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EQUIPMENT:

TOOLING:

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PRINCIPLE OF FINEBLANKING

Proper fineblankin9 resul ts are obta i ned from a specially built fineblanking press with three individual forces.

Blanking pressure Counter pressure

V-groove (stinger) pressure

Highest precision built tooling, similar to a compound die, must match the equipment. The main features are:

Total of 1%, (of strip thickness) clearance between cutting elements

Rounded dieplate edge

V-groove (stinger) on gu;deplate

Slugs are ejected into opened die and do not travel through punch as in compound die

All cutting elements are straight-walled. No dimensional change occurs with resharpening.

FINEBLANKING = COLD EXTRUSION

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CONVENTIONALLY SHEARED

--BURR

-- BREAK

FINEBLANKED

t t 5 t

COUNTER PRESSURE

BURR [ J

SMOOTH EDGE --- I I

DIE ROLL ---- ..... 1 ~I _,_

2

FINEBLANKING CYCLE

I-I~

III I III

1 Die is opened. Material ready for blanking.

2 Die closed, material clamped.

V-groove impressed in material.

3 Part is blanked, while overcoming' counter-pressure,

--

-.-

--

--

'I

4 Fineblanking cycle completed.

5 Material strip in advanced position, Component is removed by air jet or mechanical arm.

01 Strip

.2 Die Plate .3 Punch

.4 Piercing Punch

05 Ejector

06 Pressure Plate with Stinger .7 Slug Ejector

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EDGE CHARACfERISTICS OF A FINEBLANKED COMPONENT

A) TAPER DEFINITION:

The angular accuracy of a fineblanked component is rarely a perfect 90 degree angle in respect to the blanked edge and face of a component. Such an out of square edge is referred to as taper.

The degree of taper is influenced by:

Material:

Tooling:

Press:

Shape of Part Lubricant

- Hardness

- Thickness

- Clearance

- Wear

- Tool Steel

- V-groove (stinger)

S tab i 1 i ty 0 f D 1 e

- Condition of Cutting Edge

- Counter Pressure

- V-groove (stinger)

Pressure

The angular accuracy can be expected within 1 degree. It should be noted that the direction of the taper in a fineblanked component is in the opposite direction of a conventionally sheared stamping (here referred to as diebreak).

Outs i de contours have a 1 a rger degree of taper than i nterna 1 contours and holes.

~e.r can be red u c e d by v a rio u s mea n sin the die, but r are 1 y eliminated without sacrificing in other areas.

THE THICKER THE MATERIAL THE HIGHER THE CARBON THE MORE ALLOY CONTENT

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THE MORE TAPER THE MORE TAPER THE MORE TAPER

FINEBLANKED EDGE

DIFFERENCE OF OUT OF SQUARENESS BETWEEN FINEBLANKED EDGE AND CONVENTIONALLY STAMPED EDGE.

DIEROLL SIDE

-:

.:

/"

~ SMOOTH EDGE

CO~VENTIONALLY-SHEARED·EDGE

TAPER

~ !-4- i MAXIMUM

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r -" • --: ~. ' :. - _ • • j

•• > - ...

- . - ". ,~ ~ ..

. r., '. / .

, .

.. . '; :. . .. .. :, .

'. "

". ..".

- . . ....

. .

.. .... "

DIEBREAK .~

B) DIEROL~

DE FUJI T I OIL

Dieroll is the slightly curved contour on the edge of the blanked part created by its movement as it is extruded into the die plate.

Dieroll usually presents no major problems. However, it may prove to be a d~sadvantage for certain applications, for exa~ple, gears Llse.J in fluid pumps.

1& net feasiole in the fineblanking die, dieroll can )e overcome

Conventional methods such as ari nd i no , ~illing, broaching, etc. - -

A two piece construction ~ay be the answerifor example sprockets, since dierol is in direct relat'on to t~e material thickness.

Harder material also offers a slight reduction in dieroll

THE MORE ACUTE THE CORNER THE MORE DIEROLL

THE SMALLER THE CORNER RADIUS - THE MORE DIEROLL

THE HARDER THE MATERIAL THE LESS DIEROLL

DIEROLL

DEFINITION:

j

DIEROLL

x = 2 x Y

DIEROLL SIDE

,-

I

,

(

!

