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Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 1

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum


97th Indian Science Congress’ 2010

The 97th Indian Science Congress, to be held from January 3 to 7, 2010 would be the
Kariavattom campus of the University of Kerala, Trivandrum.

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the University of Kerala are hosting the
science congress

The Indian Science Congress will be inaugurated by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on
January 3, 2010. The total number of delegates to participate in the event is expected to
touch 7,000, with 5,000-odd delegates coming for the main event and over 1,500 school
students for the National Children’s Science Congress that will be held along with the mega

The theme of the Congress would be ‘Science and Technology of 21st century - National

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 2

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

It is the man of science, eager to have his every opinion regenerated, his every
idea rationalized, by drinking at the fountain of fact, and devoting all the
energies of his life to the cult of truth, not as he understands it, but as he does not
yet understand it, that ought properly to be called a philosopher.
~ Charles Peirce

explore and reach out to each other to

Dear Members, rejuvenate the economy of Northeast
with a multi dimensional approach in
It is my proud privilege and honour to an integrated manner. The initiatives
be acting as the editor of the NE Quest should include revolutionary changes
July 2009 issue. I wish to thank Dr. in priorities to train and develop
Adhikari for graciously inviting me for human resources with the vision of
the purpose. On the onset I, on the using scientific knowhow for
behalf of the NE India Research sustainable utilization and
Forum, wish to express my heartfelt commercialization of the natural
apologies to the readers for the delay in resources. With steps taken up such as
bringing out this issue due certain coming together and reaching out
unavoidable circumstances. under N.E. India Research Forum it is
a humble beginning in the right
As India transcend with its ambitious direction.
goal of transforming as a global
superpower, the importance of the I also wish to thank all the contributors
north east region has never been so who are graceful enough to submit
high ever before in realizing this their informative articles, news items,
dream. The region can no longer be theses abstracts etc. for this issue. I
bogged down with the ills and artificial hope you all continue to do so in future
differences which has long been the issues too.
bane towards progression. With the
huge reserve of untapped bioresources Thanking you and all the best!
combined with the physical proximity
with the ASEAN and APEC countries,
and the region need to realize its (Dr. Thangjam Robert Singh)
potential and progress. We need to Assistant Professor
Department of Biotechnology
Mizoram University

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 3

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

(Birbal Sahni and Meghnath Saha)
6. INSTRUMENT OF THE ISSUE –Charge – Coupled Devices (CCD) 15
Dr. Abdul Wahab

a) The growth of Intranet: Generations of Intranet 19
Dr. L. Shashikumar Sharma (Guest Article)

b) Increasing Zinc Bioavailabity in Food Stuffs of Manipur: A Serious Threat for

Health 22
Dr. Kshetrimayum Birla Singh

c) Muga silkworm, is it safe in near future 28

Mr. Mahananda Chutia

c) On the shape of TL glow curve of bolk ZnS powder 32

Dr. L.Robindro Singh

d) Reflection and Refraction of Plane P-Waves at a corrugated interface between 35

liquid –solid half spaces
Dr. S. S. Singh

e) Lindau: The Nobel Island 42

Mr. Saitanya Kumar Bharadwaj


a) Synthesis and evaluation of acrylamide polymers for enhancing 45

Petroleum recovery from high temperature subterranean deposit
Dr. Anupom Sabhapandit

b) Carbon-Carbon bond formation reactions using solid porous catalysts 48

Dr. Pranjal Kalita

(Collage by Mr. Saitanya Kumar Bharadwaj on his Lindau visit)

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 4

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

North East India Research Forum was • Which area of science is going to
created on 13 November 2004. dominate by creating a great impact on
society in next decade?
1. How we are growing.
1. Nanoscience & nanotechnology =
Every forum has to pass through difficult
2. Biotechnology = 11%
phases at the time of birth. NE India
3. Nanobiotechnology = 38%
Research Forum is also no exception. At
4. Chemical Engineering = 0%
the very beginning, it was a march hardly
5. Medicine = 11%
with few members (from chemistry only)
6. Others = 16%
and today the forum comprised of a force
7. None = 0%
of more than 300 elite members. Now we
are in a position such that people
voluntarily come and join the group • Kindly let us know your view regarding
irrespective of disciplines. the following topic. What activities of
this group you like most?

1. Research articles = 33%

2.Information about vacancy/positions
available = 10%
3. Way to have a contact with all
members = 29%
4. Scientific discussions = 14%
5. Others = 2%

• Selection of name for Newsletter

There were total 36 proposals submitted by
Graph of no of members w.r.t. months members of the forum for the Newsletter.
The name proposed by Mr. Abhishek
2. Discussions held in the forum Choudhury, N. E. QUEST received the
maximum number of votes and hence it is
• Necessity of directory of all the accepted as the name of the Newsletter.
members of the forum.
• Possibility of organising conference in • How often should we publish our
the N. E. India. newsletter '' N. E. Quest’’?
• Taking initiation on setting up of South
East Asian Scientific Institute. 1. Every 3 months = 61%
• On selection of Best paper award. 2. Every 6 months = 38%
• Let us introspect. 3. Once a year = 0%

3. Poll conducted and results 4. Editors of Previous NE-Quest Issues

• North East India is lacking behind the 1. Vol 1 Issue 1 April, 2007
rest of the country due to- Editor: Dr. Arindam Adhikari
2. Vol 1 Issue 2 July 2007
1. Geographical constrain = 0% Editor: Dr. Tankeswar Nath
2. Bad leadership = 40% 3. Vol 1 Issue 3 October 2007
3. Lack of work culture = 36% Editor: Dr. Ashim Jyoti Thakur
4. Corruption = 18% 4. Vol 1 Issue 4 January 2008
5. Apathy from Central Govt. = 4% Editor: Mr. Pranjal Saikia

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 5

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

5. Vol 2 Issue 1 April 2008 7. New activity

Editor: Dr. Sasanka Deka
6. Vol 2 Issue 2 July 2008 • HiMedia Laboratories Pvt. Ltd is
Editor: Dr. Rashmi Rekha Devi willing to sponsor some future
7. Vol 2 Issue 3 October 2008 activities of the forum and have asked
Editor: Dr. Prodeep Phukan for space to advertise their products in
8. Vol 2 Issue 4 January 2009 the N. E. Quest. Starting this issue
Editor: Dr. Manab Sharma (July 2009) N. E. Quest is providing
9. Vol 3 Issue 1 April 2009 one page for the advertisement. Details
Editor: Dr. Debananda Ningthoujam about this deal will be informed soon
10. Vol 3 Issue 2 July 2009 (This issue) once finalised. Thanks to Dr. Robert
Editor: Dr. Robert Singh Thangjam Thangjam for his initiative in this
5. A domain in the name of www. • North East India Research Forum is booked. cells have been started in the
following colleges,
6. Future activities - Govt. Science College, Jorhat
(Jorhat Institute of Technology)
Proper planning and consequent Contact: Mr. Prasanta Kumar
implementation always play an important Bordoloi, Senior Lecturer
role in every aspect. Some of the topics / Mail:
activities / suggestions which were being Mobile: +91-9957036339
discussed, time to time in the forum will
get top priorities in our future activities. -Arya Vidyapeth College, Guwahati
Those are mentioned here, Contact: Mr. Pabitra Kalita, Senior
• Preparing complete online database of Mail:
N.E. researchers with details. Mobile No: +91-9613133859
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projects in different organisation- the importance of Advisors, co-ordinator,
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NE India Research Forum. These
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for this project is taken by Dr. Mantu
Bhuyan, NEIST, Jorhat, Assam 8. Guidelines for the forum

The moderators formulated some

guidelines for the forum which are as

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 6

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

follow. These guidelines were kept 10. Our main aim is to discuss science
open for discussion in the forum. With to generate science consciousness,
time and need the guidelines will be scientific temperament, sensitivity,
changed. awareness and research for the
benefit of the mankind in general
1. Anybody in the forum can start a and North East India in particular.
meaningful and constructive 11. In severe cases, moderators can take
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moderators. majority wise (may be through
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members do not necessarily reflect accepted by all the members).
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• The forum has been formed to help
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each other. When a member
4. One should not write any massage
requests articles/literature to forum,
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members of the forum are always
particular members. It should
happy to help the person by
always start with Dear all / Dear
supplying the articles. But at this
esteemed members etc.
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the article should be sent to the
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write personal mail.
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unnecessary mails in the message
but that doesn’t mean that one
box of the forum. Moreover if it
should attack personally. Of course
continues, it becomes an irritation
we do have differences. There can
also for many members.
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should always be a healthy one. • It is also the duty of the person who
One’s personal comment should be requests article to acknowledge the
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touch other's sentiments/emotions. fulfilled by.........' in the subject area
7. Whenever we are in a forum, while composing the mail and write
society, home, members should be a thanking message in the main
sensitive / caring enough to their message board. Once this is done,
comments so that it does not hurt then if some other members want to
sentiment of any second members. send the article will know about the
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messages (Bihu wish, New Year help members in keeping mailbox
wish etc) to the forum. clean. For example,
9. Members should post authentic
news only. The source of the news
should be authentic. No
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should be posted to the forum.

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 7

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Sub: Thanks: Article received: Chem.

Pharm. Bull 1985, 33, 4764-4768

Dear Friends, 1. Prof. Birbal Sahni

I, hereby, would like to extend
my sincere thanks to my friends,
A and B for providing me with
the above mentioned article. I
also thank other group member
friends for their kind co-

Thanks and Best regards

X Birbal Sahni, FRS (1891-1949) was an
• Before asking for article, he/she Indian paleobotanist who studied the
fossils of the Indian subcontinent. He
should always check his/her
founded the Birbal Sahni Botanical
institute/university libraries (online
Institute in Lucknow. Birbal Sahni was
resources). If it is not available or
born on 14th November 1891 and got
accessible then only the member his early education in India at Lahore
should request to the forum. and graduated from Emmanuel College,
• Moreover sending articles Cambridge in 1914. He later studied
(copyright protected articles) to the under Professor A. C. Seward, and was
open forum violates copyright act. awarded the D.Sc. degree of London
So please send the article to the University in 1919. He returned to India
person who requests not to and served as Professor of Botany at
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
everybody through this open forum.
and Punjab University for about a year.
-------0------- In 1921, he was appointed as the first
Professor and Head of the Botany
Department of the Lucknow University.
The University of Cambridge
recognized his researches by the award
of the degree of Sc. D. in 1929. During
the following years he not only
continued his investigations but
collected around him a group of
devoted students from all parts of the
country and built up a reputation for the
University which soon became the first
Center for botanical and
palaeobotanical investigations in India.
He established the Institute of
Palaeobotany under the aegis of The
Palaeobotanical Society on 10th
September, 1946. Professor Sahni was
I think that’s right, but let me check. recognized by several academies and
source: institutions in India and abroad for his
----0---- research.
[Continued to page 12]

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 8

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Transparent Aluminum Is ‘New technology may one day allow damage

State Of Matter’ to be easily spotted. Engineers one day
ScienceDaily (July 27, 2009) — Oxford may not have to guess when a bridge is
scientists have created a transparent about to break. New materials that flush
form of aluminium by bombarding the red in response to damage may provide
metal with the world’s most powerful a visible warning sign of trouble to
soft X-ray laser. ‘Transparent come, scientists report in the May 7,
aluminium’ previously only existed in 2009 Nature.
science fiction, featuring in the movie
Star Trek IV, but the real material is an “I think it could be a milestone,” says
exotic new state of matter with Christoph Weder, a polymer chemist at
implications for planetary science and Case Western Reserve University in
nuclear fusion. Cleveland and at the University of
In the journal Nature Physics an Fribourg in Switzerland, who wrote a
international team, led by Oxford commentary in the same issue of
University scientists, report that a short Nature. The materials’ chameleon-like
pulse from the FLASH laser ‘knocked abilities are thanks to a small four-
out’ a core electron from every ringed molecule called a
aluminium atom in a sample without mechanophore. When the weakest bond
disrupting the metal’s crystalline in the mechanophore breaks, the
structure. This turned the aluminium molecule creates a dog-bone shape, and
nearly invisible to extreme ultraviolet the reaction causes the molecule to
radiation. redden. “This is really a proof-of-
''What we have created is a completely concept paper,” according to them.
new state of matter nobody has seen “Before the material can be used as a
before,’ said Professor Justin Wark of mechanical force sensor, there are
Oxford University’s Department of practical issues that need to be
Physics, one of the authors of the paper. addressed,” including how light may
‘Transparent aluminium is just the start. interfere with the desired signal and
The physical properties of the matter how the color-change might be made
we are creating are relevant to the permanent.
conditions inside large planets, and we
also hope that by studying it we can Yeast bread to bear artificial vanilla
gain a greater understanding of what is Researchers have co-opted fungi to
going on during the creation of produce the flavor more efficiently
'miniature stars' created by high-power
laser implosions, which may one day Yeast has long been pressed into
allow the power of nuclear fusion to be service for making food and drink, and
harnessed here on Earth.’ now scientists have recruited the fungus
for a loftier flavor: vanillin, vanilla’s
Molecule turns red at breaking poing dominant compound. Scientists report
Materials hosting the right chemical in an upcoming Applied and
may offer a colorful signal of stress Environmental Microbiology that they
Feeling the stretch a polymer spiked have engineered strains of beer and
with a color-changing molecule turns baker’s yeast to produce vanillin from
red seconds before it snaps. The glucose, a greener and cheaper route
than previous methods. Vanillin is the

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 9

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

dominant compound of the hundreds and sugar-laden vanillin could be used

that are found in vanilla — an extract in foods and perfumes. Vanillin may
from the seed-bearing pods, called also find its way into pain-relieving
beans, of two orchids, Vanilla planifolia drugs, Møller says. Vanillin is one of
and Vanilla tahitensis. But real vanilla the molecules in the biochemical
beans are precious, rare and costly. pathway that leads to capsaicin, the
Today, less than a percent of the compound that gives chili peppers their
vanillin sold each year is derived from heat and is under investigation as a pain
the orchids. The majority of vanillin is reliever.
synthesized in chemistry labs, and
typically made from lignin, a (
constituent of wood left over from the id/43124/title/Yeast_bred_to_bear_artificia
paper-making industry, or guaiacol, l_vanilla)
which is derived from wood creosote.
Advance In 'Nano-Agriculture:' Tiny
Stuff Has Huge Effect On Plant
With potential adverse health and
environmental effects often in the news
about nanotechnology, scientists in
Arkansas are reporting that carbon
nanotubes (CNTs) could have
beneficial effects in agriculture. Their
Now Hansen, Birger Lindberg Møller
study, scheduled for the October issue
of the University of Copenhagen in
of ACS Nano, found that tomato seeds
Denmark and colleagues created a
exposed to CNTs germinated faster and
chemistry lab of their own within two
grew into larger, heavier seedlings than
different species of yeast:
other seeds. That growth-enhancing
Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also
effect could be a boon for biomass
known as fission or beer yeast, and
production for plant-based biofuels and
baker’s or brewer's yeast,
other agricultural products, they
Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

To further increase the yeast yield of

Tomato seeds exposed to carbon nanotubes
vanillin, the researchers then added an (right) sprouted and grew faster than
additional gene that encodes for a plant unexposed seeds (left).
enzyme that converts the straight
vanillin into a form with a sugar Mariya Khodakovskaya, Alexandru
attached, vanillin beta-D-glucoside. Biris, and colleagues note that
This form isn’t toxic at all, says Møller, considerable scientific research is
allowing the yeast to hold much more underway to use nanoparticles -- wisps
the compound. And because the added 1/50,000th the width of a human hair --
sugar is easily broken down in the in agriculture. The goals of "nano-
mouth or on the skin, both the straight

