INFLATABLE SILICONE CELLS

Simulaton and analysis of diferent aggregates
using partcle spring systems
Karagkiozi Zoi
This dissertaton is submited in partal fulflment of the requirements for the degree of Master of
Science in Adaptve Architecture and Computaton from University College London
Bartlet School of Graduate Studies | University College of London | September 2012
I, Karagkiozi Zoi, confrm that the work presented in this thesis is my own. Where informaton
has been derived from other sources, I confrm that this has been indicated in the thesis.
Karagkiozi Zoi
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Abstract
In respect of the recent emergence of Sof Robotcs as an innovatve generaton
of robotcs crafs, sof actuated pneumatc networks with no rigid links or rotaton joints
challenge new potental applicatons on responsive design. This study atempts to address
the challenge to fully predict and control the shape of their deformaton within a complex
aggregate patern. The proposed design strategy allows innate characteristcs and behaviors of
the material system to be engaged into the computatonal design which is constantly updated
through feedback from the fabricaton process of the physical model. The computatonal
design tool is a generatve algorithm that involves a process of negotaton between form
and integrated constraints based on a partcle spring system. An inital experiment is carried
out to determine its ftness to the design problem of a single unit and then further tests
are conducted to test and report its efciency in more complex systems when aggregatng
multple components. The fnal outcome indicates a design tool that is capable to control the
bend formaton of the physical model and provide results in small assemblies with high rate
of accuracy which gradually decreases as the profle geometry becomes more intricate by
aggregatng larger assemblies.
Word count : 10370
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Acknowledgements
I would like to express my deepest grattude to my tutors:
Sean Hanna, for all his valuable supervision, support and inspiratonal discussions
Ruairi Glynn, for his inital advice and encouragement to work on the feld of Sof Robotcs
Maria Eleni Scavara, for her support and patence
Also, I would like to thank my AAC colleagues:
Ben Haworth, for the constructve discussions on our common interest, Sof Robotcs
Gkougkoustamos Stefanos, for his inspiraton and encouragement at all tmes
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Contents
Abstract.........................................................................................................................................3
Acknowledgment..........................................................................................................................4
List of Illustratons.........................................................................................................................6
1.0 Introducton.........................................................................................................................8
1.1 Material Design....................................................................................................8
1.2 Responsive Materials-Sof Robotcs.....................................................................9
1.3 The Architectural Problem and Thesis Aims........................................................9
1.4 Structure of the Thesis......................................................................................10
2.0 Background Research.......................................................................................................11
2.1 Free-form Metal Infaton and the Persistent Model.........................................11
2.2 Exploring Pneumatc Networks within the design Context..............................12
3.0 Methodology.....................................................................................................................15
3.1 Fabricaton.........................................................................................................15
3.1.1 Observaton on Material System...........................................................15
3.1.2 Selecton of the structure geometry......................................................17
3.1.3 Experimentaton–Physical Testng.........................................................17
3.2 Computatonal Design.......................................................................................24
3.2.1 Algorithm...............................................................................................24
3.2.2 Integratng Constraints..........................................................................25
4.0 Testng and Results..........................................................................................................26
4.1 Testng on Single Unit.........................................................................................28
4.2 Testng on Double Component.........................................................................30
4.3 Testng on Aggregate System of four components..............................................32
4.4 Testng on Aggregate System of six components................................................34
5.0 Discussion.........................................................................................................................37
5.1 Overview of fndings..........................................................................................37
5.2 Critcal Assessment............................................................................................38
5.3 Future Developments........................................................................................39
6.0 Conclusion.........................................................................................................................40
7.0 References..........................................................................................................................41
Appendix I..................................................................................................................................43
Appendix II..................................................................................................................................50
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List of Illustratons
Figure 1. Lef: Detail of the connecton between discreet components to construct an aggregate. Right:
Schematc indicatng how the persistent model (consistng of both representaton and artfact) is nest-
ed within the environment of operaton and coupled through lines of acton and feedback.( Source: <
htp://cita.karch.dk/Menu/Projects/Behaving+Architectures/Persistent+Model+%231+%282010%29>
..............................................................................................................................................11
Figure 2.Visualizaton using processing in 3D to explore spring Physics further. Points in a mesh are
displaced according both to the frequency and volume of the sound. The form of which is diminished
or augmented according to the strength of user’s voice. The mesh points behave in accordance to trig-
gered “guide” points by assessing the relatve height of their neighbors.............................................13
Figure 3. The wrapping moton of a sof robot during air pressure.....................................................14
Figure 4. Sof robot in a shape of star fsh...........................................................................................14
Figure 5. Bend formaton towards the strong silicone layer...................................................................16
Figure 6. First prototypes of two acrylic moulds with diferent input channel......................................18
Figure 7. Acrylic mould with single big air channel for both silicone layers. The sof silicone is the thicker
layer and contains the channel and the hard silicone is the thinner......................................................18
Figure 8. Aggregate System : Four stages of the experiments..............................................................18
Figure 9. Aggregate patern of six components a, b, c, d, e and f with mixed bend formaton.............19
Figure 10. Proporton of the horizontal projecton of the curve to its height......................................19
Figure 11. Graph of deviaton for the rato of the horizontal projecton of curve to its height in 6 difer-
ent phases............................................................................................................................................19
Figure 12. Graph of deviaton of node positon in Z (mm) in accordance to diferent amount of insert-
ing air (cm3).........................................................................................................................................20
Figure 13. Secton view of the single physical component in equilibrium state (lef) and under infaton
(right)...................................................................................................................................................20
Figure 14. Plan view of the single physical component in equilibrium state (lef) and under infaton
(right)...................................................................................................................................................20
Figure 15. Views of the double infatable component bending towards the lower silicone layer..........21
Figure 16. Views of the double infatable component bending towards the upper silicone layer............21
Figure 17. Average deviaton of node positon in each cell (mm) under diferent amount of air (cm
3
) for
the stage 2 and stage 3.........................................................................................................................22
Figure 18. Maximum deviaton (mm) of the horizontal projecton of the curve and its height for each of
the six components (a, b, c, d,e, f) within the aggregate system on stage 4.........................................22
Figure 19. Plan view of the aggregate system in two diferent states..................................................23
Figure 20. Secton view of the aggregate system with reversed curvatures........................................23
Figure 21. Detailed focus of secton views of the aggregate system....................................................23
Figure 22. Partal view of fve allocated spring connectons within the hexagon.................................25
Figure 23. Column chart of maximum deviaton on each spring length (mm) for equilibrium and the state
under infaton......................................................................................................................................27
Figure 24. Column chart for each observaton that refers to diferent resultng spring lengths............27
Figure 25. Column chart for single component that shows the length to height rato of curvature measured
in mm for each observaton..................................................................................................................28
Figure 26. Column chart for single component that shows the average error between physical length
to height rato of curvature for each observaton..................................................................................28
Figure 27. Minimum Deviaton of node positon (mm) in Z :Observaton 1.........................................29
Figure 28. Maximum Deviaton of node positon (mm) in Z : Observaton 2.......................................29
Figure 29. Views of digital buckling formaton of single component towards its lower layer...............29
Figure 30. Column chart for length to height rato of the curvature developed in a and b component for
each observaton..................................................................................................................................30
Figure 31. Column chart of average error from physical length to height rato of curvature displayed both
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on a and b component for each observaton.........................................................................................30
Figure 32. Minimum Deviaton of nodes positon in Z: Observaton2..................................................31
Figure 33. Maximum Deviaton of nodes positon in Z: Observaton 4...............................................31
Figure 34. Views of digital buckling formaton of double component towards its weak layer.............31
Figure 35. Aggregate system of four adjacent components with reversed bending atributes...........32
Figure 36. Column chart of length to height rato of the curvature developed in four components for
each observaton..................................................................................................................................32
Figure 37. Column chart of average deviaton from physical rato displayed on four components for
each observaton..................................................................................................................................33
Figure 38. Diferent views of digital simulaton of the infated aggregate system based on 4 compo-
nents.................................................................................................................................................33
Figure 39. Aggregaton with 6 components of reversed bending propertes.......................................34
Figure 40. Column chart for average deviaton of digital length to height rato of curvature displayed
on six components for each observaton..............................................................................................34
Figure 41. Column chart of length to height rato of the curvature developed in six components for
each observaton .................................................................................................................................35
Figure 42. Trendline for the average error in digital deformaton of diferent aggregate paterns com-
pared to physical ones..........................................................................................................................35
Figure 43. Digital representaton of infatable aggregate system composed by 6 elements................36
Figure 44. Single Unit...............................................................................................................................43
Figure 45. Single Unit................................................................................................................................43
Figure 46. Double Unit..............................................................................................................................43
Figure 47. Double Unit..............................................................................................................................44
Figure 48. Double Unit..............................................................................................................................44
Figure 49. Double Unit.............................................................................................................................44
Figure 50. Aggregate System of six components......................................................................................45
Figure 51. Aggregate System of six components.......................................................................................45
Figure 52. Aggregate System of six components.......................................................................................45
Figure 53. Aggregate System of six components......................................................................................46
Figure 54. Aggregate System of six components.......................................................................................46
Figure 55. Aggregate System of six components......................................................................................46
Figure 56. Digital Simulaton of single unit...............................................................................................47
Figure 57. Digital Simulaton of double unit.............................................................................................47
Figure 58. Digital Simulaton of Aggregate System of four components..................................................48
Figure 59. Digital Simulaton of Aggregate System of four components..................................................49
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1.0 Introducton
The general framework of this study refers to a design strategy that explores complex
aggregate material systems based on two parallel procedures: Fabricaton and Computatonal
Design. The result that emerges from this interface is the development of a reliable digital
design tool that simulates the material assembly behavior under certain environmental
infuences. The study concerns about issues relatng to the role of representaton being
extended into materiality and the queston that emerges is how computatonal design can
be correlated to the represented and at what level of complexity can this model be reliable
to predict accurately the material system behavior under certain environmental infuences.
