%G'. Ale,ei falls and Marina overtaes him. They both eep running.
%G%. Maria watches on in tears, then turns away as Ale,ei and Marina are embraced by their father.
Ale,ei!s father wears two medals, one of which could be the BArder of the :ed <tarB for bravery, the
other could be the BArder of the :ed DannerB for heroism or long service. The insignia on his
42
shoulder suggests that he could be a captain. All of these details are slightly out of focus or
obscured.
%G8. Dach!s B<t Matthew 3assionB plays. The bible passage is BAt that moment the curtain of the temple
was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth shoo and the rocs splitB.
%G7. The B0enevra de DenciB by 6eonardo da $inci *c. %9(9-%9(I+ is shown. Tarovsy compares this
image to the actor playing Maria *p.%'I, <culpting in Time+. The portrait commemorates the
wedding of a young woman who was a gifted intellectual. <he was said to be unhappy approaching
her wedding. 6ater in her life she went into e,ile because of illness and a love affair tragedy.
!"cene 13# blac( and %hite# conte)$orary# Ale-ei.s a$art)ent!
#5ometime after 5cene %, possibly later in the same day as !le"ei is still waitin2 for 4aria to arrive. 4ore
than several days after ?!unt =isa? died in 5cene 9.3
%G9. "atalia tells Ale,ei that he should have come to visit Ignat more often.
%GG. Ale,ei ass "atalia to let Ignat live with him. "atalia refuses, saying that this would be cra5y.
%G;. "atalia ass Ignat if he!s collected his boos.
%G(. Ale,ei ass Ignat if he thins it would be better if he lived with Ale,ei.
%GI. Ignat loos surprised, then answers negatively.
%G&. "atalia loos at various photographs of herself *wearing Maria!s dress from her youth+ standing with
an older Maria *these were taen on set when both actors were presentH the woman who "atalia
considers to be herself in the photographs is actually dressed to represent Maria, but shown in
conte,t ne,t to the older Maria, the photograph reads as if she were "atalia+. "atalia says that she
and Maria loo alie, confirming Ale,ei!s earlier statement in <cene (.
%;'. "atalia says that Maria needs Ale,ei to go bac to being born, and that Maria Kust wants to be able to
protect him again.
%;%. Ale,ei ass what "atalia is whimpering about. "atalia ass if she should marry BhimB *an unnown
=riter called “/ostoyevsy”+.
%;8. Ale,ei says that the =riter hasn!t written anything worthwhile, and at age 9' this shows that he has
no talent.
%;7. Ale,ei points out that their precious flun *Ignat, who is failing at school+ has put something on the
fire.
%;9. "atalia tells Ale,ei not to Koe about Ignat!s fluning.
%;G. Ale,ei warns that Ignat will end up being drafted, then "atalia will have to beg to have him
e,empted.
%;;. Ale,ei says that Ignat!s behaviour is the result of "atalia indulging him, and that he thins that the
army would be good for Ignat.
%;(. "atalia tells Ale,ei to call his mother Maria, and reminds him that she stayed in bed for three days
after BAuntB 6isa died. Maria was meant to be BhereB at G.
%;I. Ale,ei tries to change the conversation bac to Ignat. Ale,ei criticises how bourgeois the family has
become.
%;&. Ignat is shown to be burning a bush. "atalia ass who set the bush on fire in the Dible and suggests
sending Ignat to a cadet school.
%('. Ale,ei responds that Moses saw an angel as a flaming bush and then lead his people out across the
sea.
%(%. "atalia ass why nothing lie that has ever happened to her.
!"cene 1*# blac( and %hite drea)# date un(no%n# near the &acha!
#)robably a precursor to 5cene $..3
%(8. *slow motion+ Cut-away to wind blowing the trees.
!"cene 15# colour# c1935# the &acha!
#)ossibly prior to 5cene :<@:.3
%(7. The edge of the woods outside the /acha.
%(9. Inside /ounya, wearing a shawl, loos at her reflection in a mirror.
%(G. ?lanya taes a lamp from the ceiling and Ale,ei sits on the mat. The blac cat is on the windowsill.
%(;. A "arrator *Ale,ei+ describes a dream about the /acha in which he was born on the table 9' years
ago. In the dream something prevents him from entering the /acha each time he visits it.
%((. The "arrator *Ale,ei+ describes the log walls and dar pantry, and the sadness he feels when he
realises that his dream is only a dream.
%(I. The camera follows Maria around the house. Autside ?lanya fills a glass bottle with water from a
much larger bottle.
%(&. The "arrator *Ale,ei+ describes how, when his dream ends, he must wait for another dream that will
mae him a child again, so that he can be happy and now that Ball still lies ahead... and nothing is
impossibleB.
43
%I'. Maria wals outside to sit with /ounya.
%I%. Inside, in near total darness, Ale,ei lights a match.
!"cene 16# blac( and %hite drea)# c1935# the &acha!
#Contains recurrin2 ima2ery from 5cene $9. !le"ei's a2e is as in 5cene :<.3
%I8. A vase on a table contains what loos lie the inner worings of a cloc. "e,t to the vase is a half-
open nife. Cut lace curtains dangle ne,t to it, though the table appears to be outside.
%I7. Ale,ei wals by and the camera follows him waling towards the house, past a table *which is
familiar from <cene 7, though possibly relocated+.
%I9. The camera pans past Ale,ei and 5ooms in on the house. Ale,ei calls out BMamaB.
%IG. Ale,ei stands ne,t to an opening door, and a hand appears from off screen to catch the door.
%I;. *slow motion+ A hen smashes through a glass window pane.
%I(. *slow motion+ The trees blow in the wind again *lining this to <cene %9+. =ind blows a lamp off a
table.
%II. *slow motion+ Dac at the house a sheet flaps violently in the wind and Ale,ei runs towards the
house looing bac at the camera which shaes as if it is a point of view shot.
%I&. *slow motion+ Ale,ei disappears behind the house and rain falls through the trees.
%&'. *slow motion+ Ale,ei tries a door which will not open. Je wals away. After some time the door falls
open revealing Maria peeling potatoes and a brightly lit dog, which wals out the door and out of
shot.
!"cene 1+# colour# %arti)e# in the countryside 15 )iles fro) Yurie,ets!
#)robably some time later than 5cene $$, and two years after 4aria and her children have been evacuated
from 4oscow to a room in *urievets.3
%&%. A farm with a charred log outside. It is evening and there is a low mist behind the house.
%&8. A woman wals out of the farm scaring Ale,ei who is outside. <he throws out the contents of a large
dish which loo lie mil.
%&7. Ale,ei runs to fetch his mother Maria.
%&9. Ale,ei and Maria meet "ade5hda 3etrovna. A cut breas the %I' degree rule Kust as "ade5hda fails
to recognise Ale,ei and Maria.
%&G. "ade5hda!s husband was friends with Matvey Ivanov, Maria!s stepfather.
%&;. Maria states that they are from Moscow but have been living in a room in 4urievets since they were
evacuated last fall. It starts to rain.
%&(. They move under shelter. "ade5hda says that her husband is not here.
%&I. Maria says that actually she came to see "ade5hda and that it is about Ba little ladies secretB.
"ade5hda leads Maria and Ale,ei into a well lit room asing them to wipe their feet as Masha has
Kust wiped the floor.
%&&. Maria drops her .arrings, *possibly due to embarassment as "ade5hda!s family is significantly
wealthierH Maria is presumably selling the .arrings for food+ echoing "atalia dropping her coins. =e
see that Ale,ei is barefoot.
8''. "ade5hda tells Ale,ei to wait in the room as they won!t be long. Maria and "ade5hda proceed to
another room.
8'%. Mil drips down from a table past half peeled potatoes.
8'8. Ale,ei adKusts his hair and shirt in a mirror on the wall. Je then stares at his reflection for a
considerable length of time while music plays.
!"cene 1+'# colour drea)# %arti)e# location un(no%n!
8'7. Cut-away to a mirror resting on charred wood in a fire. A face is staring into the mirror.
8'9. A hand closes a mirrored door revealing a man in a fur coat standing in front of the :edhead girl who
Ale,ei was in love with.
8'G. The man leaves and the :edhead appears to loo up at Ale,ei.
8';. The :edhead appears to be holding the mirror in front of her towards the fire. <he loos into the
camera again.
8'(. The camera swings to one side and the wipe cuts to a hand with burning firewood behind.
!"cene 1+# continued!
8'I. Ale,ei is awoen from this dream as the lamp flutters on and off several times, then goes out leaving
him in the dar.
8'&. "ade5hda tries on Maria!s turLuoise .arrings in the room with Maria.
8%'. "ade5hda wals bac into the room where Ale,ei is sitting and ass why he is in the dar.
8%%. Maria helps "ade5hda relight the lamp.
8%8. "ade5hda e,plains that she also has a son, and says that it!s not easy having ids with the war on.
44
8%7. "ade5hda checs her new .arrings in the mirror, then invites Maria to come to see her sleeping
baby boy.
8%9. A shot of the baby!s cot with netting draped over it.
8%G. "ade5hda tals about the child!s mental development. <he says his father wanted a girl and they
e,pected and prepared for a girl.
8%;. Maria smooths down Ale,ei!s hair. <he loos bored by "ade5hda!s continual taling.
8%(. "ade5hda waes up her child with her taling.
8%I. Maria runs from the room holding her throat looing sic.
8%&. "ade5hda follows and ass what!s wrong, offering to mae a hot drin.
88'. "ade5hda says that they must stay for dinner.
88%. Maria says they have already eaten.
888. "ade5hda says that they should stay so that her husband *a doctor+ can e,amine Ale,ei, who has a
cough which "ade5hda doesn!t lie.
887. Maria says that they can!t wait as they have a 8 hour wal to mae.
889. "ade5hda says that her husband has the money for the .arrings so they will have to wait.
88G. "ade5hda ass Maria to slaughter the coc as she *"ade5hda+ is pregnant and having fits of
sicness.
88;. Maria tells "ade5hda that has never done this before.
88(. "ade5hda says that tomorrow she will give Maria a chicen to tae as well *charity+. "ade5hda says
that the slaughtering will happen in the room they are in.
88I. Maria loos worried. In response "ade5hda suggests Ale,ei do it as he!s a BmanB.
88&. Maria holds the coc and the a,e.
87'. "ade5hda says that she feels unwell.
87%. @eathers burst in from out of shot as Maria slaughters the coc.
878. Maria loos strangely triumphant echoing a 6eonardo da $inci painting. Jer e,pression then
changes to be sinister and angry.
!"cene 1+C# blac( and %hite drea)# $robably before Maria.s husband.s de$arture# location un(no%n!