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 10

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

agriculture" include improving the induces a strong depletion of PIP2 in

productivity of plants for food, fuel, and the cell membrane.
other uses. "The receptor acts like a gate to the
The scientists report the first evidence neurons," said Qin. "When stimulated it
that CNTs penetrate the hard outer opens, letting outside calcium enter the
coating of seeds, and have beneficial cells until the receptor shuts down, a
effects. Nanotube-exposed seeds process called desensitization. The
sprouted up to two times faster than analgesic action of capsaicin is believed
control seeds and the seedlings weighed to involve this desensitization process.
more than twice as much as the However, how the entry of calcium
untreated plants. Those effects may leads to the loss of sensitivity of the
occur because nanotubes penetrate the neurons was not clear."
seed coat and boost water uptake, the "What changed was the responsiveness
researchers state. "This observed threshold," said Qin. "In other words,
positive effect of CNTs on the seed the receptor had not desensitized per se,
germination could have significant but its responsiveness range was
economic importance for agriculture, shifted. This property, called
horticulture, and the energy sector, such adaptation, would allow the receptor to
as for production of biofuels," they add. continuously respond to varying stimuli
( over a large capsaicin concentration
Hot Chili Peppers Help Unravel The The findings have implications for pain
Mechanism Of Pain sensation mechanisms as well as
Capsaicin, the active ingredient in spicy clinical applications. With an adaptive
hot chili peppers such as the jalapeno, is response, the receptors are essentially
most often experienced as an irritant, autoregulated without a fixed threshold,
but it may also be used to reduce pain. thus the intensity of the pain you
A new work published by Drs. Feng experience is dependent on the recent
Qin and Jing Yao in PLoS Biology uses history of pain.
capsaicin to uncover novel insight into (
how pain-receptor systems can adapt to
painful stimuli. Plastic That Grows On Trees

Some researchers hope to turn plants

into a renewable, nonpolluting
replacement for crude oil. To achieve
this, scientists have to learn how to
convert plant biomass into a building
Capsaicin acts by binding to a receptor block for plastics and fuels cheaply and
in the cell wall of nerve endings and efficiently. In new research, chemists
triggering an influx of calcium ions into have successfully converted cellulose -
the neuron. Eventually, the nervous the most common plant carbohydrate -
system interprets this cascade of events directly into the building block called
as pain or heat, depending on which HMF in one step.
nerves are stimulated. Scientists had The result builds upon earlier work by
previously linked the pain-relieving researchers at the Department of
effects of capsaicin to a lipid called Energy's Pacific Northwest National
PIP2, found in cell membranes. When Laboratory. In that work scientists
capsaicin is applied to the skin it produced HMF from simple sugars
derived from cellulose. In this new

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 11

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

work, researchers developed a way to "Pentoxyleae". Sahni studied fossil

bypass the sugar-forming step and go leaves of Ptilophyllum, stem of
straight from cellulose to HMF. This Bucklandia and flower of Williamsonia
simple process generates a high yield of and concluded that they all belong to
HMF and allows the use of raw the same plant which he reconstructed
cellulose as feed material. and named as Williamsonia sewardiana.
He was elected Vice-President,
Palaeobotany section, of 5th and 6th
International Botanical Congress 1930
and 1935, respectively; General
President of the Indian Science
Congress for 1940; President, National
PNNL researchers can now take cellulose
Academy of Sciences, India, 1937-1939
to HMF in one step, a process that might and 1943-1944. In 1948 he was elected
someday replace crude oil to make fuel and a foreign Honorary Member of the
plastics. ( American Academy of Arts and
Sciences. Another high honor came to
"In biomass like wood, corn stover and him was his election as an Honorary
switchgrass, cellulose is the most President of the International Botanical
abundant polymer that researchers are Congress, Stockholm in 1950.’
trying to convert to biofuels and
plastics," said chemist Z. Conrad 2. Meghnath Saha
Zhang, who led the work while at Meghnad Saha (October 6, 1893 –
PNNL's Institute for Interfacial February 16, 1956) was an Indian
Catalysis. HMF, also known as 5- astrophysicist best known for his
hydroxymethylfurfural, can be used as a development of the Saha equation, used
building block for plastics and to describe chemical and physical
"biofuels" such as gasoline and diesel, conditions in stars.
essentially the same fuels processed
from crude oil. In previous work,
PNNL researchers used a chemical and
a solvent known as an ionic liquid to
convert the simple sugars into HMF.
ScienceDaily (May 20, 2009)


[Continued from page 8]

Short biography- Birbal Sahni Meghnad Saha was born in a village

near Dhaka (in present Bangladesh).
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Meghnad Saha belonged to a poor
Society of London (FRS) in 1936, the family and struggled to rise in life. He
highest British scientific honor, had his initial schooling at Dhaka
awarded for the first time to an Indian Collegiate School, and later moved to
botanist. On 10th April 1949, Professor Dhaka College.
Sahni succumbed to a heart attack.
His greatest contribution was the [Continued to page 27 ]
discovery of a new group of fossil
gymnosperms which he called the

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 12

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Pinakpani Chakrabarti developed for drug delivery, on protein

Professor, Biochemistry structures. Prof. Chakrabarti has been
Bose Institute
Kolkata, India

A graduate of Cotton College (first

class first in chemistry honours, 1974),
P. Chakrabarti did his MSc from the
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur, and received his PhD from
the Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore in 1981. He did his post-
doctoral work on structures of small
organic molecules at ETH, Zurich, and
then switched to protein crystallography elected to the Fellowships of all the
while working at Purdue University, three major Academies of Science in
University of California at Los Angeles India. He is involved in a number of
and California Institute of Technology, committees of DST, DBT, CSIR, UGC
USA. In 1990 he joined the National etc. He is married to Sarmistha and
Chemical Laboratory, Pune, and was their two children, Averi and Aveek,
in-charge of the X-Ray diffractometer are going to college. It was an honour
facility. In 1977 he moved to Bose for Prof. Chakrabarti when he was
Insitute, Kolkata, where he is now a invited to deliver a talk in Cotton
Senior Professor at the Biochemistry College in 2008. He has visited a
Department, and also Scientist-in- number of institutes in the North-East.
charge of the Bioinformatics Centre. Last August he visited the North-East
Prof. Chakrabarti’s research interest Institute of Science and Technology,
spans structural biology, biophysics and Jorhat to deliver a talk at the
bioinformatics and he has authored Bioinformatics Infrastructure Facility
more than 100 papers. He has that has been developed there.
contributed to our understanding of the
conformation and folding of protein ------------0-------------
molecules, and the physicochemical
principles underlying macromolecular Science knows no country, because knowledge
recognition and binding. His belongs to humanity, and is the torch which
determination of the structure of CII illuminates the world. Science is the highest
explains why this transcription activator personification of the nation because that
binds a direct repeat DNA sequence. A nation will remain the first which carries the
few transcription factors which are furthest the works of thought and
important for the virulence of Vibrio intelligence.
cholerae have been characterized by
biophysical methods and their cognate -By Louis Pasteur
DNA sequences determined. Prof.
Chakrabarti has also studied the effect ------------0-------------
of nanoparticles, which are being

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 13

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Dr. Prodeep Phukan, reader at the Mr. Nilkamal Mahanta has joined in the
Chemistry Department of Gauhati PhD program at department of
University is visiting University of Chemistry, Texas A & M University,
Tuebingen, Germany starting 1st of Collge Station Texas. Mr. Mahanta is the
top rank holder in both BSc (Hindu
July 2009 for three months. His area of
College , Delhi University) and MSc (IIT
research is catalysis.
Mr. Bipul Sharma received young Mr. Ankur Bordoloi has joined in the
scientists award in Chemistry and PhD(Mechanical Engineering) program
Allied Sciences by Dr. K. V. Rao at Minnesota University. Mr. Bordoloi
Scientific Society, Hyderabad, Andhra did his BE from REC Allahabad (now
Pradesh. He was awarded as runner. NIT Allahabad) and MTech from IIT
Dr. Binoy Saikia has attended the
International Conference on Neutron & Mr. Arindam Goswami has joined in
X-ray Scattering (ICNX2009), the PhD program at Department of
Kualalumpur, Malaysia from 29th to 1st Chemistry, University of Texas,
July 2009 to present a oral presentation Arlington. Mr. Goswami did his BSc
on X-ray scattering technique. He was from Jorhat Science College and MSc
awarded the "International Union of from Delhi University.
Crystallography (IUCr) Young Scientist
Award" in the conference. Mr. Pankaj Barah has recently joined
Department of Biology, Norwegian
Mr. Gunin Saikia has visited Mainz University of Science and Technology
Germany to attend the conference (NTNU) as a Research fellow and
“Frontiers in Polymer Science 2009” associate faculty in Computational
from 7-9th June 2009. Mr. Saikia is Systems Biology. He has received
pursuing research as a CSIR-SRF for fellowship from European Union and
his Ph.D. in the Department of Norwegian Research Council. The main
Chemistry, Indian Institute of research theme is to understand
Technology Guwahati. His area of complex host defense mechanism and
research, “Synthesis of π-conjugated develop holistic mathematical models
oligomers/polymers for optoelectronic using data available from various high
device applications”. throughput technologies like
Metabolomics, Transcriptomics,
Mr. Prasenjit Khanikar has joined as Genomics, Proteomics. It will be kind
graduate research assistant at department of exclusive Computational Systems
of Mechanical and Aerospace Biology project to model complex
Engineering North Carolina State Biological systems using
University, in the Program of PhD in interdisciplinary techniques.
Mechanical Engineering. Mr. Khanikar
did his BE from Jorhat Engineering
College and MTech from IIT Delhi ------0------

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 14

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD)

Bubble Device”. Initially designed as
By Dr. Abdul Wahab memory device, soon after the
invention other applications were
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a suggested. Since the CCD chip was
two-dimensional grid (array) of sensitive to light it could be used as an
semiconductor capacitors that can image sensor. By 1969, Bell researchers
transfer charge between each other. were able to capture images with simple
While the term is widely used for image linear devices; thus the CCD was born.
sensors, it actually describes the process The first who recognized the potential
by which the charges are transferred of the CCD for high quality scientific
through the capacitors towards the grid images were astronomers. Because
edge. That is, under the control of an CCD had a significantly higher
external circuit, each capacitor can sensitivity than the devices of that time:
transfer its electric charge to one or photographic film and vidicon tubes.
another of its neighbors. CCDs can be By 1975, CCDs were being used in TV
used as computer memory, electronic cameras and flatbed scanners. Since
filters or for delaying samples of analog 1974, the NASA Instrument and
signals. Today, they are most widely Sensing Technology program has been
employed in arrays of photoelectric relying in the CCD technology. In the
light sensors to serialize parallel analog 1980s, CCDs appeared in the first
signals. Indeed, they have transformed digital cameras. Figure 1 shows an
the way scientists measure and chart the example of the use of the CCD
universe. Specifically, CCDs are used detectors in mini spectrometers.
in digital photography, digital
photogrammetry, astronomy
(particularly in photometry), sensors,
electron microscopy, medical
fluoroscopy, optical and UV
spectroscopy, and high speed
techniques such as lucky imaging.

Figure 1: CCD detector used in a mini
In 1968 F. Sangster and K. Teer of the UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer
Philips Research Laboratories invented (Hamamatsu).
the Bucket-Brigade Device. This device
basically transfers charge packets from Basics of Operation
one transistor to another. One year later,
Willard Boyle and George E. Smith of All CCDs work on the same principle.
the Bell Laboratories (now part of There is a photoactive region (an
Murray Hill, New Jersey-based Lucent epitaxial layer of silicon) on the
Technologies Inc.) extended this surface, and a transmission region made
concept by inventing a charge transport out of a shift register. When an image is
mechanism from one capacitor to projected through a lens onto the
another and they termed “Charge capacitor array (the photoactive region)
causing each capacitor to accumulate an

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 15

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

electric charge proportional to the light oxides that serve to isolate the charge
intensity at that location. A one- packets in one column from those in
dimensional array, used in line-scan another. These channel stops are
cameras, captures a single slice of the produced before the polysilicon gates as
image, while a two-dimensional array, the LOCOS process utilizes a high
used in video and still cameras, temperature step that would destroy the
captures a two-dimensional picture gate material. The channels stops are
corresponding to the scene projected parallel to, and exclusive of, the
onto the focal plane of the sensor. So, channel or charge carrying regions.
once the array has been exposed to the Channel stops often have a p+ doped
image, a control circuit causes each region underlying them, providing a
capacitor to transfer its contents to its further barrier to the electrons in the
neighbor (operating as a shift register). charge packets. Nickel is deposited to
The last capacitor in the array dumps its form ohmic contacts to the source and
charge into a charge amplifier, which drain, and aluminum is deposited and
converts the charge into a voltage. By patterned to form the interconnect
repeating this process, the controlling metal. Here the charge packets may
circuit converts the entire consist of electrons (e–) or holes (h+).
semiconductor contents of the array to a A cross section of a buried channel SiC
sequence of voltages, which it samples, CCDs is shown in Figure 2.
digitizes and stores in some form of
memory. It is noteworthy that the clocking of the
gates, alternately high and low, will
CCD Manufacturing forward and reverse bias to the diode
and is provided by the buried channel
The photoactive region of the CCD is, (n-doped) and the epitaxial layer (p-
generally, an epitaxial layer of silicon. doped). This will cause the CCD to
It has a doping of p+ (boron) and is deplete, near the p-n junction and will
grown upon the substrate material. In collect and move the charge packets
buried channel devices, the type of beneath the gates – and within the
design utilized in most modern CCDs, channels – of the device. Again, CCD
certain areas of the surface of the manufacturing and operation can be
silicon are ion implanted with optimized for different uses. The above
phosphorus (or nitrogen), giving them process describes a frame-transfer
an n-doped designation. This region CCD. While CCDs may be
defines the channel in which the manufactured on a heavily doped p++
photogenerated charge packets will wafer; it is also possible to manufacture
travel. The gate oxide, i.e., the capacitor a device inside p-wells that have been
dielectric (array of electrode), is grown placed on an n-wafer. This second
on top of the epitaxial layer and method, reportedly, reduces smear, dark
substrate. Later on in the process current, and infrared and red response.
polysilicon gates are deposited by This method of manufacture is used in
chemical vapor deposition, patterned the construction of interline devices. An
with photolithography, and etched in 8-bit (32-stage) four-phase buried
such a way that the separately phased channel overlapping-gate SiC CCD
gates lie perpendicular to the channels. shift register is shown in Figure 3.
The channels are further defined by
utilization of the LOCOS process to
produce the channel stop region.
Channel stops are thermally grown

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 16

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

clocked or read out. With a frame-

transfer CCD, half of the silicon area is
covered by an opaque mask (typically
aluminium). The image can be quickly
transferred from the image area to the
opaque area or storage region with
acceptable smear of a few percent. The
image can then be read out slowly from
Figure 2: Cross section of an the storage region while a new image is
overlapping-gate buried channel CCD. being integrating or exposing in the
The n-type channel layer is formed by active area. Frame-transfer devices
nitrogen ion implantation. Charge typically do not require a mechanical
packets are confined to potential wells shutter and but it requires twice the
under the gate electrodes and are silicon real estate of an equivalent full-
shifted to the right by the proper frame device. The interline architecture
sequence of clocking signals applied to extends the concept of opaque mask
the gates. one step further and masks every other
column of the image sensor for storage.
In this device, only one pixel (pixel is
the contraction of picture element) shift
has to occur to transfer from image area
to storage area; thus, shutter times can
be less than a microsecond and smear is
essentially eliminated. However, as the
imaging area is now covered by opaque
strips, dropping the fill factor to
approximately 50% and the effective
Figure 3: The four-phase buried quantum efficiency by an equivalent
channel overlapping polysilicon gate amount. Modern designs have
CCD in 6H-SiC. The input circuit is on addressed this problem by adding
the right, and charge packets are microlenses on the surface of the device
shifted to the left under the influence of to direct light away from the opaque
clocking waveforms. The output circuit, regions to the active area. Microlenses
consisting of a floating output diffusion, can bring the fill factor back up to 90%
a preset transistor, and an off-chip or more depending on pixel size and the
amplifier, are located at the left. overall system's optical design.