Based on the observaton of the complex relaton between the micro scale of material make
up and macro scale of material system derived through the physical testng, a computatonal
design method is developed to explore the infaton of complex aggregate pneumatc
networks into infuences of force vectors. The proposed method is based on a partcle–spring
system that establishes connectons within the material system. These connectons aim to
bond a semantc relatonship between the physical artfact and its representaton on digital
world.
1.1 Material Design
Unlike sculptors and other artsts, Architects rarely have the privilege to work directly
with the object of their inspiraton. In that architectural context, design is ofen considered
to tackle issues of form framework while material based design corresponds directly to the
discourse between form and tectonic exchange that lies on a series of observatons, tests
and speculatons over material’s behavior (Schropfer, 2011). Thinking Design materially is
a procedure that actvates the role of representaton to both realize design objectve and
equally updates the objectve itself. A closer focus on propertes of a material such as texture,
elastcity and fragility automatcally displays the opportunites and constraints of working
with it (Schropfer, 2011). An in-depth understanding of material capacites can be derived
from physical testng through bending, stretching and other various actons. A combinaton
of observaton and experimentaton on material capacites would suggest certain types of
assembly formaton such as tessellaton or sectoning, in order to fulfll the design intent.
Then this knowledge must be embedded into a digital design space to establish a semantc
interface with the real model.
Once the medium of representaton altered from a simple drawing to a digital model
which is constantly being informed by material system behavior, according to Phil Ayres,
the privilege to design materiality in a digital environment lies on a built framework that
accommodates changes and enables the consideraton of tme to become explicit rather
than inferred (Ayres, 2012). In other words, the main idea is that an adaptve digital model
emerges from being encoded with updated informaton derived from real tme experiments
on a material system. For a digital model to achieve a persistence of materiality, it must go
beyond a precise geometrical descripton to deploy an in-depth discourse of formaton based
on behavior of mater (Ayres, 2012). In other words, the aim is not to make a model of a
material but a model that can compute material logics and explore the material capacites
within the digital interface. Encoding material propertes into digital modeling refers to
relatonal topographies that connect the shape of mater under the infuence of forces
(Goulthorpe, 2008). The recent shif on the role of representaton in architectural praxis,
extends the noton of design from being just geometric enttes like lines, solids and vertex
with a meaningless context to a smart geometry that actual co–operates with the designer
for implementng material investgaton digitally.
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1.2 Responsive Materials-Sof Robotcs
One of the greatest features of working digitally on material computaton is the tme
factor that is taken into consideraton as a fourth dimension. Design in the fourth dimension
enables architects to deploy dynamic building methodologies. The emergence of robotc
media in architectural context has highlighted the interest to material assemblies that
support dynamic forms that are subjected to transformatons through tme. The result of
this technological shif, is the emergence of a responsive architecture. Since, architecture is
defned by physical components that are materials, we can speak about responsive materiality
(Schropfer, 2011).
Speaking about robotcs, our current understanding of them, their functons and
behaviors have become ubiquitous with ideas of precision, efciency and harbor. Over the
last ten years, the feld of Robotcs Research has seen a development away from this traditon.
With researchers developing sof Robotcs that provide new capacites in comparison to their
ancestry. Our defniton can be expanded somewhat whereby Robots can be considered as
hard or sof on the basis of the compliance of their underlying materials. Whereas hard robots
have multple but discrete amount of fexible joints connected by stf links, each providing
a degree of freedom (df), Sof Robotcs have distributed deformaton with theoretcally an
infnite number of df (Trivedi et al., 2008). With no rigid links or rotaton joints, the emergence
of an innovatve generaton of robotcs crafs is evident and can be exploited further into a
multple of potental applicatons on responsive design.
1.3 The Architectural Problem and Thesis Aims
The research is focused on both the fabricaton and digital design of infatable silicone
aggregates with high rate of complexity while the aim is to create an algorithmic simulaton
that probes the relatonship between the virtual model and its physical artfact. The queston
that emerges is how the digital assembly can be correlated to the represented and at what level
of complexity can we rely on the proposed algorithmic method while aggregatng paterns.
The computatonal design embedded with material propertes, aims to provide adequate
results about the bend formaton of a double curved membrane composed of hexagonal
silicone cells. To achieve the physical dynamic simulaton, a generatve algorithm has been
formulated based on principles of a partcle-spring system that plays the key role to develop
a controllable design tool which both simulates the infaton of silicone cellular structure and
further explores a range of diferent confguratons in respect to its performance capacity.
The algorithm proposed is an iteratve process that simulates structural behavior
with the aid of springs that exert atractve and repulsive forces among mass nodes that are
atached to (Gordon, 2003). Calibratng the material intent, the design environment is also
updated by constraints which enable material system to be self-organized and thus generate
geometry and topology of the tessellated double curved membrane consisted of multple
hexagonal cells. The key role of the algorithm is the local distributon of spring connectons in
each cell with diferent expansion rates because they are able to control and defne the bend
formaton with positve or negatve curvature.
There are two design approaches to calibrate material system within digital design.
Persistent Modelling refers to the frst approach that completes a two way discourse between
the act of making and the act of designing. By looping over the feedback from both physical
testng and computatonal design, new structural systems can be investgated and composed
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within this interface (Ayres, 2012). The other approach proposes a more linear procedure by
taking advantage of the feedback derived from physical testng and fabricaton of the artfact
and then engaging changes and exploratons within the digital design space accordingly. In
other words, physical testng provides measurements which are computed digitally. In this
sense, the digital design space, frstly has a passive role of being constantly embedded with
material logics. Being fexible over the relatonship between input and transformaton, digital
model becomes substtute of the physical artfact and expands its role into the computatonal
framework. The proposed design strategy in this study is outlined by the second methodology
which best fts to its purpose to highlight the actve role of the computatonal design within
the design process.
1.4 Structure of the Thesis
In the next secton, a background research is presented with chosen related projects
that deploy material design methods. In the following secton 3, the methodology will be
presented which covers two parts: the fabricaton of the aggregate material system and
the implemented algorithmic method. Secton 4 contains an in depth descripton of the
implemented code which then is subjected to various tests in order to defne the level of
complexity to which it can accurately predict the material assembly behavior. The results of
the experiments will be analyzed and accessed in full detail in secton 5. Moreover, the overall
approach will be evaluated and some future possible directons for further development
will also be mentoned. The conclusion in secton 6 will present an overall review of this
investgaton.
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2.0 Background Research
“In one philosophy one thinks of form or design as primarily conceptual or cerebral, something
to be generated as a pure thought in isolaton from the messy world of mater and energy.
Once conceived, a design can be given a physical form by simply imposing it on material
substratum, which is taken to be homogeneous, obedient and receptve to the wishes of
the designer... The opposite stance may be represented by a philosophy of design in which
materials are not inert receptacles for a cerebral form imposed from the outside, but actve
partcipants in the genesis of from. This implies the existence of heterogeneous materials,
with variable propertes and idiosyncrasies which designer must respect and make an integral
part of the deign which, it follows, cannot be routnized.”
(Manuel DeLanda, 2001)
2.1 Free-form Metal Infaton and the Persistent Model
The project Free–form Metal Infaton by Phil Ayres, proposes a design strategy
that sets representaton and artfact in a circular relatonship in order to decrease the
unpredictability throughout the various stages of the architectural praxis: design–fabricaton
and use/occupancy (Ayres, 2011). The project proposes representaton to be a place of
observaton and exploraton in an atempt to specify and temper the deviaton derived from
making of things and making of informaton. Two sheets of steel are welded at the seam to
form a sealed cushion into which a fuid medium is introduced (fgure 1). This material system
turned to behave as an infatable component while the internal pressure increases, pushing
the material over its elastc limit (Ayres, 2011). The results indicate the reciprocal frame
established between material behavior and the nature of imposed geometry. Comparing the
physical with the digital, the amount of deviaton is measured and investgated untl the
system to come up with greater degrees of predictability. The dramatc transformaton from
planar to plastc buckling components is a consequence of a complex matrix of interactons
within microstructure and macrostructure of material assembly (Ayres, 2011).

Figure 1. Lef: Detail of the connecton between discreet components to construct an aggregate.
Right: Schematc indicatng how the persistent model (consistng of both representaton and artefact) is nested
within the environment of operaton and coupled through lines of acton and feedback.
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The representaton combined with the process of fabricaton atempts to probe
and display the signifcant and ofen unpredictable deformaton of artfact. However, the
currently computer based simulaton is unable to predict accurately the buckling informaton
derived from the infaton process. Apparently, these inaccuracies at the component itself
are highlighted when aggregaton is being considered (Ayres, 2011). Observing the results
of some series of experimentaton over the artfact infaton, the frst step is to record
certain predictable lines in relaton to geometrical atributes of cushion profle. Then, these
points with predictable deformaton are examined within the digital design space untl a
relaton between their formaton and geometric atributes to be established. However, as
the geometry of material assembly becomes more complex shaping aggregate paterns,
in additon to predictable lines,there is unpredictable buckling occurring in the individual
components (Ayres, 2011). Then the concern is focused on trying to determine the locatons
of unpredictable formaton. This strategy proposed in Free-form Metal Infaton atempts to
deploy a design space where antcipaton is tackled with actve feedback (Ayres, 2011). In
other words, it is an alternatve method to linear design to constructon procedure where the
discourse occurs between representaton and fabricaton through feedback. The outcome
of such a non-linear architectural procedure, is the producton of sensitve and adaptve
architectural forms objected to constraints and atributes of material systems.