877. Maria!s husband stares at the camera, as if looing bac at Maria in <cene %(. Je is topless.
879. Maria!s husband turns round to stroe his hand which rests on a body, which is revealed to be a
levitating Maria.
87G. Maria *as a voice over+ says to her husband that she wishes she could see him not only when she
feels unwell.
87;. Maria!s tells her husband not to be worried and that she loves him.
!"cene 1+# continued!
87(. Maria and Ale,ei leave the house in a hurry.
87I. "ade5hda ass about the .arring sale.
87&. Maria says that they have changed their minds.
89'. "ade5hda obKects warning them that it is a %G mile wal bac into town.
89%. Maria and Ale,ei leave anyway, and wal along the river as a "arrator *Arseny Tarovsy+ reads a
poem about the embodiment of the soul.
!"cene 17# blac( and %hite drea)# c1935# the &acha!
#Thematically continuin2 5cene $..3
898. *slow motion+ The wind blows the trees in the wood surrounding the /acha. The camera pans
across the garden to a table where a lamp which has already fallen is rolling over the edge *as in
<cene %;+. The poem continues.
897. *slow motion+ Ale,ei enters into the house which is dar inside and full of hanging curtains and
sheets.
899. *slow motion+ Ale,ei loos into a mirror holding a large glass bottle of mil. Je starts to drin from
the bottle.
!"cene 19# colour# c1935# near the &acha!
#8n the ori2inal script carryin2 clothes back to the house happens before the barn fire, but the steppin2
stones and washin2 is the closin2 scene.3
89G. Ale,ei swims across a river late one evening.
89;. Maria is washing clothes in a tub as an undressed Marina hops over some stepping stones or logs.
45
!"cene 28# colour drea)# c1935# the &acha!
89(. An a new day in the /acha it is sunny. Autside Ale,ei wals towards Maria *as an old woman+ and
says to her, BMom, the erosene stove is smoing.B
89I. Maria ass Bwhat1B as she glances round, Luicly turning bac and looing disinterested, staying
seated and still smoing. In the script Tarovsy states that this is a dream in which he wanted to
apologise to his mother.
!"cene 21# colour# last of the $ost%ar scenes# location un(no%n!
89&. A /octor wals up and down his room, which has one wall covered in mirrors, as Maria *in her old
age+ nits and a <trange =oman facing away from the camera sits and as about BhisB *Ale,ei!s+
condition.
8G'. The <trange =oman says that she didn!t now a sore throat could have such a bad effect.
8G%. The /octor says that this has nothing to do with the sore throat, and often when someone!s mother
dies this happens.
8G8. The <trange =oman says that no-one has died in “his” family.
8G7. The /octor replies that it could be due to “his” conscience or memory.
8G9. The <trange =oman turns to reveal herself to be the same woman who ased Ignat to read the
3ushin letter in <cene &. <he ass if the /octor thins Ale,ei is guilty of something.
8GG. Maria loos up and Kumps in with the answer Bhe #the /octor) thins soB.
8G;. Ale,ei!s voice cuts in to say Bleave me aloneB, then a cut reveals a man *presumably Ale,ei+ lying in
bed.
8G(. A voice ass Ale,ei what will happen to his mother *Maria+ if he doesn!t get up.
8GI. Ale,ei!s hand pics up a tiny bird which is on his bedsheets. Ale,ei replies that it!s nothing, and that
everything will be all-right.
8G&. *slow motion+ Ale,ei throws the tiny bird up into the air and it starts to fly.
!"cene 22# colour# $re!1935# near the &acha!
#<efore 4aria's first child is born.3
8;'. A long pan across the bucwheat field reveals the dacha, then a tilt down shows Maria and her
husband lying in the meadow. Jer husband ass if she would rather have a boy or a girl.
8;%. Maria smiles, then she starts crying, as Dach!s B<t Fohn 3assionB fades inN B6ord, our <overeign,
whose glory in every land is magnificentPB Maria loos towards where her house would be.
!"cene 22'# colour drea)# children c1935# Maria c1966!c19+*# near the &acha!
#)ossibly 4arina's vision of herself in the future, after 5cene :,.3
8;8. To Dach!s B<t Fohn 3assionB Maria *as an old woman+ wals bac to the house with a baset of
washing and Ale,ei and Marina nearby.
8;7. They stop when they get to where the house should be. There are only ruins and rotting wood.
8;9. Maria taes Marina by the hand and they wal off with Ale,ei.
!"cene 22# continued!
8;G. Maria loos bac, as if she has Kust seen a vision of <cene 88D. <he smiles and cries at the same
time.
!"cene 22'# continue!
8;;. Maria *as an old woman+ leads Marina and Ale,ei across the field away from the house as Maria *as
a young woman+ stands in the middle of the field watching them leave.
46
1ossible Chronoloical <rder of "cenes in Mirror
5cene numbers refer to those 2iven above.
'efore the birth of at least one of Maria.s children# c1938=
88 Maria and her husband lie in the grass together.
&rea)s of life before Maria.s husband.s de$arture= Ale-ei >c5 years old# >c193*=
7 Ale,ei!s father helping his mother, Maria, to wash her hair.
7D Ale,ei waes up from his dream.
%(C Maria wishing to see her husband not only when she felt unwell.
9ife after Maria.s husband.s de$arture= Ale-ei c5 years old# 1935=
%& =ashing clothes in the river.
8 The Travelling /octor!s visit.
8D The barn fire.
; The burning field.
(D /ounya carries Marina inside.
&rea)s about life after Maria.s husband.s de$arture= Ale-ei c5 years old# c1935=
%9 Dlowing trees, as in <cene %;.
%G "arration for Ale,ei!s bad dream about the /acha. A sunny day in the /acha without Ale,ei!s father.
%; Ale,ei!s bad dream about the /acha.
%I Ale,ei!s bad dream about the /acha.
8' The erosene stove dream, with the older Marina.
88D Marina!s ruined house dream.
:arti)e Archi,e ?ootae# c193*!19394*1=
(C The Dullfight.
(/ The <panish Civil =ar.
(. :ussian .vacuations.
:arti)e# Ale-ei c12 years old# c19*2=
I Ale,ei reads an undamaged 6eonardo da $inci boo.
%' The :edhead, Ale,ei and Asafyev at the firing range.
%% Asafyev waling up the hill.
%8 Ale,ei!s father returns to the /acha.
After )o,in to Mosco%= Ale-ei c13 years old# c19*3=
G Maria at the 3rinting 3ress.
:arti)e Archi,e ?ootae=
%'D <oldiers and 3ier.
%'C 6ae <ivash c%&97.
%%D ==II c%&9G-;.
After e,acuatin Mosco%= Ale-ei c15 years old# c19*5=
%( <elling the .arrings.
9D The Durning Jand.
%(D Ale,ei!s dream of the :edhead.
1966 or later= ;nat c12 years old=
% Ignat watching the <tutterer.
9 Ale,ei on the phone to MariaH 6isa has died.
At least * days later=
( Ale,ei and "atalia arguing. The <panish Tenants.
& Ale,ei and "atalia arguing. Ignat and the <trange =oman.
%7 Ale,ei and "atalia arguing. Ignat burning the bush.
8% The /octor and Ale,ei!s death.
47
3,ents in Andrei @ar(o,s(y.s 9ife
%&78 Andrei was born in the Ivanov district of :ussia.
%&79 Andrei!s sister Marina was born.
%&7G The Tarovsy family move to Moscow. Andrei!s Mother Koined the press *in the script for Mirror the
family is said to live in Moscow in %&97+.
%&7( Andrei!s father Arseny left the family *in Mirror this happens in %&7G+.
%&7& Andrei started school.
%&9% Andrei was evacuated from Moscow.
6eferences
!ny inconsistencies between sources have been noted or corrected above.
• Martin, <ean. Andrei Tarovsy. 3ocet .ssentials, 8''G.
• Fohnson, $ida T., and 0raham 3etrie. The @ilms of Andrei TarovsyN A $isual @ugue. Indiana
2niversity 3ress, %&&9.
• :obinson, Feremy Mar. The <acred Cinema of Andrei Tarovsi. Crescent Moon 3ublishing, 8''(.
• <aov, "ariman. The Cinema of TarovsyN 6abyrinths of <pace and Time. I.D.Tauris, 8'%%.
• <ynessios, "atasha. Mirror. I.D.Tauris, 8''%.
• Dird, :obert. !ndrei TarkovskyA Blements of Cinema. :eation Doos, 8''(.
• Tarovsy, Andrey. <culpting in TimeN :eflections on the Cinema. Translated by ?itty Junter Dlair.
"ew ed. 2niversity of Te,as 3ress, %&I&.
• %&IG interviewN Fer5y Illg, 6eonard "euger. “> AndrieKem Tarowsim :o5mawiaK.” :es 3ublica, no. I
*=arsaw %&I(+N %7( R%;'.
48
Experiment Phase 1, Part 1
The purpose of Phase 1, Part 1 of the experiment was to determine whether survey participants would chronometrically
estimate the length of an edited flm that shows an event in multiple shots, to be longer or shorter than an equal length
flm that shows the same event in a single long shot. The survey was carried out online, and clips were delivered using
a modifed YouTube player which hid the controls and blocked pause or restart attempts. Page by page screenshots
of the survey interface, a raw data dump (outliers included) from the survey’s database, and the flms used in the
experiment, are on the DVD which accompanies this thesis.
Participants were shown two clips of a man making tea and asked to concentrate on the story shown in each clip. It
was not revealed whether or not they would later be questioned on the story. Clip Tl shows the tea making process in
a single long shot. Clip Te shows the same process in multiple shots. Both clips were exactly 39.0 seconds long, and
events within the clips were synchronised as closely as possible. Both clips had identical soundtracks. Participants
were randomly assigned to see either Te then Tl, or Tl then Te, with an equal chance of being sent down either route.
As some participants did not complete the survey, the number of completions for the two separate routes was not equal.
To account for this, the mean, standard deviation and median were calculated independently for each video for each of
the two separate routes. The mean of these values was then taken to obtain overall results.
I considered asking participants to estimate which clip “felt” longer, rather than asking them to make chronometric
estimates for the length of each clip, however I felt that ambiguity in the meaning of the term “felt” might lead to skewed
results. I also considered that asking participants to identify which clip “felt” longer after having made a chronometric
estimate, would simply encourage many participants to correlate this answer with their chronometric estimates. To
ensure that participants were aware in the case of both clips that they would be estimating the clips’ length, the entry
box for this was placed on the same page as the clip player. Thus it was not possible to ask the participants which clip
“felt” longer, before they had made chronometric estimates.
Survey participants were primarily new 1st year and fnal year RCA MA students.