Architecture and Sensor Sizes One may get confused that CCDs
The CCD image sensors are cannot be used for color imaging, since
implemented in several different they respond only to light intensity. So,
architectures. The most common are digital color cameras generally use a
full-frame, frame-transfer and interline. Bayer mask over the CCD. Each square
The distinguishing characteristic of of four pixels has one filtered red, one
each of these architectures is their blue, and two green (the human eye is
approach to the problem of shuttering. more sensitive to green than either red
In a full-frame device, all of the image or blue). The result of this is that
area is active and there is no electronic luminance information is collected at
shutter. A mechanical shutter must be every pixel, but the color resolution
added to this type of sensor or the becomes lower than the luminance
image will smear as the device is resolution. Of course, better color

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 17

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

separation can be achieved by three- noticeable loss of charge; blooming − if

CCDs and a dichroic beam splitter too many photons strike a CCD
prism that splits the image into red, element, it gets “filled up” and some of
green and blue components. Each of the the charge leaks to adjacent pixels;
three CCDs is arranged to respond to a smearing − if light strikes the sensor
particular color. Some semi- while a transfer is taking place, it can
professional digital video camcorders cause some data loss and leave streaks
(and most professional camcorders) use behind bright areas of the image.
this technique. A Bayer filter design is Expense is still a concern − CCDs
shown in Figure 4. require a different manufacturing
Sensor sizes are often referred to with process from other computer chips.
an imperial fraction designation such as Some arrays need to be cooled for
1/1.8" or 2/3", this measurement lower noise and higher
actually originates back in the 1950s sensitivity. Operating temperature is an
from the time of vidicon tubes. important issue.
Compact digital cameras and Digicams
typically have much smaller sensors
than a Digital SLR and are thus less
sensitive to light and inherently more
prone to noise. Figure 5 shows CCD
area image sensors.

Figure 6: A specially developed CCD

used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire
bonded package.
Figure 4: A Bayer filter on a CCD.
By Abdul Wahab
J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical
Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the
Czech republic, Prague


“Animals, whom we have made our slaves, we

do not like to consider our equal.”
Figure 5: CCD area image sensors.
“A man who dares to waste one hour of time
Drawbacks has not discovered the value of life.”
CCDs have been moving closer to
-By Charles Darwin
becoming an ideal detector but not yet
there. They do have some drawbacks
like fading − although the coupling
process is quite efficient, moving the
charges along a row of many hundreds
or thousands of pixels adds up to a

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 18

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Guest Article
These webpage were developed with
The growth of Intranet: Generations little technical knowledge or within
of Intranet small time. The webpage were more or
less “static” as the information on the
Dr. L. Shashikumar Sharma webpage are fixed and does not change
Reader, Department of Management, in any way.
Mizoram University, Aizawl. The first generation intranets contain
high level information on their
Today, the internet has become a part homepages and usually have links
and parcel of our business environment. which connects to another webpage
The internet is used to gather where more detailed information is
information, to keep in touch with one shown.
another, to social network with like-
minded persons and so on. But has the Second Generation Intranets
development of internet trickle down to
internet as a business tool from its The second generation intranets also
initial phase. contain static pages but some limited
activities may be carried out. These
An intranet is a network that connects sites may contain certain documents or
the computers and networks within an pdf files which may be forms which can
organization by using the hardware and be printed out, fill up the form and
software that is used on the internet. submit to the required department. Or
Typically, it uses the TCP/IP protocols, another method may be that the stored
server, and browser software for the document is linked to a word processor.
internet. With intranet, the basic Upon clicking on the link, the word
services of internet become available to processor opens the document; it is then
the employees and business partners of edited and e-mailed to the officer.
the organization. This allows the Second generation web pages require
employees and business partners to some knowledge of computer meaning
communicate effectively and quickly. reasonably one has to be a computer
Today’s intranets although uses the literate person. These webpage can be
same technology of HTTP, TCP/IP and set up with Microsoft Front Page or
HTML are much more complex than Macromedia Dreamweaver.
the earlier intranets. In order to
understand what has gone through to Third Generation Intranets
become intelligent intranets, let us trace
the development of the intranets by The third generation intranet was a leap
dividing the periods in terms of over the second generation. Instead of
generations of Intranets. the static webpages, its information was
structured from a database, e.g., in the
First Generation Intranets first and second generation intranets, an
area of the webpage contains
The first generation intranets ere simple information in fixed text or graphics but
to look at and one cannot enter any in the third generation intranet, it will
information. The contents of the load from a database.
webpages remain the same unless the The third generation intranet is a giant
administrator edits it at the server. leap because to change the content of

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 19

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

the webpage, one no longer has to information and be offered more

change at source of the webpage but functionality than people with no
only to change the information on the managerial responsibility. These portals
database. Secondly, users can directly can increasingly used as a point of
enter information on the database. Since contact between an organization and an
the information on the page comes from employee, its customers and partners.
a database, it can display the updated This is achieved through a single
information drawn from various interface where the authorized person
databases from different locations. can access the information stored in the
The drawback in the third generation multitude of databases stored in
intranet is that it now requires high different locations.
level programming skills and special These portals may look like a standard
databases. First level and second level browser but it still uses the standard
uses Common gateway Interface(CGI) client-server technology designed in
scripts while the third generation such a manner that the software
intranet have to use more efficient and requirement is minimal at the user’s
easier to program, such as Microsoft computer. Thus, these systems
Active Server(ASP) and PHP, a special sometimes are known as thin-client
program developed to link HTML although thin-client is a generic term
pages with databases. used to describe a generic hardware
Security concern was another issue as configuration where a server does all
such intranets as the database and the data processing and a user’s
webpages have to talk to each other. As computer merely displays the output.
the user can enter data at the database, In the fourth generation intranets,
it now requires to identify the users. portals are tools used by employees and
Third generation intranet can be used to managers to access multiple databases
register new users, update their personal to do monitoring, resource management
information, give application online etc. and collaboration. With such a portal,
The third generation intranets have when the user logs in, the system
been traditionally run by IT/ HR recognizes who they are and their user
departments. They are focused on rights, and gives connectivity and
official handbooks, procedures, policy access to whatever database they need.
documents and a place to display shared Expectations from the fourth generation
documents and presentations. The role intranet
of intranets as a virtual platform to The fourth generation intranets are
share information would remain the expected to identify the information
same but who manages them will gaps. Earlier method of identifying
change in the next phase. information gaps was a labour intensive
exercise. The failed searches in the
Fourth Generation Intranets intranet will provide what information
was searched by the users and it can
The latest, the fourth generation provide an insight as a data collection
intranets are being heralded as and reporting tool and thus provide
intelligent intranets. It recognize the constantly updated information to the
user on the basis of their logging on users.
details and then present the information The fourth generation intranets are able
on the webpage which is relevant to the to use the techniques used by modern
particular person. People with commercial websites with the ability to
managerial responsibility would provide search lists to make informed
therefore receive different additional suggestions as per the requirement of

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 20

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

the user. It will also expand the elsewhere. The time gained not only
ownership of content from equates to a direct saving on costs but
administrators to users in the also encourages improvements in
organization without having to acquire productivity with time saved on
special knowledge. administering internal procedures.
Another outcome is the ability to
conduct a paper trial. Users sometimes References:
cannot identify when the document has 1. Watson, Wyatt, (2002). B2e/Her
been modified, accessed and reviewed. Survey Results 2002, Watson Wyatt
The fourth generation intranet would
help to identify redundant information esrender.asp?id=200086!&page-1
and keep a paper trial of the document. 2. Howlett, D and Rodgers, K.
It should also able to provide popular (2002). Delivering Value Back to the
searches and documents as in the Business available from
popular search engines like yahoo and Http://
Google. This will give a knowledge of 3. Danson, Danson (2008). Fourth
the current information requirement of Generation Intranets: The dawn of
the organization. E.g., if searches have dynamic new business tool, inspired by
been for words like ‘bully’, ‘abuse’, social networking, that employees will
‘teasing’ etc. then it provides a lot of want to use daily available from
information about the work
About the author
Fourth generation intranets should
provide information in formats that uses
rich media applications with flexibility.
Videos,, discussion forums, interactive
calendars are the new features which
are forming as the mainparts of the
fourth generation intranets. The intranet
can be used for formal meetings to
deliberate on company policies, video
conferencing. It can also offer an are Dr. L. Sashikumar Sharma completed
where people can share the same his M.Com and Ph.D from Manipur
document, leave messages for each University, Imphal. He also obtained
other, record, store work, even set his MBA from IGNOU, New Delhi. At
blogs, polls. It can be a tool where a the moment he is working as an
newcomer can integrate to see who Associate Professor in the Department
their colleagues are, what position they of Management, Mizoram University
hold and what expertise they bring to since March 2008. He can be reached at
the organization.
The fourth generation intranet can ----------------0-------------
respond to the demands of its users, can
recover time that is often lost by “Science without religion is lame, religion
searching older networks for documents without science is blind”
and other resources. It can bring
efficiency by saving 5 minutes search “Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination
time every day per employee. For an will take you everywhere.”
organisation of 100 or more that’s 1 -By Albert Einstein
person’s time better employed ----------------0-------------

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Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Increasing Zinc Bioavailabity in Food 300) both in plants and animals. The
Stuffs of Manipur: A Serious Threat main way in which it is used in the
for Health body is as an essential component
(known as a ‘cofactor’) for the
Dr. Kshetrimayum Birla Singh functioning of a large number of
enzymes, proteins which act as catalyst,
Preamble: enabling the body to carry out the
chemical reactions essential for life.
Inspite of the impressive progress that Due to wide range of functions, daily
has been made in the field of trace requirements of Zn is 8µg at 1 month of
element nutrition in the past, the age decreasing to 5 µg at 4-12 months
biological role and minimum of age and subsequently it again
requirement of trace elements are still increases to the order of 3-5mg in 1-10
hypothetical. Information about daily years old children. Normal adults on an
dietary intakes based on sound average require 5-15 mg and pregnant
methodology is scanty in developing women 10-25 mg of Zn daily (National
countries. During the past couple of Research Council, 1989). Zn is present
years, public health authorities in in a wide variety of foods as trace
different parts of the world have started elements needed for good health but
to take an interest in defining desirable they could be toxic and health hazards
levels of nutrient intakes for their when their concentration and
populations. Some of these efforts have consumption level exceeds limits of
been duplicated at the international prescribed and safe exposer (Reilly,
level by bodies such as World Health 1991).
Organization (WHO) and the Food and
Agricultural Organization (FAO) (Parr Status of Zn in Food Stuffs of
et al., 1990). Actual intake levels and Manipur:
bioavailability are two key factors that
are nutritionally very important. The survey of the literature indicates
Barring the occupational exposer, the that studies related to determination of
food chain remains the major pathway mineral status in different food stuffs
through which trace elements enters available in India are scarce,
human body (Abdulla et al., 1993). particularly in North-Eastern States of
India. In State like Manipur, where the
Zinc (Zn) as Trace Mineral: production of local food stuffs could
not meet the demand for the existing
Zinc (Zn) is one of the micronutrients population, many foodstuffs have to be
found in virtually every tissue in the procured from outside the state
body and is particularly important for particularly Punjab, Haryana, Uttar
the correct functioning of the immune Pradesh, Bihar etc. In order to establish
system, growth and development, and the status of Zn and Cu concentration, a
the antioxidant system and for the survey was carried out in different food
activity of a large number of Zn stuffs procured from other states and
dependent enzymes (approximately those foodstuffs (meat food stuffs)
grown in the area of Manipur around
Imphal. The survey revealed that Zn
level was more than daily
recommended range of 12.8-20mg
Zn/kg diet in all the foodstuffs (ranges
from 31.6 Zn mg/kg in rajma to

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Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

124.5mg Zn /kg in potato) procured Food stuffs Zn Cu

from outside the Manipur but copper (mg/kg) (mg/kg)
level was normal (Table-I). Among the
foodstuffs grown in local area, rice, Triticum 46.2 46.8
cauliflower, cabbage, rice bean, potato, aestivum
mustard, broad bean, tomato and all (wheat)
those popular meat food stuffs have Zn Oryza sativa 40.8 54.8
concentration more than recommended (rice)
range but their copper concentration is Phaseolus 31.6 10.0
within the prescribed limit (Table-II). lunatus (rajma)
This increase in bioavailability of Zn in Pennisetum 42.4 31.8
the different food stuffs of Manipur glaucum (pearl
(both local and procured items) may be millet)
due to the uses of excess Zn in Malka masher 39.4 13.6
Agriculture and Husbandry practices (pulse)
for the commercial exploitations. Horse pea 54.6 42.6
During the last two decades with Green (pulse)
Revolution in India, Zn as a Vigna radiate 49.2 45.0
micronutrient is being used (mung bean)
indiscriminately in agricultural sector Cicer 90.4 31.8
which results in elevation of its arietinum
concentration in plant products. The (chick pea)
exogenous treatment of growth Arachis 39.0 41.0
hormone or its analogues couple with arietinum
high concentration of Zn as zinc (groundnut)
sulphate (ZnSO4) in commercial feeds Raphanus 110.5 40.8
is being exploited in rearing the sativus (radish)
livestock on large scale for higher yield 1200 40.2
Brassica rapa
of animal products. These practices (turnip)
resulted in higher transfer of Zn level to
Daucus carota 115.2 40.6
vegetable and animal foodstuffs.  There
are reports from other study that
Ipomoea 124.5 38.3
revealed that due to use of different
inputs in the fields by farmers during
the growth of vegetables, Zn levels
Allium sativum 114.0 48.5
have increased more than the levels
of prescribed limit (Ram et al.,
2005). Allium cipa 98.5 36.8
Solanum 54.3 45.8
The clinical signs of zinc toxicosis: lycopersicum
• vomiting
• diarrhoea
• red urine
Table-I: Showing Zn and Cu
• icterus (yellow mucous
Concentration in Vegetable Food
stuffs Available in Manipur but
• liver failure
Procured from Outside the State:
• kidney failure
• anaemia

(Collected from net)

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Hazard Effects of Excess Zn in