BURR SIDE

7

Y

i ~

'------'-v ~-l

~ I

'T

S = 100%

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DIEROLL

Dieroll in % of S

HOLES SMALLER THAN MATERIAL THICKNESS

54 0-2OJe

CORNERS ON INSIDE CONTOURS

STRAIGHT CONTOURS

co~~t~~~ ON J!//70 6-12%

LARGE HOLES ~LLLJ

900 CORNERS L~ 15-25'/0

ACUTE ~~

CORNERS LESS 20-300/

THAN 900 __ . ~

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s. VEERAVEL

C) BREAKOUT DEFINITION:

Breakout (or fracture) is a burr-side edge condition that is tapered and rough resulting fro~ a shearing effect (like in conventionally stamped parts) caused by too great a clearance between the punch and die.

Elimination of b[fakout is achieved by producing a new punch.

D) WAVE DEFINITION:

Waves or the sheared surface are caused by 2 puncb /d i c clearance which is too sme t and a c i e plate radius which is too large.

E1 imination of wave is achieved by reworking the punch and re 9 fl n din 9 the die p-1 ate .

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BREAK OUT WAVE

WAVE AND BREAKOUT

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E) TEARS

ILEEL~l T I ON:

Tears are a condition of the blanked edge showing as a gap on an interrupted surface. Two types of tears can be distinguished:

Corner tears

Edge tears

Any type of tear is normally undesirable.

Corner tears are occurring on external corners only and never in irternal corners. Causes for corner tears:

Design: Corner radii too small

Materi al : - Materi al too hard

- Material structure not suitable for fineblanking

Tooling: - Too much clearance

- Punch worn or chipped

- V - ring defect

- Dieplate radius too small

Ili~ination of tears 1S usually achieved by:

Using a less sharp radius Using softer material Sharpening die

Tightening die clearance

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TEARS

CORNER TEAR

/

o

, / /

"<, ./

;------~

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NO TEARS ON .~ INTERNAL CORNERS

EDGE TEAR

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COR~ER It;\DII

The extrusion characteristics of fineblanking (rather than shear characteristics) require sharp corners to have a b 1 endi ng radi us for a smooth uninterrupted flow of the metal during blanking. Corner radii should not be mistaken with "dieroll radius" which appears along the entire sheared surface.

There are several distinct types of corners:

Dwm T ION:

Radi i on external corners

inside contour - outside contour

Radii on internal corners

inside contour - outside contour

Radii on acute corners

Radi i on obtuse corners

It ~s imJ.)erative to follow the design rules for corner radii to obtcin smooth edges on corners without die-tear.

There are percent - ratio guidelines to provide maximum punch and die life and no corner tears.

t'l ate ria 1 s not ide a 1 for fin e b 1 an kin 9 w ill s how cor n e r tea r s a s a first sign.

S~aller radii can be selected with a sacrifice in tool life or for short runs. Radii on internal contours can even be sharp.

THE LARGER THE RADIUS THE LESS DIEWEAR

THE LARGER THE RADIUS THE LESS CORNER TEAR

THE LARGER THE RADIUS THE LESS DIEROLL

THE HARDER THE MATERIAL - THE LARGER THE RADIUS

THE SMALLER THE RADIUS THE MORE TOOLWEAR

1:2

----~~.,.-~- ----

INTERNAL (inside CORNER contour)

CORNER RADII

DEFINITION OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CORNERS EXTERNAL (inside CORNER contour) »>

INTERNAL (outside CORNER contour)

EXTERNAL (outside CORNER contour)

ACUTE CORNER

OBTUSE CORNER

DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR CORNER RADII

Radius = 10 - 15% of material thickness

900 CORNER

R

ACUTE CORNER

Radius = 15 - 20% of material thickness

OBTUSE CORNER

Radius = 5 - 10% of material thickness

Note: For corners on inside contours

use 2/3 of above.

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r\ARROlV SECTIONS, DIAMETERS i\ND SLOTS

DEFINITION: A close or narrow section is the web width between outside contour and inside contour of a co~ponent in relation to material thickness. Similar rules established for sections apply also for hole diameter, shaped internal contours, projections, teeth.