Expectations
At a basic level cuts allow action to be omitted, and so an edited version of events is usually shorter than a long shot
showing the same event would be. In this case, however, the flms are the same length so the standard assumption
about editing does not apply.
A study by Suzuki and Osada (2001) shows that the order of shots (reaction, object) in the Kuleshov effect can have
an effect on time perception. It is not clear if the shot reordering effect is limited to the Kuleshov effect. If a change in
the order of two shots in the general case can cause a difference to perceived time, it seems likely that participants will
estimate a difference in the length of Tl compared to Te.
Cuts provide variation in images, through which “an effect of speed is conveyed” (p.82, Reisz & Millar). If audiences
link this effect of speed, which can supposedly be caused by cutting alone, to time perception, then they may estimate
Te to be shorter than Tl.
A study by Kellaris & Kent (1992) found that when listeners enjoyed a piece of music more, time was perceived to slow
down rather than speed up. Two questions must be answered before this can be applied to these clips: Does the cutting
rate have any effect on enjoyability with regards to these two flms, and does this affect even apply to flm.
A study by Yarrow et al (2001) found that saccadic eye movements have the effect of slowing down perceived time.
Saccadic eye movements occur when scanning a scene. I would estimate that more saccadic movements occur when
multiple shots are used, as larger changes in the visual feld take place across a cut than frame to frame.
Limitations
This experiment is clearly not a highly controlled scientifc test. There are far too many uncontrolled variables for the
results to ever be called conclusive. However, many notions about the effects of editing on audience perception are
based on hearsay, or accumulated experience by flm editors. At the other end of the scale, strict scientifc experiments
on editing have to isolate such small components of audience experience, and often use highly limited examples of
“flms”. It is questionable whether results from these experiments apply at all outside of the test case. My aim in
designing this experiment was to fall somewhere between the two limits and fnd a ball-park fgure for something which
applies to a more realistic editing situation.
One large problem with the experiment is that the difference between a direct experience of a flm and a participant’s
memory of that experience is not accounted for.
49
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50
Fig 1. Estimated Lengths for Tl versus Te; by Route
Results
The standard deviation in the above table is very high, as is to be expected with estimates for time. Figure 1 shows
that on average, participants estimated Te to be slightly longer than Tl. However with such a large spread of results
it is diffcult to say if this result is at all signifcant. What is more interesting is the difference between the two groups
of participants who followed the two different routes through the survey. On average, participants who saw Tl frst,
estimated Tl to be longer, while those who was Te frst estimated Te to be longer. Figure 2 plots the same set of results,
but in this instance plotted against axes determined by the order the flms were seen in. This demonstrates that with
some consistency the 1st flm was considered to be longer than the 2nd.
Figure 3 shows that participants who categorised themselves as editors were no better than participants who did not
consider themselves to be flm editors.
Conclusion
It is possible that when the same action is seen twice (even from different views), the mind somehow switches off, and
as a result the awareness of time passing decreases. Perhaps the study by Kellaris & Kent (1992), which found that
audience’s perceived more enjoyable music to last longer, applies to the difference between the frst and the second
flm. The second flm might be less enjoyable than the frst simply because the second is more boring, thus the frst
appears longer. An alternative conclusion might be that the viewer’s preparation to watch the frst video (tilting their
laptop screen, adjusting volume etc.) somehow sways this result.
51
Fig 2. Estimated Lengths for 1st versus 2nd
Fig 3. Estimated Lengths for Tl versus Te; Editors and Non-editors
52
Experiment Phase 1, Part 2
In Part 2 of Phase 1, participants were asked, for various flms, to identify when a specifc event happened on a timeline
slider representing the flm’s running length. Participants were advised not to answer for any events whose timing
they were unsure of. The exact phrasing of the questions used is given in the survey preview on the DVD. Films were
picked based on notoreity and popularity. The list includes flms with high box offce ratings combined with flms which
were placed at the top of lists compiled by Empire, AFI etc. The selection was designed to elicit the maximum number
of responses by participants.
Expectations
I expected participants to estimate a position on the timeline slider which represented the event’s relation to each flm’s
plot arc, or act structure, more closely than it represented the position in terms of the flm’s running time. I expected
that participants’ memory of the flms would not include accurate timings, as the memories would move away from
the boundaries of the participants’ push down stacks as the flm progressed (p.15, Branigan, 1992). I expected that
audiences would remember a distillation of the flm’s plot, rather than the narrative structure’s timing, as “a certain
independance from initial stimuli” would have been achieved when watching the flm (p.15, Branigan, 1992).
Limitations
The most severe limitation is the recency with which the participants saw the flm in question. The participants’ thresholds
for when they were “unsure” of when an event occured is also likely to vary somewhat, with some making wild guesses
for every flm, and others only answering when they had recalled the whole flm.
Results
A side by side comparison of the results is shown here, then for specifc results which I found interesting, I have
compared the narrative structure of the flm in question to Nancy Stein’s schema (p.14, Branigan, 1992). Bubble size
on the plots below indicates how many participants guessed the same.
53
54
The standard deviations shown in the table above give an idea of how widely spread the guesses were. For example,
Andy’s escape in “The Shawshank Redemption” elicited the most tightly clustered estimates, while estimates for “The
Lion King” and “Psycho” were widely spread. The higher the number of responses, the more likely it will be that the
average found in this experiment, will correspond to the general perception of the flm.
Assuming that more tightly clustered estimates correspond roughly to more reliable memory recall, and that a higher
number of responses is more desirable, a guideline score of responses divided standard deviation has been calculated
to give an approximate indication of how reliable a score is. As can be seen in the table above, the results for “The
Shawshank Redemption”, and “Titanic” should be considered the most reliable (scoring 4.2), while the result for Stalker
(0.3) is the least reliable.
Summative Schema based on Nancy L. Stein and David Bordwell
The following schema was used to analyse some of the flms present in the survey:
1. Introduction of setting and characters;
2. Explanation of a state of affairs;
3. Initiating event;
4. Emotional response or statement of a goal by the protagonist;
5. Complicating actions;
6. Outcome;
7. Reactions to the outcome.
-p.14, Branigan, 1992
The teminology used in this section is defned in Chapter 1 of “Narrative Comprehension in Film” (Branigan, 1992).
Special attention should be given to the following terms: “push-down stack” (p.15); “exposition” (p.18); “initiating event”
(p.18); “complicating action” (p.18); “outcome”/“resolution” (p.14/18); Todorov’s concepts of “equilibrium”, “disruption”,
and “transformation” (all p.4), and “inversion” (p.5); the symbols A, B, -A, -B (p.5); the concept of “causation” (p.7);
“culture” as defned by Roland Barthes; “protagonist”, “antagonist”,... to refer to Vladimir Propp’s character roles.
55
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1:50)
Although the principal characters in “E.T.” are introduced early on in the flm (2), the relationships which would normally
be described in stage 1 of Stein’s narrative schema are not yet developed. The narrative cannot advance without this
having happened, and to compound the delay, E.T. must also learn to speak English before he can properly communicate.
The development of the initial non-verbal relationships provides staple comedy for the flm’s family audience, permitting
the plot-driven entertainment to be delayed while the audience is otherwise engaged. An example of this is the parallel
action sequence showing E.T.’s psychic relationship with Elliot. Exposition on E.T.’s behalf is quite slow at frst as it is
limited to physical communication often taking the form of amusing demonstrations from E.T., for example E.T. levitates
various items to represent the solar system.
Due to the multiple hinderances to the narrative’s progression, much of the flm’s running time has elapsed before the
audience (and the other characters in the flm) know that E.T. needs to leave Earth. E.T. provides two emotional goal
statements, one to Elliot (4a) where he explains his need to phone home, and the second to “home” itself (4b). Once
E.T. has successfully phoned home, the main drama (5) begins. The ending is relatively compact as it is shown as a
fast paced action sequence (from the end of 5 to 6). With a young audience in mind, there is no need for a lengthy
conclusion (7).
An alternative way of viewing the flm’s event structure would be to consider the narrative from E.T.’s point of view. The
initiating event would be when he was accidentaly left behind by the other aliens. His goal from then on would be to
phone home, however, this cannot be exposited to the audience until later in the flm due to the aforementioned issues,
which in E.T.’s personal narrative structure, all become complicating actions. When E.T. fnally manages to phone home
with Elliot’s help, his goal has been achieved. However, as the audience is unaware of E.T.’s goal until he manages to
communicate it to Elliot, this post-rationalised structure would not be what is experienced when viewing the flm.
The moment which survey participants were asked to identify was when E.T. phones home (4b), the lynchpin on which
the two (uneven) halves of the flm hang. I anticipated that participants would not remember the non-plot driven elements
prior to this event, and as a result, would consider the flm before and after phoning home to be roughly even, therefore
estimating E.T.’s call to be earlier than it actually is.
1. Spaceships in forest (0:01)
2. Elliot meets E.T. (0:09)
3. E.T. reads about phoning home in comic (0:52)
4a. E.T. demands to phone home (0:55)
4b. E.T. phones home (1:09)
5. E.T. found dying in a ditch to the dead plant connection (1:10 to 1:32)
6. E.T. reanimates with the fower, E.T. arrives at his spaceship (1:33, 1:43)
7. Mary, Gertie and Keys show up to see E.T. leave (1:44)
Participants actually estimated the event to be later than it is, contrary to my expectations. Perhaps this is because
participants wrongly assume that because E.T. phoning home is one of the most memorable moments in the flm, it is
the climax of the flm. The reliability score for E.T. (3.3) is relatively high compared to most of the other flms.
56
Full Metal Jacket (1:53)
“Full Metal Jacket” can be considered as a flm in two acts: the preparation for Vietnam, then Vietnam itself. The
narrative structure begins as one unifed path at the start of the frst act when the recruits are introduced together.
It divides into two intertwined paths at the point when Private Pyle’s mentally instability is exposited (4p). Pyle and
Hartman’s narrative structure concludes when Pyle shoots both Hartman and himself (6p). Pyle becomes the frst victim
of the military regime before fghting the enemy has even begun; the entire second act could be considered to be stage
7 of Pyle and Hartman’s narrative structure, as any of Joker’s actions cannot help but be infuenced by his experience
of 6p in the frst act.
When the second act begins, the section leading up to Pyle’s death (1-6p), which forms a closed narrative structure in
itself, is reconsidered as an introduction to the next part of the flm. The narrative structure which dominates the second
act separated from Pyle and Hartman’s narrative structure when the protagonist, Private Joker, was assigned to military
journalism (4j). In the second act, various events are shown which mostly form complicating action. The closing event
(6), though not in any sense a terminal conclusion for Joker, results in a defnite response (7) marking the ending of the
flm. In this sense the complication action (5) isn’t directed towards the fnal confrontation with the sniper (6) in a plot-
driven sense, but rather builds up an emotional weight leading to a response (7).