Food stuffs Local Zn Cu Diet:
Name (mg/k (mg/kg)
g) The consumption or intake of excess Zn
Oryza sativa Phou, 40.8 54.8 in diet for long period of time have
(local rice) Cheng harmful effect especially during the
Brassica Kobi 49.6 33.0 growth phase of consumers since
oleracea thamc excess Zn in diet increases the growth
botrytis het hormone level in the blood which
(cauliflower) manbi enhances the growth rate, increases the
Brassica Kobi 36.2 25.8 number of fat cells in the body,
oleracea var. promotes absorption of fat and elevates
capitata insulin activity. On withdrawal of
(cabbage) growth hormone on approaching
Vicia faba Hawai 32.3 14.0 adulthood, the absorbed nutrients are
(broad bean) mubi directed to fat cells under the influence
Vigna Chak 39.0 41.0 of elevated insulin activity where they
umbellata hawai are deposited as fat. As a consequence
(rice bean) of this, the children grow faster and add
Brassica spp Hanga 21.6 35.0 some fat in their tissues which make
(mustard) m them to appear healthy but impose
Solanum Kham 42.3 9.6 serious health problems on attaining
lycopersicum en adulthood. The continuous input of
(tomato) asinba excess nutrients in tissues particularly
Ipomoea Alu 45.6 38.3 in fat cells caused by excess nutrients in
batatas tissues particularly in fat cells caused
(potato) by zinc over a period of time
Fermented Ngari 70 51.0 contributes to obesity in adults.
fish Obesity seems to poses a
Fish Nga 69.5 45.8 formidable challenge to the
growing population as it is
Chicken Yensa 139.0 57.0 etiologically linked to insulin
resistance, an accompanying insulin
dependent diabetes mellitus,
Beef Sansa 175 61
hypertension and coronary artery
Egg Yerum 102.8 46.8
Sandstead, in his study in 1995,
Pork Oksa 170.0 48.0
discouraged the use of Zn
supplements in free-living
population because doses greater
Table-II: Concentrations of Zn and than the RDA is associated with
Cu in Vegetable Food Stuffs (and copper deficiency inspite the fact
meat food stuffs) Grown in the area that Zn is an essential
of Manipur around the Imphal. micronutrients. The excess free zinc
ions in diet inhabited the copper
absorption as a consequence of the
similar physiochemical properties of
these two elements and copper-zinc
antagonistic reaction at intestinal level

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producing copper deficiency in them. husbandry and agricultural practices in

The interaction between zinc and the quest for better yields. It seems that
copper is of practical concern because, dietary factors are more involved than
it can occur with relatively low amount any other factor in the prevalence of
of zinc supplementation. Copper obesity and other related diseases in the
deficiency is known to induce Manipur population. The type of the
hypertension, increase blood cholesterol food consumed by the Manipur
(hyper-cholesterolemia), and low- population including staple food mainly
density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction consist of rice and vegetarians dishes
increment in blood which add to the made up of potato, mustard, cabbage,
condition favouring heart attack both in cauliflower, garlic, onion, pulses, cereal
young and old age population. base dishes and fermented fish (Iromba,
Kangsoi, Kangou, hawai thongba etc.).
Although data are not conclusive, there Nonvegetarian food was more common
were reports of high prevalence of in both plain and hill areas with more
obesity and increasing incidences of consumption of chicken, pork, beef and
obesity related diseases in the Manipur fish, all being found to be rich in Zn
population. Recent data on obesity in contents investigated in the survey. In
the population of Manipur revealed that Manipuri society, the culture of
the prevalence of obesity is more than arranging and organising grand feast
the national average and have increased during the festive seasons and other
from 10.9% to 13.4% in male and traditional rituals has been a common
10.6% to 17.1% in female residents of feature and this resulted an increased in
Manipur in the year 1999 to 2006 and is frequency of consumption of these Zn
further increasing (NFHS, 2006). rich food stuffs and which further
Mungreiphy and Sawanti in 2008, have aggravated the deteriorated nutrition
also reported increase prevalence of system.
overweight and obesity among
Tangkhul Naga tribal women of Conclusion:
Manipur during last many years. Many
epidemiological studies reported that The obesity, diabetes, hypertension and
there had been a link with excessive heart attacks though are genetic
dietary Zn and increase in prevalence of disorders but their dramatic rise and
obesity and other diseases, as its their onset at relatively young age
increase in diet than the recommended population of Manipur during the last
dietary allowance (RDA) was evaluated two decades is rather a recent
to increase the body fat in rats, and phenomenon associated with
higher Zn levels were observed in nail, agriculture boom achieved through
hairs, and urine in obese than in normal excessive and extensive used of
subjects ((Sukumar and Subramanian micronutrients in which Zn stands
1985; Taneja et al., 1996; Taneja et al., prominently. The abandoning of
1998). According to Singh et al., 2001, traditional copper containing metallic
there was an increase in prevalence of utensils, the compulsory sources of
diabetes mellitus in the young age copper through its leaching into food
population of Manipur. This rise in during cooking has further aggravated
prevalence of obesity and related the condition. Zinc management in
diseases in Manipur population may food, therefore is essential to contain
possibly due to the higher intake of zinc the obesity related diseases. This can be
through foods as a result of targeted by immediate and long-term
indiscriminate use of zinc in animal strategies. The immediate strategy

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 25

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

involves the restricted consumption of 5. Ram, B., Garg, S.P., Matharu, S.P
Zn rich food items such as meat food (2005). Effects of contaminants in
stuffs and increased inclusion of zinc waste water on soil and vegetables-
binding products such as fibre leafy a case study, Panjab Pollution
vegetables and phytate rich legumes Control Board.
such as soyabean and its product that
should reduces its bioavailability. This 6. Sandstead, H.H (1995).
is particularly important for those who Requirements and toxicity of
have genetic predisposition, i.e., family essential trace elements, illustrated
history of these disorders, irrespective by zinc and copper. Am.J. Clin
of signs of clinical symptoms. The use Nutr., 61:621-625.
of copper utensils for cooking will not
7. Third National Family Health
only help in preventing the copper
Survey (2006). Mumbai:
deficiency but also reduced the influx
International Institute for
of zinc in them. The long term
Population Sciences.
strategies required a stator controlled
used of zinc in commercial feeds and 8. Mungreiphy, N.K. and Sawanti, K
agriculture practices through legislation (2008). Overweight, obesity and
in interest of human health, otherwise socio-economic change among
the obesity related diseases would Tangkhul Naga Tribal women,
dominate further in the days to come in North East India. In Nature
Manipur population. Proceeding.

References: 9. Sukumar, A and Subramanium, R

1. Parr R.M., Abdulla, M., Aras, N.K. (1992). Elements in hair and nails
et al., (1990). Dietary intakes of of urban residents of New Delhi:
trace elements and related nutrients CHD hypertension and diabetic
in eleven counties: preliminary cases, Biol Trace Elem Res., 34, 89-
results from an IAEA co-ordinated 98.
research program, Proceedings, 7th
International symposium on trace 10. Taneja, S.K., Mahajan, M and
elements in man and animals, Arya, P (1996). Excess
TEMA-7 ed B. Momcilovic, 3,13. bioavailability of zinc may cause
Zagreb: IMI. obesity in humans, Experientia,
2. Abdulla, M., Parr, R.M & Iyengar,
G.V (1993). Trace element 11. Taneja, S.K., Mahajan, M., Gupta,
requirements, intake and S and Singh, K.P (1998).
recommendations. In Essential and Assessment of zinc and copper
toxic trace elements in human status of hair and urine of young
health and disease, ed. AS Prasad, women descendents of NIDDM
311-328. New York: Wiley-Liss. parents, Bio Trace Elem Res., 62:
3. National Research Council (1989).
Recommended dietary allowances, 12. Singh, T.P., Singh, A.D and Singh
10th ed. (National Academy Press, T.B (2001). Prevalence of diabetes
Washington DC). mellitus in Manipur. In Shah, S.K.
Editor. Diabetes Update, Guwahati.
4. Reilly, C (1991). Metal North Eastern Diabetes Society. 13-
contamination of food. 2nd ed. 19.
Elsevier Applied Science, London.

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 26

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

[Continued from page 12 ]

Short biography : Meghnath Saha

He was also a student at the Presidency

College, Kolkata; a professor at
Allahabad University from 1923 to
1938, and thereafter a professor and
Dean of the Faculty of Science at the
University of Calcutta until his death in
Information about the author 1956. He became Fellow of the Royal
Dr.Kshetrimayum Birla Singh Society in 1927. He was president of
completed his M.Sc. Degree from the the 21st session of the Indian Science
Department of Zoology (Centre for Congress in 1934.
Advance Study), Panjab University Meghnad Saha's best-known work
Chandigarh in the year 2003. After concerned the thermal ionisation of
selected as Junior Research Fellow elements, and it led him to formulate
(JRF) in CSIR-UGC Combined what is known as the Saha equation.
Examination held on December 2002, This equation is one of the basic tools
he then joined as Ph.D. scholar in the for interpretation of the spectra of stars
Department of Zoology, Punjab in astrophysics. By studying the spectra
University Chandigarh in the year 2003 of various stars, one can find their
under the supervision of Prof.S.K. temperature and from that, using Saha's
Taneja (Professor Emeritus) and got his equation, determine the ionisation state
Ph.D Degree in September 2008. of the various elements making up the
Presently, he is working as Assistant star.
Professor in the Department of Saha also helped to build several
Zoology, Pachhunga University scientific institutions, such as the
College, Mizoram University, Aizawl Physics Department in Allahabad
since January, 2007. His field of University and the Institute of Nuclear
specialization is in Animal Physiology Physics in Calcutta. He founded the
and Biochemistry and area of research journal Science and Culture and was
interest are trace elements, metabolic the editor until his death. He was the
syndrome-X, molecular based leading spirit in organizing several
antioxidant enzymes and nutrition. He scientific societies, such as the National
is also Principal Investigator of the Academy of Science (1930), the Indian
UGC- sponsored research project Physical Society (1934), Indian
entitled ‘‘Study on the effect of long Institute of Science (1935) and the
term excessive Zn supplementation on Indian Association for the Cultivation
oxidative stress in wistar rats’ He can of Science (1944). A lasting memorial
be reached at to him is the Saha Institute of Nuclear
Physics, founded in 1943 in Kolkata
-----0----- He also invented an instrument to
measure the weight and pressure of
solar rays.

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 27

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Muga silkworm, is it safe in near about two lakhs families where 65% of
future? the workers are women and 52.4% from
weaker section of the society
Mahananda Chutia (Benchamin, 2000). The area under the muga host plant in Assam is about six
Central Muga Eri Research & Training thousand hectares.
Institute (CMER&TI), Due to diverse topography, the natural
Lahdoigarh, Jorhat-785700, Assam, forests of NE India offer a variety of
India habitats and ecosystems to its

Muga culture is a part of the rich

tradition of the people of North East
India and is economically viable crop to
the rural people. Muga silkworm
(Antheraea assamensis Helfer) is a

golden silk producing lepidopteron
insect endemic to North Easter part of
India, especially in Assam and hence, it
can be termed as a treasure of Assam.

Muga are not found in any part of this
globe other than Brahmaputra Valley.
The insect is semi-domesticated,
polyphagous and multivoltine in nature
having five to six generation in a year.

The silkworms are raised on som and
soalu plant (Machilus bombycina and
Litsaea polyantha). The female moth Silkworms and Products
lays about 120-200 eggs after mating
for 6-8 hrs (Annual Report, 2001-02). inhabitants and hence the region is
The larvae are reared, outdoors on the included among the 25 biodiversity hot
above mentioned host plants in outdoor spots declared in the world. Thus,
conditions. When the larvae are ready congenial climatic condition of the area
to spin the cocoons, they are collected may become the natural abode for
by the rearers and allowed to spin the numbers of insect species. Wild
cocoons in a “jali', made up of dried
plant twigs. From those cocoons, the
golden yarn silk is found after
necessary processing.
As we all know, four different
types of silkworms are available in
nature from which different types of
silk yarn is produced commercially i.e.
Mulberry, Eri, Tasar and Muga.
Mulberry is the domesticated silkworm
(indoor rearing) which occupy above
80% of the total silk production in the
globe. However, muga culture is Wild
popular among the people and also a counterparts of muga silkworm are also
cultural tradition of Assam. It provides available in different eco-pockets of
self employment to the rural people to

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 28

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

North East India. Those wild change of environment and raise in

counterparts have been reported by the temperature, the insect are becoming
Scientist which were different in larval unable to adopt itself. Due to shortage
body coulour (yellow, blue and orange) of habitats and food, the birds always
and low survivability (Barah et al,
1990; Sengupta et al, 1975).

Source: Central Silk Board, Bangalore.


Production in MT



50 5.58%

Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Meghalaya,
30 Nagaland, West Bengal, Manipur

1951-52 2004-05

Production of muga silk

Being an exothermic insect, the keep on eyes to those semi-

environmental factors such as domesticated insects like muga and
temperature, humidity, rainfall etc and once get opportunity, catch it. Besides
other biotic factors play an important
role in every stage of growth and
development of the muga larvae. Due to 16000
out door nature of rearing, young larvae 14000
expose to various rigours changing of 86.66%
Total Production in MT

environment during different rearing
periods throughout the year which often 10000

threats to the larvae. The insect is very 8000

much sensitive to the environment and
the pests and parasite can easily attack
or infect the larvae in filed condition. 4000

The larval immune system is not so 2000

strong which can protect the insect from
the infection of the pathogens. Again, 0
Muga Eri Tasar Mulberry
the young stage larvae are the very
good food of the wild birds. Some flies Silk
and bugs also harm the larvae in rearing these, they are also facing threats from
periods in the field. As a whole, the the diseases and pests. Again, now-a-
insect is not at all safe day by day in days, non virulent microorganisms are
their natural habitats and also in the becoming virulent causing disease to
rearing farms. Due to the rigorous

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 29

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

the newer host and the muga silkworms cataloging and preparation of a
also. For examples, muscardine disease distribution map, collection of wild
(caused by Beauveria bassiana, a gene pool, in situ conservation of wild
fungus) was not found in muga in counterparts, isolation of pure lines and
earlier days (Chaudhury, 1981). During disease resistant strains, breeding,
last few years, muscardine diseases in development of stress resistant strains
muga silkworm have been gradually through recombinant DNA technology
increasing year after year and leading to or through modern biotechnological
the crop loss to the tune of 70-90% in tools etc are the priority research areas
Jarua crop (December-January) which for conservation and proper
is the pre-seed crop of Jethua maintenance to the muga silkworm at
commercial (April-May) crop (Das et present situation.
al, 2009). Pebrine (protozoan), flacherie
(bacterial) and grasserie (viral) are also
the common three diseases in muga
which also cause serious affect in muga
rearing. Again, those wild populations
of muga, they are also not at all safe in
their native places due to deforestation,
change of environment and increasing
temperature and also from birds and
other natural enemies. Such wild muga Source: NE Quest, April 2007
population will disappear soon from
this globe in near future, almost within This is the time, we every one
few years. should think about it and to take care of
The biodiversity of north east it to save this innocent poor insect in
part of the country are gradually our place. There is no other home in
declining due to havoc deforestation this world for this insect. Otherwise, we
and degradation, agriculture, may loss our tradition, culture and the
encroachment, grazing, forest fires, treasure as it is a unique property of
illegal extraction of forest products, Assam. If muga is not there, we will not
replacement of indigenous species with be able get the muga mekhela that
exotics, un-coordinated infrastructure means, we will unable to see our most
development, lack of proper and beloved festival “Bohag Bihu/
coordination, in-migration, Rongali Bihu”. Then, how we will
irresponsibility and many more factors introduce ourselves as Assamese? Our
as noticed by the experts. These pride, history, tradition and introduction
drawbacks should be overcome and have been straightly associated with
minimize to negative effects for muga! Whether we will be able to see
conservation and proper utilization of our traditional “husori” without
our resources. wearing the muga mekhela and sadar?
Hence, extensive study in farms, A “nachani” wearing other than muga
wild habitats and also establishment of mekhela chadar in a “husori”, can we
a germplasm bank is the prime need of will be able to bear it? Many
muga silk industry in North East India. people/scientists from the different
There is an immediate need to country of the world came to know
undertake the strategies for about Assam just for muga culture and
conservation of the muga silkworm muga silk. How we will feel proud if
biodiversity. Establishment of a germ muga is not there in our tradition, in our
plasm bank, extensive survey, culture?

