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Unit I
(a) Educational Research : Definition, need and importance, classification, fundamental, applied
and action research, Scientific method in Educational Research.
(b) Selection of research problem, areas of research identification and statement of research
(c) Survey of research literature.
(d) Hypothesis Definition, types and importance.
(e) Sampling Need of sampling, non-probability samples, probability sample. Sampling error.

Unit II
(a) Tools : Psychological tests, observations, questionnaire interviews, rating scales, attitude
scales (Thurston scale and Likerts scale).
(b) Reliability and Validity, Types of Validity.

Unit III
Methods of Research:
(a) Historical Research : Meaning, steps with emphasis on internal and external criticism.
(b) Descriptive Research : Meaning, types with special reference to surveys, correlation,
longitudinal and crossectional studies.
(c) Experimental Research : Meaning, steps and threats to internal and external validity.

Unit IV
(a) Experimental designs : Post test control group design, pre test post test control group
design, factorial designs, quasi-experimental deisgns.
(b) Qualitative Research : Meaning, case study.
(c) Research proposal and research report.

Unit V
Measures of Central Tendency, variability and graphical representation of data.
(a) Measures of relationship, Rank order correlation, product moment methods of correlation.
(b) Normal probability curve and its applications.
(c) Significance of statistics and significance of difference between statistics.
(d) Analysis of variance (one way only).
(e) Chi-square test.

Books Recommended:
1. Best, J.W. (1995) & Kahan, J.V. Research Education, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New
2. Edwards, A.L. (1960) Experimental Design in Psychological Research, New York, Holts
(revised Ed.).
3. Ferguson, G.A. and Takane Yoshio (1989) Statistical Analysis in Psychology and
4. Garrett, H.E. (1986) Statistics in Psychology and Education, Vikils Feffers and Simmons
Pvt. Ltd.
5. Kaul Lokesh (1984) Methodology of Educational Research, Vikas Publishing House Pvt.
Ltd., New Delhi.
6. Sukhiya, S. P. : Melhotra P.V., Elements of Educational Research, Allied Publishers.
7. Tuckman, B.W. (1972) Conducting Educational Research, Harcourt Brace, Javanovich.
8. Verma, An Introduction to Educational and Psychological Research, , Asia Publishing House.
9. Lindquist, E.F. (1960) Elementary Statistical Methods in Psychology and Education, Oxford
Book Company, New Delhi.
10. Sharma, A.R. (1984) Fundamentals of Educational Research, Loyal Book Depot, Meerut.

01. Nature of Research An Introduction:
1.1. What is Research Status of Research on.
1.2. Why Legal Research Significance of Legal Research on Legal
Professionin India
1.3. Some Current Trends in Legal Research.
1.4. Legal Research its Scope and Nature.
1.5. Objectives of Legal Research.
1.6. Socio-Legal Research.
1.7. Modes of Legal Research.
1.7,1. Doctrinal or Traditional Research
1.7.2. Non-doctrinal or Empirical Research.
1.7.3. Descriptive and Analytical Research.
1.7.4. Applied and Fundamental Research.
1.7.5. Historical Research.
1.7.6. Sociological Research.

02. Planning of Legal Research:
2.1. Identification of Research Problems.
2.2. Selection of a Research Problem.
2.3. Formulation of a Research Problem.
2.4. Research Design.

03. Methods of Investigation:
3.1. Scientific Method of Investigation.
3.2. Case Study Method of Investigation.
3.3 Survey Method of Investigation.
3.4. Experimental Method of Investigation.
3.5. Discussion Method of Investigation.

04. Method and Tools for Collecting of Data:
4.1. Primary Data Method,
4.1.1 .Observation.
4.1 .2. lnterview
4.1.3. Telephone Interview
4.1.4. Mail Survey.

4.2. Secondary Data Method:
4.2.1. Significance of Secondary Data
4.2.2. Evaluating Secondary Data
4.2.3. Sources of Secondary Data

4.3. Schedule.
4.4. Questionnaire
4.5. Pre-testing in Questionnaire
4.6. Pilot Study.
4.7. Tests.
4.8. Cumulative Record Cards.

05. Hypothesis:
5.1. Introduction.
5.2. Sources of Hypothesis.
5.3. Characteristics of hypothesis.
5.4. Estimation and Testing of hypothesis.
5.5. Hypothesis Testing Procedure.
5.6. Relation between theory and hypothesis.

06. Sampling:
6.1. Importance of Sampling.
6.2. Advantages and Limitations of Sampling.
6.3. Theoretical basis of Sampling
6.4. Types of Sampling.
6.5. Probability and Non-probability Sampling
6.6. Sampling and Non-sampling Error.

07. Data Processing
7.1. Introduction
7,2. Editing
7.3. Coding
7.4. Tabulation.

08. Analysis and Interpretation of Data:
8.1. Application of Content Analysis in Legal Research.
8.2. Analysis of Aggregate Data.
8.3. Data Interpretation and Report writing.
8.4. Collection and Analysis Data
8.5. Legal input Analysis, the ideal and the practicable.

09. Research Report:
9.1. Introduction.
9.2. Types of Report.
9.3. Contents of a Report.
9.4. Steps in Drafting Report.

10. Computer Application and Legal Research.
10.1. Introduction.
10.2. Jurimetrics.
10.3. Role of Computers in the field of Legal Research.
10.4. Role of Law Journals.

Select Bibliography:-
01. Legal Research and Methodology Indian Law Institute, New Dethi
02. Mi. Tanulingam Research Methodology Himalaya Publishing
03. Dr. H.N.Tawari Legal Research Methodology Alihabad Law Agency.
04. High Brayal, Nigel Duncan and Richard Crimes, Clmical Legal
Education: Active Learing in your School (1998)Blackstone P. Press
05. M.O. Price, H. Bitner and Bysiewiez, Effective Legal Research (1978)
06. Pauline V.Young, Scientific Social Survey and Research (1962)
07. William I Grade and Paul K Hatt, Methods in Social Research, Mc Graw-
Hill Book Company, London.
08. Payne, The Art of Asking Questions (1965)
09. H.M.Hyman, Interviewing in Social Research (1965)
10. Monis L. Cohan, Legal Research in Nutshell, (1996) West Publishing Co.
11. Harvard Law Review Association, Uniform System of Citations.
12. Erwim C. Surrency B. Fielf and .J. Cn, 4 Guide to Legal Research (1959)
13. P.Saravanavel Research Methodojpgy Kitab Mahal
14. C.R.Kothari Research Methodoogy (Methods and Techniques)-
Vishwa Prakashan.

1. Review of Literature:
a. Need and Process of Systematic Review of Litreture to Understand Regional & Local
- Geology, Geomorphology, Stratigraphy, Structural and Tectonic Setting, Mineral
Deposits and Hydrogeology etc.

2. Geological Surveying:
a. Nature and scope, important field equipments.
b. Toposheets Types, Features. Arrangements of Toposheets.
c. Geological Mapping Methods. Base map.
d. Collection of Geological and Structural Data.
3. Remote Sensing:
a. Application of Remote Sensing Techniques in Geological Studies.

4. Sampling:
a. Purposes and Types of Samples. Techniques of Sampling.
b. Sampling Patterns.
c. Preparation of Samples for further Studies.

5. Microscopy:
a. Preparation and Studies of Thin Sections and Polished Sections.
b. Types of Microscopes and their Applications in Geology.