The moment chosen for survey participants to identify, Pyle and Hartman’s deaths, marks the end of the primary
narrative structure of the frst act, but is only an intermediary point in the narrative structure which supports the second
act. Though the moment might be thought of as a ‘half way’ point which divides the two acts, the frst act is shorter as
it is simply a setup for the second. I expect participants to wrongly identify the moment as happening half way through
the flm.
1. Recruits arrive (0:01)
2. Hartman names Private Joker (0:04)
3. Doughnut found it Pyle’s locker (0:24)
4p. Pyle talking to his M14 (0:34)
4j. Joker is assigned to military journalism (0:39)
5p. Hartman discovers Pyle in the bathroom (0:43)
6p. Pyle kills Hartman and commits suicide (0:45)
5. Joker is sent to Vietnam to Rafterman shoots the sniper (0:46-1:45)
6. Joker shoots the sniper (1:50)
7. Joker’s statement about being in a “world of shit” (1:52)
The result is as expected, however the reliability score is only 0.9 so this result is weak compared to many others.
57
Jaws (2:02)
The opening scene of “Jaws”, which shows the shark’s frst victim, forms a prologue (1-3) to the main series of events
(1a-7a), which, as expected from a horror/thriller flm, does more to scare and open tension-building questions, than to
describe a state of equilibrium. Up until Quint decides to try to win the bounty (4a), there is no clear protagonist around
which to base the structure, as prior events concentrate on demonstrating a general air of panic, and focus on showing
the town’s emotional response (as the stand-in protagonist, or at least collection thereof). The narrative structure could
be considered from the shark’s point of view, with the frst victim forming the emotional statement, and the shark’s
death, the ultimate outcome, however as a necessary suspense mechanism, the shark’s side of events does not feature
heavily in the flm.
Once Quint has stepped forward, the majority of the flm becomes complicating action in his narrative structure (5).
Multiple narrative substructures emerge (eg. the fshermen) to keep the interest alive and tension high, preventing the
audience from anticipating what is coming next. As the flm makes no grand statements about life, the reaction to the
outcome (7) is almost negligable.
Survey participants were asked to try to remember when the quotation “We’re gonna need a bigger ship” occured,
but weren’t given any clue as to the particular narrative event that it attaches to. The line arises after one of the main
moments of thrilling exposition in the flm, when the size of the great white shark is frst revealed. Of course the majority
of the audience would have been aware how big the shark was from the flm’s posters, so really it is the characters on
board the boat who are the subjects of the reveal, and their reactions exposit to the audience how unprepared they are
to handle Jaws.
1. Beach Party (0:01)
2. Skinny Dipping (0:03)
3. Chrissie Watkins dragged below by unseen force. (0:05)
1a. Watkins’ remains found (0:08)
2a. Medical Examiner reveals it was a shark attack, the Mayor refuses to close the beaches (0:12)
3a. Alex is killed and a bounty is placed (0:18)
4a. Quint decides to try to win the bounty (0:21)
5a. Fishermen catch the Tiger Shark to Quint being eaten (0:33 to 2:01)
6a. Jaws is Killed (2:01)
7a. Brody laughs (2:02)
The clustering of estimates is stronger than I expected, though the reliability score is below average at 1.4 here. Perhaps
participants recall this as being an intermediary event and thus estimate the middle of the flm, rather than randomly.
58
The Lion King (1:30)
Though “The Lion King” does have a strong narrative structure, hiatuses occur throughout for musical or comedy
intervals. One way of analysing the narrative structure would be to take Simba’s ambition, as stated in the song
“Just Can’t Wait to be King” as his goal statement, and to consider from then on until his confrontation with Scar to
be complicating action. However, aside from growing up, at the start of the flm there isn’t an obvious challenge to be
overcome, as there hasn’t yet been an initiating event, or upset to the equilibrium (B resulting in -A in Todorov’s schema).
Instead the flm begins with amusing character introductions. These take place in at a similar pace to the introductions
in the other “family” flm in this analysis, ET. In this case the pace is designed to allow a younger audience time to
comprehend what is happening. The amusement-before-plot structure is necessary to prove to a young and critical
audience that the characters are entertaining enough to be worth following for the length of the flm.
Mufasa’s death (3) is the obvious initiating event, which causes the young protagonist, Simba, to panic and fee, forming
an emotional response (4) rather than a stated goal. The next section of the flm, in which Simba meets Timon and
Pumba, could be considered complicating action, but as Simba is yet to state a clear goal, it is more appropriate to
consider it as a light entertainment break aimed at children watching the flm. When Simba saves Timon and Pumba
from Nala (one of the many sub-narrative episodes which make up the break, and an initiating event (3b) in the larger
structure), the narrative structure comes back into focus, and restarts as Nala reminds Simba of his (possible) role as
King. Simba’s emotional response isn’t triggered until Mufasa speaks to him (4b), after which the narrative concludes
itself quite quickly, without spending much time on complicating action (5).
The narrative structure which I have highlighted is a clear ft with the generic “growing up” story: birth, ambitions (1),
failures (3), despondancy, turning one’s back on the world (3,4,3b), new hope (4b), new trials (5) and fnally achievement
(6). Another narrative structure which could be considered is that which tells the (typical for Disney) love side-story
between Simba and Nala. This runs roughly analogously to the main narrative throughout second half of the flm (3b-
7b), but isn’t so prevalent prior to that.
In this case, survey participants were asked to recall the initiating event (3), which occurs further into the flm than might
be expected due to the musical character introductions.
1. Mufasa gives Simba a tour of the Pride Lands (0:09)
2. Scar and the Hyenas organise the Stampede (0:29)
3. Mufasa is killed (0:38)
4. Simba fees (0:41)
3b. Simba meets Nala after many years apart (0:59)
4b. Mufasa’s specter tells Simba to reclaim the Pride Lands, Simba listens. (1:11)
5b. Simba confronts Scar (1:19)
6b. Scar is killed by the Hyenas (1:25)
7b. Simba looks over his kingdom happily with Nala (1:27)
As expected the average estimate for Mufasa’s death is earlier than expected. The spread of estimates is quite wide
here. It is possible that some participants confused Scar falling from Pride Rock, with Mufasa’s death in the stampede.
The reliability score of 2.5 is moderate.
59
Psycho (1:50)
“Psycho” can be considered as being formed of two acts, the frst (1a-6a) in which Marion steals a large sum of money,
runs away and is then killed by a psychotic Norman Bates, and the second in which Sam and Lila try to fnd out what
happened to Marion (2b-7). As the protagonist is killed in the frst act, Sam must take up the role in the second. The
detective briefy comes to the forefront of proceedings, but as he isn’t as well known to the audience as Sam and Lila
eventually become, his death fades as the flm goes on, to become less of a conclusion, and more the initiating event
(3b) which causes Sam and Lila to visit the motel themselves (4b).
Another way of considering the flm would be to take Marion’s death as the initiating event, and then Lila’s ambition
to fnd her as an emotional response, and the remainder of the flm up until Bates’ fnal confrontation as complicating
action, however Lila cannot be considered as a protagonist in the frst act. Therefore I believe that dividing the narrative
into two distinct halves around the the infamous shower scene (6a) is most representative of how the flm is generally
perceived.
Rather than beginning the story with action, as “Jaws”, the other thriller considered in this analysis does, or even joining
in media res, as more recent thrillers might, the frst fve minutes introduce the city in a famous long pan, and then the
characters and situations primarily through dialogue (eg. 2a). This is necessary to foreshadow the upcoming events,
and to create a humdrum atmosphere against which, and within which the thrilling content can be seen to sit, in order to
suggest that the events shown in the flm could happen to anyone. Just as the flm began slowly with verbal exposition,
so it ends slowly with the psychiatrist’s response.
The event that survey participants were asked to recall was the shower scene, which happens slightly before half
time. As with “Full Metal Jacket”, the second act is longer than the frst to accomodate the summing up. I expect that
participants will eroneously identify the event as happening half way.
1a. Shot of the city, then arriving in Sam and Marion’s hotel room (0:01)
2a. Sam talks about his debts and ex marriage, Marion talks about her job (0:05)
3a. Lowery tells Marion to put the money in the safety deposit box (0:09
4a. Marion steals the money (0:11)
5a. Lowery sees Marion in her car to Marion arriving at the Bates Motel (0:13 to 0:28)
6a. Marion is killed in the shower (0:47)
2b. Lila and Arbogast the detective fnd Sam (1:01)
3b. Arbogast is killed and fails to call Lila (1:16)
4b. Sam and Lila decide to search the Bates motel themselves (1:18)
5b. Sam and Lila arrive at the motel to Bates cornering Lila (1:19 to 1:41)
6. Sam saves Lila (1:41)
7. The forensic psychiatrist’s exposition (1:42)
As expected the average estimate is closer to half way than the event actually is. The reliability score (1.1) is quite low
however, and the spread is obviously quite wide suggesting that many estimates were unreasoned guesses.
60
The Deer Hunter (3hrs00)
“The Deer Hunter” is divided into three distinct, chronologically ordered and coherent acts, plus an epliogue, which can
be considered as part of the fnal act for the purposes of narrative structure analysis.
If the whole flm is viewed as a single narrative structure, the majority of Act I would form the introduction to the state of
affairs, telling of Steven’s marriage, Mike’s obsession with shooting a deer with one shot, and Nick’s quiet introspectiveness
and his love for Linda (who is also loved by Mike). Being sent to Vietnam would constitute the initiating event, however
the three mens’ call up is not shown in the flm. The rest of Act II would then make up complicating action, and Nick and
Mike’s fnal meeting in Vietnam, the outcome. Another way of viewing the flm would be to consider the separation of
Mike and Nick after the helicopter incident as the initiating event, and the flm up to that point as being introduction and
explanation. The structure would then not start again until Steven reveals that someone has been sending him cash,
and Mike states his goal of wanting to fnd Nick. The problem with either of these two possible structural analyses is that
they both leave out signifcant events in the flm. Following each character’s individual narrative makes up for some of
these shortcoming, but Steven’s narrative lacks a fnal outcome, and much of the complicating action in Nick’s narrative
is missing.
The compromise I have chosen was to analyse each of the three acts in turn.
Within Act I: Mike expresses an intention to shoot a deer with one shot (I.4m) which he achieves (through I.5m then
I.6m); Steven and Angela are preparing to marry (introduced in I.2; the initiating event and goal statement happened
before the flm began), which they do (I.6s), an outcome in itself, but also the initiating event (I.3b) for the meeting with
the USAF soldier (I.4b-I.6b) which forms its own sub-narrative.