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 30

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Reference: About the author:

1. Annual Report (2001-02) Central
Muga Eri Research and Training
Institute (CMER&TI), Lahdoigarh,
Jorhat, Assam.
2. Barah A, Bhuyan N, Barah BR and
Sengupta AK (1990) Collection,
maintenance and introduction of
suitable races of muga silkworm
Antheraea assama: Survey and
collection of wild muga silkworm.
Annual Report, RMRS, Boko, 26-27.
3. Benchamin KV (2000) Economics
of muga and eri sericulture in North Mahananda Chutia of Dhemaji district
east India. Proceedings of the of Assam, passed his B.Sc. (1st rank &
seminar on sericulture R&D in distn) from Dibrugarh University and
Muga and Eri, CMER&TI, M.Sc. from Gauhati University, Assam.
Lahdoigarh, Jorhat, Assam, pp. 236- Then, he joined as a Research Fellow in
242. the Dept of Biotechnology, Gauhati
University with Prof G.U. Ahmed
4. Choudhury SN (1981) Muga Silk
research group in a Project. Later, he
Industry. Directorate of Sericulture,
Govt. of Assam, Guwahati, Assam. joined in MAEP Division, North East
Institute of Science & Technology
5. K Das, M Chutia, R Das and R (formerly RRL, Jorhat) with Dr. T.C.
Chakravorty (2009) Impact of bio- Sarma research group. He worked as
pesticides on indigenous golden silk CSIR Senior Research Fellow (SRF) till
producer muga silkworm, January 2009. Presently, he is working
Antheraea assamensis Helfer as a Scientist-B in Microbiology,
(Lapidoptera: Saturniidae) in Pathology and Biotechnology Lab,
different crop seasons. Souvenir Central Muga Eri Research & Training
abstracts, International symposium Institute (CMER&TI), Central Silk
on “Second Green Revolution: Board, Lahdoigarh, Jorhat (Assam). His
Priorities, Programmes, Social and area of research includes Silkworm
Ethical Issues” held at Rajiv Gandhi Pathology, Molecular Biology and
Centre for Biotechnology, Microbial Biotechnology.
Thiruvanthapuram, Kerala, India on
2-4 July, 2009. --------------0----------------
6. Sengupta K, Singh K and Das SK
(1975) Studies on combining ability “The Roots of Violence: Wealth without
and expression of hybrid vigour in work, Pleasure without conscience,
Antheraea assama Ww. Annual Knowledge without character, Commerce
Report, CMERS, Titabor, 38-39. without morality, Science without humanity,
Worship without sacrifice, Politics without

-By Mahatma Gandhi


N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 31

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

On the shape of TL glow curve of al. and S.C. Qu et al. [9,10]. Calculated
bulk ZnS powder amount of ZnCl2 (GR, Merck)is dissolved
in 100 ml methanol (GR, Merck) and then
L. Robindro Singh stoichometric amount of Na2S (GR, Merck)
dissolved in double distilled water is
Department of Physics, PUC, Mizoram
simply added to this solution. The reaction
University, Aizawl-796001, India medium is room temperature and kept in
E-mail: nitrogen atmosphere in order to resist
oxidation. Just after addition of aq.Na2S,
thick cloudy white precipitate is obtained.
Introduction: Zinc sulphide phosphor The precipitate so obtained is filtered, after
containing Mn+2 is widely used in filtration the sample is kept in a decicator.
electroluminescent displays. There is The sample is annealed at 900 °C and used
extensive literature on ZnS:Mn for further analysis.
phosphors at ambient pressure with The sample so prepared is annealed
emphasis on the electroluminescent at 900 ° and irradiated with gamma rays
from a Co60 source and thermoluminescence
properties and photoluminescent studies.
measurement is carried out using TL
Lang et. al. [1-9] reported the presence recording system TL 1404, supplied by
of two TL peaks at 133K and 236K in Indotherm Instrument Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai. X-
ZnS:Mn:Cu:Cl when recorded with ray diffraction studies were carried out using
ambient temperature. As the high a Philips powder X-ray diffractometer
pressure increases from 4kbar to 65 kbar (model PW 1071) with Ni filtered Cu-kα
they found new shallower traps. An radiation. The lattice parameters were
interesting result was the shifting of peak calculated from the least square fitting of the
temperature towards high temperature diffraction peaks.
side with the increase of pressure. Chen
et. al. [2] studied the absorption and Results and Discussion:
luminescence in ZnS nanocrystals Theory:
Thermoluminescence is the
prepared by chemical route. Recent
emission of light from a semiconductor or
advances in the synthesis and insulator when heated, which is initially
characterization of nanosized exposed to radiation. Three steps are
semiconductors indicated that more necessary for the production of light: firstly
exciting opportunities are lying ahead if the material must be an insulator or a
the structure be scaled down to semiconductor – metals do not exhibit
nanometer level. Mandal et. al. [3] luminescent properties. Secondly, the
reported the optical properties of material must have at some time absorbed
nanocrystalline ZnS films prepared by energy during exposure to radiation.
high pressure magnetron sputtering. Thirdly, the luminescence emission is
Chandra et. al. [4] studied spectroscopy triggered by heating the material. The
luminescence emission mechanism is
of mechano, electro and
shown in figure 1.
photoluminescence of ZnS: Cu, Ce and
ZnS:Ag,Ce phosphors.
The present article reported
preparation of ZnS phosphors at low
temperature and thermoluminescence
studies with different doses of

Experiments: Fig. 1: Schematic diagram for the

The preparation procedure is production of light-excitation and
similar to the earlier reports of Singh et. emission.

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 32

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Whenever a material is irradiated, electrons s m


1 + (b − 1) f b−1 ( ) ∫ exp(− E / kT ′)dT ′ =

bskTm2 b−1
f exp(−E / kT m)
and holes are created. If electron-hole pairs β T0 βE
recombine immediately and emit a photon
that is known as fluorescence if the The shape factor μg, of the glow curve can
electrons and holes created do not also be determined from the relation [21]
recombine rapidly, but are trapped in some μg=δ/ω = (T2 – Tm)/ (T2 – T1 )
metastable states separately, they need
energy to be released from the traps and where Tm is the peak temperature of the
recombine to give luminescence. If the glow curve and T1,T2 are the temperatures
detrapping process is caused by heating or at half of the maximum intensity on the
thermostimulatuion, the luminescence raising and falling sides of the glow curves.
called thermoluminescence.
Thermoluminescence is a good way to Figure 2 shows the XRD pattern of
detect the recombination emission caused ZnS, the diffraction peaks corresponds to
by the detrapping carriers thermally. The the JCPDS 80-0020 and no other extra
energy corresponding to the glow peak is peaks could be detected, showing the
equal to the trap depth. What we must point prepared sample is pure.
out is that traps and carriers (electrons and
holes) may be produced by irradiation, and 700

X-ray Intensity (arb. unit)

they are also able to be created during

sample processing. 600

When the recombination 500

probability dominates the retrapping

probability or retrapping probability is 400

zero, Randall and Wilkins [11] have 300 (331)

reported an expression for TL intensity of

the first order kinetics (b=1) at a 200
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
temperature T as: 2θ (degree)
β T∫
I (T ) =n0 s exp(−E / kT) exp[− exp(−E / kT ′)dT ′] Fig. 2: XRD pattern of ZnS phosphors
prepared at 900 °C, the bracket gives
where n0 is the initial concentration of trap indexing of different diffraction peaks.
electrons, s the frequency factor, E the
activation energy, k the Boltzmann The lattice parameters of the
constant and β the linear heating rate. sample are a = 5.355 (1) Å with unit cell
volume 153.560(1) Å. Fig. 3 shows the
When the retrapping probability is the same thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve of
as recombination probability then the bulk ZnS irradiated with 126 Gy and
expression for TL intensity of the second 252Gy of gamma rays and recorded with a
order kinetics is given by [12] linear heating rate (β=1.73°C/s).
I (T ) = n02 s′ exp(−E / kT) /[1 + (n0 s′ / β ) ∫ exp(−E / kT ′)dT ′]2

where s=n0 s ′
For the non-first order kinetics (b ≠ 1)
Gartia [13] and Rasheedy [14]
reported an expression for TL intensity as
β T∫
I (T ) = Nf b s exp(−E / kT)[1 + (b −1) f b−1 exp(−E / kT ′)dT ′]−b (b−1)

where N is the electron traps and

filling factor f=n0/N. Fig. 3: Thermoluminescence (TL) glow
The condition for maximum intensity for curve of bulk ZnS irradiated with 126
the glow curve obeying equation (3) is Gy and 252Gy of gamma rays and
given by recorded with a linear heating rate

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 33

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

The peak temperatures are 374 and

390K respectively. The full width at half
the peak intensity are 94 and 83 ºC which is
considerably large. It indicates that it must
be a composite one although it looks like a
single peak. Fig. 4 shows TL glow curves
of ZnS irradiated with the similar doses in
Fig. 1 but recorded after two days of
irradiation and with a thermal cleaning up
to 120ºC.

Fig. 5b: Curve fitting of ZnS(β=1.6°C/s)

phosphors irradiated with 252 Gy of
gamma rays and recorded after thermal
cleaning at 120°C
Fig. 5 shows curve fitting of ZnS
phosphors irradiated with 252 Gy of
gamma rays and recorded after thermal
cleaning up to 120ºC. It could be fitted with
two peaks at 376.1 and 406.4K. The
Fig. 4: TL glow curve of bulk ZnS recorded thermal activation energies are 0.7 and
after thermal cleaning at 120ºC and 1.0eV with frequency factors 2X108 and
heating rate (β=1.6°C/s). 2.7x1011s-1. Both the peaks are non-first
order kinetics (order of kinetics b=1.5).
Now the full width ω of the peak
Singh [5] also reported that the order of
has reduced. Again we have recorded TL
kinetics for TL peak of ZnS nanocrystal
peak of ZnS irradiated with 252Gy of
recorded by Chen et. al. [2] is 1.5.
gamma rays and with a linear heating rate
β=1.6°C/s. Before measurement the sample Acknowledgement: The author
has been thermally cleaned upto different acknowledged Professor Sh. Dorendrajit
temperatures like 100, 120, 140 and 170ºC. Singh, Department of Physics Manipur
University and Dr. R.S. Ningthoujam,
Scientist E, BARC-Mumbai for their
encouragement and constant help during
the execution of this work.

[1] Lang J M, Dreger Z A and
Drickamer H G, J. Appl. Phys. 71
(1992) 1914
[2] Chen W, Wang Z, Lin Z, Lin L, J.
Appl. Phys. 82 (1997) 3111
[3] Mandal S K, Chaudhuri S and Pal A
K Thin Solid films 350 (1999) 209
[4] Chandra B P, Pandey R K,
Fig. 5a: Curve fitting of ZnS(β=1.6°C/s)
phosphors irradiated with 126 Gy of Chaturvedi G and Vaidya I 1997
gamma rays and recorded after thermal NCLA, Raipur, 386
cleaning at120°C. [5] Mahamuni S, Khosravi A A, Kundu M,
Kshirsagar A, Badekar A, Avasare D B,
Singh P and Kulkarni S K J. Appl. Phy 73
(1998) 5237

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 34

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

[6] Nanda K K, Sarangi S N, Mohanty S Reflection and Refraction of plane P -

and Sahu S N Thin Solid Films 322 waves at a corrugated interface
(1998) 21 between liquid – solid half-spaces
[7] Bahera S N, Sahu S N and Nanda K K
Ind. J. Phy 74A (2) (2000) 81 -By Dr. S. S. Singh
[8] Brus L Appl. Phy A 53 (1991) 465
[9] Singh W.S., Singh N.S., Soni A., Singh 1. Introduction
S.D., Singh L.R., Okram G.S., Ind. The propagation of elastic waves and
J.Phys. 81(12) (2007) 1267 their reflection and refraction from the
[10] Qu S C, Zhou W H, Liu F Q, Chen N boundary surfaces are of great interest in
F, Wang Z G, Pan H Y and Yu D P the field of Applied Mathematics,
Appl.Phys.Lett. 80 (2002) 3605 Seismology, Geosciences and Engineering.
[11] Randall J.T. and Wilkins MHF A184 The elastic wave propagation carries a lot
(1945) 366 of information about the medium through
[12] Garlick G.F.J. and Gibson A.F. which they travel. Whenever these waves
Proc.Phy.Soc. 60 (1948) 574 come across a discontinuity, the
[13] Gartia R.G., Singh S.D., Mazumdar phenomenon of reflection and refraction
P.S., Phys.Stat.Sol. 138 (1993) 319 take place. These studies give valuable
[14] Rasheedy M.S., J.Phys: information about the internal structure of
Condens.Matter 5 (1993) 633 the Earth. These reflected and refracted
waves are not only influenced by the
characteristics of the medium, but also by
Information about the author
the shape of the interface (discontinuity)
and frequency of the incident waves. The
Seismic signals obtain through the interior
of the Earth are very helpful in the
exploration of valuable materials buried
inside and also better knowledge about the
constituents of the Earth. The problems of
the propagation of elastic waves have been
studied by many researchers and many are
in open literatures, e.g., Achenbach [4], Aki
and Richards [5], Ewing et al.[9], Lay and
Wallace [13], Rayleigh [15], Sheriff and
Geldart [17], Singh and Tomar [18], Udias
[20], etc.
Dr. L. Robindro Singh obtained his When a plane elastic wave propagating
M.Sc and Ph.D from Manipur through a medium becomes incident at a
University, Imphal. At present he is discontinuity boundary surface between
working as Assistant Professor in the two media, the reflection and refraction of
Department of Physics, Pachhunga elastic waves take place. Thus, the elastic
University College, Mizoram wave propagation is affected by
University. He can be reached at : discontinuity, in general. These discontinuities present inside the Earth are
not always plane interface and they cannot
be approximated to a plane surface, all the
time. In fact, these discontinuities are
corrugated in nature and the undulated
nature does affect the phenomena of elastic
wave propagation. Therefore, while
discussing the phenomena of elastic wave
propagation, one must take account the
roughness of the boundary surface. Lord

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 35

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Rayleigh [14] was the first who studied the ,

problems of reflection and refraction of
n = 2, 3, 4, ...... (2)
waves from a corrugated boundary surface.
We obtain as
In his book [Theory of Sound, 1896], he
explained the reflection and refraction of
light or sound waves from a corrugated
boundary surface. In the Rayleigh's .
method, the function representing the If the corrugated interface is represented by
corrugated interface containing in the only one cosine term, i.e.,
boundary conditions are expanded in then the wavelength of the corrugation is
Fourier series and the unknown coefficients
in the solutions are determined to any given and d is the amplitude of the corrugated
order of approximation in terms of small interface.
parameter characteristics of the boundary Suppose a P- wave propagating through
surface. Later on, Rayleigh's method was the solid half-space, M becomes incident at
applied to the problems of reflection and the corrugated interface. This incident P -
refraction of elastic waves. Many wave gives reflected P and SV -waves in
investigators have solved the problems of the solid half-space, M and refraction P -
reflection and refraction of elastic waves waves in the liquid half-space, M’. The
using different techniques, i.e., Abubakar geometry of the problem is given in Figure
[1, 2, 3], Asano [6, 7, 8], Deresiewicz and 1.
Levy [10], Deresiewicz and Wolf [11],
Dunkin and Eringen [12], Rice [16], Singh
and Tomar [19], etc.
In this problem, the problem of P –
wave propagation through a corrugated
surface between liquid – solid half spaces
has been attempted by using the Rayleigh's
method of approximation. The reflection
and refraction coefficients corresponding to
regular and irregular waves are obtained for Fig.1. Geometry of the problem.
the first order approximation of the
corrugated interface.
The equation of motion of the elastic
2. Problem formulation and solutions waves in terms of displacement potentials
Let us take x and y -axes be the two in the half-spaces, M and M’ are
perpendicular Cartesian co-ordinates lying respectively given by Achenbach [4] as
horizontally and z- axes be the vertical co-
ordinate with the positive direction pointing
downward. Suppose an isotropic elastic
half-space, and a liquid
half-space, be (3)
separated by a corrugated interface, and ,
, where is a function of x (4)
independent of y, whose mean value is where
zero. The Fourier series expansion of
is given by
are the displacement potential of the
n = 1, 2, 3, …… (1) elastic waves in the half-spaces, M and M’
where and are the Fourier respectively, is the phase speed of P –
coefficients, p is the wave number wave, is the phase speed of SV-wave in
and . Introducing constants, d, the medium M with and as the elastic
and as parameters in the medium and is the
density; and is the phase speed of P -

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 36

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

wave and is the elastic parameter in the

medium M’ with as the density.
Let us consider two dimensional elastic
wave propagation in x - z plane. The total
displacement potential in the half-space, M (9)
(dropping the common factor, ) can be In the Equation (9), (+ve) signs in the
written as angles , and of the left hand side
correspond to the (+ve) signs of the right
hand side, while (-ve) signs in the
angles , and of the left hand side
(5) correspond to the (-ve) signs of the right
hand side.

2. Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are the
(6) continuities of displacement and stresses at
where is the amplitude and is the the corrugated interface, .
angle of incidence of the incident P-wave Mathematically, these boundary conditions
with as the wave number, A is the can be written as
amplitude of the regularly reflected P - At
wave at an angle are the amplitudes ,
of the irregularly reflected P -waves at (10)
angles , B is the amplitude of regularly
reflected SV -wave at an angle with as
the wave number and are the
amplitudes of irregularly reflected SV - (11)
waves at angles .
Similarly, the total displacement potentials
of the refracted P -waves in the liquid half-
space M’ (after dropping the common
factor ) can be written as

where D is the amplitude of the regularly
refracted P -wave at an angle and are
the amplitudes of the irregularly refracted P
-waves at angles . where is the derivative of with respect
The Snell's law which gives the relation to x and can be written as
between the angle of incidence with the
angles of the reflected and refraction waves .
is given by (Asano, 1960)
. Equations (10) - (12) give the boundary
(8) conditions for the plane P -wave
The Spectrum theorem which gives the propagation at the corrugated interface
relation between the angles of regular between the elastic solid and liquid half-
waves with the angles of the irregular spaces.
waves is given by (Abubakar, 1962)
3. Solution of the first order
In the Rayleigh's method of
approximation, the amplitude and slope

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 37

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

corresponding to the corrugated interface

are assumed to be very small so that
Now, putting Equations (1), (8), (9), (13)
and (14) into (10)-(12); and comparing the
coefficients of the independent terms of x (22)
and on both sides of the equations, we

(15) (23)


Next, comparing the coefficients of
on both sides of the resulting equations,
one can obtain the following equations as



(20) Equations (15)-(17) give the ratios of the

where amplitude constants corresponding to the
regularly reflected and refracted P and SV -
waves. The solutions corresponding to the
amplitude ratios of irregular waves for the
first order approximation of the corrugated
interface are given by Equations (18)-(23).
Solving Equations (21)-(23), the amplitude
ratios corresponding to regular waves are
given by


Similarly, comparing the coefficients of

the following equations are obtained

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 38

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Thus, Equation (24) gives the reflection

coefficient of the reflected P-wave and
refraction coefficients of the refracted P-
Thus, the reflection and refraction
and SV-waves corresponding to the regular
coefficients corresponding to the
waves. This result is similar with those of
irregularly reflected and
plane interface
refracted waves are given in Equation (25)
Similarly, solving the Equations (18)-(23),
for the first order approximation of the
the amplitude ratios corresponding to
corrugation. These coefficients are
irregular waves are obtained as
functions of the amplitude of corrugation,
frequency of the incident wave, elastic
parameters of the medium, reflection
coefficients and refraction coefficient
corresponding to the regular waves.

Particular case
If the amplitude of the corrugation is
(25) neglected, i.e., d=0, then the reflection and
where refraction coefficients corresponding to the
irregular waves are equal to zero and there
exists only the reflection and refraction
coefficients corresponding to regular waves
which are given by Equation (24). These
coefficients given in Equation (24) are
equivalent with
those reflection and refraction coefficients
corresponding to the plane interface.
Again, if the lower half-space is
replaced by another liquid, then
there exist only reflected and
refracted P-waves. In this case,
and the reflection and
refraction coefficients are given by

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 39

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

, (iii)
All the coefficients corresponding to
. irregular waves depend on the
(35) corrugation and frequency
This result is exactly matched with parameters.
Ewing et al. [9] for the relevant problem. (iv)
(b) The results corresponding to the I
If the upper half-space is removed, plane interface are obtained from
then the problem reduces to the our analysis.
reflection of P and SV –waves at Acknowledgment
the free half space. In this case, the The author acknowledges University
reflection coefficients are given by Grant Commission, North Eastern Regional
Office, Guwahati, India for their financial
help in order to complete this work through
, the Grant No. F. 5-249/2008-
[1] I. Abubakar, Scattering of plane elastic
It is clearly seen that the reflection
waves at rough surfaces I, Proc. Camb. Phil.
coefficients are functions of the Soc., 58, 136-157(1962).
angle of incidence of the incident P [2] I. Abubakar, Buried compressional line
–wave and elastic parameters of the source in a half-space with an irregular
medium. boundary,
J. Phys. Earth, 10, 21-38(1962).
3. [3] I. Abubakar, Scattering of plane elastic
Conclusion waves at rough surfaces II, Proc. Camb. Phil.
The phenomena of reflection and Soc., 59, 231-248(1963).
refraction of P – wave from a corrugated [4] J. D. Achenbach, Wave Propagation in
Elastic Solids. North-Holland Publishing
boundary surface between liquid – solid
Company, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford,
half spaces has been explained by using 1976.
Rayleigh method of approximation. The [5] K. Aki and P. G. Richards, Quantitative
reflection and refraction coefficients Seismology. University Science Book, New
corresponding to the regular waves and York, 2002.
irregular waves are obtained in closed form [6] S. Asano, Reflection and refraction of
for the first order of approximation. These elastic waves at a corrugated boundary surface,
coefficients corresponding to irregular Part-I. The case of incidence of SH-wave.
waves are derived for special type of Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., 38(2), 177-197(1960).
periodic interface given by . It [7] S. Asano, Reflection and refraction of
elastic waves at a corrugated boundary surface.
is obtained that
Part-II," Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., 39(3), 367-
(i) 466(1961). A
All the reflection and refraction [8] S. Asano, Reflection and refraction of
coefficients corresponding to elastic waves at a corrugated interface, Bull.
regular and irregular waves are Seismol. Soc. Am., 56(1), 201-221(1966).
functions of angle of incidence, [9] W. M. Ewing, W. S. Jardetzky and F. Press,
elastic parameters of the elastic Elastic waves in layer media. McGraw-Hill
solid and lamb parameter of the Book Company, New York, 1957.
liquid, [10] H. Deresiewicz and A. Levy, The effect of
(ii) boundaries on wave propagation in a liquid- A
filled porous solid: X. Transmission through
All the reflection and refraction
a stratified medium, Bull. Seismol. Soc.
coefficients corresponding to Am., 57(3), 381-391(1967).
regular wave are independent of [11] H. Deresiewicz and B. Wolf, The effect of
corrugation and frequency boundaries on wave propagation in a liquid
parameters, filled porous solid: IX: Reflection of plane
waves at an irregular boundary, Bull. Seismol.

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 40

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Soc. Am., 54(5A), 1537-1561(1964).

[12] J. W. Dunkin and A. C. Eringen, Saccharin
Reflection of elastic waves from the wavy
boundary of
half-space, Proc. 4th U. S. Nat. Cong. Appl.
Mech. (Berkeley), 143-160(1962).
[13] T. Lay and T. C. Wallace, Modern Global
Seismology, International Geophysics Series,
Academic Press, NewYork, 1995.
[14] L. Rayleigh, On the reflection of sound or Saccharin is an artificial sweetener. The
light wave from a corrugated surface, Rep. basic substance, benzoic sulfinide, has
Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 690-691(1893). effectively no food energy and is much
[15] L. Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound. Dover sweeter than sucrose, but has an unpleasant
Publication, 1896. bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at
[16] O. Rice, Reflection of electromagnetic high concentrations. In countries where
waves from slightly rough surfaces, Comm.
saccharin is allowed as a food additive, it is
Appl. Math., 4, 351-378(1951). used to sweeten products such as drinks,
[17] R. E. Sheriff and P. L. Geldart, Exploration candies, medicines, and toothpaste.
Seismology, Cambridge University Press, Saccharin was first produced in 1878 by
Cambridge, 1995. Constantin Fahlberg, a chemist working on
[18] S. S. Singh and S. K. Tomar, Quasi P- coal tar derivatives in Ira Remsen's
waves at a corrugated interface between two
laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University.
dissimilar monoclinic elastic half-spaces,
Int. J. Solids Structs., 44(1) 197-228(2007). It was Fahlberg who, accidentally,
[19] S. S. Singh and S. K. Tomar, Elastic waves discovered its intensely sweet nature.
at a corrugated interface between two Fahlberg and Remsen published articles on
dissimilar fibre-reinforced elastic half- benzoic sulfinide in 1879 and 1880. In
spaces, Int. J. Num. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 1884, now working on his own in New
31(9), York City, Fahlberg applied for patents in
several countries describing methods of
[20] A. Udias, Principles of Seismology,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999. producing this substance that he named
saccharin. Fahlberg would soon grow
About the author wealthy, while Remsen merely grew irate,
believing that he deserved credit for
substances produced in his laboratory. On
Dr. S. Sarat Singh has obtained his
the matter, Remsen commented, "Fahlberg
B.Sc. degree (2001) from Government
is a scoundrel. It nauseates me to hear my
College 11, Chandigarh. Then, he
name mentioned in the same breath with
joined Department of Mathematics, him."
Center for Advanced Study, Panjab
University, Chandigarh for higher Although saccharin was commercialized not
degrees and completed his M.Sc. long after its discovery, it was not until
Degree in Mathematics (2003) and sugar shortages during World War I that its
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D., 2008). use became widespread. Its popularity
Presently, he is working as Assistant further increased during the 1960s and
Professor, Department of Mathematics, 1970s among dieters, since saccharin is a
calorie-free sweetener. In the United States
Pachhunga University College,
saccharin is often found in restaurants in
Mizoram University, Aizawl, INDIA.
pink packets; the most popular brand is
His research interest consist of "Sweet' N Low". A small number of soft
Continuum Mechanics; Elastic wave drinks are sweetened with saccharin, the
propagation, Differential equations, most popular being the Coca-Cola
Complex Variables and Numerical Company's cola drink Tab, introduced in
Methods. One can see his work on 1963 as a diet cola soft drink.

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 41

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Lindau meeting Linadu: The Nobel Island

The Nobel Laureate Meetings at Lindau

By Saitanya Kumar Bharadwaj,
is a scientific conference held yearly in
Lindau, Germany, inviting Nobel Prize
winners to present to and interact with
young researchers from all over the
From the day of our journey I was very
much excited to meet Nobel Laureates.
In 1951, the two physicians Gustav
It was early morning of 27th June, when
Parade and Franz Karl Hein from
we had started from Indira Gandhi
Lindau convinced Count Lennart
International Airport, Delhi. We landed
Bernadotte of Wisborg to assume
at Munich and reached the dreamed
patronage of the scientific meeting they
Island, the “Island of Nobel Laureates”
set up to facilitate exchange with Nobel
by 7.30 PM. The view of world-
laureates in the field of medicine. Over
renowned postcard motifs at the harbor
the years the meetings grew, and
of Lindau namely Lighthouse and the
laureates from chemistry and physics
Lion are really beautiful. On 28th June
were also invited. The aim of the
the unique meeting was started with the
Lindau Meetings is to let young
Inaugural Lecture of Countess Bettina
researchers interact closely with their
Bernadotte, President of the council,
supposed role models. Therefore the
which addressed the main theme of the
meetings do not only consist of
meeting. The aim of the 59th meeting
presentations given by the laureates, but
was to exchange of views and ideas
also of panel discussions, discussions in
between 23 Nobel Laureates and 580
small groups and even joint dinners and
young researchers from 67 countries
lunches. The participating young
towards finding solutions to the global
researchers claim that the informal
challenges, particularly in the area of
atmosphere and the intensive peer-to-
climate change and sustainability.
peer contact provides a unique
German Federal Minister of Education
experience, while the organizers
and Research, Human Resource and
consider it crucial to both aims,
Development Minister of India, and the
scientific exchange and inspiration of
Science and Research minister of China
junior scientists.
also took part in the opening
ceremonies. Honourable Minister Kapil
This year the meeting was held in the
Sibal delivered a well-addressed
area of Chemistry. Mr. Saitanya Kr.
lecture, which attracted the crowd
Bharadwaj, Mr. Sonit Kr. Gogoi and
gathered there. India, a copartner
Mr. Subrata Das from IIT Guwahati
country for this year for this event,
attended the conference.
hence sponsored all activities of a
single day. We had a cultural show
Here Mr. Bharadwaj is sharing his
where, one of our colleague performed
experiences with the Nobel Laureates.
Bharat Natyam and which magnetized
the whole crowd.

All lectures by the Nobel Laureates

were very much fascinating, enjoyable
and encouraging. Out of all, Ertle’s
(Gerhard Ertle, Noble prize 2007)
lecture on heterogeneous catalysis
inspired me a lot. Kroto’s (Harold W.