6. Geochemical Analysis:
a. Geochemical techniques and Instruments for Analyses of Rocks, Soils and Water

7. Geostatistics :
a. Concept of Sampling, Overview of Estimation Methods, Mean, Mode &Median.
Standard Deviation.
b. Common Tests & Methods in Statistics.
c. Methods of Graphical Representation for Geological Data.

8. Computer Application in Geology:
a. Introductory Knowledge of MS office 2007, Application of Excel, Introductory
Knowledge of Software Packages for Processing Geological data.
b. Geographical Information System (GIS).

9. Geo-scientific Writing:
I. Pre-writing stage:
a. Scientific Paper Title, Text & Termination (End Materials).
b. Technical Report Types of reports & their possible structure, possible main
contents of Reports.
c. Illustrations Maps, Line Diagrams, Graphs, Photographs.

II. Writing Stage :
a. Abstract, Summary, Synopsis, Extended Abstract.
b. References Within the Text and in the form of List, Patterns of References in
c. Qualities of Scientific Paper/ Reports Accuracy of Contents, Clarity & Simplicity
of expression, Coherence, Conciseness, Logical Sequence.
d. Aids to writing Grammar and usage, Abbreviations, Compounding of words,
Placement of Phrases, Italics, Numerical Expressions, Units & Symbols,
Punctuations, Spellings, and Conclusion.
e. Writing practices Rewriting, Readability, Check list, Preparation of Final

III. Post Writing stage:
a. Oral & Poster Presentation:
b. Modes of presentation and Use of various kinds of Oral Aids.
c. Poster Presentation.

Abbasi & Abbasi - Renewawable Energy Resources & their Implication. (Prentice Hall India).
Allen Sedimentary Structures.
Allum Photogeology & Regional Mapping.
Armstrong, H.C. Geothermal Energy (Span London)
Arogyaswami, R.N.P. Courses in Mining Geology (Oxford & I.B.H.).
Atittatrong H.C. - Geothermal Energy ( Span London)
Badgley, P.C. - Structural Geology for Exploration Geologists (Oxford Univ. Press)
Bateman, A.M. - Economic Mineral Deposits (J. Wiley & Sons)
Best - Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (CBS)
Black, R.M. - The Elements of Palaeontology. Cambridge University Press.
Blackith R. E. & Reyment, It. A. - Multivariate Morpltometrics (Academic Press)
Bloom, A. - Geomorphology (Prentice Hall)
Blyth Geology of Engineers (ELBS)
Bowen, N.L. Evolution of Igneous rocks (Princeton University Press)
Chandra, D., Singh, R.M. and Singh, M.P., - Text Book of Coal. Tara Book Agency, Varanasi.
Chatterjee, K.K. An introduction to mineral economics (willey eastern).
Chatterjee, S.C. Igneous & metamorphic Rocks
Coates, D.R. Environmental Geology
Colbert, E.H. Evolution of the Vertebrates (J.Wiley & Sons)
Cooke and Drunkamp - Geomorphology in Environment Pollution
Cubit and Henley Statistical analysis in Geology
Cushman, J.A. Foraminifera (Cambridge University Press)
Dana, E. Ford W.E. A Text book of Mineralogy (Asia Public House)
Davies Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology (Wiley)
Deer, Howie & Zussman Introduction to Rock Forming Minerals (ELBS)
Drury, S.A. - Image Interpretation in Geology. (Allen and Unwin)
Dunber, C.O. & Rodgers, J. Princples of Stratigraphy ( J.Wiley & Sons)
Eanga Itaja Itao - Coal Preparation and Use (Oxford IBM Pub. Co.)
Eicher, Don, L. Geologic Time (Prentice Hall)
Evans, R.C. Crystal Chemistry (Cambridge University Press)
Fairbridge - Encyclopaedia of Geomorphology (Reinhold Corp.)
Faure, G. - Principles of Isotope Geology. John Wiley.
Flames, P. T. - Environmental Geology, Conservation Land Use Planning and Resource
Folk, R.L. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks (Hemphill Pub. Co.)
Fyfe Geochemistry (Clereton Press Oxford)
Garg, S.P. Ground water & Wells.
Gaudin - Ore dressing.
Ghose, M.K. Igneous Petrology (World Press Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata)
Glaessener, M.F. Principles of Micropalaeontology( Hafner Press)
Goulden C.M. Methods of Statistical Analysis (J. Wiley & Sons)
Govett, G.J.S. - Hand Book of Exploration Geochemistry. Elsevier.
Green smith Sedimentary Petrology(CBS)
Gupta, C.B. An Introduction to the Statistical Methods (Vikas Publishing House)
Gupta, R.P. - Remote Sensing Geology. (Springer Verlag)
Gupta, S.P. Elements of statistics
Haekes R. & Webb - Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration (Academic Press )
Hobbs, B. E. & Means, W. D. & Williams P. F. - An outline of Structural Geology (J. Wiley &
Holmes A. - Physical Geology (Nelson)
Horn, B. & Scott, M. Geological Hazards (Springer Verlog)
Hutchinson, C.S. - Laboratory Hand Book of Petrographic Techniques. John Wiley.
Itobnnioit & Courcll - Basic Exploration Geophysics.
Jackson - Textbook of Lithology ( CBS)
Jain and Anantharaman Introduction to Palaeontology Vishal Publications. Jalandhar.
Jhanwar, M.L and Chouhan, T.S. Remote sensing and photogrammetry (Vigyan
Johanneson, A A Descriptive Petrology of Igneous Rocks Vol. I-IV (University of Chicago
Karanth, K.R. Ground water Assessment
Kathal, P.K. Microfossils & their applications (CBS).
Keller, E.A. Environmental Geology (CBS)
Kinghorn, R.R.F. An Introduction to the Physics and chemistry of Petroleum (J. Wiley &
Koneru S.R. 2004. Geoscientific writing, a guide to Language and Composition Style. Geol.
Soc. India, Mem. 58, 270p.
Klein, C.and Hurlbut, Jr., C.S.,- Manual of Mineralogy. (J. Wiley & Sons)
Krauskopf, K.B. - Introduction to Geochemistry. McGrew Hill.
Krishnan, M. S. - Geology of India and Burma ( CBS)
Krishnaswami Mineral Resources of India (CBS)
Krumbein and Sloss Stratigraphy and Sedimentation (W.H. Freeman & Co.)
Krynine & Judd - Principles of Engineering Geology and Geotectonics (McGraw Hill)
Landes, K.K. Petroleum Geology (Robert, Kraieger Pub. Co.).
Levinson Introduction to Exploration Geochemistry (Applied Publishers)
Levorson Petroleum Geology
Lilesand, T.M. and Kieffer, R.W., - Remote sensing and Image Interpretation. (John Willey)
Lobeck, A.K. Geomorphology (Mc-Graw Hill)
Lybach, L., Muffer, L.J.P. Geothermal systems (J. Wiley & Sons)..
Mason, B. Principles of Geochemistry (McGraw Hill)
Mason, B. and Moore, C.B. - Introduction to Geochemistry. Wiley Eastern.
Mason, Berry Minerology. (Asian Pub.)
Mckinstry, H.E. Mining Geology (Asia Publishing House).
Miashiros Metamorphism and metamorphic Rocks (George Allen University)
Miller, V.C. Photogeology. (McGraw Hill)
Mineral Concession Rules, DMG, Govt. of Rajasthan.
Moore, Laliker & Fisher Invertebrate fossils (McGraw Hill)
Moorehouse A study of Thin Sections (CBS)
Naqvi, S.M. and Rogers, J.J. Precambrian Geology of India.
Pandey, S.N. Principles of Photo interpretation and Remote Sensing. (McGraw Hill)
Park C.F. and McDiarmid R.A. Ore Deposits (W.H. Freeman & Co.)
Pascoe, E.H. A Manual of Geology of India & Burma (GSI)
Pettijohn, F.J. Sedimentary Rocks (CBS)
Philipots, A. - Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
Phillips, F.C. An Introduction to Crystallography (ELBS)
Pockorny Principles of Zoological Micropalaeontology Vol. I & II
Ragan, D. M. - Structural Geology (J.Wiley & Sons)
Ramsay, J.G. - Folding and Fracturing of Rocks (McGraw Hill)
Rankama, K. The Geologic Systems-The Pre cambrian Vol.-III Ed.(J. Wiley & Sons)
Rao, C.R. - Advanced Statistical Methods in Biometrical Research (J. Wiley & Soita )
Ravindra Kumar Introduction of Historical Geology and Principles of Stratigraphy (CBS)
Ray. R.G. - Aerial Photographs in Geologic Interpretations. (USGS)
Read, H.H. Rutleys Elements of Mineralogy (Thomas Murby & Co.)
Reineck and Singh Depositional Environments.
Robinson and Courch Basic exploration Geophysics.
Roy, Lindholm - A Practical Approach to Sedimentology ( CBS)
Roy A. B. and Jakhar S.R., 2002. Geology of Rajasthan (Northwest India) Precambrian to
Recent. Scientific Publishers (India), Jodhpur. 421p.
S. Eanga Raja Rao Coal Preparation and use (Oxford IBM Pub. Co.)
Sabbins, F.F. - Remote sensing- Principles and Applications. (Freeman)
SathyaNarayan Swami, B.S. Engineering Geology (Dhanpat Rai & Co.)
Savindra Singh Environmental Geography. Prayag Pustak Bhawan.
Selley, R.C. - Elements of Petroleum Geology. Academic Press.
Sengupta, S.M. Introduction of Sedimentology (Oxford & IBH)
Sharma, N.L. Determinative Tables (ISM, Dhanbad).
Shrock & Twenhofel - Principles of Invertebrate Palaeontology (McGraw Hill)
Shultz, J. R. & Cleaves A. B. - Geology in Engineering (J. Wiley & Soot)
Singh and Sahni- Advanced Surveying
Singh, R.D. Principles and Practices of Modern Coal Mining.
Sinha and Sharma - Mineral Economics (IBH)
Sinha R. K. - Treastise on Industrial Minerals of India
Sinha Roy, S. Malhotra, G & Mohanty, M. Geology of Rajasthan (Geol. Soc. Ind.)
Sinha, R.K. Treatise on Industrial Minerals of India.
Sinha, R.K. and Sharma, N.L. Mineral Economics (oxford & IBH)
Slley, R.C. Introduction to Sedimentary Rocks (Academic Press London)
Smirov, V.I. - Geology of Mineral Deposits (MIR. Pub.)
Spencer, E. W. - Introduction to the Earth's Crust (McGraw Hill)
Spiegel, M. R. - Theory and Problems of Statistics ( Schaum Publishing Co.)
Stach, E. et al. Coal Petrology. Gebruder Borntraeger, Stutgart
Stanton R.L.- Analytical Methods used in Geochemical Exploration (Edward Arnold, London)
Stanton R. L. - Ore Petrology (McGraw Hill)
Tank, R. W. - Focus on Environmental Geology (Oxford)
Taylor, G.H. et al. Organic Petrology. Gebruder Borntraeger, Stutgart.
Thomson - Sedimentary Structures
Thornbury, W.D. Principles of Geomorphology (J. Wiley & Sons)
Todd, D. K. - Ground Water Hydrology (J. Wiley & Sons)
Tolman, C. F. - Ground Water (McGraw Hill)
Turner, F.J. - Metamorphic Petrology. Mc Graw Hill.
Valdiya K.S. Environmental Geology.Tata MGH
Winchel & Winchel Elements of Optical Mineralogy (ELBS)
Winkler H.G.F. - Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks (Springer-Verlog)
Woods, H. Invertebrate Palaeontology (CBS)
Wylie, P. J. - Dynamic Earth (J. Wiley & Sons)

