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# CHAPTER 31: CIRCUIT

## 1. Define the followings:

(a) Current () Cir!uit (!) "eries an# \$arallel !ir!uits (#) Resistan!e (e) E.%.& (f) Potential #ifferen!e (g)
Pri'ar( !ells (h) "e!on#ar( !ell
Current: Flow of electrons from negative to positive.
Cir!uit: Pathway for electricity to flow. For electricity to flow, complete circuit is required.
Con#u!tor Insulators
Allow electricity to flow Do not electricity to flow
eg. Copper, Aluminium eg. wood, plastic, rubber
"eries !ir!uit: When we have head and tails connected alternative in a circuit that combination is a series
combination.
Parallel !ir!uit: n a circuit, when components have head and tails connected in correspond to each other, the
combination is called parallel combination.
Resistan!e: !he opposition to electricity flow. !he greater the resistance, the more voltage is needed to push a current
through the wire. !he resistance of a wire is calculated by"
#esistance \$#% &
& # & ' & #
Ele!tro'oti)e &or!e (E%&): A cell or a battery pushes electrons round a circuit. t is a (ind of electron pump.
Different cells can e)ert different electrical pressures. !his electrical pressure is called electromotive force \$e.m.f% and
it is measured in volts \$'%. \$*ymbol%.
When a cell is connected to same lamps, the e.m.f of the cell pushes electrons round the circuit. !he energy to do this
comes from the chemical energy of the cell. !he electrons give up this energy to the thin wires inside the lamps, so
that they get hot and glow.
Potential #ifferen!e: Across each lamp there is an electrical difference \$p.d% or +voltage,. t is voltmeter.
'oltage is measured in volts.
*ymbols"
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'
'
Current \$%
Potential difference \$'%

'

'
Pri'ar( Cells: A 2inc3carbon cell \$dry 0eclanche cell% 4 !his is the common cell used in torches. t is an electron
pump with an electrical pressure of -.5 volts. !he 2inc is slowly eaten away as the chemical energy of the 2inc is
transferred to electrical energy. !his is a \$ri'ar( !ell 3 once the chemicals are used up you throw it away.
"e!on#ar( Cells: *econdary cells are re3chargeable. For e)ample, a lead3acid battery in a car turns the starter motor
and is then re3charged when the engine is running during re3charging, energy is stored in the battery.
*. Draw s('ols of (a) +a'\$ () Cell (!) atter( (#) "wit!h (e) A''eter (f) ,oltage (g) Resistor (h) ,ariale
resistor.
+a'\$: or
Cell: "wit!h:
A''eter: ,oltage:
Resistor: ,ariale Resistor:
3. Define the -h'.s law an# state the e/uation for the law.
-h's +aw: !he current flowing through a metal wire is proportional to the potential difference across it.
#esistance \$#% &
6r, in symbols" # &
6r, rearranging &
6r, easiest to remember" ' & 7 #
0. Define 1ir!hoff.s first law for \$arallel !ir!uit.
Answer: !he current in the main circuit is the sum of the currents in the separates branches.
2. +ist the fa!tors of effe!ting resistan!e.
-. As the length increase, the resistance increase.
8. As cross 4 sectional area increase, the resistance decreases.
9. Copper is a good conductor and used for connecting wires.
.. As temperature increases, the resistance of a wire increases.
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Current \$%
Potential difference \$'%

'
#
'
Where, ' & p.d. in volts \$'%
& currents in amps \$A%
# & resistance in unit called an ohm \$:%
3. Draw the )arious !ir!uit #iagra's using )arious !ir!uits. s('ols un#er gi)en.
4. Illustrate the )oltage )s !urrent gra\$hs for oh'i! an# non5oh'i! !on#u!tors.
Answer: f we measure several values of the current though a resistor and the voltage ' across the resistor. f we
plot a graph of these values, we get a straight line through the origin"
Current I
p.d.V
A substance that gives a straight graph li(e this is called an ohmic conductor.
f we use circuit to investigate how the current varies with the voltage ' in a filament lamp \$e.g a torch bulb%. We
can see that the lamp is non4ohmic conductor because the graph is not a straight line. t does not obey 6hm,s 0aw.
I
'
6. 7i)e three #ifferen!es etween \$arallel an# series !ir!uit..
"eries !ir!uit Parallel !ir!uit
!he same current flows through each part of a series
circuit.
!he current in the main circuit is the sum of the
currents in the parallel branches \$ &
-
;
8
%
For resistance in series, the total p.d. is the sum of the
p.d.s across the separate resistors
\$'
9
&'
-
;'
8
%
For resistance in parallel, the potential difference
across each is the same.
!he total resistance \$#% of a series circuit is equal to
the sum of the separate resistance \$#
-
, #
8
%"
# & #
-
; #
8
Combined resistance \$#% is less than either of the
separate parallel resistance \$#
-
, #
8
%
#&
8 -
8 -
R R
R R
+

## 8. "ee e9a'\$les of \$age no:

PA7E :- %ATH"
8<8, 8<9, 8<<, 8<= All e)amples
8<> -, 5
8<? ?, -@, --, -8, -9, -.
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6A1C
C6BDCC!6#
F0A1/B!
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;. <hat #o we noti!e aout the !urrent as we in!rease the \$otential #ifferen!e=
!he current flowing through a metal wire is proportional to the potential difference across it providing the temperature
remains constant.
*ymbols"
'olts & \$'% p.d. in volts
& currents in Amps \$A%
# & resistance in a unit called an ohm.
6hm" :
#esistance" A resistance is also (nown as rheostat. #esistor measures resistance. #esistors can be used to reduce the
currents in a circuit.
'ariable resistance" A variable resistor is also (nown as rheostat. t is used to vary the current in a circuit. !hey help
us to change the resistance.
4 Controls the resistance.
#esistor
'ariable resistor
#esistors in *eries"
4 Current flows through each part of a series circuit.
4 For resistors in series, the total p.d. is the sum of the p.d.s across the separate resistors
\$'
9
& '
-
; '
8
%
4 !he reading of '9 and the ammeter reading to calculate the combined resistance using "
4 !he total resistance \$#% of a series circuit is equal to the sum of the separate resistance "
#& #
-
; #
8
#esistors in parallel"
For resistors in parallel, the potential difference across each is the same.
!he current in the main circuit is the sum of the currents in the parallel branches \$ &
-
;
8
%
4 !he combined resistance \$#% is less than either of the separate parallel resistances \$#
-
, #
8
%
. factors affecting #esistance"
-. !emperature" As temperature increases, the resistance of a wire increases.
8. 0ength" As the length increases, the resistance increases.
9. Conductivity" Copper is a good conduct or and is used for connecting wires.
.. Cross 4 section" As cross 4 sectional area increases, the resistance decreases.
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8:
# & #
-
; #
8
#
-
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