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Practical Process Control for Engineers & Technicians

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Chapter 1

Introduction
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction.................................................................................................................. 1
Process Dynamics ........................................................................................................ 2
Process Time Constants .............................................................................................. 8
Basic Definitions and Terms used in Process Control.......................................... 13
Types or Modes of Operation of Available Control Systems.............................. 14
Closed Loop Controller and Process Gain Calculations...................................... 17
Proportional, Integral and Derivative Control Modes......................................... 18
An Introduction to Cascade Control....................................................................... 19

Chapter 2

Process Measurement and Transducers


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
The Definition of Transducers and Sensors............................................................. 1
Listing of Common Measured Variables ................................................................. 2
The Common Characteristics of Transducers ......................................................... 2
Sensor Dynamics.......................................................................................................... 6
Selection of Sensing Devices ...................................................................................... 7
Temperature Sensors................................................................................................... 7
Pressure Transmitters ............................................................................................... 18
Flow Meters ................................................................................................................ 29
Level Transmitters ..................................................................................................... 37
The Spectrum of User Models in Measuring Transducers .................................. 40
Instrumentation and Transducer Considerations................................................. 43
Selection Criteria and Considerations .................................................................... 45
Introduction to the SMART TRANSMITTER........................................................ 50

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Practical Process Control for Engineers & Technicians

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Chapter 3

Basic Principles of Control Valves and Actuators


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
An Overview of Eight of the most Basic Types of Control Valves....................... 1
Control Valve Gain, Characteristics, Distortion and Rangeability..................... 24
Control Valve Actuators ........................................................................................... 30
Control Valve Positioners........................................................................................ 36
Valve Sizing ................................................................................................................ 37

Chapter 4

Fundamentals of Control Systems


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
ON-OFF Control .......................................................................................................... 1
Modulating Control..................................................................................................... 3
Open Loop Control...................................................................................................... 4
Closed Control Loop ................................................................................................... 7
Dead Time Processes................................................................................................. 12
Process Responses ..................................................................................................... 14
Dead Zone................................................................................................................... 16

Chapter 5

Stability and Control Modes of Closed Loops


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
The Industrial Process in Practice ............................................................................. 1
Dynamic Behavior of the Feed Heater...................................................................... 3
Major Disturbances of the Feed Heater.................................................................... 4
Stability.......................................................................................................................... 5
Proportional Control ................................................................................................... 7
Integral Control.......................................................................................................... 11
Derivative Control ..................................................................................................... 15
Proportional, Integral and Derivative Modes ....................................................... 19
I.S.A versus Allen Bradley.................................................................................... 20
P I and D Relationships and Related Interactions ................................................ 20
Applications of Process Control Modes ................................................................. 21
Typical PID Controller Outputs .............................................................................. 22

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Chapter 6

Digital Control Principles


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
Digital vs Analog: A Revision of their Definitions ................................................. 1
Action in Digital Control Loops ................................................................................ 2
Identifying Functions in the Frequency Domain .................................................... 2
The Need for Digital Control ..................................................................................... 6
Scanned Calculations .................................................................................................. 9
Proportional Control ................................................................................................... 9
Integral Control.......................................................................................................... 10
Derivative Control ..................................................................................................... 11
Lead Function as Derivative Control...................................................................... 12
Example of Incremental Form ( Siemens S5 - 100V)............................................. 13

Chapter 7

Real and Ideal P.I.D. Controllers


7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
Comparative Descriptions of Real and Ideal Controllers...................................... 1
Description of the IDEAL or the Non-Interactive PID Controller..................... 1
Description of the Real (Interactive) PID Controller .............................................. 3
Lead Function - Derivative Control with Filter...................................................... 5
Derivative Action and Effects of Noise ................................................................... 6
Example of the KENT K90 Controllers PID Algorithms ....................................... 7