A. Molecular biology and recombinant DNA methods: Isolation and purification of RNA , DNA
(genomic and plasmid) and proteins, different separation methods; analysis of RNA, DNA and
proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing gels; molecular
cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems; expression of recombinant
proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors; isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences;
generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors; in
vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms;
protein sequencing methods, detection of post-translation modification of proteins; DNA
sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing; methods for analysis of gene expression
at RNA and protein level, large scale expression analysis, such as micro array based techniques;
isolation, separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules; RFLP, RAPD and AFLP
B. Histochemical and immunotechniques: Antibody generation, detection of molecules using
ELISA, RIA, western blot, immunoprecipitation, floweytometry and immunofluorescence
microscopy, detection of molecules in living cells, in situ localization by techniques such as FISH
and GISH.
D. Statistical Methods: Measures of central tendency and dispersal; probability distributions
(Binomial, Poisson and normal); sampling distribution; difference between parametric and non-
parametric statistics; confidence interval; errors; levels of significance; regression and correlation;
t-test; analysis of variance; X2 test;; basic introduction to Muetrovariate statistics, etc.
F. Microscopic techniques: Visualization of cells and subcellular components by light microscopy,
resolving powers of different microscopes, microscopy of living cells, scanning and transmission
microscopes, different fixation and staining techniques for EM, freeze-etch and freeze-fracture
methods for EM, image processing methods in microscopy.
G. Chromatography Paper TLC, HPLC, GLC
H. Plant tissue culture techniques

"Course work" shall mean courses of study prescribed by the course Advisor to be
undertaken by the incumbent registered for Ph. D degree. Course Advisor mean a faculty member
nominated by Head of department to chalk out the programme of study of a student registered for the
Ph. D degree and to advice him on the courses to be taken by him. If a supervisor has already been
appointed he/she shall be the course Advisor for that student.
The pattern of course work includes state-of-art of research work, research methodology,
review of literature, experimental, scope of work, computer and microprocessor based study in
question, quantitative techniques for analysis of data.
The duration of course work will be six month. On completion of course work the university
will conduct an examination of descriptive type of 100 marks with minimum pass marks 36.
The broad-based syllabus of course work should be from following fields of contemporary
1. Electrochemistry and Eiectroanalytical Techniques, Corrosion and Anodising industry
2. Green Chemistry - Solvent free synthesis, catalysis and industrial methods of extraction of
Natural products
3. Organic synthesis
4. Lanthanide chemistry - Applications of lanthanides in medicines and catalysis, Green
5. Industrial Biotechnology - modern bioreactors, biomaterials and tissue engineering
6. Spectroscopic techniques of identification including gamma ray spectroscopy
7. Micellar and surface chemistry
8. Organometallic chemistry and coordination chemistry
9. Environmental chemistry
10. Food and Drug analysis