Within Act II: The situation of all three characters is explained when the meet by chance (II.2), then their capture forms
an initiating event (start of II.3), or in Todorov’s terms a disruption of the “equilibrium”. The Russian Roulette game
signals their chance to escape (end of II.3), triggering a reaction from the protagonists (II.4). In this view of events, the
helicopter incident fades into the complicating action which runs up to Mike frst fnding Nick playing Russian Roulette
(II.5), and Mike’s attempt to alert Nick to his presence (II.6, II.7).
Within Act III: Much time is taken up explaining Mike’s mental state (III.2), which could also be viewed as an extended
response to the outcome of Act II. It isn’t until rather late in the act when Mike realises that Nick could still be alive (III.3),
setting in motion Mike’s ill-fated quest (III.4-III.7).
The event which participants were asked to identify was Mike shooting the deer with one shot in the last deer hunt
before Vietnam (I.6m). The event doesn’t have great dramatic signifcance, but is an indicator of Mike’s emotional state,
and signals the conclusion of Act I. My expectation was that participants would be able to remember the overall three
act structure, and would be able to attach this event to that, thus easily placing it roughly a third of the way through the
flm.
Act I
I.1. Introduction to Clairton (0:00)
I.2. Preparations for Marriage and Military Service (0:05-0:07)
I.4m. Mike’s “One shot” intention (0:19)
I.6s/I.3b. Steven and Angela’s Wedding (0:24)
I.4b. Meeting the USASF soldier (0:42)
I.5b. USAF’s toast (0:43)
I.6b. Mike’s toast (0:43)
I.5m. Going Hunting (0:59)
I.6m. Shooting the deer with one shot (1:04)
I.7. End of Act I (1:07)
Act II
II.1. Jungle Opening Shot (1:07)
II.2. Mike, Steven and Nick meet (1:11)
II.3. Mike, Steven and Nick are captured to playing Russian Roulette (1:12 to 1:18)
II.4. Mike and Nick escape the cage (1:27)
II.5. American helicopter fnds the branch to Russian Roulette in the bar (1:30 to 1:50)
II.6. Nick fring the gun in the bar (1:51)
II.7. Mike chasing after Nick leaving (1:51)
61
Act III
III.1. Opening to Act III (1:51)
III.2. Mike goes to the motel, Mike is told about Angela, Mike is unable to shoot, Shouting “OK” (1:53, to 2:20)
III.3. Steven reveals someone (Nick) has been sending him cash (2:33)
III.4. Mike goes to Saigon (2:35)
III.5. Mike enters himself in a game of Russian Roulette against Nick (2:46)
III.6. Nick recognises Mike, then kills himself (2:50)
III.7. Nick’s funeral (2:52)
Too few participants were able to recall this event for the result to be useful. The wide spread also contributes to the
low reliability score of 0.7.
62
Withnail and I (1:45)
Unlike the other flms in this section, which were chosen based on popularity and high box offce takings, “Withnail and I”
was chosen as an example of a flm which was developed in script format over a long time (7 years), and changed very
little between the script and the screen. It is also a good example of a cult black comedy which has a lot complicating
action for entertainment purposes. Like both “Mirror” and “Kings of the Road”, “Withnail and I” comments on a very
specifc time and place, in this case London at the close of the 1960s.
Until Withnail and I decide on a holiday (3) the narrative structure has no clear path, and seems to be at the whim of
Withnail and I’s drunken wanderings (2). The cottage presents a new set of challenges (5), frst as both characters try
to make the cottage habitable (Withnail at times playing the antagonist), then the drama shifts as I tries to avoid Monty’s
approaches, as Monty becomes the new unexpected antagonist. The flm has multiple outcomes (6) as Monty leaves
and Withnail fnds a job. Danny then provides a summing up speech (7) in much the same way as the psychiatrist
concludes Psycho. As an epilogue to this, I fnds out that he is now wanted to play the lead, an upgrade to the outcome
already reached, and Withnail is left alone in Regent’s park, reading Hamlet to the wolves. In the script Withnail was
due to shoot himself after this reading, which would have provided an outcome to his personal narrative, however this
isn’t shown in the flm.
Survey participants were asked to recall when Withnail and I obtained the keys from Monty. My expectation was that
audiences would easily be able to divide the flm into three sections, before, during and after the “holiday” at the cottage,
and to identify the event in questions as marking the end of the frst of these.
1. Montage opening sequence (00:00:10)
2. Withnail and I reveal they are failing actors (00:09:13)
3. Withnail and I decide on a holiday in the countryside (00:09:54)
4. Getting the keys from Monty and leaving in the Jag (00:29:10)
5. Trying to fnd the Cottage to Monty’s nighttime activities (00:33:21 to 01:25:17)
6. Monty leaves and I gets a telegram calling him back to London (01:26:32 and 01:28:11)
7. Danny’s summing up (01:40:52)
As expected the average estimate is closer to the one third mark than to the correct answer. The reliability score of 1.3
is quite low however.
63
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 Disney Version) (1:22)
The prologue to the flm takes the form of an on screen story book which provides background information regarding
the relationship between Snow White and the Wicked Queen (1), and the Queen’s obsessive vanity. Then the Mirror is
shown telling the Queen that she is no longer the fairest. This is an initiating event for the Queen, though her narrative
is clearly not the focus of the plot. In terms of the main narrative it is merely a statement of affairs (2). The Queen’s
emotional response is to tell the Huntsman to take Snow White into the woods and kill her, which forms the initiating
event of the main narrative (3). When the Huntsman tells Snow White to fee instead, she does so (4). She then meets
the Seven Dwarfs, and as with “ET”, the narrative structure’s progression becomes delayed as new relationships need
to be developed, and an altered state of affairs must be explained to the audience.
Just as everything seems to be going well for Snow White, the Queen is told by her Magic Mirror that Snow White is
alive, and is still the fairest. The Queen’s decision to create the Poison Apple is an emotional response to this (4q),
but is simply another complicating action in the scope of the main narrative (5). It takes the Queen several attempts to
persuade Snow White to eat the apple (5), but when she at last achieves her aim, Snow White falls into a deep sleep.
This could be viewed as an outcome (5/6a), however, both the Queen and Snow White’s stories continue further, when
in a furry of action the Queen is killed, then Snow White is awakened by a true love’s kiss from the Prince (6). Events
between 5/6a and 6 are compressed, in part made possible by the use of another on screen story book, but also by the
implying plot points which are ommited by the narrative, for example the Prince fnding out about Snow White, and his
emotional response to this, to visit her glass coffn.
The event which survey participants were asked to identify was when Snow White eats the Poison Apple. I expected
participants to estimate it as being earlier in the flm than it is, as preceeding events are extended by scenes of Snow
White getting to know the dwarfs, and later scenes are compressed due to the used of an on screen book summary, and
the omission of various events in the Prince’s narrative structure. I expected that this extension and compression would
probably not be stored in audience member’s mental representation of the flm.
1. Prologue (0:01)
2. Mirror tells the Queen she is not the fairest (0:03)
3. Huntsman ordered to take Snow White into the woods and kill her (0:07)
4. Snow White fees (0:10)
5/4q. The Queen fnds out that Snow White is alive and so makes the Poison Apple (0:48)
5/6a. Snow White eats the Apple to the Prince arriving at the coffn (1:16 to 1:20)
6. The Prince kisses Snow White which awakens her (1:20)
7. The dwarfs and animals rejoice (1:21)
As expected participants estimated that Snow White ate the Poison Apple earlier in the flm than she actually does. The
reliability score of 2.3 is moderate.
64
The Shawshank Redemption (2:13)
“The Shawshank Redemption” begins with a fashback to when Andy Dufresne didn’t murder his ex-wife (1a).
Considering the length of the flm, Andy’s initial situation is shown to the audience quite quickly (2a), then the narrator,
Red, introduces and briefy describes himself (1r,2r), but doesn’t give any information on his background, making it
clear that the protagonist of the story is Andy. Once the initiating event, Andy’s imprisonment (3), has been shown, the
narrative structure then shows the various trials of prison life. At this point these cannot be classifed as complicating
action as Andy has not yet stated a clear intention, and Red is not even aware of Andy’s innocence. The action which
begins Andy’s long process of tunnelling out of Shawshank is his request for a Rita Hayworth poster, foreshadowed and
actual (4). At the time no reason is given, and the request doesn’t seem to have any dramatic consequences or be an
obvious example of Chekhov’s gun. It does help describe Red’s character however, and Red and Andy’s friendship,
ensuring that it is moved from the audience’s push-down memory stack to a built up structure. Seeing it happen after
hearing about it reminds the audience, keeping it present in their memories, so that they don’t fnd Andy’s escape totally
unexpected.
Much of the flm’s complicating action (5) involving Andy working for Norton, and meeting Tommy Williams, is designed
to lead the audience on by giving Andy false hopes of freedom. It helps to keep the idea of leaving Shawshank open as
a possibility for the audience, but doesn’t give away how Andy is actually planning to escape. Though we might think of
Andy’s escape (6) as occuring at the end of the flm, Andy is frst shown to have escaped, then the narrative steps back
to reveal how he did escape. Norton’s fate must then be shown, and Red’s reunion before the flm is over.
1a. Andy in his car with loaded gun (0:00)
2a. Andy’s court case, the Judge orders Andy to serve two life sentences (0:06)
1r. Red’s assessment (0:07)
2r. Red’s VO about being a smuggler (0:08)
3. Flashback to Red and Andy meeting on the bus “Andy came to Shawshank prison...” (0:09)
4. Andy asks Red for a Rita Hayworth poster (0:09 anticipated, 0:40 happens)
5. Andy tells Byron about a tax loophole, to the last night working for Norton (0:34 to 1:44)
6. Andy’s Escape (1:46)
7. Andy and Red reunited (2:12)
As expected participants estimated that Andy’s escape happens later than it actually does. The reliability score of 4.2 is
the highest and the standard deviation the lowest of all the flms in this survey.
65
Pulp Fiction (02:24)
The central metaphor of “Pulp Fiction” is time: Marsellus tells Butch that his time is up, but Butch proves it isn’t; Jules
feels that the miracle is an indicator that his time is over and retires, whereas Vincent carries on and is killed. The whole
event structure of the flm is based on chance happenings. Tarantino rearranges the order of the events so the narrative
structure becomes stronger. The success of this flm, and the fact that audiences are not prevented from enjoying it
because of its signifcantly non-linear narrative, suggests that even if audiences don’t manage to rearrange the events
in their mind (p.40, Branigan, 1992 explains the mental juggling involved in this process), but instead they concentrate
on distilling the messages behind what is happening, a complete and satisfying narrative still emerges.