30.000 80.000 90,000

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Conventional: Fineblanked Thickness i Thickness

S'S

- t~----· ----. -

1.0 x S I .5 - .67 >; S

1.5 x S .. 75 1.0 x S

Tersile Strenath Section, Hole

of material iDia., Slot Widt1 per s q.ie re lnch'I,~

2.0 x S

1.0

1. 3 x S

T j- e j'l a : n r e c so" s f 1 r- e:J 1 a n -\ ina 'J b t a i 'i S c los e r sec t jon s t h 2 n

s l ower "sof:." cu t t i r c s ue e d

_ .. ._ _ -- . ~______'='...E..---

For :;0 iJ----.CQ-=-=Jc"'_"'QA----'Lgt·?Ti a 1 ~. the above rc t i os CC.r' he ..... ec::...cEI~ .

.; ar e b 6 Silo r U 1 e s

: e r- ,~ : ' c -:- t I· e; i 0 t has

apply except t':c:< to be considered.

~ I -: ~1 T iF . i':: t e r ~ c: -:: e ,:- 0 ..... ".: c: ~_ ; O'~ s i 1" i 1 art (I die r 0 1 1 0 n 0 art S I" .: t '

. ~-rON sec:~Jn JetweE~ ~n:er~a~ contours and th6 O~ts~~0

,'Jl,· .: i~,.,rC:~_;,., .. p. Sr ..... icKoC0 iT) o t cur s be twe en 1 to 10 o ' t e

: . ~ .~. ' . f'j ~, : r 2 : (1 r e 2. - D s h i (Hi can Des 1 i g h t 1 y red ~ c e .: h,

.,' ~~::~>J -,~r:jcr 'T2.~c'Y';als ~)"" it <annot be eliminated.

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N~;\RROvV SECTIONS, DL;\METERS i~i\JD SLOTS

SECTIONS IN RELATION TO MATERIAL THICKNESS

A) HOLE DIAMETERS

w

w

___ J _

-T-

S _ = 100%

------.. ~

B) HOLE DIAMETER & SLOT WIDTH

rn---{Y

(\, . o:--------~ ---~

~ -- -4

i

t

T---

W i

- 'vV

w

- -

15

, S L~ 1000'0 ----j

DISHING W = LESS THAN S

GEAR TEETH, NARROW PROTRUSIONS AND TABS

GEAR TEETH can often be cost effectively fineblanked. The relationship between the width of the gear tooth (W) and the material thickness (S) is similar to that of narrow sections.

The width of the tooth at the pitch diameter 1S generally limited to 60% of the material thickness.

If the width/thickness ratio must be less, then laminatiJlg two gear blanks may be considered. Since the laminated assembly includes two pieces, the width/thickness ratio is cut in half.

Lower tensile strength material generally allows the tooth width/material thickness ratio to be reduced, thereby allowing more teeth. Material with higher tensile strength requires a wider tooth in relationship to the material thickness.

The tooth form also affects the guideline for the width/thickness ratio. Generally the deeper the tooth, the wider the tooth must be ~n relationship to the material thickness.

,6, 1 sot h e r a diu s ( R) 0 f the too t h c res tan d roo t form m u s t be sufficiently rounded to avoid tears (refer to section on Corner Radii).

Die roll on gear teeth is generally greater than that on typical outside contour, due to the narrow radius of a gear tooth. This die roll, however, may eliminate the need to bevel the teeth.

NARROW PROTRUSIONS exist when the width of a projection on an outside contour approaches the thickness of the material. Generally the width is limited to 67% of the material thickness.

TABS and slots likewise are subject to guidelines which include the ratio of tab or slot width (W) and depth (0) to material thickness (S). Generally if the depth of the tab or slot is less than material thickness, then the tab or slot width can be as narrow as 1/2 S.

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,- EXTRUSIONS AND SEMI - PIERCE PROJECTIONS

In fineblanking, despite a vertical penetration of the piercing punch, the extruded portion is not separated. Even after 2/3 punch penetration there is still a uniform, uninterrupted grain flow (see cover). The he i qh t of the extruded portion (0) may be as much as the material thickness in a low carbon steel.

Semi-pierced projections are limited to internal diameters or contours. External semi-pierced projections are more complicated and usually have to be done in a secondary operation.