Reference Book : Chemistry
1 Data Analysis for Chemistry Brynh H
2 Micelles Moroi Y
3 Biophysical Chemistry Part I the Conformation of Biological
Cantor CR
4 Biophysical Chemistry Part 2 Techniques for the Study of
Biological Structure and Function
Cantor CR
5 Biophysical Chemistry Part 3 The Behaviour of Biological
Cantor CR
6 Computational Chemistry Lewars
7 Modern Electrochemistry I Ionics 2/E Bockris/Reddy
8 Modern Electrochemistry -2 A Fundamentals of Electrodies 2/E Bockris/Reddy
9 Modern Electrochemistry 2 B Electrodics in Chemistry, Engg.
Biology & Environmental Science 2/E
10 Quantum Chemistry & Spectroscopy Engel
11 Thermodynamics, Statistical Thermodynamics and Kinetics Engel
12 Molecular Spectroscopy McHale
13 Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Attard
14 Systematic Experiments in Chemistry A Sethi
15 Introduction to the Chemistry of Hetero 9 Cyclic Compounds 3/E Acheson
16 Electrochemical Methods : Fundamentals and Applications 2/E Bard
17 Mass Spectrometry 2/E Barker
18 Heterocyclic Chemistry 4/E Joule
19 Polarography and other Volta Metric Methods Riley
20 Principles of Electro analytical Methods Riley
21 Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds 6/E Silverstein
22 Reagent for Organic Synthesis 22 Vol. Set Smith
23 Modern Infrared Spectroscopy Stuart
24 Heterocycle Chemistry 3/E Gilchrist
25 Modern Mass Spectrometry Schalley
26 Name Reactions Li, Jie Jack
27 Principles of Organometallic Chemistry Powell
28 Supramolecular Chemistry Ariga
29 Organic Name Reactions : A Unified Approach G Brahmchari
30 Molecular Reaction Dynamics Levine
31 Name Reactions in Organic Synthesis Parikh
32 Fundamental Conceps in Environmental Studies GD Mishra
33 Environment Problems & Solutions Asthana/Asthana
34 Chemistry of Biomolecules Bhutani
35 Chemistry of Natural Products : Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins
and Enzymes
36. Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy Lakowicz JR
37 Polymers : Chemistry & Physics of Modern Materials 3/E Cowie MG
38 Polymer Science :A Text Book Ahluwalia
39 Reaction Mechanisms of Inorganic and Organometallic system
Jordan RB
40 An Introduction to Lasers Spectroscopy 2/E Andrews DL
41 Environmental Chemistry : Green Chemistry and Pollutants


Unit A

i. Computer and Internet : Memory & Storage Devices (RAM, ROM, Hard Disk, Floppy Dist, CD,
DVD, BD, USB, Memory Card, SSC etc.)
ii. Networking (LAN & WAN connection) IP Address, Hypertext, Web Browsers, Internet Service
Providing, Web research Engine, Net Surfing Internet Services.
iii. Word Processing : MS Word (Opening, Saving, Editing, Printing, Formatting a document) Mail
Merge, Converting Word Documents into text, Rich text, HTML, PDF etc. Keyboard shortcuts,
MS Power Point.
iv. Educational and Research recourses on Net : Encyclopedia, On Line Lectures, Electronic
Jounrnals, E-Book, Digital Libraries, researching Research information using J-gate & scope.

Unit B
i. Research : Definition, Application, Characteristics Type of Research, Objectives, Paradigms
of research, steps in research process.
ii. Research Ethics : Characteristics and format of research paper, article, thesis writing.
iii. Documentation and Bibliography.
iv. Prof Reading.
v. Review : Review of Literature, reasons for review, procedure for review, writing of literature

Unit C
i. Medieval literary studies.
ii. Renaissance literature.
iii. 18
Century British literature.
iv. 19
Century British literature.
v. Modern British literature.
vi. American Literature.
vii. Drama
viii. Ethnic and Third-World literature.
ix. Popular Culture & Culture studies.
x. Women, Gender and Literature

Unit D
Approaches to the study of literature
i. Post Modernism (Habermos, Lyotard, Baudrillard)
ii. Psychoanalytic Criticism (Lacan Frend, Kristeva)
iii. Social Discourse (Foucault, Bakhtin School)
iv. Post/Neo colonial Criticism (Said, Bhabha, Ashcroft)
v. Narratology (Aristotle, Propp, Genette)
vi. Eco criticism

Geomorphology : Fundamental concepts; Factors controlling landform development,
Endogenetic and Exogenetic forces; Denudation process; weathering and erosion,
Geosynclines, mountain building, continental drift and plate tectonics; Concept of Geomorphic
Cycle, Landforms associated with fluvial, glacial, arid, coastal and karst cycles, Slope forms and
processes; Environmental and Applied Geomorphology.
Climatology : Composition and structure of the atmosphere; Insolation; Heat budget of the
earth; Distribution of temperature, atmospheric pressure and general circulation of winds;
Monsoons and jet streams; Stability and instability of the atmosphere; Air-masses; Fronts,
temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Classification of world
climates; Koppen's and Thornthwaite's schemes; Hydrological Cycle; Global warming.
Oceanography : Origin of ocean basins; Bottom relief of Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans;
Ocean deposits; Coral reefs; Temperature and salinity of the Ocean; Density of sea water; tides
and ocean currents; Sea-level changes.
Bio-Geography : Physical factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; forms and
functions of ecosystem : Forest, grassland, marine and mountain ecosystem; Bio-diversity and
its depletion through natural and man induced causes; ecosystem; Bio-diversity and its depletion
through natural and man induced causes; Conservation and management of ecosystems;
Environmental hazards and problems of pollution; Ozone depletion.
History of Geographic Thought : General character of Geographic knowledge during the
ancient and medieval period, Foundations of Modern Geography : Contribution of German,
French, British and American schools; Conceptual and methodological developments during the
century; Changing paradigms; Man and Environment, determinism and possibilism, areal
differentiation and spatial organization; Quantitative revolution; Impact of positivism, humanism,
radicalism and behaviouralism in Geography

Population Geography : Nature, scope, subject matter and recent trends; Patterns of world
distribution, growth and density of population; Policy issues; Patterns and processes of
migration; Demographic transition; Population-resource regions.
Settlement Geography : Site, situation, types, size, spacing and internal morphology of rural
and urban settlements; Ecological processes of urban growth; Urban fringe; City-region;
Settlement systems; Primate city; Rank-Size rule; Settlement hierarchy; Christaller's Central
Place theory; August Losch's theory of market centres.