For the most part, comprehension of cause-effect sequences in “Pulp Fiction” is not signifcantly disrupted by the
reordering. Considering Branigan’s spectrum of causal evaluation types (p.26, Branigan), barely any evaluations of type
5 (“enabling”) and no signifcant evaluations of types 6 (“‘direct’ cause”) or 7 (“‘unique’ cause”) are affected. In “Mirror”
Tarkovsky organises events by thematic and oneric connections without much regard for linearity, and as such several
causal evaluations of types 6 and 7 (the strongest forms of causality) are disrupted. In “Pulp Fiction” events are ordered
in a way such that the level of drama portrayed ft the audience’s expectation of a standard narrative arc. However the
reordering happens regardless of which character the events affect.
If ordered chronologically, the plot is revealed to be quite fat, and the story of the Gold Watch ends up tailing either
end, rather than being the core metaphor of the flm. If the story of the Gold Watch is removed altogether from the flm,
leaving the rest of the flm in the order it is presented, the primary disruption to the event order, Vincent’ death before his
later reappearance, disappears. The Diner prologue sits in as a fashforward but does not confict, and is not apparent
as a fashforward until the end of the flm.
One way of understanding the event order as shown in the flm could be to assume that who the protagonist is at any
one point in the flm is a fexible issue. Consider the Protagonist (capitalised, italicised) as an abstract entity, a meta-
character. For each of the different acts the lead characters simply step in to “play the part” of the Protagonist. In each
act, any events or structural narrative elements which affect the lead character, are not only considered to affect that/
those character(s) so that the flm can make logical sense as a representation of reality, but also, in a structural sense
the events have affected the meta-character of the Protagonist. Thus what the audience really follows is not separate
protagonists for each act (Honey Bunney & Pumpkin, Vincent & Jules, Butch) but a single mental construct, the meta-
character of the Protagonist.
Act 1, The Diner becomes part of the setup, an introduction the world of the flm (P.1), and the levels of culture (as in
Roland Barthes codes; here: small time crooks, big time gangsters). Honey Bunny and Pumpkin, as the Protagonist,
discuss how they no longer wish to rob liquor stores and instead need to do something less risky. We then meet Vincent
and Jules, who take on the role of the Protagonist in Act 2. We learn that they are ruthless hitmen. Jules states the
equilibrium (P.2), and the Protagonist’s world view in his speech to Brett. In Act 3 we see a foreshadowing of bad things
to come. Even if the Protagonist does everything right, and is as careful as he/she can be, he must accept that his time
is up. The Gold Watch then contains the initiating event. At this point it doesn’t matter that Marsellus Wallace is talking
to Butch rather than to Jules or Vincent, as what he’s saying applies to the meta-character of the Protagonist: your time
is up. When Butch wins the fght, carrying on against his boss’s orders, he makes the emotional statement of the flm.
When Butch kills Vincent, what the audience sees is not a (former) protagonist dying, but as the roles are fexible they
see the Protagonist overcoming an antagonist, thus the confrontation merely becomes complicating action rather than
a conclusion. In Act 6 the audience sees Vincent alive again, and back with Jules. At a basic level, understanding this
act as a fashback helps the audience ignore the fact that Vincent has already been seen dying. In addition, at the time
of Vincent’s death, he was not the Protagonist, and as such the Protagonist survived Vincent’s death. Once Vincent and
Jules have taken over the role of the Protagonist from Butch, it is no surprise to see the Protagonist alive as we have
not yet seen the meta-character of the Protagonist being killed. The audience views Jules and Vincent as if they have
been affected by the structural narrative elements which actually affected Butch, as the Protagonist, in the previous act.
The event which leads to the outcome is when the man hidden in Brett’s apartment shoots Vincent and Jules and they
survive (P.5). After the fnal outcome (P.6) a last moment of excitement in the Diner (P.7) concludes the opening act,
and allows Vincent and Jules, as the Protagonist, to walk off into the metaphorical sunset together, even though one of
them has already been seen dying!
The event which participants were asked to remember was Vincent asking Marvin about the “miracle” and accidentally
shooting him in the back of the car. This event is simply part of a chain of complicating actions (P.5) when considering
the narrative structure in light of the concept of the Protagonist, though when the flm is considered as a collection of
separate stories, it becomes the initiating event (M.3) in the structure “Marvin and the Miracle” (M), which mostly runs
through act 6, “The Bonnie Situation”.
66
Stein’s Event Order Considered Using the Meta-Character of the Protagonist
P.1. The Protagonist explains their risky career (Honey Bunny & Liquor Stores) (0:02)
P.2. The Protagonist states the equilibrium (Jules’ speech to Brett) (0:17)
P.3. The Protagonist is told that his time is up (Marsellus Wallace tells Bruce about ‘pride’) (0:20)
P.3b. The Protagonist has a foreshadowing near miss (Mia is nearly killed) (0:58)
P.4. The Protagonist refuses to accept that his time is up (Butch wins the fght) (1:06)
P.5. The Protagonist is nearly killed...
(Butch avoids death by Jules, Vincent & Jules avoid death by the hidden gunman) (1:28, 1:47...)
...to the Protagonist nearly failing his boss (Accidentally shooting Marvin) (...1:52)
P.6. The Protagonist decides to leave their life of crime (Jules speaking to Vincent in the Diner) (2:14)
P.7. The Protagonist tells others to do likewise (Jules’ sermon to Honey Bunny and Pumpkin) (2:21)
Stein’s Event Order, Considering the Film as a Collection of Multiple Stories
The Diner (D)
D.1. Opening scene in the Diner (0:00:26)
D.2. Discussion about Liquor Stores (0:01:58)
D.3. “A lot of people come to restaurants.” (0:03:58)
D.4. “I’m ready, let’s go, right here, right now”, and hold up (0:04:08-0:04:27)
D.5. Jules refuses to hand over the briefcase, to Vincent emerging (2:15:01 to 2:18:39)
D.6. Jules’ sermon, Pumpkin and Honey Bunny leave (2:22:53)
D.7. Vincent and Jules leave the diner (2hrs23mins32)
Brett and the Miracle (B)
B.1. Vincent and Jules talk about Europe (0:06:58)
B.2. Vincent and Jules load their guns: “We should have shotguns...” (0:08:28)
B.3. Jules talking to Brett (0:14:10)
B.4. Jules shoots Roger then Jules and Vincent shoot Brett (0:17:57 and 0:20:06)
B.5. The man in the cupboard (1:47:10)
B.6. The “miracle” (1:48:30)
B.7. Jules decides to leave his life of crime (1:50:51)
Marvin and the Miracle (M)
M.1. (already covered)
M.2. (already covered)/”Counting our guy” (0:08:36)
M.3. Vincent accidentally shoots Marvin (1:51:19)
M.4. Calling Jimmie (1:52:09)
M.5. Disposing of the car to the Diner (1:52:17 to 2:07:47)
M.6. Jules’ sermon to Pumpkin and Honey Bunny (2:20:49)
M.7. Vincent and Jules leave the diner (2:23:32)
Vincent and Mia (V)
V.1m. Mia on the intercom (0:31:00)
V.2va. Vincent telling Jules about the arranged escort (0:13:18)
V.2vb. Vincent buying Heroin from Lance (0:28:50)
V.2m. Mia cutting cocaine on the mirror (0:32:08)
V.3. Mia fnds the heroin in Vincent’s pocket (0:51:05)
V.4. Mia snorts the heroin (0:52:00)
V.5. Vincent fnds Mia OD’d to preparing the adrenaline shot (0:52:15 to 0:57:45)
V.6. Adrenaline shot administered (0:58:05)
V.7. Agreeing not to tell Marsellus (0:59:38)
67
The Gold Watch (G)
G.1. Butch and Marsellus’ conversation (0:20:22)
G.2. The Gold Watch fashback (1:00:56)
G.3. Butch wins the fght and fees leaving his Gold Watch (1:06:40)
G.4. Butch tells Fabienne he must return for the watch (1:24:25)
G.5. Butch encounters Jules, then Marsellus, then is held captive by the pawnshop owners (1:27:49 to 1:33:40)
G.6. Butch breaks free and releases Marsellus (1:38:37 to 1:41:10)
G.7. Marsellus and Butch agree they are even (1:44:15)
The chart below shows the narrative structures for the separate stories as they appear in flm order. Note that within the
scope of the separate structures, next to none of the stages run out of sequence (1-7).
The average estimate for when Marvin was shot is earlier than the correct answer. Though a good number of participants
responded to this question on the survey, the standard deviation is one of the largest showing a general inability to place
the event amongst participants. The chronological reordering could possibly the cause of this. In addition the large
number of deaths in the flm might make cause some degree of confusion over who was killed when. Confusion with
Brett’s death, which comes earlier in the flm, might have swayed the average in that direction. As an aside, if audiences
do fnd it diffcult to remember which events applied to which characters, it might explain why Vincent’s death and
subsequent reappearance is accepted by audiences.
68
As part of my investigation into the effect of the narrative’s non-linear ordering, I broke the flm down into plot summaries
and reordered these as follows.
Film Act Order
1. Prologue — The Diner (i) (00:00:26)
2. Prelude to “Vincent Vega and Marsellus Wallace’s Wife” (00:06:47)
3. “Vincent Vega and Marsellus Wallace’s Wife” (00:20:18)
4a. Prelude to “The Gold Watch” fashback (01:00:56)
4b. Prelude to “The Gold Watch” present (01:05:18)
5. “The Gold Watch” (01:06:05)
6. “The Bonnie Situation” (01:47:08)
7. Epilogue — The Diner (ii) (02:07:52)
Chronological Act Order
4a. Prelude to “The Gold Watch” fashback
2. Prelude to “Vincent Vega and Marsellus Wallace’s Wife”
6. “The Bonnie Situation”
1. Prologue — The Diner (i)
7. Epilogue — The Diner (ii)
3. “Vincent Vega and Marsellus Wallace’s Wife”
4b. Prelude to “The Gold Watch” present
5. “The Gold Watch”
Chronological Event Order
Line numbers here are simply to allow comparison of the Film Event Order with the Chronological Event Order, and do
not refer to any other schemas or criterias.
Act 4a
1.Butch’s great grandfather bought the gold watch and wore it in WWI
2.Butch’s grandfather wore the watch in in WWII
3.Winocki delivered the watch to Butch’s father
4.Butch’s father hid the watch in Vietnam
5.Koons hid the watch in Vietnam
6.20-30 years before the start of the flm: Koons delivered the watch to Butch
Act 2
[7.Recently before the start of the flm: Vincent visits Europe]
8.Morning: Vincent tells Jules about Europe
9.Vincent tells Jules he will be escorting Marsellus Wallace’s wife
10.Jules executes Brett
11.A man bursts out of the bathroom at Brett’s house shooting at Vincent and Jules but misses
12.Jules and Vincent return fre surviving
13.Jules decides that not being killed was a miracle
Act 6
14.Vincent accidentally kills his informant Marvin
15.Jules calls Jimmie for help and heads to his house
16.Jimmie calls Winston Wolf who helps dispose of the car
17.Jules and Vincent head to breakfast
Act 1/Act 7
18.Jules and Vincent eat breakfast in a coffee shop as...