2.2 Exploring Pneumatc Networks within the design Context
Sof Robotcs Research Project for Digital Ecologies Module in AAC
Supervisor: Ruairi Glynn
Authors: Karagkiozi Zoi, Ben Haworth
Methods for developing actuated Pneumatc networks have developed recently and
maintained within the context of Chemistry, Engineering and material Science. Increasingly,
more and more designers and architects are showing interest in this feld but the inaccuracies
on results to manage entrely predictability in the microstructure of material system limit its
applicaton in architectural context.
Robots can be considered as hard or sof on the basis of the compliance of their
underlying materials. Unlike hard robots, sof have distributed deformaton with theoretcally
an infnite number of df (degree of freedom). These degrees of freedom are out of proporton
with the amount of actuators required thus a more integrated system is established between
actuator and material constructon methods. In short, the distncton between “actuator”
and “actuated” becomes narrower to the point of being one. Further advantages of the sof
robot can be compiled from Calist (Calist et al., 2011) among others:
1. Infnite degrees of freedom and limited number of actuators
2. High Dexterity
3. Capability to work in Unstructured environments ( in which Environmental constraints
not known a priori)
4. Low resistance to stress forces
5. Compliant and able to conform to obstacles
6. Can carry sof and fragile objects
7. Can perform diverse tasks with minimum control
However, challenges would lie to fully control the shape of deformaton in sof robots.
Depending on requirements, resultng mobilites may difer and not be predicted easily. With
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no rigid links or rotaton joints, a new shif is evident to an innovatve generaton of robotcs
craf.
Typically examples of sof robotcs prototypes can be seen to be following two distnct
methods: Electro actve Polymer (EAP) and Pneumatc artfcial Muscle (PAM) actuators. “Sof
Robotcs for Chemists” (Whitesides et al., 2011) outlines one such method of PAM using
Pneumatc networks or “Pneu Nets”. The sof Robots are constructed from two types of
silicone rubber that have varying tensile propertes and their moulds are 3D Printed (ALM)
with detailed layouts of walls that form internal capillary systems. On completon of the
robots, actuaton is triggered with a source of pressurized air creatng moving appendages
that bend, grab, walk and hold.
Currently, these methods tend to remain within the context of Material Science.
Technical demands have to a degree excluded other disciplines from taking an actve
involvement. Actve materials currently available in use in sof robotcs manipulators have
shortcomings that make their commercial use impractcal (Trivedi et al. 2008). Scale is another
issue. It is hard to imagine a simple “scaling up” process resultng in larger objects being
manipulated in the same way as scaled up hard robotcs. The possibility of failure due to
fragility of materials used and the requirements to keep the structure air tght are ofen being
prohibitve. However, the advantages of working with sof actuated Robots are inherently
spatal, in partcular the ability to explore “unstructured” environments. Moreover, sof robots
by their very nature are compliant to stress force, hence in order to exist and functon in real
world, the material itself must form a direct dialogue through contact with its surroundings.
The environment is having an efect on their form just as it is true vice versa. Both of these
ideas lend themselves to architectural research and praxis.
The project concerns to create a human interface with the view to develop interactons
between viewers and the robots themselves. Sof robot movements are quite diferent from
those of humans, thus humans operators are getng confused and disoriented. In this view,
an interacton is built between two devices that respond to human breathing paterns. This
interface between the breathing process and infaton of sof actuators plays the major key
role. In other words, a dialogue has been developed between two partcipants, sof actuators
and human.
The input device that responds to the sound of breathing provides a stable soluton
to the problem. A user could breathe into a mask atached to a tube and a microphone at
the other end sends the sound data into Processing environment via Arduino. The signal
and resultant sound wave were documented using a sample rate of varying resoluton. Euler
spring Physics was used within some Processing Code in order to smooth out the sound
values over tme (fgure 2). This created far more stable values that could be easily controlled
depending on required relatonships between input and output.

Figure 2.Points in a mesh are displaced
according both to the frequency and
volume of the sound. The form of which is
diminished or augmented according to the
strength of user’s voice. The mesh points
behave in accordance to triggered “guide”
points by assessing the relatve height of
their neighbors.
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Having tested sof robots with syringes, a device was built that would combine the
syringe with a linear actuator. The signal from the input device can be transferred easily via
the Processing /Arduino interface. The syringe performs a mediatng role in the interacton
procedure between user and sof robot controlling the rate of infaton.
Moulds were designed in 3D (Rhino) and printed in Nylon. An inital atempt at
recreatng the multgait quadruped (Whitesides et al., 2011) provided some encouraging
results. Whilst not actually managing to walk, each channel performed as expected when was
treated independently. Afer the frst prototypes were tested, next step was to design robotc
actuators that had only one single channel input. Several moulds were produced with varying
lengths and tested. The most successful was a robot with 9cm and 16.4cm in size supplied
with air pressure from a 500 ml syringe. The level of actuaton exceeded expectatons with
sof robot performing a wrapping moton whereby one end would wrap completely into itself
(fgure 3). Another successful sof robot was in a shape of star fsh. Each limb of it can be
controlled independently. A similar curvature was noted as before with a key distncton. That
being the efect of a tapered design as opposed to a uniform “straight” network. The taper
has the efect of reducing the degree of the maximum rotaton of the actuator at each node
point. Therefore, the wider part bends more than the narrower part (fgure 4).
The aim of the project was to investgate silicone rubber atributes and fabricate sof
actuators in order to explore the bend behavior of sof pneumatc networks based on their
capillary internal channel. However, the computatonal design was not engaged with material
propertes, thus it is not able either to simulate the physical deformaton or deploy exploratory
creatvity over the design process. The problem can be addressed through an exploraton of
physical models that simulate the behavior with high level of accuracy based on analysis of
fuid mechanisms, thermodynamics and chemical kinetcs. A beter understanding of these
topics would drive to more accurate models, thus to beter design and control.
Figure 3. The wrapping moton of a sof
robot during air pressure.
Figure 4. Sof robot in a shape of star
fsh.
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3.0 Methodology
Taking the previous project on Sof Robotcs into consideraton, the task of this study
is to develop a greater understanding of the material behavior within the fabricaton process
of more complex pneumatc networks that compose a silicone membrane based on the
honeycomb structure. As it has been mentoned before, there are two design approaches
to calibrate material system within digital design. One strategy is to bond the representaton
and the artfact in a circular relatonship in a way to temper the indeterminacy throughout
the diferent phases of the architectural praxis (Ayres, 2011). Feedback is constantly updated
through physical testng and digital exploraton on material logics. Feedback bridges the gap
between the role of representaton and physical artfact by measuring the level of deviaton.
The result of this circular procedure is the fact that design space is constantly updated with
changes concerning geometries and forms being more sensitve and adaptve on the basis
of the compliance of their underlying material (Ayres, 2011). Such a circular design strategy
involves a tme–consuming procedure where the design is constantly changing in a close
loop for numerous tmes untl the deviaton rates between the goal and current state to
be narrowed up to the optmum according to designer’s intent. In this study, the proposed
strategy completes a part of this circular procedure. In other words, the approach proposes
a more linear procedure by taking advantage of the feedback derived from physical testng
and fabricaton of the artfact and then engaging changes and exploratons within the digital
design space accordingly. In that sense, innate characteristcs, behavior and capacites of the
material assembly integrate computatonally to the digital design. The proposed methodology
fts best to the purpose of this study that focuses on the highlights of the computatonal
design and its extended role to act as a morphogenetc driver within design process. This
secton explains the methodology of material design and it is divided into two main categories:
Fabricaton and computatonal design. Fabricaton entty covers the observaton, selecton
of the structure geometry and experimentaton of physical artfact and the computatonal
design secton frst presents and explains the algorithm itself and then investgates and goes
deeper into its exploratory propertes to unfold the material assembly gestalt.
3.1.0 Fabricaton
3.1.1 Observaton on Material System
Silicone rubber is an elastomer composed of silicone–polymer containing silicon
together with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Silicone rubbers are two parts polymers and is
generally non-reactve, stable and resistant to extreme environments and temperatures from
-55
o
C to +300
o
C while stll maintaining its useful propertes. Compared to organic rubbers,
however, silicone rubber has a very low tensile strength. The material is also very sensitve to
fatgue which refers to localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected
to cyclic loading. Silicone rubber is available in a range or hardness levels between 10 and
100, the higher number being the harder compound.
For the purpose of this study, two types of silicone are used for the experiments
and the outcome of physical components, a sof (Eco Flex 00-30) and a hard silicone
rubber (Additon Cure 33). For both of these types of silicone rubber, the mixing
procedure is the same. Afer mixing the same volumes of two parts of these polymers,
the mixture becomes homogeneous. Before use, the mixed silicone should be correctly
de-gassed in a vacuum chamber to remove air trapped within the mix. These air
bubbles formed inside the mixture can cause serious impairments on the fnish quality
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15
of the resultng mould. When the material is degassed in a vacuum, it expands to
approximately fve tmes its original volume and then collapse. At this point, the material has
been successfully vacuumed and it is ready for use.
Although, silicone rubber is currently a homogeneous mixture, when it is used for
building pneumatc networks, the material system is segmented into voids which are the
air channels. In that sense, silicone assembly evolves to a diferentated cellular structure.
Its anisotropic atributes are due to the non-uniform distributon of air pressure inside the
mould. Various confguratons in paterns of input channel employ diferent infated areas,
thus diferent deformaton and overall shape while air pressure increases.