Economic Geography : Location of economic activities and spatial organization of economics;
Classification of economics; Sectors of Economy; primary, secondary tertiary and quaternary;
Natural resources; Renewable and non-renewable; Conservation of resources.
Agricultural Geography : Concept and techniques of delimitation of agricultural regions;
Measurement of agricultural productivity and efficiency; Crop combinations and diversification;
Von Thunen's Model; Agricultural systems of the world.
Industrial Geography : Classification of industries : Weber's and Losch's approaches;
Resource based and footloose industries.
Geography of Transport and Trade : Models of transportation and transport cost; Accessibility
and connectivity : Inter-regional and Intra-regional : Comparative cost advantages.
Political Geography : Definition and scope of Political Geography : Geopolitics; Global strategic
views (Heartland and Rimland theories); Concept of nation; state and Nation-state; Boundaries
and frontiers; Politics and world resources; Geography and Federalism.
Social Geography : Nature and scope of social geography; Social structure and social
processes; Elements of social geography-ethnicity, tribe, dialect, language, caste and religion;
Concept of social well-being.
Cultural Geography : Nature and scope of Cultural Geography; Environment and culture;
Concept of culture areas and culture regions; Theories of tribal groups; Dwelling places as
cultural expressions.
Regional Planning : Regional concept in Geography; its application to planning; Concept of
planning region; Regional hierarchy, Types of regions and methods of regional delineation;
Conceptual and theoretical framework of regional planning; Regional planning in India : Concept
of development; Indicators of development; Regional imbalances.
Geography of India : Physiographic divisions; Climate : its regional variations; Vegetation types
and vegetation regions; Major soil types; Coastal and Marine resources; Water resources;
Irrigation; Agriculture; Agroclimatic regions; Mineral and power resources; Major industries and
industrial regions; Population distribution and growth; Settlement patterns; Regional disparities in
social and economic development.
Cartography : Map as a tool in Geographical studies; Types of maps; Techniques for the study
of spatial patterns of distribution; Single purpose and composite maps; Choropleth, Isopleth and
Chorochromatic maps and pie diagrams; Mapping of location specific date; Accessibility and flow
Remote sensing and computer application in mapping; Digital mapping, Geographic Information
System (GIS) : Thematic maps.
Statistical Methods : Data sources and types of data; Statistical diagrams, study of frequency
distribution and cumulative frequency; Measures of central tendency; Selection of class intervals
for mapping; Measures of dispersion (Simple index of dispersion). and concentration (Bernard's
index of concentration; Kant's index of concentration); Standard deviation; Lorenz curve;
Methods of measuring associations among different attributes; Simple and multiple correlation;
Measurement of spatial patterns of distribution; Nearest-neighbour analysis; Scaling techniques,
rank score, weighted score, Sampling techniques for geographical analysis. Quantification in
major fields of geography : morphometric analysis, Land capability classification, Measurement
of agricultural efficiency; Quantitative methods in economic regionalization.
Meaning and significance of research, types and objectives of research, research process,
research approaches, defining the research problems, problems of geographic research;
formulation of research schemes; role and significance of research bodies and funding agencies
to assist research work. Research design; hypothesis; theory and scientific law; preparing a
research project; writing a research report.
Books Recommended
Agrawal, A. et al. : The Citizen's Fifth Report. Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, 1999.
Ahmed, E. : Coastal Geomorphology of India, New Delhi.
Cotton, C.A. : Geomorphology, John Willey & Sons, New York.
Dayal, P. : A Textbook of Geomorphology, Shukla Book Depot, Patna, 1996.
Holmes, A. : Principles of Physical Geology, Nelson, 1978.
Jefferys, H. : The Earth - Its Origin, History and Physical Constitution.
Kale, V. and Gupta, A. : Element of Geomorphology, Oxford University Press, Calcutta, 2001.
King and Embleton, C.A.M. : Glacial and Pre-Glacial Geomorphology, Edward Arnold, London, 1975.
Lobeck, A.K. : Geomorphology, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1939.
Monkhouse, F.J. : Principles of Physical Geography, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1960.
Pitty, A.F. : Introduction to Geomorphology, Methuen, London, 1974.
Sharma, R.C. and Vatal, M. : Oceanography for Geographers, Chetanya Publishing House,
Allahabad, 1970.
Singh, S. : Geomorphology, Prayag Publication, Allahabad, 1998.
Singh, Savindra : Physical Geography, Prayag Pustak Bhawan, Allahabad.
Small, R.J. : The Study of Landforms, McGraw Hill, New York, 1985.
Steers, J.A. : The Unstable Earth, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.
Strahler, A. N. and Strahler, A.H. : Modern Physical Geography, John Wiley, Revised Edition, 1992.
Strahler, A.N . : Earth Sciences, Harper and Row Publishers, New York.
Thornbury, W.D. : Principles of Geomorphology, John Willey, New York, 1960.
Thurman, H.B. : Introductory Oceanography, Charles Webber, E.Merril Publishing Co., 1984.
Trewartha, G.T. : An Introduction to Climate, International Students edition, McGraw Hill, New York,
Wooldridge, S.W. and Morgan, R.S. : An Outline to Geomorphology, Longmans, Green and Co.,
London, 1960.
Wooldrige, S.W. and Morgan, R.S. : The physical basis of geography - An Outline of Geomorphology,
Longman, 1959.
Young, A. : Slopes, Oliver and Boyd, Endinburgh, 1972.

Climatology and Oceanography
Barry, R.G. and Chorley, P.J. : Atmosphere, Weather and Climate, Routledge, London and New
York, 1998.
Critchfield, J.H. : General Climatology, Prentice Hall, India, New Delhi, 1993.
Das, P.K. : Monsoons, National Book Trust, New Delhi, 1987.
Davis, Richard, J.A. : Oceanography - An Introduction to the Marine Environments, Wm.C.Brown
Lowa, 1986.
Fein, J.S. and Stephens, P.N. : Monsoons, Wiley Interscience, 1987.
Garrison, T. : Oceanography - An Introduction to Marine Science, Books Cole, Pacific Grove, USA,
Lal, D.S. : Climatology, Chaitanya Publications, Allahabad, 1986.
Lydolph, P.E. : The Climate of the Earth, Rowman, 1985.
Menon, P.A. : Our Weather, N.B.T., New Delhi, 1989.
Peterson, S. : Introduction to Meteorology, McGraw Hill Book, London, 1969.
Robinson, P.J. and Henderson, S. : Contemporary Climatology, Henlow, 1999.
Sharma, R.C. : The Oceans, Rajesh, New Delhi, 1985.
Sharma, R.C. and Vatal, M. : Oceanography for Geographers, Chaitanya Publishing House,
Allahabad, 1992.
Thompson, R.D. and Perry, A. (ed.) : Applied Climatology, Principles and Practice, Routledge,
London, 1997.
Trewartha, G.T. : An Introduction to Climate, McGraw, 1968.

Bio Geography
Barry, C. : Biogeography - An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach, Cox Blackwell, Oxford, 1977.
Cain, S.A.: Foundation of plant Geography, Harper and Row, New York, 1944
Darlington, P.J. : Zoo-Geography - The Geographical Distribution of Animals, John Wiley, London,
G. Ponald : The Geography of Flowering Plants
Huggett, R.J. : Fundamentals of Biogeography, Routledge, USA, 1998.
Martin, C. : Plant Geography, Methuen, 1975
Mathur, H.S.: Essentials of Biogeography, Anuj Printers, Jaipur, 1998.
Newbegin : Plant and Animal Geography
Pears, N. : Basic Biogeography, II ed., Longman, London, 1985.
Phillip, J. : Zoogeography : The Geographical Distribution of Animals, John Wiley, New York, 1957
Robinson, H. : Biogeography, Mcdonald and Evans, London, 1982.
S.I.Hora : Fundamental Conception of Zoo-Geography, N.G.S.I. Banaras.
S.I.Hora : Terrestial Fishes and the significance of their distribution in Geographical Studies, N.G.S.I.,
Schimper : Plant Geography
Seddon, B. : Biogeography, Duckworth, London, 1971.
Simmon, I.G. : Biogeography, Natural and Cultural, Longman, London, 1974.
World Resources 2000-01 : People and Ecosystems, World Resource Institute, Washington, 2001.
Zoo-Geographical Atlas