...Pumpkin and Honey Bunny plot to rob the diner and its customers
19.Vincent goes to the bathroom
20.Pumpkin and Honey Bunny hold up the diner
21.Pumpkin and Honey Bunny demand Jules’ briefcase
22.Jules points his gun at Pumpkin, Honey Bunny points hers at Jules
23.Vincent appears and points his gun at Honey Bunny
24.Jules delivers his sermon and Honey Bunny and Pumpkin leave
25.Jules and Vincent leave
69
Act 3
26.Butch accepts money from Marsellus to lose a fght, later Butch bets his payoff on him winning
27.Vincent and Jules deliver the briefcase
28.Later: Vincent buys heroin
29.Vincent shoots up and travels to Mia’s house
30.Vincent and Mia go to Jack Rabbit Slim’s
31.Mia overdoses
32.Lance and Vincent revive Mia
33.Mia and Vincent agree not to tell Marsellus about the event
Act 4b
34.Butch begins the fght he has been paid to lose
Act 5
35.Butch fees the arena after winning
36.Esmarelda tells Butch that he killed his opponent
37.Butch and Fabienne lie low
38.The next day: Butch discovers he has forgotten his Gold Watch
39.Butch returns to retrieve his Gold Watch
40.Butch kills Vincent Vega (who is waiting to kill Butch) as he exits the bathroom
41.Butch drives away but encounters Marsellus Wallace
42.A foot chase ensues and both end up in a pawnshop and are held at gunpoint by Maynard
43.Maynard takes Marsellus to be raped while the gimp watches Butch
44.Butch breaks free killing Maynard and shooting Zed in the groin, freeing Marsellus
45.Marsellus informs Butch that they are even, given some conditions
46.Butch returns to pick up Fabienne
Film Event Order
Line numbers correspond to those in the Chronological Event Order.
Act 1
18.Pumpkin and Honey Bunny plot to rob the diner and its customers
20.Pumpkin and Honey Bunny hold up the diner
Act 2
8.Morning: Vincent tells Jules about Europe
9.Vincent tells Jules he will be escorting Marsellus Wallace’s wife
10.Jules executes Brett
11.A man bursts out of the bathroom at Brett’s house shooting at Vincent and Jules but misses
12.Jules and Vincent return fre surviving
13.Jules decides that not being killed was a miracle
Act 3
26.Butch accepts money from Marsellus to lose a fght, later Butch bets his payoff on him winning
27.Vincent and Jules deliver the briefcase
28.Later: Vincent buys heroin
29.Vincent shoots up and travels to Mia’s house
30.Vincent and Mia go to Jack Rabbit Slim’s
31.Mia overdoses
32.Lance and Vincent revive Mia
33.Mia and Vincent agree not to tell Marsellus about the event
Act 4
1.20-30 years before: Koons tells Butch that Butch’s great grandfather bought the gold watch and wore it in WWI
2.20-30 years before: Koons tells Butch that Butch’s grandfather wore the watch in in WWII
3.20-30 years before: Koons tells Butch that Winocki delivered the watch to Butch’s father
4.20-30 years before: Koons tells Butch that Butch’s father hid the watch in Vietnam
5.20-30 years before: Koons tells Butch that he hid the watch in Vietnam
6.20-30 years before: Koons delivered the watch to Butch
34.Butch begins the fght he has been paid to lose
Act 5
35.Butch fees the arena after winning
36.Esmarelda tells Butch that he killed his opponent
70
37.Butch and Fabienne lie low
38.The next day: Butch discovers he has forgotten his Gold Watch
39.Butch returns to retrieve his Gold Watch
40.Butch kills Vincent Vega (who is waiting to kill Butch) as he exits the bathroom
41.Butch drives away but encounters Marsellus Wallace
42.A foot chase ensues and both end up in a pawnshop and are held at gunpoint by Maynard
43.Maynard takes Marsellus to be raped while the gimp watches Butch
44.Butch breaks free killing Maynard and shooting Zed in the groin freeing Marsellus
45.Marsellus informs Butch that they are even, given some conditions
46.Butch returns to pick up Fabienne
Act 6
14.Vincent accidentally kills his informant Marvin
15.Jules calls Jimmie for help and heads to his house
16.Jimmie calls Winston Wolf who helps dispose of the car
17.Jules and Vincent head to breakfast
Act 7
18.Jules and Vincent eat breakfast in a coffee shop
19.Vincent goes to the bathroom
20.Pumpkin and Honey Bunny hold up the diner
21.Pumpkin and Honey Bunny demand Jules’ briefcase
22.Jules points his gun at Pumpkin, Honey Bunny points hers at Jules
23.Vincent emerges and points his gun at Honey Bunny
24.Jules delivers his sermon and Honey Bunny and Pumpkin leave
25.Jules and Vincent leave
The chart below shows how the narrative structures of the separate stories interrelate if the acts are put into chronological
order. “The Gold Watch” is clearly the story which holds the others together. “Brett and the Miracle”, “The Diner” and
“Vincent and Mia” do not overlap at all, revealing why it is quite simple to understand the flm even though it has been
reordered.
71
Experiment Phase 2
The results from Phase 1 of the experiment raised some interesting questions which prompted Phase 2. I wanted to
know whether showing participants the same event in both Tl and Te, had had any effect on the results in Phase 1,
especially with regards to the estimates for the 1st versus 2nd video seen. I also believe that participants might have
noticed that the two videos were very similar in length, and so adjusted the answers they might have otherwise given to
refect this. In Phase 2 I wanted participants to consider the clips independently rather than comparatively.
Phase 2 was designed to be very similar to Part 1 of Phase 1, except this time one event was shown in a long shot and a
different event was shown in an edited version. Again it would be necessary for 50% of participants to see the edited clip
then the long shot clip, and for the remaining 50% to see the clips in the reverse order. However, comparing estimated
lengths of an edited clip of one event to estimated lengths of a long shot of a different event, could cause the results to
depend too heavily on the events themselves. In order to control for this, there would need to be both an edited and a
long shot version of each of the two events. Participants who saw an edited version of one event, would then need to
be shown a long shot version of a the other event, and vice versa. Thus there would need to be four possible routes
through the survey. The two events I chose to make flms of were similar in their structure and content, but different in
length. Be (edited) and Bl (long shot) both show a girl unlocking a garage and riding off on her bike, leaving the garage
open. Le (edited) and Ll (long shot) both show a boy pickup up a longboard, opening a gate and skating off leaving the
gate open.
I was also interested to know how aware participants were of the cuts themselves, especially if the cuts were not well
hidden. I deliberately included several “distractions” in each edited clip. These are listed in the video summaries.
I also used this survey as an opportunity for a comprehension test, to see if audiences were able to remember details
more successfully when they were “spelled” out shot by shot in the edited version, than when they happen in the long
take in front of an indifferent camera. It was not possible to do this in the Phase 1 as each participant saw the same
event happen twice. In this phase it was made possible due to the fact that each participant saw two different events.
The questions for each video were designed to be dissimilar to each other, for example, participants were asked about
colours of items with regards to Ll and Le, but about numbers of items with regards to Bl and Be. Thus if participants
decided to look out for answers to questions they had been just been asked relating to the frst video when watching the
second video, they would not have an unfair advantage.
A full preview of the survey, complete result data and the flms used are on the DVD which accompanies this thesis.
Participants were asked their age, whether they edited regularly, and whether they had taken part in Phase 1.
Expectations
Larger eye movements have been shown to increase signifcantly after second and third order editing errors (Ydewalle,
Desmet & Van Rensbergen in Underwood, 1998). Briefy, jump cuts are frst order editing errors, cutting across the
line and complete changes of the background are second order editing errors, while shots which break the linear
chronological sequence are third order editing errors. Both Be and Le contain second order editing errors, and minor
third order editing errors. Both Te and Tl in Phase 1 did not contain any signifcant second or third order editing errors.
Given that the edited versions contain these errors, I would expect them to require more visual scanning, which usually
causes an increase in perceived lengths of time. Thus I would expect that participants estimate the edited versions of
both flms to be longer than the long shot version.
There is already research into an audience’s lack of ability to perceive cuts, termed “edit blindness”. In one experiment
(Smith & Henderson, 2008) a quarter of edits adjoining two viewpoints went undetected with continuity editing, and a third
were undetected when the cut coincided with motion. Most of these cuts were missed due to inattentional blindness. I
wanted to fnd out how much this “edit blindness” would be affected by cuts which result in spatial or temporal jumps.
In terms of the comprehension test, I expected that participants who saw the edited versions would be able to remember
more details than those who saw the long shot.
Limitations
This phase of the survey tests the effect of multiple factors on multiple perceptions. There is clearly a lack of independance
between some of the factors which might make it hard in some cases to say which of the factors has caused the
result.
It is not realistic to compare levels of comprehension from the B flms to the L flms as inevitably the questions for the B
flms will not be of equal diffculty to the questions for the L flms. In addition, the details in the B flms will not be of equal
prevalence to those in the L flms.
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74
Results
71 participants completed this phase of the survey.
23 saw the videos in the sequence Ll,Be, Route 1.
17 saw the videos in the sequence Bl,Le, Route 2.
17 saw the videos in the sequence Le,Bl, Route 3.
14 saw the videos in the sequence Be,Ll, Route 4.
Results for the mean, the standard deviation and the median are calculated independently for each of the four possible
routes through the survey. For each video the results from each of the routes are then averaged to normalise for the
fact that some participants have see an edited then a long shot, and vice versa, and to account for inequal numbers of
participants completing the different routes.
As can be seen from the table above, the average estimate for the length of the 1st video seen was considerably longer
than the estimate for the length of the 2nd video seen. For the Bike videos the long shot version (Bl) was on average
estimated to be shorter than the long shot version (Ll), following the pattern set in the frst experiment. However, a
surprise result is that for the Longboard videos, the long shot version (Ll) was on average estimated to be longer than
the edited version (Le). In the frst phase of the experiment the general result indicated by the mean concurred with that
indicated by the median. In the case of the Longboard videos in this phase of the experiment, this does not happen, and
the median contradicts the result given by the mean and suggests that the edited version is longer. It is possible that
extreme results in the case of the Longboard long shot video are severely affecting the calculation of the mean.