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 42

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Kroto, Noble prize 1996) lecture on Chalfie said of Prasher's contribution:

“Science Society and Sustainability” "Douglas Prasher's work was critical
was really a great inspiration for me. and essential for the work we did in our
His expression and presentation style lab. They could've easily given the
was extraordinary and he’s actively prize to Douglas and the other two and
participating in Science Education and left me out”.
popularization of science. The lectures
by Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien Overall, it was wonderful trip for my
((Noble prize 2008) Green Fluorescent life. Meeting Nobel Laureates, listening
Proteins (GFP) were really very very and talking with them, clearing doubts
attractive. Particularly, the suggestions from them were fabulous experiences.
by Prof. Tsien to young researchers, They are the God of Science.
was really great. He advised to find The conference was concluded on 3rd
project, which puts neuroses in July with a panel discussion entitled
constructive use, gives sensual pleasure. “Global warming and sustainability” on
He also recommended to make the Mainau Island, the heaven of the
collaboration and asked to make Earth. It is really rare to have such a
Lemonade from Lemon. great moment of attending meeting on
Informal discussion was a great one of the most beautiful Island in the
opportunity to ask any doubt in our world. An exhibition namely,
research or personal problem. They “Discoveries” was also opened on that
always gave positive suggestions. The day where the scientific experiments,
positive attitude brought them to this simulation related to water were
position. They don’t consider any time focused. India was presenting the
limit for their work, they enjoy their production of energy by splitting of
work. Unless and until one doesn’t have water and treatment of wastewater
own interest in his/her subject, he/she plant, which attracted the visitors to the
will not achieve successes, this is the great extent.
view of almost all Nobel Laureates. Fortunately I was accommodated with a
I had the great opportunity to have young researcher from USA, I had a
dinner with Prof. Martin Chalfie. We great experience by sharing our
were requesting him to share his feeling knowledges. I found that our
after the announcement of Nobel Prize. educational system has vast difference
“Of course, I was quite happy to receive from them. He was expert on one field
the honorable Prize, also I am lucky”- whereas I had little knowledge on
he smiled. Generally, a phone-call from various areas, of course not expertise in
Stockholm at around 4 AM brings the any single field. There was also some
great news for the winner. interactive session where we shared our
Unfortunately Prof. Chalfie missed the research experiences with other
phone-call as there was no phone in colleague from different countries.
their bed room. He waked up at 6 AM After the Lindau meeting we have
and browsed Google and surprised to visited various well known research
see his name in news (I was astonished laboratory and Universities like FHI of
to listen this because I read news in the Chemical Physics and Inorganic
newspaper about my nomination for Chemistry, Technical University of
Nobel Prize!). Chalfie was quite upset Berlin, University of Mainz, Bielefeld
about Douglas Prasher and his wife University, University of Bonn etc. We
Tulle Hazelrigg, because they also had various experiences during this
contributed in the root level of Green visit. First, faculties or scientists
Fluorescent Proteins. introduced us to their research area with

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 43

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

a scientific presentation followed by 59th meeting of Nobel Laureates and

laboratory visit which generally does students 2009 at Lindau Germany. He
not happen in our institutes. Secondly, also delivered scientific presentation at
the laboratories are highly equipped Techniche’ 2007 and 2008 (The
with all modern technologies. technical festival of IIT Guwahati). Mr.
At last, I encourage all the Scientist, Bharadwaj can be reached at
Faculty, Research scholar, and student
from North Easter region to apply for
the meeting and participate actively in Representative publications
near future. It is a great opportunity to 1. Bharadwaj, S.K., Sharma, S.N.,
explore ourselves internationally. Hussain, S., Chaudhuri, M.K.,
Finally I thank all the member of Tetrahedron Letters 50 (27), pp.
North-east Indian Research Group, for 3767-3771, 2009
sharing their experiences through the 2. Bharadwaj, S.K., Hussain, S.,
forum, leading me to this end and all of Kar, M., Chaudhuri, M.K.
my well wishers. Also I thank Dr. Applied Catalysis A: General
Khiud Gogoi, for his help from the 343 (1-2), pp. 62-67, 2008
University life till today. I am grateful 3. Bharadwaj, S.K., Hussain, S.,
to Dr. Ashim Jyoti Thakur, TEZU, for Kar, M., Chaudhuri, M.K.,
his greatest help for this bon-voyage. Catalysis Communications 9
(5), pp. 919-923, 2008
Saitanya Kumar Bharadwaj is hailing
from the village Hazarikapara, district
of Darrang, Assam. He started his -----0-----
education from Salmass Utha
Prathamik Bidyalay, then attended
Gandhi Smriti Higher Secondary
School, Sipajhar Higher Seconday and
Multi Purpose School. He completed Human brain is too efficient
B.Sc. from Mangaldai College and
awarded with M.Sc. from Department Can you read the following
of Chemistry, Gauhati University in sentences ?
2004. Subsequently in July 2005, he
cleared the CSIR-JRF and GATE and Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at
joined the laboratory of Professor M. K. Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't
Chaudhuri at Indian Institute of mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in
Technology Guwahati for his doctoral a wrod are witren, the olny
studies. Prior to joining IITG, he was iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist
involving in a CSIR-sponsored project and lsat ltteer be in the rghit
at NEIST Jorhat (formerly RRL Jorhat) pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses
from July 2004 to July 2005. He has and you can sitll raed it wouthit a
published six papers in reputed porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the
international journals and co-inventor huamn mnid deos not raed ervey
of one Indian Patent. Recently he has lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a
submitted the doctoral thesis (June wlohe.
2009). He attended several national and
international conferences including
CRSI 2007 in Delhi University, PAN-
IIT Global conference at California,

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 44

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

By Anupom Sabhapandit 5.Poly (acrylamide-co-N-

vinylpyrrolidone) [AM-NVP] and
The title of the thesis “Synthesis
and evaluation of acrylamide 6.Poly (acrylamide-co-Na-vinyl -
polymers for enhancing petroleum sulphonate) [AM-VSASS].
recovery from high temperature
subterranean deposits” The copolymers are prepared by
aqueous solution polymerization
Abstract using either persulphate-
metabisulphite redox pair or AIBN
Polymer flooding is considered as initiator. They are characterized
as the cheapest chemical method of by their intrinsic viscosities,
enhanced oil recovery. But the molecular weight (for an
widely used polymers such as encouraging sample), compositions,
partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide thermal behaviour, brine
and polysaccharides are not suitable compatibility, physical state and the
for high temperature reservoirs functional groups present. IR, NMR
having a temperature >800C. The (1H and 13C) and wide-angle XRD
necessity of high temperature, brine spectroscopy, TGA , DTA, DTG,
and shear resistant polymer is and GPC etc. are used for
increasing with the increasing characterization.
demand of petroleum as fuel.
Synthesis and evaluation of some Dilute solution rheological
high temperature stable polymers is behaviour as well as thermal stability
the principal aim of this work. of these polymers are studied and
evaluated for their use as EOR
A number of acrylamide-based polymer. The effect of brine,
copolymers are prepared, effect of polymer concentration,
characterized and evaluated as effect of temperature and effect of
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) shear on dilute solution viscosity of
chemical for reservoirs having harsh the polymers are studied. All the
conditions of salinity and polymers obey Power Law Model
temperature. They include, through a wide range of shear and
exhibit thixotropic behaviour. An
1. Poly (acrylamide-co-Na-acrylate) ionic copolymer cannot regain its
[AM-NaAA], solution viscosity when allowed to
2. Poly (acrylamide-co-Na-2- shear at a constant rate for long
acrylamido-2- period of time. But it can regain its
methylpropanesulphonate) [AM- solution viscosity when allowed to
NaAMPS], stay in presence of brine under a
3. Poly (N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co- constant shear for a long period .
Na-acrylate) [NNDAM-NaAA], Solvent effect on the rheology of
4. Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co- NNDAM-NaAMPS copolymer,
Na-2-acrylamido-2- taken as a model polyelectrolyte is
methylpropanesulphonate) studied using four different solvents,
[NNDAM-NaAMPS], Ethylene glycol(EG), Dimethyl

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 2, July 2009. 45

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

sulphoxide(DMSO), Ethyl alcohol bentonite>>limestone>sand. On the

(EtOH) and water (W). The reduced addition of NaCl, adsorption on sand
viscosity of the copolymer is highly surface decreases to a minimum
dependent on the ionic strength of value and then increases. Adsorption
the copolymer solution. The reduced increases with decreasing pH and
viscosity decreases as a function of also decreasing the content of
solvent selection in the order NaAMPS in the copolymer. The
W>DMSO>EtOH>EG. The shapes of amount of the copolymer adsorbed
the ηsp / C vs. C plots indicate the on sand surface is comparable to that
polyelectrolyte behaviour of the of partially hydrolysed
copolymer, except for the polyacrylamide but much less than
case of EG solutions, where non- that of poly (acrylamide-co-N-
polyelectrolyte like behaviour is vinylpyrrolidone). The type of
observed. However, at a certain adsorption is found to be physical
degree of ionization attained by which is supported by the enthalpy of
adding W as cosolvent, the adsorption as well as by IR spectra.
copolymer begins to demonstrate
polyelectrolyte behaviour. The Efficacy of the copolymer
reduced viscosities of copolymer NNDAM-NaAMPS as EOR
solutions increase with increasing chemical is studied. Core flood test
temperature in W and DMSO, yet using unconsolidated sand with
decreases with increasing mean diameter 228.14 μm having
temperature in EG. porosity 42% is carried out at
different brine concentrations and
Two copolymers, namely, temperatures. Initially crude oil
NNDAM-NaAMPS and AM-NVP fraction (150-3000C) and finally the
show satisfactory thermal stability (at crude itself is used as oil. After
1200C) at least for one month. There water-flood about 5.6% original oil
is no effect of brine on solution in place (OOIP) can be recovered by
viscosity of AM-NVP as it is a non- injecting 2000 ppm polymer solution
ionic polymer. Viscosity reduction to the sand pack containing oil
due to the presence of brine is fraction and 5000 ppm NaCl brine.
comparable for all the copolymers It is further confirmed that residual
except AM-NaAA. AM-NaAA oil recovery increased with the
suffers excessive viscosity reduction, increase of temperature. About 11%
especially in presence of bivalent OOIP can be recovered as additional
cations. Though both NNDAM- oil by injecting 2000 ppm polymer
NaAMPS and AM-NVP show good solution to the unconsolidated sand
thermal stability, the viscosity build pack containing one of the Indian
up of AM-NVP is very low. crude oil and brine consisting mono
and bivalent metal ions at 900C. The
The adsorption behaviour of poly recovery efficiency of NNDAM-
(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-Na 2- NaAMPS and that of widely used
acrylamido-2- AM-NaAA is found comparable
methylpropanesulphonate) is studied. under identical experimental
Adsorption isotherms show that conditions. Change in sand
adsorption on bentonite is very high permeability and effect of sand size
followed by that on limestone which, on recovery are also discussed.
in turn, is much higher than that on
sand surface following the order,

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 46

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

The cross-linking behaviour of viscosity and adsorption point of

the polymers is studied in various view. Therefore, NNDAM-NaAMPS
conditions of salinity, polymer and is the ideal polymer for high
cross-linker concentrations and temperature reservoir.
temperature. Different cross-linking
agents, especially Cr(III)-acetate are
used for the study. Cr(III)-acetate is Short bio-data of the author
found more suitable for cross-linking
in harsh conditions of temperature
and salinity in a wider range of pH
than the others. Among the
polymers, AM-NaAA, NNDAM-
NaAPMS and AM-NVP are found
suitable for gel formation within the
experimental conditions of this
study. NNDAM-NaAMPS formed
gel which is stable at 1200C at least
for 2 months in presence of brine.
Effect of polymer, cross-linker and Anupom Sabhapondit completed his
brine concentration , effect of pH and M.Sc. in physical chemistry from
effect of temperature on gelation are Gauhati University in 1998. He did his
studied. The gelation time can be Ph.D. from the Petroleum and Natural
controlled by an adjustment of the Gas division of Regional Research
polymer and cross-linker Laboratory , Jorhat and submitted the
concentration and the pH. Rate of thesis to Dibrugarh University in
gelations in few cases are also August, 2002.
studied by monitoring the viscosity From January, 2003 to December,
increase with time. 2006 he worked with the R&D
division of Dai-Ichi Karkaria Ltd, Pune
In conclusion, the advantages and in the field of water soluble polymers
drawbacks of each of the copolymers including their applications.
studied are presented. Finally it is Presently he is working with the
concluded that the efficacy of Production Enhancement department
NNDAM-NaAMPS as EOR polymer in Halliburton Technology Center,
at high temperature is the highest Pune. Main activities include
among the polymers studied. At development and application research
normal temperature, its efficacy is in the field of oil well stimulation.
comparable to that of the others. In
presence of bivalent brine, efficacy ----------------0--------------
of AM-NaAA is poor even at low “To understand everything is to forgive
temperature. Dilute solutions of the everything”
rest of the copolymers are
“You will not be punished for your anger,
compatible with both monovalent
you will be punished by your anger.”
and bivalent brine in a wide range of
temperature and brine concentration.
- By Gautam Buddha
Though AM-NVP show stability
against high temperature and brine,
it is not encouraging from the ----------------0--------------

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 47

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Title of Thesis: Carbon-Carbon pyridine and shown Figure1 and 2,

Bond Formation Reactions Using respectively.
Solid Porous Catalysts 1444

Absorbance (a.u.)
By Dr. Pranjal Kalita (1.33)

1621 1452
1636 1613 1490
Research Guide: Dr. Rajiv Kumar (0.41) (1.60)

Place of research: Catalysis Division, 1545 (1.1)

National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, Ce-Al-MCM-41(59,33)

India (0.37)

The thesis is divided into SIX chapters,

as summarized below:
Chapter 1 presents a general 1700 1600 1500 1400
introduction to various aspects of Frequency (cm )
porous materials such as zeolites,
mesoporous aluminosilicates and their Figure 1. IR spectra of Ce-Al-MCM-41
samples, recorded at 300 K after exposure
physicochemical properties. Different
to saturation coverage of pyridine at 420
structures of porous materials are K followed by cooling to room
shown in below. Salient features of temperature and subsequent evacuation.
certain metal oxides catalysts are
discussed. Various instrumentation Chapter 3 deals the catalytic activity
technique adopted for characterization of Ce-MCM-41, Al-MCM-41 and Ce-
of these catalysts are also described in Al-MCM-41 catalysts. In this chapter
brief. A detailed description is also various parameters have been studied,
given to various carbon-carbon bond such as reaction time with different
formation reactions pertaining to the MCM-41 samples, different
present study. The objectives of the temperatures and solvents, recycle
present thesis research have also been study and different substrates.
highlighted. Following are the main topics
Chapter 2 presents the synthesis of (a) Friedel-Crafts benzylation reaction
Ce-containing mesoporous Al-MCM- under solvent free condition over Ce-
41, synthesis of Zr-TMS catalyst and MCM-41, Al-MCM-41 and Ce-Al-
organofunctionalized by MCM-41 catalysts.
trifluoromethanesulphonic acid (triflic
acid, TFA) on Zr-TMS catalyst, (b) Preparation of 1, 5-dicarbonyl
synthesis of Si-MCM-41 and SBA-15 compounds by Mukaiyama-Michael
materials and then immobilization of reaction over Ce-MCM-41, Al-MCM-
1,5,7-triazabicyclo [4.4.0] dec-5-ene 41 and Ce-Al-MCM-41 catalysts.
(TBD) on Si-MCM-41 and SBA-15
materials. The different techniques (c) Preparation of β-hydroxy carbonyl
have been used for characterization of compounds by Mukaiyama-aldol
synthesized materials such as XRD, N2 condensation under solvent free
adsorption, UV-visible, TPD-NH3, FT- condition over Ce-MCM-41, Al-
IR, XPS, 13C, 29Si, and 27Al CP MAS MCM-41 and Ce-Al-MCM-41
NMR, SEM, TEM, AAS analysis and catalysts.
microanalysis. The different acid sites
of Ce-Al-MCM-41 were identified by
FTIR spectroscopy by adsorption of