Geographical Thought
Adhikari, Sudeepta : Fundamentals of Geographical Thought, Chaitanya Publishing Hosue,
Allahabad, 1992.
Ali, S.M. : The Geography of Puranas, Peoples Publishing House, Delhi, 1966.
Dickinson, Robert E. : The Makers of Modern Geography, Roultedge and Kegan Paul, London, 1969.
Dikshit, R.D. (ed.) : The Art & Science of Geography Integrated Readings, Prentice Hall of India, New
Delhi, 1994.
Dikshit, R.D. : Geographical Thought - A Contextual History of Ideas, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
Doi, R.D. : Geographic Thought - A Spectrum of Compilation to coherence, Univ. Book House,
Jairpur, 2002.
G.Taylor (ed.) : Geography in Twentieth Century, Methuen, London
Hagget, P. : Geography - A Modern Synthesis, Harper and Row, New York, 1972.
Hagget, P. : Geography - A Regional Synthesis, Harper and Row, New York, 2001.
Hartshorne, Richard : Perspectives on the Nature of Geography, Rand Mc Nally & Co., 1959.
Harvey, M.E. and Holly : Themes in Geographic Thought, Rawat Publications, Jaipur.
Husain, Majid : Evolution of Geographical Thought, Rawat Publications, Jaipur.
Jenson, A.H. : Geography : History and Concepts, 1988.
Johnston, R.J. : The Future of Geography, Methuen, London, 1988.
Wooldridge and East : The Spirit and Purpose of Geography, Hutchinson University Library, , 1951

Geography of Population & Settlement
Bogue, D.J. : Principles in Demography, John Wiley, New York, 1969
Census of India : India - A State Profile, 1991.
Chandna, R.C. Geography of Population : Concept, Determinants and Patterns, Kalyani Publishers,
New Delhi, 2000.
Chisolm : Rural Settlement and Landuse.
Clarke, John I. : Population Geography, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1973.
Garnier, B.J. : Geography of Population, Longman, London, 1970.
Hudson, E.S. : Geography of Settlement.
Jones : A Population Geography.
Mamoria, C.B. : India's Population Problem, Kitab Mahal, New Delhi, 1981.
Mitra, Asok : India's Population : Aspects of Quality and Control, Vol. I and II, Abhinav Publications,
New Delhi, 1978.
Sharma, R.C. : Settlement Geography of Indian Desert, Kumar Brothers, New Delhi, 1972.
Singh, R.L. : Meaning, Objectives, Scope of Settlement Geography, B.H.U.
Smailes, A.E. : The Geography of Towns, Hutchinson University, Library, London, 1953.
Srinivasan, K. : Basic Demographic Techniques and Applications, Sage Publications, New Delhi,
Sundaram, K.V. and Sudesh Nangia (ed.) : Population Geography, Heritage Publications, Delhi, 1986.
Woods, R. : Population Analysis in Geography, Longman, London, 1979.
Zelinsky, W. : A Prologue to Population Geography, Prentice Hall, 1966.

Economic Geography
Alexander, John, W. : Economic Geography, Prentice Hall of India Ltd., New Delhi, 1988.
Alexanderson, C. : Geography of Manufacturing, Prentice Hall, Bombay, 1967.
Allen, J.L. : Students Atlas of Environmental Issues, Dushkin Pub., 1997.
B.B.S. Kapoor and Ahmed Ali : Sustainable Resource Management, Madhu Publications, Bikaner.
B.B.S. Kapoor, Ahmed Ali et al. : Current Environmental Issues, Madhu Publications, Bikaner.
Bengston, N.A. and Royen, M.V. : Fundamentals of Economic Geography, Prentice Hall, New York.
Berry Conkling & Ray : The Geography of Economic Systems, Prentice Hall.
Brij Gopal : Elements of Ecology.
Brown, L.R. : In the Human Interest, East-West Press, New Delhi, 1976.
Centre for Science & Environment : The State of India Environment : A Citizen's Report, 1982, 1985,
New Delhi.
Choudhary, M.R. : Industrial Geography of India.
Desh Bandhu (ed.) : Environmental Management, Indian Environment Society, New Delhi.
Dickondon, G.C. : Statistical Mapping of Statistics, London.
Dreze, J. and Sen, A. : India - Economic Development and Social Opportunity, Oxford University
Press, New Delhi, 1996.
Estall, R.C. and Buchanan R.O. : Industrial Activity & Economic Geography, Hutchinson & Co.,
Ghose, B.C. : Industrial Location.
Global Environment Outlook. Earthscan., London, 2000.
Guha, J.L. & Chattoraj, P.R. : A New Approach to Economic Geography. World Press, Kolkatta.
Hartshorn, T.A. and Alexander, J.W. Economic Geography, Prentice Hall, New Delhi, 2000.
Hodder, B.W. and Lee, Roger : Economic Geography, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1974.
Hoover, E.M. : The location of Economic Activitiy, McGraw Hill Books Co., New York.
Isard, W. : Methods of Regional Analysis, The Technology Press, of MIT and John Wiley, New York,
Jones, C.F. and Darkenwald, G.G. : Economic Geography, McMillan Co., New York, 1975.
K.Siddartha : Economic Geography, Kisalaya Publication Pvt. Ltd., Noida, New Delhi.
Khan, Z.A. : Textbook of Practical Geography Concept, New Delhi, 1998.
Lawrence, G.R.P. : Cartographic Methods, London, 1971.
Leong, G.C. and Morgen, G.C. : Human & Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, London,
Llyod, Peter E. and Dicken, P. : Location in space : A Theoretical Approach to Economic Geography,
Harper and Row, New York, 1972.
Mc Carty, H.H. and James, B. Lindberg : A Preface to Economic Geography, Englewood Cliffs,
Prentice Hall, 1966.
Miller, E. : A Geography of Manufacturing, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1962.
Park, C.C. : Ecology and Environmental Management, Butterworths, London, 1980.
Renner, T.H. & Other : World Economic Geography.
Riley, R.C. : Industrial Geography, Chatto and Windus, London, 1973.
Robertson, D. (ed.) : Globalization and Environment, E. Elgar Co. U.K., 2001.
Robinson, A.H. et al. : Elements of Geography, John Willey, New York, 1995.
Robinson, H. : Economic Geography, M.Sc. Donald London.
Sarkar, A.K. : Practical Geography : A Systematic Approach, Oriental Longman, Calcutta, 1997.
Simmons, I.G. : The Ecology of Natural Resources, Edward Arnold, London, 1974.
Singh & Singh (ed.) : Geography of Environment, Concept, New Delhi.
Singh, R.L. : Elements of Practical Geography, Kalyani Pub., New Delhi.
Smith, David M.: Industrial Location : An Economic Geographical Analysis, II ed. Wiley, New York,
Smith, J.C. and Phillip, M.O. : Industrial and Commercial Geography, Henry Halt.
Steers J.A. : Map Projections, University of London Press, London.
Strahler, A.N. : Geography and Man's Environment, John Willey, New York, 1976.
Thoman, R.S. : The Geography of Economic Activity, McGraw Hill, New York, 1962.
Wheeler, J.O. : Economic Geography, John Willey, New York, 1995.
Zimmermann, E.W. : World Resources and Industries, Harper and Co., New York.