Both semi-pierce and extrusion can serve a functional purpose as a cam, rivet, etc., without taking a risk of separating.

All of the above mentioned projections are on the burrside. PrOjections on the dieroll side are limited in depth and are much more involved from a :ooling and manufacturing standpoint.

Semi-pierced projections are an ideal means for assembly purposes.

Any fi t from a loose to a press fi t can be obtained for hand assembly or machine assembly.

By exchangi ng pi ere; ng punches the same di e can be used to produce both parts with extruded projections and parts with a thru ho 1 e. When assemb 1 ed together removi ng the protruding projection in a secondary operation is not required.

Where the dieroll gap of an assembly is undesirable:

It can be assembled burrside against burrside, i f a par tis s ymm e t r.i cal .

For non-symmetrical parts, two dies, a left and a right hand die are required.

Assembly Methods:

Loose fit for hand assembly Press fit machine assembly

Riveting one or more standard rivets Stake semi-pierced projections

Spot weldin9

Copper brazlng

Arc welding

LIMIT SEMI-PIERCE EXTRUSIONS TO 2/3 OF MATERIAL THICKNESS

lH

EXTRUSIONS AND SEMI - PIERCE PROJECTIONS

WELD PROJECTION

m~%t

EXTRUSION 0 = S

SEMI PIERCE

COINING NOT RECOMMENDED

DIEROLL SIDE

DEPTH OF SEMI-PIERCE 2/3 x S MAXIMUM

I - --

i

-f-

~L L--_--_- _._ .. -

BURRsrOE

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COCNTERSINKS

DEFINITION:

Countersinks or chamfers are produced by displacing metal on internal contours in one blanking operation.

CHARACTERISTICS:

A portion of the displaced metal 15 compressed and some may show as a bulae.

Countersink.s can be incorporated easj"v

in the same blanking die. -

The accuracy of the die and the lower cutting speed allow a countersink to be o b t a i ned \'1 i t h 1 itt 1 e 0 r n 0 pro d u c t ion loss.

Coun te r s i nks are always on tie d i e ro l side in compound tooling.

The dep-.lo __ oJ the countr:'fsink is dependent upon the o i d11etcr. material thickness, the ~aterial structure, and the angle of the countersink.

Virtuall~ any anglg can be produced. Gene r a l l y , the w i dc r the angle. t e shallower the countersink which can be achieved withou~ material deformation.

Deep chamfers have a tendency to raise a bulge around the c o i r.cd area and influence the flatness and thickness. If less bulae on the die roll surface is required. clearance can be increased i~ the die resulting in die break on the burrside.

Chamfers on the burrside can only be achieved with a progressive fineblanki~g die.

Chamfers for slots are possible as well as for diameters. Chamfers on outside contours are, inmost instances, impracti cal 0"" not possible.

For round washer type components. i t ~ s feasible with slightly ~ore die maintenance.

Natural dieroll may functionally achieve the same result.

COUNTERSINKS

A

D

o

/ DIEBREAK

FLATNESS DISTORTION:

. rAISED BULGE

-, BURRSIDE

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OFFSETS AND BENDS

DEFINITION:

An 0 ffset pa rt is a componen t formed across its entire width or length and fineb1anked in one operation.

CHARACTERISTICS:

The fineblankin~ technique offers the unique feature t at first forms and then shears a component. This is achieved at a speed of close to norma 1 product ion output.

The traditional method of 1) shearing and 2 ) the n form i n 9 res u 1 t sin dim ens ion a 1 variation from one surface level to the other, in ratio with material variation.

This is not so in fineblanking!

The fineblanking finish is difficult to achieve consistently in the bend area in heavi er gauges. However, fi ni sh is usua 11 y not required in that area.

The bend angle is limited to 70 de9rees maximum. A 90 degree angle can be obtained in a progressive flneblanking die or in a secondary operation.

The height of the offset is limited to about four times material thickness.

The thickness of material is not limited.

On inner contours lancing and bending can be achieved with relative ease. A variety of bend/lance forms can be achieved in one press stroke through the design of a blank/bend punch. The examples demonstrate that sections can be blanked and bent to a right angle, or spring retainers can be produced.

Spring retainers can also be formed on an outside contour.

If the projection leads into an outside contour or the bend is on the edge, a progressive die is required.