The graph below shows the general spread of results:
75
76
On the previous page the top graph shows that on average the edited version was considered longer than the long shot
version, but not by a signifcant amount. The bottom graph shows that the majority of participants thought that the 1st
video was proportionally longer than the 2nd. What this suggests is that the perceived difference in length between the
1st and the 2nd video which was noted in Phase 1 of the experiment is not necessarily due to the fact that the two videos
contained the same event. It is unclear why this pattern is consistently observed.
The graph below shows that for both videos the number of cuts was estimated fairly accurately. The cuts in the
Longboard video were less noticeable than those in the Bike video. This could be due to the fact that there are fewer
second and third order editing errors in Le when compared to Be.
The graph on the following page shows that there is no signifcant difference in the accuracy with which participants
estimate the number of cuts in the frst video compared to the second.
The bubble chart below shows the estimates for when a certain event happened in each version of the two different flms.
The accuracy with which participants estimated the event was slightly better for the edited version when compared to the
long shot version. However the difference isn’t signifcant enough to say if this is a coincidence. In general the results
are quite widely spread, showing that even immediately after viewing, memory recall for the time structure of a flm is
quite limited. The short length of these clips and their limited narratives could also prevent participants from building a
detailed enough mental structure to be able estimate the time occurence based on the event’s position in an order.
77
78
The graph at the bottom of the previous page shows how the accuracy of the estimated length varies against the
participant’s age. There is clearly not enough data across a wide enough range of ages to draw any conclusion from
this.
The table below shows how participants scored on the comprehension test. Most of the results are as would be
expected, given how the events were portrayed in the flms.
In the Longboard flms: The Ll showed the boy’s T-shirt in frame for longer than Le and more participants guessed
correctly after seeing the Ll. A close-up of the wheels featured in Le and more participants guessed correctly after
seeing Le. A close-up of the longboard being picked up from its resting position against the hosepipe featured in Le,
and more participants guessed correctly after seeing Le. In Le the boy was only shown putting the longboard on the
ground framed by the open gate very briefy, before the camera sped away with the boy in another shot. In the Ll, the
entire action, including the boy skating away, was seen through the frame of the gate. Ll fnished with a few seconds of
dead time showing the open gate after the boy had left the frame. Unsurprisingly more participants guessed correctly
after seeing the Ll.
In the Bike flms: Be showed three close-ups for the three separate locks, however comprehension accuracy was only
slightly improved over Bl, possibly due to the very low image quality and the confusing spatial jumps across cuts into and
out of the three close ups. It seems likely that the distractions employed were effective in preventing audiences from
following this detail. Bl showed the number of garage bays on screen throughout, whereas the whole front of the garage
was only briefy visible in Be. Unsurprisingly comprehension for this aspect was more reliable in Bl. Be showed a very
highly saturated shot of the girl’s red shoes, whereas the colour was not as evident in Bl. Unsurprisingly comprehension
for this aspect was more reliable in the Be. For both Bl and Be all participants correctly recalled the length of the girl’s
hair. It is widely known that the human eye tends to favour looking at faces over any other part of an image. This could
suggest why this aspect is so well remembered in both Bl and Be despite not being shown in a close-up in either flm.
Generally speaking it seems that an edited version will not necessarily be more comprehensible than a long shot.
Comprehension depends entirely on the specifc case of what is being shown compared to how it is being shown.
Whether the emotional or intellectual effect of viewing an edited version is different to that experienced when viewing a
long shot is another question outside the scope of this experiment.
79
The graph above shows how noticeable participants found the various “distractions” which were built into the flms.
Time Jumps Forwards Across Cuts: There were no forward time jumps in Le, though some participants claim to have
detected them. This can probably be put down to some participants being unable to distinguish between a forwards and
a backwards time jump, or due to the shock of seeing the boy arrive in a moving frame in the second shot after watching
a static dead time shot of the environment. Several participants seem to have wrongly classifed the speeded up time
when the girl disappears into the shadows as a forwards jump with regards to Bl.
Time Jumps Backwards Across Cuts: As expected these were noticed by participants in Le. There was only one
slight jump backwards in Be so the large number of participants who claim to have identifed a time jump backwards for
Be could be confusing backwards and forwards jumps.
Speeded Up or Slowed Down Footage: Though a low number of participants detected this, the rate of participant
awareness for each of the videos is roughly proportional to the degree to which each video is altered.
Dead Time: The rate of participant awareness of dead time for each video is roughly proportional to the amount of dead
time which actually occurs in the video in question.
Mirrored shots: None occur in Le but some were falsely detected, perhaps due to participants confusing 180 degree
camera angle changes with mirrored shots. Only a very small number of participants detected the heavy usage of
mirrored shots in Be despite the effect they have of making nonsense of the shot’s geography.
Hand Held or Shaky Camera Movement: Even though this effect is quite subtle in Le, it was noticed nearly as much
as in Be. It seems that audiences are very sensitive to even small hand held camera movements.
Jumps in Space or Geographical Inconsistencies Across Cuts: Participants were well aware of this distraction as
and when it occured.
Changes in Weather, Time of Day, or Light Levels Across Cuts: Participants only noticed this effect when it was
severe, as in the case of Be. Slight changes from dappled sunlight to clouds in Le went largely unnoticed.
Sound Out of Sync or Doesn’t Match Visuals: Participants detected this even when the effect was slight and the
audio inconsequential.
What is clear is that participants are very aware of image quality issues and dead time, and are quite aware of most of
the geographical and time based distractions including sound synchronisation issues. However, they show very little
awareness of mirrored shots, and only noticed extreme changes in light conditions.
80
Shot-by-Shot Analysis Criteria
In order to analyse the underlying construction of several scenes from Wim Wenders' films, I worked through
the films shot-by-shot, distilling them down to the level of plot points and beats, while effectively recreating
storyboards and script fragments, and making extensive notes on how each scene has been assembled.
The following uestions were considered!
Design and Production
• Is the process used to plan or produce the film evident when watching it"
• #ow was the story written, and how does this effect its clarity"
$
• Is the construction of the story, or the director's hand evident"
• %oes the director appear to have worked pragmatically and and analytically, or with intuition"
• &re form and content integrally linked in the romanticist tradition, or is the form simply derived from a
set of rules which have been applied to the content, as 'amet advocates"
(
Editing
• Is the editing invisible, or do the cuts disrupt the viewing"
• %oes the editing follow a recognisable style" )ontinuity *diting
+
" ,uleshov *ffects" 'ontage
-
"
.eaction /hots"
• #ow does the editing rank 0earlman's scales of %ecoupage-'ontage and 1inkage-)ollision"
2
• #ow does the cut itself work in terms of 'urch's criteria
3
"
• #ow do %mytryk's five rules
4
for editing apply"
Narrative Style
• Is a narrative present"
• Is an 5anti-narrative6
7
present, and if so, does a narrative tension exist under the surface"
• %o obfuscations contribute or detract from the narrative in the course of the film as a whole"
• Is visual 8non-time-based9 storytelling used, such as that found which is found in paintings"
:
• %o improbable contrivances cause a 5loss in the 'willing suspension of disbelief'6"
$;
• Which shots and cuts serve to advance the plot" %o any obfuscate the plot, either deliberately or
accidentally"
• &re any shots purely for aesthetic value, or to aid pacing, rather than to advance the narrative"
• Is the narrative advancement provided by the shot reliant on other shots, or is the shot independent"
• Which modes of discourse are used" &rgumentation" %escription" <arration" %iscourse" &re
the audience aware of how plot points have been communicated to them"
• =n narrative clarity! Is 5what6 is happening clear" Is 5why6 something is happening clear" %oes a
lack of clarity alienate an audience"
• Is constructive ambiguity used to add realism
$$
"
Devices
• Is the shot's content in terms of dialogue, facial expressions, body language, choreography or
composition used in a tonal manner"
• &re any overtonal or associational devices such as score, sound effects or image treatment used"
• Is the audience aware of any >umps in time or space and do these seem >arring"
• &re any other ?erfremdungseffekts 8alienation effects9 used"
$ @or example was story written with slow relaxed pace of a correspondence with 0eter #andke, as in the case of Wings of %esire, or
was it written in the knowledge that each night's scriptwriting would cost +;;; 'arks in production the next day, as in the case of
,ingsA Wenders! 5I suffered nights of anxiety - should I structure the thing more"6, and 5normally when you're filming you aren't
aware that ideas carry price tags6, pp$--$2 Wenders, W., $::$. The logic of images! essays and conversations. @aber and @aber,
1ondonA Boston.9.
( 5Cust because you're lost, don't think your compass is broken.6 in 'amet, %., $:7:. /ome @reaks, $st ed. ?iking.A also the guiding
principle behind 'amet, %., $::(. =n %irecting @ilm. 0enguin 8<on-)lassics9.
+ ?arious categorisation of this are well described in )hapter : of ,atD, /teven %. @ilm %irecting /hot by /hot! ?isualiDing from
)oncept to /creen. @ocal 0ress, $::$.
- The five types of montage are described in *isenstein, /.'., $:+7. 'ontage.
2 0earlman's definitions in summary! 'ontage is the bringing together of unrelated elements to create an effect, %ecoupage is
showing real time and space in perfect continuity, 1inkage and )ollision refer to levels of similarity or opposition between shots in
terms of both form and content. p.$2-. 0earlman, ,aren. )utting .hythms! /haping the @ilm *dit. $st ed. @ocal 0ress, (;;:.
3 In terms of *motion, /tory, .hythm, *ye-trace, Two-dimensional plane of the screen, Three-dimensional space of action. 'urch,
W., (;;$. In the Blink of an *ye! & 0erspective on @ilm *diting, (nd .evised ed. /ilman-Cames 0ress,E./.
4 <ever cut without reason, favor long versus short, cut in movement, favor fresh versus stale, begin and end with continuing action,
favor values over matches, choose substance over form. %mytryk, *., $:7-. =n @ilm *diting! &n Introduction to the &rt of @ilm
)onstruction. @ocal 0ress.
7 &ccording to 'ackendrick, if you examine 1ast Fear at 'arienbad, 5a work with a kind of anti-narrative structure... you are likely to
find a narrative tension that is in fact very much present6 p(:. 'ackendrick, &., (;;3. =n @ilm-making. @aber and @aber.
: @ilm and painting. .omadin, 'ikhail, in %unne, < 8ed9. (;;7. Tarkovsky. Black %og, 1ondon.
$; p(7. 'ackendrick, &., (;;3. =n @ilm-making. @aber and @aber.
$$ The distinction between clarity and ambiguity is made on p.+(. 'ackendrick, &., (;;3. =n @ilm-making. @aber and @aber.
81
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