Political Geography
Alexander, I.M. : World Political Patterns, John Murray and Co., London, 1966.
Bownman, I. : The New World Problems in Political Geography, World Book Co., New York.
De Blij H.J. and Glassner, Martin :: Systematic Political Geography, John Willey, New York, 1968.
Deshpande, C.D. : India - A Regional Interpretation, Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, 1992.
Dikshit, R.D. : Political Geography - A Contemporary Perspective, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co.
Ltd., New Delhi, 1982.
East, W.G. and Spate, O.H.K. : The Changing Map of Asia, Methuen, London, 1966.
Hartshorne, R. : The Functional Approach in Political Geography, A.A.A.G. Vol. 40, 1950.
Moodie, A.E. : Geography Behind Politics, Hutchinson University Library, London, Latest edition.
Pounds, N.J.G. : Political Geography, McGraw Hill, New York, 1972.
Prescott, J.R.V. : The Geography of Frontiers and Boundaries, Aldine, Chicago.
Spykman, N.J. : The Geography of Peace, Harcourt Brace, New York, 1944.
Sukhwal, B.L. : India - A Political Geography, Allied Publishers, New Delhi.
Taylor, Peter : Political Geography, Longman, London, 1985.
Valkenburg, S.V. & Stoz, C.L. : Elements of Political Geography, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall of India, New
Delhi, 1963.
Weigert, W.H. : Principles of Political Geography, Appleton Century Croyts, Inc. New York, 1957.

Social Geography
Ahmad, Aijazuddin : Social Geography, Rawat Publication, New Delhi, 1999.
De Blij, H.D. : Human Geography, John Wiley and Son, New York.
Dreze Jean, Amartya Sen : Economic Development and Social Opportunity, Oxford University Press,
New Delhi, 1996.
Dubey, S.C. : Indian Society, National Book Trust, New Delhi, 1991.
Gregory, D. and J. Larry (eds.) : Social Relations and Spatial Structures, McMillan, 1985.
Haq. Mahbubul : Reflections on Human Development, Oxford University Press, New Dehi.
Smith, David : Geography: A Welfare Approach, Edward Arnold, London, 1977.
Sopher, David: An Exploration of India, Cornell University Press, 1980.

Cultural Geography
Broek, J.C. and Webb, J.W. : A Geography of Mankind, McGraw Hill, New York, 1978.
Crang, Mike : Cultural Geography, Routledge Publications, London, 1998.
Harmandorf : Tribes of India : The Struggle of Survival, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1989.
Hazra (ed.) : Dimensions in Human Geography, Rawat Publications, Jaipur, 1997.
Hutchinson, and Smith, D. : Ethnicity, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996.
Jordon, & Lester, G. : The Human Mosaic, Harpar & Row, New York, 1979.
Massey, D. & Jess, P. : A Place in the World : Places, Cultures and Globalization, Oxford University,
New York, 1995.
Massey, et al. (ed.) : Human Geography Today, Polity Press, Cambridge, 1999.
Mukherjee, A.B. and Aijazuddin, A. : India - Culture, Society and Economy, Inter-India Publication,
New Delhi, 1985.
Schwartzberg, J.E. : Historical Atlas of South Asia, University of Chicago, 1978.
Singh, A.K. : Approaches to Tribal Development, Swarup and Sona, New Delhi, 1994.
Sopher, D.E. : Exploration of India : Geographical Perspectives on Society & Culture, Longman,
London, 1980.
Steve, P. and Michael, K. (ed.) : Places and the Politics of Identify, Routledge, London, 1993.

Regional Planning
Abler, R. et al. : Spatial Organization : The Geographer's View of the World, Prentice Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, N.J., 1971.
Bhat, L.S. : Regional Planning in India, Statistical Publishing Society, Calcutta, 1973.
Bhat, L.S. et al. : Micro-Level Planning : A Case Study of Karnal Area, Haryana, K.B. Publications,
New Delhi, 1976.
Chorley, R.J. and Hagget, P. : Models in Geography, Methuen, London, 1967.
Christaller, W. : Central Places in Southern Germany, Translated by C.W. Baskin, Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1966.
Friedmann, J. and Alonso, W. : Regional Development and Planning - A Reader, M.I.T. Press,
Cambridge, Mass, 1967.
Friedmann, J. and Alonso, W. : Regional Development Policy - A Case Study of Venezuela, M.I.T.
Press Cambridge, Mass, 1966.
Glikson, Arthur : Regional Planning and Development, Netherlands Universities Foundation for
International Co-operation, London, 1955.
Gosal, G.S. and Krishan, G. : Regional Disparities in Levels of Socio-Economic Development in
Punjab, Vishal Publications, Kurukshetra, 1984.
Government of India, Planning Commission : Third Five Year Plan, Chapter on Regional Imbalances
in Development, New Delhi, 1961.
Johnson, E.A.J. : The Organisation of Space in Developing Countries, Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, 1970.
Kuklinski, A.R. (ed.) : Growth Poles and Growth Centres in Regional Planning, Mouton, The Hague,
Kundu, A. and Raza, Moonis : Indian Economy - The Regional Dimension, Spectrum Publishers,
New Delhi, 1982.
Losch, A. : The Economics of Location, University Press, Yale, New Have, 1954.
Mahesh Chand, Puri, V.K. : Regional Planning in India, Allied Publishers Ltd., New Delhi, 1995.
Mishra, R.P. et al. : Multi-level Planning, Heritage Publishers, Delhi, 1980.
Misra, R.P. : Regional Planning : Concepts, Techniques and Policies, University of Mysore, Mysore,
Misra, R.P. and Others (ed.) : Regional Development Planning in India - A Strategy, Institute of
Development Studies, Mysore, 1974.
Mitra, A. : Levels of Regional Development, Census of India, Vol. I, Part IA(I) and (II), New Delhi,
Myrdal, G. : Economic Theory and Under Development Regions, Gerald Duckworth, London, 1957.
Raza Moonis (ed.) : Regional Development, Heritage Publishers, Delhi, 1988.
Richardson, H.W. : Regional Economics, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Lodnon, 1969.
Sundaram, K.V. (ed.) : Geography and Planning - Essays in Honour of V.L.S. Prakasa Rao, Concept
Publishing Co., New Delhi, 1985.
Tarlok Singh : India's Development Experience, McMillan, New Delhi, India, 1974.
Geography of India
Champion, H.G. : A Preliminary Survey of Forest Types of India and Burma, Indian Forest Record,
New Series, Silviculture, Vol. I, Delhi, 1936.
Chatterji, S.B. : Climatology of India, Calcutta University, Calcutta.
Choudhary, M.R. : Indian Industries - Development and Location.
Deshpande C.D.: India-A Regional Interpretation, Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, 1992.
Dreze, Jean and Amartya Sen (ed.) : India : Economic Development and Social Opportunity, Oxford
University Press, New Delhi, 1996.
Farmer, B.H. : An Introduction to South Asia. Methuen, London, 1983.
Galyna and Sengupta : Economic Regions and Regionalisation in India, 1968.
Govt. of India : Five Year Plans of India
Govt. of India : India Reference Annual, 2001, Pub. Div. New Delhi, 2001
Govt. of India : National Atlas of India, NATMO Publication, Calcutta.
Govt. of India : The Gazetteer of India, Vol. I & III, Publication Division, New Delhi, 1965.
Govt. of India: National Atlas of India, NATMO Publication, Calcutta.
Govt. of India: The Gazetteer of India. Vol. I & III Publication Division, New Delhi, 1965.
India Year Book (Latest Edition) : Publication Division, Delhi.
Irrigation Atlas of India.
Khular, D.R. : Geography of India
Kumar, L.S.S. and Others : Agriculture in India Vol. I & II, Asia Publishing House, Bombay.
Kundu, A. Raza Moonis : Indian Economy - The Regional Dimension, Spectrum Publishers, New
Delhi, 1982.
Learmonth, AT. A. (ed.) : Man and Land of South Asia Concept, New Delhi.
Misra, V.C. : Geography of Rajasthan, National Book Trust, New Delhi, 1967.
Mitra, A.: Levels of Regional Development India Census of India, Vol. I, Part l-A(i) and (ii) New Delhi,
Puri, G.S. : Indian Forest Ecology, Oxford Book Stationery Co., 1960.
Routray, J.K.: Geography of Regional Disparity Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, 1993.
S.P. Roy Choudhary : Land and Soil, National Book Trust, New Delhi.
Shafi, M: Geography of South Asia, McMillan & Co., Calcutta, 2000.
Sharma, T.C. and Coutino, O. : Economic and Commercial Geography of India, Vikas Publishing
House, New Delhi, 1993.
Singh, R.L. (ed.): India: A Regional Geography. National Geographical Society. India, Varanasi, 1971.
Singh, R.L. : India - A Regional Geography, N.G.S.I., Varanasi, 1971.
Spate, O.H.K. and Learmonth, A.T.A. : India and Pakistan - Land, People and Economy, Methuen &
Co., London, 1967.
Spate, O.H.K. and Learmonth, A.T.A.; India and Pakistan - Land, People and Economy Methuen &
Co., London, 1967.
Tiwari, R.C. : Geography of India.
Valdiya, K.S.: Dynamic Himalaya, University Press, Hyderabad, 1998.
Wadia, D.N.: Geology of India. McMillan & Co., London, 1967.