In respect of the physical tests completed for the purpose of the previous project
on Sof Robotcs for Digital Ecologies Studio in AAC, pneumatc networks based on silicone
rubber components show an interestng deformaton under air pressure. They perform a
wrapping moton whereby one end would wrap completely into itself. Such curved formaton
of pneumatc structures is established due to the coupling of two diferent silicone rubbers,
one hard and the other sof. The sof rubber part is basically the thicker layer which contains
the inner capillary channel. The strong part is the thinner layer that displays lower rate of
elastcity in comparison to the sof rubber. The bend formaton is operatng towards the hard
layer as its expansion rate is lower.
Thus, while air increases internally the mould, the sof layer is under tension and the
hard layer is under compression (fgure 5). This study is taking advantage of such combinatonal
rubber layers to deploy both negatve and positve curvature by changing the locaton of
these layers. The general inspiraton behind the aim of this study, refers to the fabricaton
of a double curved membrane whose curvature is generated by its diferentated infatable
cellular structure. Atached hexagonal cells, as individual components with reversed layout
of strong and sof layer, are forming a honeycomb aggregate patern that allows changes
by allocatng such individual components diferently. For such material systems that are
complex and display non-linear behavior when exposed to dynamic environment infuences
and changes, a successful design strategy must conceive the micro scale of the material
make-up and macro scale of material system as a constant reciprocal framework (Menges,
2012). Most building materials such as metal and glass which are designed and produced
mainly for building components, are typically homogeneous which means uniform synthesis
that deploy similar atributes within its range. Unlike conventonal materials, intricate
structure and complex behavior based on infaton of rubber cellular structure becomes a
design challenge which this study tries to explore by employing computaton to navigate and
discover unknown paths within the design space.
Figure 5.Bend formaton towards the strong silicone layer.
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3.1.2 Selecton of the structure geometry
Based on the previous observatons over the material atributes and combinatonal
behavior of two atached rubber layers under air pressure, the cellular structure of silicone
membrane requires a geometrical patern that would unfold such material behavior and also
permit great level of its deformaton. Cellular structures can be seen as forms that appear
in nature and produced by biological organisms. Such organisms have evolved numerous
variatons of form that is reciprocal to their structure and material. Aggregate paterns
develop complex hierarchies within their assemblies based on self-organizaton principles
(Weinstock, 2006). The self-organizaton of biological material system is a dynamic procedure
over tme that enables the system to change the structure and its order and then to modify its
behavior respectvely (Weinstock, 2006). The evoluton of self–organized systems proceeds
from small components that are assembled together to form larger and more complex
structures. Cellular structures are polyhedral and may be regular or irregular forms with
diferent distributon.
Honeycomb is an example of hexagonal cellular structure found in nature. It is
organized in parallel rows and tends to have more regular cells. Honeycomb structures
allow the minimizaton of the amount of used material to reach minimal weight and
minimal material cost. Its structural formaton provides minimal density and relatvely high
compressive strength. Consequently, honeycomb structures are widely used to compose fat
or curved surface where high strength to weight rato is valuable. For the purpose of this
study, according to previous observatons and design intentons, hexagonal patern has been
chosen to form the shape of each silicone cellular structure. Units of hexagonal infatable
rubber components with internal air channel are atached together and through repetton
would form the double curved surface. This lightweight material assembly is constructed
as initally planar surface that infates as the internal air pressure increases, pushing the
material to its elastc limit.
3.1.3 Experimentaton–Physical Testng
The frst prototypes of silicone components get their shapes from two acrylic moulds
with diferent internal channels. The shape of both two moulds is a regular hexagon with
20mm each side. In the frst mould the single channel is developed in a capillary system
where a central tube runs within the range of the hexagon and is divided into more secondary
tubes perpendicular to the main and parallel to each other. In the second mould, the single
channel covers bigger area and is not divided into any secondary unit (fgure 6). Based
on the physical testng of these prototypes, each of these two components deploys a rate
of deformaton which is proportonal to the amount of internal air pressure. The silicone
hexagon cell based on the mould with the single big channel operated maximum infaton on
upper layer with a slight and gentle curve on its overall range and presented maximum tensile
strength compared to the other one. On the other hand, capillary channel with multple
secondary tubes performed higher overall buckling, with minimum infaton on upper layer
and minimum rate of tensile strength.
Comparing the results of two components, it can be seen that the shape of internal
channel indicates the directon of air force towards the most sensitve areas with lower rate of
stfness within its range. Thus the input channel triggers diferent bend formatons. For example,
the single big channel pushes the air towards the upper layer which is thinner thus less rigid than
the outer perimeter of hexagon. The result is that air pushes the upper layer to its elastc limit
forming a big infatable bubble and a slight and gentle curve on its overall range. The capillary
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17
channel, on the other hand, contains thin layers of silicone among its channels that are
mainly subject to higher force loading. As the air increases internally, the directon of its
force is towards these thin layers within the range of capillary system. Thus the silicone
is bending along its range forming a dramatc curve and a slight infaton on its upper layer.
Based on these observatons and considering the fact that the single big channel de-
ploys higher tensile strength during the experiments, the fnal shape of individual component is
based on this channel type for optmum structural performance. Moreover, the shape of the in-
dividual unit is an aggregate patern composed by three hexagons which are atached together
in a way to form 120 degrees angle (fgure 7). The size of each hexagon is slightly bigger than
the frst prototypes (40mm long each side) considering the fact that the rate of structural dam-
age is narrowed as scale increases. The fgure 7 illustrates the mould structure and the shape
of overall input channel.
According to this confguraton, individual components are atached with each other
to form aggregates that compose a double–curved membrane. This membrane is not solid and
contains voids among its cells in order to allow greater rate of bend formaton (fgure 8, 9). The
components have been allocated with reversed distributon of their local rubber layers thus
some of them are performing positve and some other negatve curvature. The distributon
of the two layers in the overall patern is optonal and can be diferentated within numerous
experimentatons. For the purpose of this study the selected patern displays six atached units
with blending curvature as it is illustrated in the fgure 9.
The experiments were carried out in four stages: the frst test was the infaton of the
single component, then the double component, following the 4-component aggregate patern
and last the 6-component structure (fgure 8).
Figure 7. Acrylic mould with single big air channel
for both silicone layers.
Figure 8. Aggregate System: Four stages of the experiments.
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Figure 6. First prototypes of two acrylic moulds
with diferent input channel
Figure 10. Proporton of the horizontal projecton of the
curve to its height.
The frst experiment was successfully completed on single component and the
infated cellular structure performed its plastc deformaton as it was antcipated. Clearly,
this type of triple unit was considered adequate to serve as an aggregate patern for the
purpose of this study. As the unit infates while the air pressure increases, the component
from planar surface is transformed to a double curved surface structure performing an
upward or downward trend according to the locaton of the hard layer. Considering this bend
formaton, the frst measurements were carried out to investgate the proporton of the
horizontal projecton (D) of the curve to its height (D
1
) (fgure 10). Under infaton, the values
are changing according to the graph on fgure 11 and it can be seen that under diferent
amount of air pressure, the horizontal projecton of the curve is always inversely proportonal
to its height (fgure 11). In equilibrium, the values of length to height rato is 160mm and 0mm
accordingly. Under maximum infaton, length D deviates at 110mm and Height D
1
at 50mm.
Moreover, the results of physical tests point out that the bend formaton of the component
causes a diferent rate of deviaton to nodes positon mainly in Z. The rate of deviaton in Z is
proportonal to the amount of air pressure that introduces to the internal channel. The graph
on fgure 12 represents the deviaton of each node positon in Z in accordance to the internal
amount of air measured in cm
3
. The deformaton of the physical single component is shown
in fgure 13 and 14. At equilibrium state, the unit has a planar surface. During infaton, the
artfact is subject to dramatc bending towards the hard silicone.
Figure 11. Graph of deviaton for the rato of the horizontal projecton of curve (length) to its height in 6 diferent
phases.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
110 mm 120 mm 130 mm 140 mm 150 mm 160 mm
H
e
i
g
h
t

(
m
m
)
Length (mm)
Height
Figure 9. Aggregate patern of six components a,
b, c, d, e and f with mixed bend formaton.
a
b
c
d
e
f
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 cm3 40 cm3 80 cm3 120 cm3 160 cm3 280 cm3 400 cm3 560 cm3 640 cm3
node 1
node 2
node 3
node 4
node 5
node 6
node 7
node 8
node 9
node 10
node 11
node 12
node 13
node 15
node 16
node 17
node 18
node 19
node 20
Figure 12. Graph of deviaton of node positon in Z (mm) in accordance to diferent amount of insertng air (cm
3
).
Figure 14. Plan view of the single physical component in equilibrium state (lef) and under infaton (right).
Figure 13. Secton view of the single physical component in equilibrium state (lef) and under infaton (right).
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Following to the next step of the fabricaton process, two separately units (a, b) with
the same allocaton of the hard layer, are atached together. In equilibrium, the total size
of the aggregate system is 208mm in width and 200mm in length. In this case, under air
pressure, the double cellular structure displays a well-shaped infatable dome. Despite the
atachment of two components, the buckling formaton has remarkably remained the same as
previously tested in single component. Both two these cells display the maximum buckling as
it would have done without being atached to each other. The fgures 15, 16 display diferent
views form the infatable double component. The symmetry of both two buckling formatons
outlines the fact that there is no physical deviaton between the two cellular structure.
The following experiments were carried out for a four-component cellular structure
with two positve units (a, b) atached to other two (c, d) with negatve curvature (fgure
9). In equilibrium, the total size of the aggregate system is 208mm in width and 380mm
in length. In this case, the buckling formaton is slightly infuenced by the aggregaton and
unlike previously, there is a gentle decrease on curvature of each cell. The graph of fgure
17 illustrates the slight decrease on average deviaton of node positon in each cell under
diferent amount of air for the stage 2 (double component) and stage 3 (4-component
aggregate patern).