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 48

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

1490 Chapter 6 summarizes and concludes

1621 1444
the results obtained and the basic
Absorbance (a.u.) 1636
1613 1545
1595 1452
findings of the present work.
About the author



1700 1600 1500 1400

Frequency (cm )

Figure 2. IR spectra of Ce-Al- MCM-

41 samples, recorded at 420 K after Dr. Pranjal Kalita was born (23rd
exposure to March 1975) and brought up in
saturation coverage of pyridine at 420 Mangaldai, Assam. He received his
K followed by evacuation for 10 min at B.Sc. (1996) from Mangaldai College,
same temperature. Gauhati University, Guwahati and
Chapter 4 presents the catalytic M.Sc. (2000) from Assam University,
activity of Zr-TMS and Zr-TMS-TFA Silchar, Assam (India) in Chemistry
catalyst. In this chapter various (M.Sc. project dissertation entitle
parameters have been studied, such as Synthesis and characterization of tilted
reaction time with different Zr-TMS- phase in liquid crystal). Then he joined
TFA samples, different amount of the research group of Prof. Dibakar
catalyst, temperatures, recycle study Chandra Deka at department of
and different substrates. This chapter is Chemistry, Gauhati University, as a
divided into two parts- project fellow and gained the research
experience (2000-2002) in the area of
(a) Michael-addition of indoles to α, β-
Synthetic Organic Chemistry. In 2002,
unsaturated carbonyl compounds over
he qualified the CSIR junior research
triflic acid loaded Zr-TMS catalyst.
fellowship examination and moved to
National Chemical Laboratory (NCL)
(b) Synthesis of coumarin and its
to continue his doctoral studies. In
derivatives over triflic acid loaded Zr-
February 2008, he completed Ph.D.
TMS catalyst by Pechmann reaction.
degree under the guidance of Dr. Rajiv
Kumar in the area of catalytic organic
Chapter 5 describes the catalytic
transformations. At present Dr. Kalita
properties of MCM-41 / SBA-15-TBD
is working as a postdoctoral research
(1, 5, 7-triazabicyclo [4.4.0] dec-5-ene)
scientist at National Institute for
mesoporous materials for the Michael-
Material Science, Tsukuba, Japan. His
addition of β-nitrostyrene to malonate. research interest is on Synthesis and
In this chapter also various parameters characterization of novel
have been studied, such as reaction heterogeneous catalysts and its
time with MCM-41 / SBA-15-TBD catalytic investigation to industrially
samples, different amount of catalyst, and pharmaceutically important
temperatures, recycle study and reactions. Apart from research
different substrates. activities he is an excellent singer of
Assamese bihu songs. Dr. Kalita can
be reached at

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 49

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

1. Mr. Gunin Saikia

He attended Iowa Western Community

College, Iowa for summer school from
Mr. Gunin Saikia is hailing from
June to August 2006. He then joined
Majuli, Jorhat, Assam the biggest
Rutgers, The State University of New
habitat river island in the world
Jersey and received his BS with
(present status: second biggest). He
summa cum laude (highest academic
received his B.Sc. (2000) from Govt.
honours) in Biotechnology in 2008. At
Science College, Jorhat, Dibrugarh
present he is doing MSc (Industrial
University and M.Sc. (2003) from
Management) in Royal Institute of
Dibrugarh University, Assam (India) in
Technology (KTH), Stockholm,
Inorganic Chemistry. He was in Tezpur
Sweden. He received several awards
University, Tezpur as a project staff in
which include Full Scholarship from
2004 for six months and joined as
European Commission (current),
Junior Research Fellow in Defence
Fulbright-PLUS (Partnership for
Research Laboratory, Tezpur in
Learning Undergraduate Studies)
October 2004. Presently Mr. Saikia is
scholarship, 2006-2008, from the US
pursuing research as a CSIR-SRF for
Department of State, Certificate of
his Ph.D. in the Department of
Excellence in Academics and
Chemistry, Indian Institute of
Community Service, 2006-2008,
Technology Guwahati under the
Academy for Educational
supervision of Dr. P. K. Iyer. His area
Development, Washington DC, USA,
of research, “Synthesis of π-conjugated
Hilda S Foster Scholarship, 2007-
oligomers/polymers for optoelectronic
2008, SEBS, Rutgers University, New
device applications”. Recently Mr.
Jersey, USA, Dean’s List, Spring, 08,
Saikia has visited Mainz Germany to
Fall 2007, Spring 2007 and Fall 2006,
attend the conference “Frontiers in
Cook College, Rutgers University,
Polymer Science 2009”.
New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA,
President’s Honor Roll, 2006, Iowa
2. Arup Baishya
Western Community College, Iowa,
USA and NIUS (National Initiative on
Mr. Arup Kumar Baishya, Born and
Undergraduate Science) fellowship
brought up in village Jagara, Nalbari,
from HBCSE, Tata Institute of
did his BSc (Honours) in
Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India
Biotechnology, Chemistry and Botany
from St. Anthony’s College, NEHU,
Shillong 1st class 4th with distinction.

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 50

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Mr. Saitanya Bharadwaj, IIT, imagining yet, that one of us will be

Guwahati. counted among the next Indian science
I must thank all the forum members for Nobel Laureate. Though I try to a man
your support to our Forum, I especially of scientific temperament, I’m not a
thank all of them who has initiated this student of Science. I took special
forum. I am proud to be a member of interest to your journal only because I
this forum. Being a member of this too edit one such journal PRAGYAN
forum, I had received a mail (forgot from Tinsukia College. As you know
the name of the sender) regarding the that, not a single college of the region
has such an environment that it effort
famous Lindau meet. Accordingly I
to publish one complete research
had applied and Lucky enough to be
oriented journal like yours. So, we
one out of 43 student from India. We
tried to be a little Student oriented. We
three (me, Subrata and Sonit) were publish everything which will benefit
representing the North-East. student folk along with the teachers.
I would like to share some of my We have been publishing it since 2003.
experience with you. It was a From the last year embark on net. You
wonderful trip to Germany. Meeting will find it here:
Nobel Laureates, talking to them,
formal and informal discussion with ow.
them were fabulous experience in my
life. Every word of them was found to Like the latest issue of NE QUEST we
be important(I feel)for a research too tried to cover up the International
scholar. According to them Year of Astronomy in our last June, 09
"Enjoyment towards the work", "no issue. Though, except two write ups on
time boundary for work", "always Total Solar Eclipse we failed to get any
positiveness" are some factor for their better articles like you. Anyway, I
success. They always consider quality hope we can work together. I’ll surely
of work rather than quantity. make a news and if possible a review
Apart from that we had visited several of your journal in our forth coming
universities and research laboratories issue which will come up in the month
in Germany. That was also a very nice of October next.
I wish you will keep your efforts up!
Mr. Sushanta Kar, lecturer, Tinsukia
Dr. Ashim J. Thakur, Tezpur
College, Tinsukia, Assam
University, Tezpur, Assam
It was really an amazing experience to
Personally, I feel, the standard of ‘N.E.
have an online journal like yours.
Quest’ is improving gradually. It has
Especially because you are working in
grabbed my heart and soul in such a
a troubled and distant corner of the
way that I use to check frequently
country. I went through your editorial.
when the next issue will come out just
It was really motivating one. I hope the
like the days when I was waiting for
style and commitment, you have, will
the ‘TINKLE’ every month. Although
made us imagine, if we’re not
the enthusiasm of young writers is less,

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 51

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

yet the news letter has been coming things for better. Jnana Prabodhini in
out. I am particularly pointing to the Marathi means Awakener of
female members whose contribution is Knowledge. Jnana Prabodhini is
not encouraging. The Volume 3 issue 1 resolved to bridge such minds through
came out nicely. Thanks to Dr. its work in the fields of Education,
Debananda Ningthoujam. The invited Research, Organization, Development,
article on climate change, ‘Global and Health.
warming: disastrous effects and
possible solutions’ by A. K. Puri and Jnana Prabodhini has long association
T. Satyanarayana is very informative with Northeast. Our resource persons
and need of the hour. In my opinion, are associated with different
carbon emissions and our comfort are educational and rural development
interrelated. Unless required, one man activities in Northeast.We are
driving a four seater car, doesn’t it associated with many student
look add? organisation from Northeast based at
Pune.We run a forum Northeast
Mr. Prashant Divekar, Jnana Students Society a platform to help the
Prabodhini, Pune, Maharastra student in his studenthood at Pune.

Since last few years I am reading the In last few years I had conducted
Northeast Quest.I feel very proud after Science camps for teachers and
reading the contributions done by students in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh,
scholars from Northeast in different Nagaland.Our focus is on Learn
branches of science. Science through Project method where
student conduct a short action research
I work with Jnana Prabodhini an on a problem for 6-8 days. In this camp
Educational Institute which works with we also work on skill development like
motto "Motivating Intelligence for observation skill, questioning skill,
Social Change".‘‘Motivating problem solving etc. which are
Intelligence’, according to Jnana important in science research.
Prabodhini, is an universal theme
cutting economic, social, religious, or I congratulate the publisher for
ideological differences. As long as the publishing such knowledge aweakener
urge to change the society is there, and all the writers from northeast for
other details prove to be of less their knowledge quest for the service
significance. In fact, Jnana Prabodhini of motherland.
realizes that changing our society is a
Herculean task and what is perhaps (
needed is a ‘meeting of minds’,
thinking minds who want to change

Do you know ?

• The temperature at the centre of the Earth is estimated to be 5500 degrees Celsius.
• The thermometer was invented in 1607 by Galileo.
• Englishman Roger Bacon invented the magnifying glass in 1250.
• The Earth spins at 1,000 mph but it travels through space at an incredible 67,000
• The deepest part of any ocean in the world is the Mariana trench in the Pacific with
a depth of 35,797 feet

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 52

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Academic Chemistry and Biochemistry Departments in the United States

Academic Chemistry and Biochemistry Departments Outside the United States

Bioorganic Chemistry Links

Top 25 Universities in the World (Courtesy: Forbes Magazine November 2009)

No. 1 Harvard University

No. 2 Stanford University
No. 3 University of California, Barkley
No. 4 Cambridge University
No. 5 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
No. 6 California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
No. 7 Columbia University
No. 8 Princeton University
No. 9 University of Chicago
No. 10 Oxford University
No. 11 Yale University
No. 12 Cornell University
No. 13 University of California, Los Angeles
No. 14 University of California, San Diego
No. 15 University of Pennsylvania
No. 16 University of Washington
No. 17 University of Wisconsin, Madison
No. 18 University of California, San Francisco
No. 19 The Johns Hopkins University
No. 20 University of Tokyo
No. 21 University College London
No. 22 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
No. 23 ETH Zürich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich
No. 24 Kyoto University
No. 25 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Top 10 Biomedical/ Bioengineering research universities in USA Source: US News & World Report

1. Johns Hopkins University, 2. Duke University

3. Georgia Institute of Technology, 4. University of California, San Diego

5. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 6. Case Western Reserve University

7. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 8. University of Pennsylvania

9. Boston University, 10. Rice University

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 53

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

International Ph.D. Program, Zurich, Switzerland

The Life Science Zurich Graduate School houses several Ph.D. programs that cover distinct areas of
the life sciences. Each program offers research and education opportunities in a stimulating
international environment for ambitious students who wish to work towards a Ph.D. degree. Accepted
students perform their research project in one of the participating research groups of their favorite
program, according to their scientific interest. Advanced teaching and training courses are offered
throughout the curriculum. The program language is English throughout. Ph.D. studies usually last 3-
4 years. Applicants must hold or anticipate receiving a Master’s degree or equivalent from a
university in a relevant field before starting the Ph.D. program. Applicants accepted for the program
will have to register with either the University of Zurich or ETH Zurich, depending on the affiliation
of their future research group.

Application deadlines: December 1st and July 1st

For details please visit :

International PhD-Program in Austria 2010

International PhD-Program ‘Cell Communication in Health and Disease’ – CCHD 2010

Starting March 2010 & Application deadline: November 30, 2009

At the Medical University of Vienna, CCHD, a PhD Program in biomolecular Medicine supported
by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), has been established. The program offers cutting-edge
education in the fields of Neurobiology, Vascular Biology, Immunology, and Inflammation Research
and integrates basic, applied, and clinical sciences, as well as a huge spectrum of experimental
Admitted PhD students will receive funding for at least three years including support to visit
international onferences and specialized workshops. Applicants must hold a final degree in the
diploma studies of Medicine, Dentistry, or in ny scientific/technical subject-related diploma studies
(such as Cell or Molecular Biology) by the commencing term of the program.

Further information on research topics and courses, as well as application forms are available at:

First International Conference on Conservation, Marketing and Patenting of Medicinal

Plants (ICCMP)
18 to 20 December 2009, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

Website:; Contact name: Dr. R. N. Pati

To address a wide range of serious issues relating to implementation of Global Strategy for
Plant Conservation, promoting arrangements for registration of patent rights and linking
livelihood opportunities with conservation
Organized by: Council for Tribal and Rural Development, IK Foundation of India, VRM
Foundation ; Deadline for abstracts/proposals: 30 August 2009

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 54

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum


13th and 14th November

(For students pursuing BSc, BE, BTech, MSc, ME, MTech in General Sciences, Health Sciences,
Agriculture and Technology) @ International Institute of Information Technology (I2IT), Pune,
Maharastra, India

Conference Highlights

• Interactive sessions by leading experts in Biotechnology from industry and academia on:
Stem Cells, Pharmaceutical / Vaccines, siRNA Technology, Microarrays / Proteomics
• Poster Presentation
• Biotechnology Model Presentation
• Student Innovation Award 

Visit the link to register online

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 55

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

For details visit

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 56

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Collage by Mr Saitanya Bhradwaj on his Lindau visit

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 57

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Details about the Northeast India Research Forum

Date of creation of the forum : 13th November 2004

Area: Science and Technology
Total number of members till date: 302

1. Arindam Adhikari, Ph.D. 2. Ashim J. Thakur, Ph.D.
Institute of Surface Chemistry, Chemical Science Dept, Tezpur University,
Stockholm, Sweden Tezpur, Assam
Email: Email:

3. Utpal Borah, Ph.D. 4. Khirud Gogoi, Ph.D.

Dibrugarh University, Assam, India University of California, San Diego, La Jolla,
Email: USA;

Editorial Team of N.E. Quest

1. Debananda Ningthoujam, Ph.D. 2. Tankeswar Nath, Ph.D.

HOD, Biochemistry Dept. Jubilant Organosys Ltd.
Manipur University, Imphal, India Gajraula, UP, India

3. Manab Sharma, Ph.D. 4. Shanta Laishram, Ph. D.

Australia, Dept of Pure Mathematics,
Email: University of Waterloo, Canada
5. Dr. Robert Singh Thangjam
Dept. of Biotechnology,
Mizoram University
(Editor of this issue)
6. Pranjal Saikia 7. Pankaj Bharali,
Chemical & Materials Engineering Research Institute for Ubiquitous
Department;University of Cincinnati, Ohio, Energy Devices; National Institute
USA of Advanced Industrial Science
Email: and Technology, Japan
8. Sasanka Deka, Ph.D. 9. Áshim Thakur, Ph.D.
National Nanotechnology Laboratory, 10. Utpal Borah, Ph.D.
Lecce, Italy 11. Arindam Adhikari, Ph.D
Email: 12. Khirud Gogoi, PhD

Cover Page designed by : Panacea Studio, Pune

Logo designed by : Manab Sharma

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 58

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

N. E. Quest; Volume 3, Issue 1, April 2009. 59