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--------~ - ---------

OFFSETS

OFFSETTING AND FINEBLANKING IN ONE OPERATION

-> MAXIMUM OFFSET 4 TIMES S

MAXIMUM

BEND ANGLE ~

~_ , 700 -----~

-- r----I -------1 -: /-:f ,_ I

! / "--

i i~L

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.-1

DIEROLL SIDE IN MOST CASES OPTIONAL

L VARIATION = +/- _0005"

BEND ANGLE MUST BE IN RELATION TO PART CONTOUR

i

+

I

FEED 0 DIRECTION ..

o

EXAMPLES: BEND DIRECTION CL

- __ OF BEND

o

FEASABLE

/

, BEND DIRECTION ~-~---------r-TOO CLOSE TO EDGE

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C--,---\ -----f/

NOT FEASABLE

BENDS

FEASIBLE AS INTERNAL CUT OUTS

LJ

PIERCING PUNCH SHAPE

LANCING

LANCING SHEARED AND BENT

TO RIGHT ANGLE

SPRING RETAINER

NOT FEASIBLE IN ONE OPERATION IF PROJECTIONS LEADS INTO OUTSIDE CONTOUR OR BEND IS ON EDGE.

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,.'J

/

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FLATNESS

DEFINITION:

Flatness is the condition of a surface having all elements on one plane.

Out of flat condition is undesirable and results from one or more

areas:

Input material not flat

Die distorts flatness (for example conventional progressive die) Configuration of part

Grain direction of material

Coil crown set thru aging of material

Flatness Tolerance

The fineblanking process can hold tolerances which are significantly closer than conventional stamping.

Tolerances

Fineblanking

.00511 per inch

Conventional Stamping

,00111 - ,002" per inch

Distortion:

Very little or no distortion is applied i n a single station fineblanking die.

A major factor for flatness is the input material and adequate coil straightening equipment.

- In some part configurations the fineblanking die may correct most or all Qut-of-flat condition of the input material.

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MATERIAL SUITABILITY FOR FINEBLANKING

The best results for fineblanking are obtained from materials with adequate ductility and good cold-forming characteristics.

Ideal results in respect to edge finish and tool life, are obtained from low to medium carbon steel with a tensile strength between 20- 3 0, _ to n s per s qua rei n c h . Me diu m car bon s tee 1 s are we 1 1 sui tab 1 e , however, it requires more die sharrening. Alloy steel and high carbon steel give best results on y in a spheroidized annealed condition.

Silicon iron with content of up to 2 1/2% silicon is suitable for fineblanking.

Tool steel is. as a rule, not recommended due to poor die life . . AISI 52 (Rb 80-90) is feasible in gauges up to 1/1611 on parts with generous contours.

Alloy steeJ~j2100 can be fineblanked if scale is removed, e.g. ~achined forging up to 1/4" thickness.

Leaded steel commonly used for screw machine stock is not desirable for fineblanking.

Cold rolled steels have no surface scale as hot rolled steel does. ITTe- 1 i f e per res h a r pen i n g i s better w h i 1 e s how i n 9 better R M S readings.

Note: Borderline applications should be tested prior to building tooling. to establish edge condition and estimate die life.

THE HARDER THE MATERIAL - THE MORE DIE WEAR THE HIGHER THE C, MN, CR - THE MORE DIE WEAR

THE LESS SURFACE SCALE - THE BETTER DIE WEAR & FINISH THE SOFTER THE MATERIAL - THE BETTER THE FINISH

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SUITABILITY IN REFERENCE TO HARDNESS OR TEMPER

I~-~--

I .....

~-- --- ~-----~------~--~.----

2

DEGREE O~ SUT\BILITY

3

r'lAT ER I AL

4

1

Aluminum 1100

3003

5052

/~ 1 umi num

(hect-treatable) 2024

6061

7075

Brass

Bronze

B(lryll~um Copper

P''":osphorus Bronze

llo re l Hetal

iJi ekel Sil ver 65 Cu 18'/Ni

'I 0 112 H4 o HZ

o

0
0
0
1/4 & 1/2 H
1/4 & 1/2 H
soft
Rb 45-75 (aY"Jon Steel

~) low carbon Rb 45-75

(1010 -(1020 soft T~3i4#5

b) :'led carbon (1025 - (1035

e) hiah carbon (1636 - (1074

c) (-1095 Spring Steel

,A,-loy Steel 8620. 8630

, C130.4140.4340

Stairless Steel 200 300 series CR and HR

400 Series ,

(neat-treatable) :

!

