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Biomass energy is the result of the transformation of different types of
matter (from animal, plants, human astes!".
It is a renea#le energy
The organi$ matter is transformed into fuel,
%.T&'ORIC() B(*IC*
It e+ist different types of #iomass,
-N(TUR(), The natural #iomass is produ$ed in the natural
e$osystems and ithout the human inter.ention. The intensi.e
e+ploitation of this type of #iomass isn/t good for the prote$tion of the
en.ironment. Natural #iomass is for e+ample, $learing
forests and plantations remains, fireood and #ran$hes, Conifers,
-R'*IDU(), The residual #iomass is generated in the human
a$ti.ities that use organi$ matter. Its elimination many times suppose
a pro#lem. It o#taining energy from ood aste and
agri$ultural residues, ur#an residues! There are to types of residual
- Dry, solid produ$ts not used in agri$ultural a$ti.ities, forestry and
pro$esses of food pro$essing industries. 0or e+ample almond shells,
pomade, pruning fruit trees, sadust, et$.
- 1et, #iodegrada#le spills, ur#an and industrial seage and li.esto$2
-'N'R3'TIC CRO4*, They are spe$ifi$ $rops dedi$ated e+$lusi.ely
to the produ$tion of energy. Unli2e to traditional farming, their main
$hara$teristi$s are their #ig produ$ti.ity of #iomass and its ele.ated
hardiness, e+pressed in $hara$teristi$s li2e the resistan$e to drought, to
the illnesses, earliness of groth!
0or e+amples traditional $rops ( $ereals , sugar $ane, oil seeds" and
other un$on.entional (arti$ho2es, seet sorghum" that are the su#5e$t
of numerous studies to determine its ne$essities of $rop.
There are to main types of $on.ersion of #iomass into energy,
Biomass is #urn ith o+ygen and ithout moisture7 it is pre.iously
di.ided forming pellets.
It $onsists in a De$omposition of the #iomass in a high temperature
(899degrees" ithout o+ygen. It is used to o#tain .egetal $ar#on.
1ith mi$roorganisms,
Anaerobic digestion
*ome #a$terias transform #iomass into #iogas that is methane :
$ar#on dio+ide(ithout o+ygen". It $an #e used li2e fuel to o#tain
Alcoholic er!entation
By the a$tion of some en;ymes the $ar#ohydrates are transformed into
ethanol (ith o+ygen". 1e use this ethanol li2e fuel used #y $ars.
Bio!ass $lant
The pro$ess of generation of energy is this,
The (natural, residual or $rops" are transported to the #iomass plant,
then it goes to the fuel storage, after that the feeding $ut the matter
hi$h later pass through the $om#ustion $ontainers here it is #urn #y
the o+ygen, its $om#ustion produ$es that the ater hi$h pass
through the $om#ustion $ontainer #e$omes steam that the
tur#ine and ma2es energy hi$h goes to the generator. The steam is
refrigerate in the e$onomi;er #y the meaning of ater and #e$omes
ater against and the pro$ess #egins again.
<. (D=(NT(3'*
- *upporting the de.elopment of lo$al agri$ultural $,
hi$h are in the sale of the plant remains of their produ$tion
more e$onomi$ support.
- 0uel is mu$h $heaper than fossil and ele$tri$ity.
- 'nergy $rops is a ne opportunity for the agri$ultural se$tor.
- No greenhouse gases
- Reuse of aste, other a$ti.ities resulting in re$y$ling and aste
- Renea#le energy
- Redu$es dependen$e on foreign fuel supplies.
- The use of #iomass $olla#orates ith forest $learing, pre.enting
forest fires.
- Ineffi$ient $ompared to fossil fuels #e$ause they ha.e less
energy effi$ien$y.
- '+pensi.e #e$ause it has a higher $ost of produ$tion $ompared
to the energy o#tained from fossil fuels. Their #oilers are also
the most e+pensi.e.
- )arge amounts of land
- 4rodu$tion of season
- 6ay ha.e pro#lems of transport and storage.
- Need of Transformation for use.
- In some pla$es it is diffi$ult to get home deli.ery of pellets.
8. 1&'R' T&'? (R'
-United @ingdom, IRONBRID3', Is the #iggest #iomass plant in the
orld, is oned #y '.ON Company.
-0inland. ()&O)6'N* @R(0T, Is the se$ond #iggest #iomass
plant, this plant pro.ide energy to the Aa2o#stad population
-4oland, 4O)(NI'C, Third #iggest plant in the orld, it generates
ele$tri$ity for B99.999 homes.
B.'N=IRON6'NT() I64(CT
4ositi.e en.ironnemental impa$t,
-Biomass is a energy sour$e hi$h pro.ides a fa.ora#le #alan$e of
CO % so it has good impa$t in the atmosphere.
-In forest and plants
It has a high $ost if e $ompare it ith fossil fuels.
Depends of,
=olume and type, The Duantity of #iomass determines the si;e and
types of the system and the se$ondary pro$esses that e ha.e to
use. The type and the $hara$teristi$s of #iomass determines too the
pre.ious and the final treatments.
Con.ersion pro$ess, depending of the $hemi$al and physi$al
$omposition, If it is easy to $on.ert it, it is $heap #ut if it is diffi$ult
to $on.ert e ha.e to use te$hnology ith a #igger $omple+ity and
ith a high $ost.
'nergy appli$ation, The #iomass has to #e transport to the pla$e
here e ill use it, and it depends of the installation.
In mis$ellaneous e# thought that is important to puto a graphi$
e+plaining the $onsume of #iomass in different $ountries,
-'nergy from ood is more important in $ountries here there are to
mu$h forest and or2s are in relationship ith 1ood. Be$ause of that
the $onsume of ood in *eden, 0inland or (ustria, for e+ample, is
too #ig . & in other $ountries li2e 6alt , Cyprus or Italy , That
use more other types of energies ha.enFt got pra$ti$ally any $onsume
of ood.
-In the #iggest european $ountries li2e the #iomass energy is used in
the regions ith more forest also #eing not so mu$h used in *pain or
3ree$e and .ery used at 4ortugal or Denmar2.