Figure 15. Views of the double infatable component bending towards the lower silicone layer.
Figure 16. Views of the double infatable component bending towards the upper silicone layer.
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Figure 17. Average deviaton of node positon in each cell (mm) under diferent amount of air (cm
3
) for the stage
2 and stage 3.
The next and fnal task of physical testng was to atach six units together (a, b, c,
d, e, f) with reversed distributon of silicone layers (fgure 9). In equilibrium, the total size
of the aggregate system is 208mm in width and 560mm in length. Unlike the predictable
deformaton of individual and double component, the behavior of this infated aggregate
cellular structure was not easily predictable, partcularly as the profle geometry becomes
more complex. The experiments record a double-curved surface that is subjected to an
uniform ripple formaton. The local buckling formaton refects the locaton of strong and
sof layer, thus the overall buckling of this surface depends on the distributon of atached
components within the honeycomb structure. In other words, an alternatve combinaton
of individual components would result to a dramatc deviaton in curvature. Through the
infaton period, pressure readings informed higher distorton in the middle units which
perform negatve curvature. On fgure 18, the graph shows the maximum deviaton for
the length to height rato of curvature for each of the six components within the aggregate
system. The middle units are subjected to higher loading pressure from their adjacent units,
thus the length to height rato of curvature is diminished approximately to the half value in
contrast to the other units. Moreover, under infaton, the aggregate structure displays a slight
rotaton upon itself. Clearly, this deformaton at each component level, are only compounded
when considering aggregates. Unlike the previous tests, this unexpected distorton raises the
interest whether the computatonal model will be considered sufcient to overcome this
state of unpredictability.

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 cm3 40 cm3 80 cm3 120 cm3 160 cm3 280 cm3 400 cm3 560 cm3 640 cm3
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

(
m
m
)
Increased amount of air
Stage 2
Stage 3
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110 110
130 130
110 110
50 50
30 30
50 50
a b c d e f
Length Height
Figure 18. Maximum deviaton (mm) of the horizontal projecton of the curve and its height for each of the six
components (a, b, c, d, e, f) within the aggregate system on stage 4.
Figure 19. Plan view of the aggregate system.
Figure 21. Detailed focus of secton view of the aggregate system.
Figure 20. Secton view of the aggregate system with reversed curvatures.
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23
The following fgure 19 shows in plan view the aggregate pneumatc system. In
equilibrium this cellular structure has planar surface and under infaton the structure is
subjected to a dramatc buckling according to the assigned bending atributes of each cell.
Moreover, fgures 20 and 21 illustrate in secton view of the aggregate artfact the length to
height rato of curvature in each cell. Clearly, the middle components display a slight decrease
on their buckling formaton.
3.2.0 Computatonal Design
The previous procedure of physical testng that covers the observaton, the selecton
of cellular structure and experiments on material system aims to gather the material
informaton needed to be embedded on the computatonal design. Employing computaton
to conceive the intricate relaton between material microstructure and its behavior, allows
complex material systems that present non-linear reacton under dynamic environmental
forces to be explored and navigated in relaton to their structural performance. The intent is
not to make a model of a material but a model for exploring material logics (Nicholas, 2012).
3.2.1. Algorithm
The algorithm was developed in the Processing programming language and its
main atribute is the key role of the dynamic behavior of a partcle–spring system. Partcles
represent points on the edges of each hexagonal patern.
Partcles are programmed as instances of a class of node elements which have two
vectors: positon and velocity. The system was remained considerably simple as each partcle
has insignifcant value of mass, and there is also no use of acceleraton or viscous damping
for the purpose of this simulaton. The system is initalized with the partcles at predefned
topology. The predefned positon of points is recorded in a csv fle that is exported from
the autoCAD framework where the topology of the tessellated honeycomb patern was
developed. In other words, such geometric enttes like points developed in design sofware
with meaningless context are due to be manipulated and be engaged with material knowledge
in order to display specifc behaviors. Back to the processing framework, the two vectors,
positon and velocity of each node are updated at every iteraton according to the previous
frame rate and the current positon is calculated and stored as a result of the sum of its
vectors. The next step of interactons among the partcles is based on the current positon.
A node is connected with another node by a spring, which is illustrated as a line that
is defned by its stfness, actual length and rest length. The noton of spring line is used
to represent the elastc propertes of the silicone rubber. When the spring is not at its rest
length, each spring generates a force to the nodes that is atached to. More specifcally, in
every iteraton, the system calculates the distance D
ab
between two partcles a and b. If the
D
ab
is less than the threshold D that represents the rest length, then the spring connecton
is in compression state which means that a repulsive force is exerted upon them in order to
restore its equilibrium. If the D
ab
is more than the threshold D, then the spring is in tension and
an atractve force is exerted that push the two partcles closer to each other in its rest length.
In case that the distance D
ab
is equal to the rest length D, then the spring is in equilibrium,
thus no forces exerted upon them. Once the temporary force vector is stored in each partcle,
this vector is added in the velocity vector of each partcle. Then, the system calculates the
temporary positon of each node by adding to the original positon the updated vector velocity.
This procedure is iteratve untl the system converges to the equilibrium state which means
that all velocites are narrowed close to zero. According to the ideal length of each spring, the
system has the tendency to restore a predefned relatonal topography.
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3.2.2 Integratng Constraints
Clearly, the above descripton is abstract and stll inadequate to conceive the micro
scale of material make-up and the macro scale of material assembly. The system must deploy
material processes and to achieve that, a set of constraints have to be computed within the
computatonal design space. Looking into the cell of this structure, the hexagon is a three
dimensional object defned by nodes on each edge and springs that represent the line between
two points. For the purpose of this study, the central point of the hexagon is also defned and
represented as a node from which twelve additonal spring connectons are established to
each point on the edge of this patern. Thus, thirty overall spring connectons are developed
in each hexagon. When the patern is repeated to support the aggregate formaton of the
overall structure, some nodes belong to more than one hexagon, thus the average of total
spring connectons is diferentated in each hexagon. Based on the observaton of physical
testng, during the infaton, the cellular structure is bending towards the strong layer. As the
air pressure increases, its side length expands at diferent rate. For example, the upper sides
expand approximately twice than the lower sides. In additon, the perpendicular sides that
connect the upper and lower base expand less than the previous one.
Afer gathering all these expansion rates for each single connecton, the constraints
that the system requires refer to the variaton on the ideal spring length for the topography
between two nodes. Thus, fve variatons of spring connectons with diferent ideal length
(spring A, spring B, spring C, spring D, spring E) are programmed as instances of a class that
contains spring atributes. Then, each connecton within a hexagon is assigned to a specifc
type in respect to the measurements derived from physical testng. The fgure 22 illustrates
the distributon of fve variatons of spring connectons within a hexagon.

25
Figure 22. View of the distributon of fve variatons of spring connectons within the hexagon.
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4.0 Testng and Results
The representaton simulates the process of infaton on the physical model where
the cellular structure from initally planar surface is subjected to a plastc deformaton. Each
digital cell bends according to the local distributon of diferentated rates of spring expansion.
The result is a double curved membrane that is subjected to uniform ripples which represent
the positve and negatve local curvature. By changing the allocated spring expansion rates in
each cell, the algorithm generates the form of the tessellated membrane with diferent degree
of local curvature accordingly. Clearly, the key role of the algorithm is the local distributon
of diferent spring types in each cell because they are able to control and defne both the
curvature degree and the directon of the buckling process. The development of this material
system gives the privilege to the designer to explore a range of diferent confguratons within
the design space. In that sense, by aggregatng more components to form larger surfaces,
the system can compute the same generatve drivers in larger and more complex material
assemblies. Thus, the scale of design is fexible according to the designer’s intent.
Physical experimentatons point out that under infaton physical components are
subjected to a wrapping moton into themselves forming an upward or a downward trend
according to their allocated diferent spring types. In both cases, the maximum deviaton
is occurred at nodes positon in Z, the horizontal projecton of the curvature and its height.
For this reason, the measurements that were taken on the individual component and each
aggregate cellular patern focus on the 3 main diferent aspects:
1. Deviaton of nodes positon in Z
2. Horizontal projecton of the curve
3. Height of the curve
The maximum deviaton occurred on each spring length between the equilibrium
state and the state under infaton is represented on the column bar of fgure 23. However,
the performance of bend formaton on physical model is the result of numerous factors
that make the material system so intricate and hardly predictable. For example, the varied
amount of insertng air corresponds to diferent infaton rate and the resultng thickness of
silicone layers infuences diferently the tensile strength of each cell, thus in every iteraton
the system deviates from the previous statement. For this reason, four observatons were
carried out that refer to diferent resultng ideal lengths for each spring type with values that
slightly deviate from the real values (fgure 24). Each of these observatons comes up with
diferent results about the horizontal projecton of the curve and its height for each unit. The
purpose is to fnd the ideal combinaton of digital values of spring lengths to correlate with
minimum deviaton with the physical deformaton. This method aims to fnd the minimum
error occurred among these observatons when considering aggregates.
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Figure 24. Column chart for the case of four observatons that refer to diferent resultng spring lengths.
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Figure 23.Column chart of maximum deviaton on each spring length (mm) for equilibrium and infaton.
4.1 Testng on Single Unit
The inital testng of the algorithm was performed on a single component which is
the three atached hexagons in a way that form 120 degree angle. The digital infaton was
simulated with high rate of correlaton between artfact which ratonalizes the represented
topographies within the framework of material logics.