L _

1/4 & 1/2 hard'i 1/4H-Rb50-75 1/ZH-Rb68-82

H6 H4 H2 H4

T3

3/4 hard 3/4 hard

H8 H6 H8 H6 H8

T4 T3 T4

spring hard spring hard

l/Z hard Rb 88-95

Rb 70-85 Rb 84-90

temper #2 T#l(thin gage)

annealed

Rb 75-86

Spheroldized Annealed

thin gage Rb 80-90

under 1/8" thickness annealed

annealed

no thickness 1 i mi t

annealed under 1/8"

above 1/8" spheroidized annealed

T6 T6 T8 T6

hard

Rb over 96

spr ng over Rb 90

Temper t: 1
heavier 9 e,g e
above 3/811
above 1/811 above 7 1611

over 3/1611

TOLERANCES

The dimensional accuracy of a fineblanked part lS primarily dependent on the quality of the fineblanking tool.

The tolerance range 1S influenced by:

Material thickness

Te~sile strength of material Material structure Configuration of part

TOLERANCE GUIDELINE FOR CARBON STEEL

UP TO 30 TON/SQ. INCH

Internal

Contours

i +/-

.0015"

Closer tolerances than above can be held if required. Toolbuild cost, die maintenance and inspection efforts have to be increased.

Tolerances on internal contours are easier to maintain than outside contour tolerances.

In heavy gauge material, the tapered condition has to be taken into consideration whe~ specifying tolerances.

HIDDEN BENEFITS IN FINEBLANKING:

The fineblanked part is produced in one operation. Progression errors, uneven wear of shave elements, tolerance stack-up from multiple machine operations, etc. are eliminated.

High consistency and repeatability from one part to another over high volume production. Toolin9 is built to maintain the tolerance conSistently after each d1e resharpening.

THE THINNER THE MATERIAL

THE CLOSER THE TOLERANCE

THE LOWER THE TENSILE STRENGTH - THE CLOSER THE TOLERANCE

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FINEBLANKING DIE

Movable Punch System

A ~ Slugs

B " Matena]

C ~ Piece Part

pj = BlankIng Pressure

P2 = Clallplng IStinger) Pressure P3 = Counter (Ejectionl Pressure

j 2 3 4 5 6

Upper Die Set 7

Die PJate 8

Ejector 9

Piercing PUnches 10

Pierce Punch Retainer Pressure Pins for

EjectIon and Counter Pressure

11 lo~er Die set 17 Punch-head
12 Slinger IGuide) Plate 18 Press Ring ILo~er) M
13 Main Punch 19 Press Insert (Lower)*
14 Pressure Pins for 20 Pre-Loaded GuIde
Slug £jector Uements
15 Slug Ejector
16 Bridge * = Standar~ for most
sy~metrical applicatIon Backup Plate Shrink-Ring

Press Ring (Upper)Press Insert IUpper) M

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rn« 'j'

II/a ',4'

/

/

FINEBLANKING DIE

Fixed Punch System

A ~ Slugs

B ~ ioIaterial

C ~ Piece Part

PI ~ Blanking Pressure

P2 ~ Clamping IStinger) Pressure P3 ~ Counter (Ejection) Pressure

1 Lower Die Set 7 Backup Plate 11 Upper Ole Set 17 Carrier (ioliddlel Plate
2 Die Plate B Pre-Loaded Guide 12 Stinger (Guide) PLate 18 Press Rlng (Upper) *
3 Ejector Elements 13 Main Punch Ig Press Insert (Upper) *
4 PierCIng Punches 9 Press Ring ILower) * 14 Pressure Pins for 20 Flanged Backup Plate (Upper)
5 Pierce PunCh Retainer 10 Press Insert (Lowerl * Slug Ejector
6 Pressure Pins tor 15 Slug Ejector
EjectIon and Counter Pressure 16 Pressure Pins for * ~ Standard for most
Stlnger Plate sy~etrical application
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