Chapter 8

Tuning of PID Controllers in both Open and Closed Loop Control Systems
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
Objectives of Tuning ................................................................................................... 1
Reaction Curve Method (Ziegler Nichols) ............................................................... 4
Ziegler Nichols Open Loop Tuning Method (1) ..................................................... 7
Ziegler-Nichols Open Loop Method (2) using POI ................................................ 9
Loop Time Constant (LTC) Method........................................................................ 12
Hysteresis Problems that may be encountered in Open Loop Tuning............. 14
Continuous Cycling Method (Ziegler Nichols)..................................................... 14
Damped Cycling Tuning Method ........................................................................... 18
Tuning for No Overshoot on Start Up (Pessen) .................................................... 24
Tuning for Some Overshoot on Start Up (Pessen)................................................ 24
Summary of Important Closed Loop Tuning Algorithms................................... 25
PID Equations: Dependent and Independent Gains ............................................ 25

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Chapter 9

Controller Output Modes, Operating Equations and Cascade Control


9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
Controller Output ........................................................................................................ 1
Multiple Controller Outputs ...................................................................................... 2
Saturation and Non-Saturation of Output Limits................................................... 5
Cascade Control ........................................................................................................... 6
Initialization of a Cascade System............................................................................. 9
Equations relating to Controller Configurations. ................................................. 11
Application Notes on the Use of Equation Types................................................. 15
Tuning of a Cascade Control Loop ......................................................................... 16
Cascade Control with Multiple Secondaries ......................................................... 17

Chapter 10

Concepts and Applications of Feedforward Control


10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
Application and Definition of Feedforward Control ............................................. 1
Manual Feedforward Control .................................................................................... 2
Automatic Feedforward Control............................................................................... 3
Examples of Feedforward Controllers...................................................................... 4
Time Matching as Feedforward Control .................................................................. 4

Chapter 11

Combined Feedback and Feedforward Control


11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
The Feedforward Concept.......................................................................................... 1
The Feedback Concept ................................................................................................ 2
Combining Feedback and Feedforward Control .................................................... 3
Feedback - Feedforward Summer ............................................................................. 4
Initialization of a Combined Feedback and Feedforward Control System......... 4
Tuning Aspects ............................................................................................................ 5

Chapter 12

Long Process Dead-Time in Closed Loop Control and the Smith Predictor
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
Process Deadtime......................................................................................................... 1
An Example of Process Deadtime ............................................................................. 2
The Smith Predictor Model ........................................................................................ 4
The Smith Predictor in Theoretical Use.................................................................... 6
The Smith Predictor in Reality................................................................................... 7
An Exercise in Deadtime Compensation ................................................................. 8
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Practical Process Control for Engineers & Technicians

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Chapter 13

Basic Principles of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks


13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction to Fuzzy Logic....................................................................................... 1
What is Fuzzy Logic? .................................................................................................. 2
What does Fuzzy Logic do? ....................................................................................... 3
The Rules of Fuzzy Logic ........................................................................................... 3
Fuzzy Logic Example using 5 Rules and Patches ................................................... 6
The Achilles Heel of Fuzzy Logic.............................................................................. 8

13.8 Neural Networks ......................................................................................................... 9


13.9 Neural Back-Propagation Networking................................................................... 11
13.10 Training a Neuron Network .................................................................................... 14
13.11 Conclusions, and then the Next Step...................................................................... 16

Chapter 14

Self-Tuning Intelligent Control and Statistical Process Control


14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9

Objectives...................................................................................................................... 1
Self-Tuning Controllers .............................................................................................. 1
Gain Scheduling Controller........................................................................................ 3
Implementation Requirements for Self Tuning Controllers.................................. 4
Statistical Process Control SPC. .............................................................................. 5
Two Ways to Improve a Production Process........................................................... 6
Obtaining the Information required for S.P.C......................................................... 7
Calculating Control Limits ....................................................................................... 14
The Logic Behind Control Charts............................................................................ 18

Version 3.02

Practical Process Control for Engineers & Technicians

Appendices
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Appendix D
Appendix E
Appendix F
Appendix G
Appendix H
Appendix I
Appendix J
Appendix K
Appendix L
Appendix M

Exercises

Version 3.02

Some Laplace Transform Pairs


Block Diagram Transformation Theorems
Detail Display
Auxiliary Display
Configuring a Tuning Exercise in a Controller
Installation of Simulation Software
Operation of Simulation Software
Configuration
General Syntax of Configuration Commands
Configuration Commands
Algorithms
Background Graphics Design
Configuration Example

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