More precisely, each observaton comes up with results that refer to the length to
height rato of the curve. Comparing these results with the physical rato, the aim is to fnd
the observaton that corresponds to the minimum deviaton, thus minimum error recorded
between physical and digital infaton (fgure 25). Based on the graph of fgure 26, the least
deviaton corresponds to observaton 1 and the maximum deviaton refers to observaton
2. In additon to that, the following graph of fgures 27, 28 illustrate the minimum and
maximum deviaton of nodes positon in Z that correspond to observaton 1 and observaton
2 accordingly compared to physical model. Clearly, the model so far is considered reliable
enough to measure accurately and predict with minimum rate of error the infaton on single
component. The fgure 29 illustrates the digital deformaton of single material component
based on measurements of observaton 1. It can be seen that the single component is
subjected to a signifcant buckling formaton towards its lower layer. Comparing the result
with the physical reacton of single unit in fgure 11, the digital material system can compute
the antcipated deformaton.
Figure 25. Column chart for length to height rato of curvature measured in mm for each observaton.
Figure 26. Column chart for average error of each observaton compared to the physical values.
0.2
1.5
0.5
0.8
observation 1 observation 2 observation 3 observation 4
Average Error
137
150
130
142
34
25
35
28
observation 1 observation 2 observation 3 observation 4
Length Height
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Figure 27. Minimum Deviaton of nodes positon (mm) in Z between Physical and Observaton 1.
Figure 28. Maximum Deviaton of nodes positon (mm) in Z between Physical and Observaton 2.
Figure 29. Views of digital buckling formaton of single component towards its lower layer.
0
20
40
45
20
0
45
20
0 0
40
20
0 0
20
40
60
65
40
20
65
40
20 20
60
40
20 20
3
4 4
31
22
0
31
25
29
6
5
6
9
3
23
24 24
51
42
20
51
45
49
26
25
26
29
23
Physical Observation 2
0
20
45
50
35
0
50
35
0 0
45
20
0 0
20
40
65
70
55
20
70
55
20 20
65
40
20 20
0
11
32
44
33
11
44
34
22 22
31
11
2
13
20
31
52
64
53
31
64
54
42 42
51
31
22
33
Physical Observation 1
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4.2 Testng on Double Component
The same procedure as previously was carried out for the double component. The
chart of fgure 30 shows the length to height rato of the curvature developed on a and
b component measured in millimeters for each observaton. Based on the chart of fgure
31, observaton 2 corresponds to minimum error compared to the physical rato values and
observaton 4 comes up with maximum error. Comparing the previous minimum value of
error displayed on single component with the current value on double component, it can be
seen that the error remains surprisingly constant without any change on its value. This means
that the digital system can compute and predict accurately the reacton of both single and
double component under infaton. The graphs of fgure 32 and 33 illustrate the minimum
deviaton of nodes positon in Z for observaton 2 and the maximum deviaton for observaton
4 accordingly. Moreover the following fgure 34 represents the digital reacton of double
component under air pressure that corresponds to results of observaton 2. Clearly, the
dome formaton of the double physical infatable component can be correlated accurately to
the digital one.
Figure 30. Column chart for length to height rato of the curvature (mm) developed in a and b component for each
observaton.
Figure 31. Column chart for average error displayed on a and b component for each observaton compared to the
physical values.
2.3
0.2
0.66
1.7
0.6
0.2
0.9
3.5
observation 1 observation 2 observation 3 observation 4
Error a Error b
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145 144
154
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41
34
14.5
35
observation 1 observation 2 observation 3 observation 4
Length Height
a a b b a a b b a a b b a a b b
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Figure 32. Minimum Deviaton of node positon in Z between Physical and Observaton 2.
Figure 33. Maximum Deviaton of node positon in Z between Physical and Observaton 4.
Figure 34. Views of digital buckling formaton of double component towards its weak layer.
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Figure 35. Aggregate system of four adjacent components
with reversed bending atributes.
4.3 Testng on Aggregate System of four components
The aggregate system composed of four adjacent components with reversed curvature
as it is illustrated in fgure 35 becomes more intricate, thus less predictable than the previous
stages. The results outline a considerable increase on the deviaton of resultng length to
height rato. Each observaton comes up with values referring to rato that are considerably
diferentated from the real values. The minimum error is presented in observaton 3 and the
maximum error refers to observaton 1 (fgure 37). From the chart of fgure 36, it can be seen
that observaton 1 comes up with high rates of curvature height for all the four components.
Given the fact that this observaton represents also the highest deviaton, this means that
maximum bending induces the system to greater rate of distorton, thus maximum error. On
the other hand, observaton 3 with minimum average error ,displays uniformly distributed
values concerning the length to height rato of curvature of four components.
Figure 36. Column chart of length to height rato of the curvature (mm) developed in four components for each
observaton.
125
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observation 1 observation 2 observation 3 observation 4
Length Height
a a b b c c d d a a b b c c d d a a b b c c d d a a b b c c d d
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The fgure 38 illustrates the equilibrium and deformaton state of the digital aggregate
system of four components. The digital simulaton produces blended curvature and remains
proximate to the original profle. The blended curvature is triggered by the local distributon
of diferent spring connectons within each cell. The result of blended curvature conveys the
impression of a membrane being subjected to a double uniform ripple.
Figure 38. View of digital simulaton of the infated aggregate system based on 4 components.
Figure 37. Column chart for average error displayed on four components for each observaton compared to the
physical values.
3.44
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observation 1 observation 2 observation 3 observation 4
Error a Error b Error c Error d
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4.4 Testng on Aggregate System of six components
The previous procedure on aggregate system based on four components points
out the fact that by aggregatng components the system becomes more complex, thus less
predictable. Combining six components with reversed layout of spring connectons as it is
illustrated in fgure39, the result is less accurate to the physical reacton of material system.
More precisely, the average error outlines an upward trend between the current stage and
the previous with minimum value presented in observaton 2 and maximum error presented
in observaton 3 (fgure 40). Observaton 2 represents an overall uniform distributon of
average error occurred in each component. Unlike observaton 2, the rest of other cases
represent non uniform distributon of error values within each component which implies
that the aggregate infatable model presents less similarity among each cellular curvature,
thus less similarity to the infatable physical model. More precisely, fgure 41, documents the
actual values of length to height rato for all components in each observaton case. Clearly,
observaton 2 has the least deviaton among the other cases which means that it represents
the optmal soluton that best correlates to the physical model deformaton.

Figure 40. Column chart for average deviaton displayed on six components for each observaton.
Figure 39. Aggregaton with 6 components of reversed bending behavior.
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1, 0.2 2, 0.2
4, 0.8
6, 2.3
y = 0.0025x
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Components of Aggregate System
ERROR
Poly. (ERROR)
Figure 41. Column chart of length to height rato of the curvature (mm) developed in six components for each
observaton .
Figure 42. Trendline for average error displayed by diferent aggregate paterns.
Each level of complexity represented by diferent aggregates with varied number of
components is documented within the framework of this study. As the number of elements
increases, the average error of digital simulaton compared to physical deformaton follows
an upward trend. Based on the previous measurements, the trend of average error which is
the degree to which this error will contnue to increase in future, can be estmated accurately.
The graph of fgure 42 illustrates the trendline of average error in diferent aggregate
paterns. The trendline is polynomial of degree 3 and its R squared value or coefcient of
determinaton has value equal to 1 which provides a measure of how well future outcomes
are likely to be predicted by the model. In our case an R
2
of 1.0 indicates that the regression
line perfectly fts the real data points. Thus, a remarkable clue derived from this graph is
that the trend line of average error shows a slight increase untl the level of six components,
followed by a bigger rise on its value as the number of elements increases more.
164
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observation 1 observation 2 observation 3 observation 4
Length Height
a a b b c c d d e e f f a a b b c c d d e e f f a a b b c c d d e e f f a a b b c c d d e e f f
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Consequently, it can be estmated with high accuracy that as the profle geometry
becomes more complex, the aggregate system is considered inadequate in antcipatng the
physical reacton of the artfact. For instance, when the profle geometry doubles its size
up to 12 components, the average error rises to 13. In that case, the model is not able to
accurate predict the physical reacton of material system under certain infuences. The strong
semantc propertes established between representaton and artfact in smaller systems, lose
their validity as the aggregates increase their size. The following fgures illustrate the digital
representaton of infatable aggregate of six components.
Despite the gradual increase on error rate as the system aggregates to six components
with higher level of complexity, the digital deformaton outlines the overall shape of
antcipated buckling. The wrapping moton towards the springs with minimum expansion
rate is successfully correlated to the physical one. Moreover, the overall system is subjected
to a rotaton over itself which is also occurred to the physical model. Obviously, the intricate
material system can be correlated up to a level. Over this level, this methodology based on
a partcle spring system is not able to accurately predict in detail the bend formaton in each
aggregate component.
Figure 43. Digital representaton of infatable aggregate system composed of 6 elements.
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5.0 Discussion
5.1 Overview of fndings
Regarding the results documented in the previous secton, it is evident that
computatonal design has been able to be embedded with material propertes to generate
relatonal topographies of the infatable aggregate cellular structure. The model, implemented
through a partcle spring system, was capable to simulate the bend formaton of silicone cells.
The categorizaton of springs ideal length and their local distributon within each hexagonal
cell, played the key role to control the bending behavior of its cellular structure. Initalizing
the simulaton with the case of a single unit and then going through the same procedure
by aggregatng components, the results show that the algorithm performs more optmally
in terms of smaller aggregate system rather than in larger assemblies where the error
proportonally increases as the number of elements is multplied.
One of the signifcant fndings refers to the two diferent methods of measuring the
system deviaton from the physical one. The simulaton of bend formaton was assessed
according to the rato of the horizontal projecton of the curvature to its height and the
deviaton of nodes positon in Z. The optmal soluton that refers to the observaton that
provides the minimum error for each aggregaton, is crosschecked by both of these two
diferent measurements. This fnding confrms the validity of the implemented tests, thus the
credibility of their results.
Concerning the results derived from each case of Observaton, it can be seen that
there is not a single Observaton that represents the optmal soluton for all the stages of
aggregaton. For every stage that corresponds to diferent amount of elements tested, there
is a diferent optmal result. One of the persistent fndings was with the increase of expansion
rate on perpendicular spring connectons (spring type C) and together with the decrease of
spring ideal length of central upper connectons (spring type B), the generated local curvature
within each cell came closer to the ideal one with minimum distorton rate. However, the values
of length to height rato that describe the degree of bend formaton are lower in that case.
On the other hand, the case when the perpendicular springs (spring type C) expanse less with
minimum length deviaton from the equilibrium state combined with maximum expansion
rate on central upper connectons (spring type B), the buckling level is higher. However, the
values that refer to length to height rato are mainly disproportonate to physical ones, thus
maximum error from the physical model. Moreover, the results pointed out that the case of
observaton 4 where both the perpendicular and central upper connectons are subjected to
maximum deviaton from their equilibrium state, is not able to meet the requirements for
being optmal soluton in any aggregate system.
The tests on single unit showed that the algorithm is able to predict accurately with
negligible average error the antcipated deformaton of single cellular structure. Surprisingly, in
the next stage when aggregatng two components, the average error remained stable without
any increase in its value. The algorithm is considered to provide valid results and predict
with high accuracy the bend formaton of the double cellular structure. Unlike the previous
small aggregate system, when the number of elements is multplied, the four components are
subjected to higher deviaton from the ideal ones, thus the result of simulaton is less valid.
Clearly, this fnding was antcipated, as the local transforms impact upon the whole. The global
deformaton ends up based on the interacton of spatal forces developed in each cell. Thus, the
exact behavior is less predictable as the system becomes more intricate. In that sense, when
aggregatng six components, the system is providing with less accurate results. However, the
overall bend formaton presents high rate of similarity with the physical outcome. Each cellular
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structure based on its local distributon of diferent ideal spring lengths performs the
antcipated positve or negatve curve with varied values of length to height rato. Mainly, the
middle units are subjected to higher loading forces, thus there the deviaton rate is higher
than the rest. Optmal soluton is considered the case where there is an uniform distributon
of length to height rato within the overall range of aggregate system. In the case of aggregate
system being composed of six components, the optmal soluton is achieved with minimum
average error of 2.3. The trend line of average error shows a slight increase untl the level of
six components, followed by a bigger rise on its value as the number increases more. When
aggregatng twelve elements, the system behaves far more complex with resultng error to be
six tmes bigger than the previous result.
Based on the trend line of error occurred in each aggregate system, it can be estmated
with high accuracy that as the profle geometry becomes more complex, the aggregate
system is considered inadequate in providing accurately results upon the physical reacton
of the artfact. The strong semantc connectons developed between the representaton and
the represented when considering small aggregate systems, are not applicable as profle
geometry becomes more intricate.
5.2 Critcal Assessment
The propositon of this study is to explore an alternatve design approach that allows
the inherent atributes and behaviors of complex material system to play a more actve role
in computatonal design process. Employing computatonally Hooke’s law, the partcle spring
system generates relatonal topographies that are subjected to tension or compression. In
that sense, the representaton incorporates a process of negotaton in which the form is
directly connected with the infuences of forces exerted within the system. In respect of the
inital design intenton, the performance of the generated topologies have been considerably
examined and assessed towards the physical outcome of fabricated aggregate system.
Based on the previous fndings, it can be asserted that the partcle spring system
can provide sufcient measurements to achieve a reliable simulaton concerning the infaton
of aggregate material system. However, the performance of the algorithm decreases as the
profle geometry becomes more intricate. Obviously, this is a logical consequence as the
deformaton is computed without taking into consideraton some signifcant aspects such
as the gravity or the physical reacton of system when it interacts with other surfaces. The
biggest amount of measurements was carried out while the infatable aggregate system was
standing on the ground. Apparently, the resultng deformaton may change considerably in
case the model is hanging and foatng without being interacted with any exterior to the
system factor.
Moreover, silicone rubber as most material, is complex and displays non-linear
behavior when exposed to dynamic environmental infuences. In our case, building a scale up
model with infatable rubber components poses multple challenges concerning its optmal
structural performance. Considering the fact that silicone rubber has low tensile strength
and is considered sensitve to fatgue from cyclic loading, the fabricaton process took into
consideraton various aspects in order to build the cellular structure with less structural
damage when it is subjected to infaton for the purpose of this study. For instance, the shape
of moulds plays a fundamental role in fabricaton. Moulds specify the resultng thickness of
both silicone layers thus the rate of stfness and elastcity is also infuenced. In additon to that,
moulds provide the internal channel which controls the elastc bending of each pneumatc
cell. The preferred input channel triggers a maximum infaton on upper layer and a slight and
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gentle curve in overall range. This study didn’t take into consideraton the emergence of the
infated bubble of upper layer into the computaton design thus the overall deformaton was
computed without being estmated the impact of the upper infaton upon itself. Clearly, if
this aspect had been considered, it would have altered the results.
Despite the difcultes of working on silicone rubber anisotropic atributes, the
physical model of aggregate pneumatc cellular structure was successfully implemented
and displayed high rate of tensile strength during successive infaton. This accomplishment
facilitates the experimentaton and the overall process. Moreover, regarding the computaton
part, it can be asserted that one of the most important features of the proposed algorithmic
method is the use of generatve process for adjustng the specifed spring lengths within
each cellular structure in order to display various bending behaviors. Employing this feature
computatonally on the overall aggregate system, the result is the transformaton of its initally
entrely planar surface to a double curved membrane with uniform wave ripple shape based
on the assigned bend behavior in each cell. In other words, the use of partcle spring system
provided a simplifed method to generate reciprocal connectons between the artfact and the
digital model in order to update the design intent directly through feedback.
5.3 Future Developments
The study presented in this thesis can be regarded mostly as a preliminary investgaton
for modeling material propertes and behaviors within the digital model. Although the
implemented algorithm achieved to accomplish the thesis objectve, some aspects need to
be further explored for further advancements of the algorithm.
A high level of accuracy requires solving physical problems that can involve analysis
of fuid mechanisms, thermodynamics and chemical kinetcs. A beter understanding of these
topics would drive to more accurate models, thus to beter design and control. This entailed
the advance of computatonal design by embedding material logics and calibratng these with
fnite element methods (FEMs) for simulaton. Combining the feedback from the fabricaton
process with the compared results of both generatve computatonal design model and the
FEM model simulaton, it can be argued that material design computaton can explore higher
levels of complexity of aggregate systems and provide reliable results.
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6.0 Conclusion
The framework of this study examines the case of engaging material propertes
and capacites within the computatonal design in order to create a reliable model that can
predict accurately the behavior of a complex material system. The proposed method involves
a generatve algorithm that establishes relatonal topographies based on a partcle spring
system and the material research is based on elastc infaton of silicone cellular structures. The
aim of this thesis was to determine frst the ftness of the method on a single cellular structure
and then to test its efciency on more complex systems when aggregatng components. The
testng was carried out in four stages where the exploraton of diferent spring lengths within
each cell was conducted to fnd the optmal soluton with minimum average error reported
in respect to the physical model. The inital testng of the algorithm on single component
showed that it was able to generate the bend behavior with high rate of accuracy. The average
deviaton of the system form the ideal one remained constant without any change within the
next stage of testng on double component. So far, the evaluaton of the results confrmed
the validity of the algorithm to simulate accurately the bend formaton. When the profle
geometry becomes more complex by aggregatng more components together, the trend line
of average error showed a slight increase untl the level of six components, followed by a
bigger growth on its value as the number of elements increases more. Thus the algorithm
provided less reliable results when aggregatng larger assemblies.
Despite the antcipated limitatons of the algorithm, the outcome of this study is
a design tool that constantly updates its role through feedback derived by physical testng
on real model. Clearly, the key role of the algorithm to assign various bend behaviors by
changing the local distributon of varied spring lengths within each cell, gives the privilege to
the designer to control the resultng form of the infatable double curved surface structure.
In this way, the algorithm sets the basic parameters that can be further developed in order
to provide more reliable results when it is tested on larger aggregates with higher complexity
level.
In respect of the challenge to fully control the shape of deformaton on sof robotcs
which are considered the new shif to an innovatve generaton of robotcs craf, it can be
argued that by employing the proposed computatonal method to explore the performance
capacity of the intricate structure and elastc behavior of each cell, the study achieved the
challenge to control its deformaton and moreover to scale up the physical model producing
larger infatable silicone aggregates.
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7.0 References
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Menges A.2012. Material Resourcefulness. Actvatng Material Informaton in Computatonal
Design: Architectural Design, Volume 82, (Issue 2) : 34-43.
Menges A. 2012. Material Computaton: Higher Integraton in Morphogenetc Design:
Architectural Design, Volume 82, (Issue 2) : 14-21.
Fleischmann M., Knippers J., Lienhard J., Schleicher S, Menges A. 2012. Material Behaviour:
Embedding Physical Propertes in Computatonal Design Processes: Architectural Design, Vol-
ume 82, (Issue 2) : 44-51.
Weinstock M. 2006. Self-organisaton and material constructons: Architectural Design, Vol-
ume 76, (Issue 2) : 43-41.
Dr. Filip Ilievski, Dr. Aaron D. Mazzeo, Dr. Robert F. Shepherd, Dr. Xin Chen and Prof. George
M. Whitesides. 2011. Sof Robotcs for Chemists: Angewandte Chemie Internatonal Editon,
Volume 50 (Issue 8) : 1727–1946.
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Web Documents:
M. Calist, M. Giorelli, G. Levy, B. Mazzolai, B. Hochner, C. Laschi ,P.Dario. An octopus-bioin-
spired soluton to movement and manipulaton for sof robots [online].Available from:
< htp://www.octopus.huji.ac.il/site/artcles/Calist-2011.pdf> [Accessed June 2011].
Deepak Trivedi, Christopher D. Rahn, William M. Kier, Ian D. Walker.Sof robotcs: Biological
inspiraton, state of the art, and future research [online]. Available from:
<htp://labs.bio.unc.edu/Kier/pdf/Trivedi_Rahn_Kier_Walker_2008.pdf> [Accessed Septem-
ber 2008].
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Appendix I
FABRICATION:
Illustratons of diferent physical aggregate systems
Figure 44. Single Unit.
Figure 45. Single Unit.
Figure 46. Double Unit.
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Figure 47. Double Unit.
Figure 48. Double Unit.
Figure 49. Double Unit.
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Figure 50. Aggregate System of six components.
Figure 51. Aggregate System of six components.
Figure 52. Aggregate System of six components.
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Figure 53. Aggregate System of six components.
Figure 54. Aggregate System of six components.
Figure 55. Aggregate System of six components.
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DIGITAL SIMULATION:
Illustratons of diferent digital aggregate systems
SINGLE UNIT:
DOUBLE UNIT:
Figure 56. Digital Simulaton of single unit.
Figure 57. Digital Simulaton of double unit.
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AGGREGATE SYSTEM OF FOUR COMPONENTS:
Figure 58. Digital Simulaton of Aggregate System of four components.
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AGGREGATE SYSTEM OF SIX COMPONENTS:
Figure 59. Digital Simulaton of Aggregate System of six components.
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Appendix II
Pseudocode (afer Processing API)
Basic functions of the Particle Spring System:
//Create five different connections within hexagonal pattern
Spring [] springA; // Central Connection A
Spring [] springB; // Central Connection B
Spring [] springC; // Perpendicular Connection
Spring [] springD; // Lower Side Connection
Spring [] springE; // Upper side Connection
int num1;
int num2;
int num3;
int num4;
// Declare different Arraylists to assign spring connections among their numbers
int [] central= new int[num1];
int [] centralConnectToDown=new int[num1];
int [] centralConnectToUp=new int[num1];
int [] perpendicularDown= new int[num2];
int [] perpendicularUp= new int[num2];
int [] chain1a=new int[num3];
int [] chain1b= new int[num3];
int [] chain2a=new int[num4];
int [] chain2b= new int[num4];
String [] data;
Node [] nodes;
float mass; // Insignificant Value
float k; // Spring Constant
float d; // ID spring Length
void setup()
{
frameRate(100);
size(1300, 800, OPENGL);
smooth();
font =loadFont( “Candara-Bold-14.vlw”);
textFont(font);
data= loadStrings( “File.csv”); //Read nodes position from a csv file
num=data.length;
nodes= new Node[num];
for ( int i=0; i<num; i++)
{
nodes[i]= new Node (); //Initialize nodes
}
insertData(data);
// Initialize the input values of arraylists
int[]central= {7, 7, 7, 7, ..........,131, 131, 131};
int[]centralConnectToDown= {1, 2, 4,.......,129, 128, 127};
int[]centralConnectToUp= {8, 9, 11,.......,134, 133, 132};
int[]perpendicularDown= {1, 2, 3,.........,128, 129, 130};
int[]perpendicularUp= {8, 9, 10,.......,132, 133, 134, 135};
int[] chain1a= {1, 2, 3,....., 110, 109, 151};
int[]chain1b= {2, 3, 4,....,109, 78, 150};
int[] chain2a= {8, 9, 10,.....,134, 133, 132};
int[]chain2b= {9, 10, 11,......,133, 132, 123};
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springA=new Spring[num1];
for ( int i=0; i<num1; i++)
{
springA[i]= new Spring( nodes[ central[i]], nodes[ centralConnectToDown[i]]); // Assign connectons of
Spring A type among certain nodes
}
springB=new Spring[num1];
for ( int i=0; i<num1; i++)
{
springB[i]= new Spring( nodes[ central[i]], nodes[ centralConnectToUp[i]]); // Assign connectons of
Spring B type among certain nodes
}
springC=new Spring[num2];
for ( int i=0; i<num2; i++)
{
springC[i]= new Spring( nodes[ perpendicularDown[i]], nodes[ perpendicularUp[i]]); // Assign connectons
of Spring C type among certain nodes
}
springD=new Spring[num4];
for ( int i=0; i<num4; i++)
{
springD[i]= new Spring( nodes[ chain1a[i]], nodes[ chain1b[i]]); // Assign connectons of Spring D type
among certain nodes
}
springE=new Spring[num3];
for ( int i=0; i<num3; i++)
{
springE[i]= new Spring( nodes[ chain2a[i]], nodes[ chain2b[i]]); // Assign connectons of Spring A type
among certain nodes
}
}
void draw()
{
translate(width/2, height/2);
lights();
background(86, 85, 90);
for ( int i=1; i<num; i++)
{
nodes[i].draw();
}
for ( int i=1; i<num; i++)
{
nodes[i].move();
}
drawSpring();
infate();
}
void insertData( String[]sarray)
{
for ( int i=1; i<sarray.length; i++)
{
String[]line=split( data[i], “,”);
nodes[i].positon.x= foat ( line[0]); // Read the csv fle and assign positon x to the frst number of row
nodes[i].positon.y= foat ( line[1]); // Read the csv fle and assign positon y to the second number of row
nodes[i].positon.z= foat ( line[2]); // Read the csv fle and assign positon z to the third number of row
}
}
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void drawSpring() // Draw the fve diferent spring connectons based on their assigned color atributes
{
for ( int i=0; i<num1; i++)
{
springA[i].draw(120, 120, 120);
}
for ( int i=0; i<num1; i++)
{
springB[i].draw(120, 120, 120);
}
for ( int i=0; i<num2; i++)
{
springC[i].draw(0, 0, 0);
}
for ( int i=0; i<num4; i++)
{
springD[i].draw(140, 0, 0);
}
for ( int i=0; i<num3; i++)
{
springE[i].draw(0, 0, 140);
}
}
void infate() // Adjust spring connectons with diferent expansion rates for the state under infaton
{
for ( int i=0; i<num1; i++)
{
springA[i].computeLength(41.5, 3.0);
}
for ( int i=0; i<num1; i++)
{
springB[i].computeLength(50, 3.0);
}
for ( int i=0; i<num2; i++)
{
springC[i].computeLength(25, 3.0);
}
for ( int i=0; i<num5; i++)
{
springD[i].computeLength(40, 3.0);
}
for ( int i=0; i<num3; i++)
{
springE[i].computeLength(50, 3.0);
}
}
void balance() // Adjust spring connectons with diferent expansion rates for the equilibrium state
{
for ( int i=0; i<num1; i++)
{
springA[i].computeLength(41.5, 1.0);
}
for ( int i=0; i<num1; i++)
{
springB[i].computeLength(41.5, 1.0);
}
for ( int i=0; i<num2; i++)
{
springC[i].computeLength(20, 1.0);
}
for ( int i=0; i<num5; i++)
{
springD[i].computeLength(40, 1.0);
}
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for ( int i=0; i<num3; i++)
{
springE[i].computeLength(40, 1.0);
}
}
Basic functons of the partcle class:
class Node
{
PVector positon;
PVector velocity;
Node()
{
positon=new PVector ();
velocity= new PVector();
}
void move()
{
positon= PVector.add(positon, velocity);
velocity= new PVector(0, 0, 0);
}
void draw()
{
pushMatrix();
stroke(255);
strokeWeight(3);
point(positon.x, positon.y, positon.z);
popMatrix();
}
}
Basic functons of the spring class:
class Spring
{
Node a;
Node b;
foat length1;
foat realLength;
PVector dir1= new PVector(0, 0, 0);
PVector dir2= new PVector (0, 0, 0);
foat g;
foat ID_springLength;
Spring(Node n1, Node n2)
{
a=n1;
b=n2;
length1= PVector.dist (a.positon, b.positon);
}
void computeLength(foat d, foat k) // calculate the length of springs by adgustng an ideal length ‘d’
ID_springLength= d;
realLength= PVector.dist ( a.positon, b.positon);
dir1= PVector.sub(b.positon, a.positon);
dir2= PVector.sub(a.positon, b.positon);
dir1.normalize();
dir2.normalize();
dir1.mult((k*( abs(realLength- ID_springLength)))/mass); //Hooke’s law of elastcity
dir2.mult((k*( abs(realLength- ID_springLength)))/mass);
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if (realLength< ID_springLength) // If the real length is smaller than the rest length of spring then push the
connected nodes apart from each other
{
a.velocity = PVector.sub(a.velocity, dir1);
b.velocity= PVector.sub(b.velocity, dir2);
}
if (realLength>ID_springLength) // If the real length is bigger than the rest length of spring then move the
connected nodes close to each other
{
a.velocity = PVector.add(a.velocity, dir1);
b.velocity = PVector.add(b.velocity, dir2);
}
if (realLength==ID_springLength) // If the real length is equal to the rest length of spring no forces are ap-
plied. the system is in equilibrium
{
a.velocity = new PVector(0, 0, 0);
b.velocity = new PVector(0, 0, 0);
}
}
void draw(int c, int v, int k)
{
realLength = PVector.dist (a.positon, b.positon); //Actual length
ID_springLength= d;
stroke(c, v, k);
strokeWeight(1);
line( a.positon.x, a.positon.y, a.positon.z, b.positon.x, b.positon.y, b.positon.z);
}
}
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