American Society of Photogrammetry : Manual of Remote Sensing, ASP, Falls Church, V.A., 1983,
Vol. I, II.
Barrett, E.C. and L.E. Curtis : Fundamentals of Remote Sensing and Air Photo Interpretation,
Mcmillan, New York, 1992.
Burrough, P.A. : Principles of Geographic Information Systems for Land Resource Assessment,
Oxford University Press, New York, 1986.
Compbell, J. : Introduction to Remote Sensing, Guilford, New York, 1989.
Curran, Paul J. : Principles of Remote Sensing, Longman, London, 1985.
Gautam, N.C. : SPGU. Techology of Geography, N.R.S.A., Hyderabad.
Gregory S : Statistical Methods and the Geographer. Longman S. London, 1963 geography.
Hord, R.M. : Digital image processing of remotely sensed data, Academic, New York, 1989.
Khan, Z.A.: Text Book of Practical Geography Concept, New Delhi 1998.
Lawarence, G.R.R: Cartographic methods, Methuen, London, 1968.
Luder, D. : Aerial Photography Interpretation : Principles and Application, McGraw Hill, 1959.
Mark, S. Monmonier : Computer Assisted Cartography, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliff, New Jersey,
Monkhouse, F.J. & Wilkinson, H.R.: Maps and Diagrams. Methuen, London, 1994.
Pal, S.K. Statistics for geoscientists - Techniques and Applications, Concept, New Delhi, 1998.
Pratt, W.K. : Digital Image Processing, Wiley, New York, 1978.
Rao, D.P. (eds.) : Remote Sensing for Earth Resources, Association of Exploration geophysicist,
Hyderabad, 1998.
Sarkar, A.K.: Practical Geography- A Systematic Approach Orient Longman, Calcutta, 1997.
Singh, R.L.-.Elements of Practical Geography, Kalyani Pub., New Delhi.
Singh, S. : Remote Sensing Technology, SA Publication, Jodhpur.
Star, J. and Estes, J. : Geographic Information Systems : An Introduction, Prentice Hall, Englewood
Cliff, New Jersey, 1994.
Steers, J.A.: Map Projections. University of London Press, London.
Thomas M. Lillesand and Ralph W. Kefer : Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, John Wiley &
Sons, New York, 1994.
Wolf, Paul, K. : Elements of Photogrammetry, McGraw Hill Book Co.

Statistical Geography
Gregory S. : Statistical Methods and the Geographer, Longman, London, 1978.
Growzon & Cowden : Applied General Statistics, Prentice Hall.
Hagget, P. : Locational Analysis in Human Geographical Studies, Sanjay Enterprises, New Delhi.
John Silk : Statistical Concepts in Geography, George Allen and Unwin, London.
Johnston, R.J. : Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Geography, Longman, London, 1973.
King T.J. : Statistical Analysis in Geography, Prentice Hall.
Mahmood, A.: Statistical methods in Geographical Studies, Rajesh Publication, New Delhi, 1977.


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I. Teaching Aptitude

Teaching : Nature, objectives, characteristics and basic requirement;
Learners characteristics;
Factors affecting teaching;
Method of teaching;
Teaching aids;
Evaluation systems.

II. Research Aptitude

Research : Meaning, characteristics and types;
Steps of research;
Methods of Research
Research Ethics;
Paper, article, workshop, seminar, conference and symposium;
Thesis writing: its characteristics and format.

III. Reading Comprehension

A passage to be set with questions to be answered.

IV. Communication

Communication: Nature, characteristics, types, barriers and effective classroom

V. Reasoning (including Mathematical)

Number series; letter series; codes;
Relationships; classification.

VI. Logical Reasoning
Understanding the structure of arguments;
Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning;
Verbal analogies : Word analogy-Applied analogy;
Verbal classification;
Reasoning Logical Diagrams : Simple diagrammatic relationship, multi- diagrammatic
Venn diagram; Analytical reasoning.

VII. Data Interpretation

Sources, acquisition and interpretation of data;
Quantitative and qualitative data;
Graphical representation and mapping of data.

VIII. Information and communication technology (ICT)

ICT : meaning, advantage, disadvantage and uses;
General abbreviation and terminology;
Basic of internet and e-mailing.

IX. People and Environment

People and environment interaction;
Sources of pollution;
Pollutants and their impact on human life, exploitation of nature and energy resource;
Natural hazard and mitigation

X. Higher Education System : Governance, polity and Administration

Structure of the institutions for higher learning and research in India; formal and distance
education; professional/ technical and general education; value education: governance,
polity and administration; concept, institutions and their interaction.


Objectives: The objectives of this course are:

To introduce and analyze the different Philosophical theories.
To provide the understanding of difference approaches in Philosophy and other discourses.
To encourage interdisciplinary research approach with direct philosophical relevance.
To acquaint the scholars with research methodology and computer basics.


Cognition: its definition and nature; division of cognitions; valid (prama) and invalid (aprama),
validity (pramanya): its nature, conditions and definitions; valid cognitions (prama); classification:
instruments of cognition (indriya) and their nature.

That debate about the nature, origin (utpatti) and ascertainment (jnpati) of validity,
svatahpramanyavada: paratahpramanyavada.

The about knowledge: savisayatva, sakaratva, svaprakasatva; paraprakasata.

A brief study of pramanas: pratyaksha, anumana, sabda, upamana, arthapatti, anupalabdhi.

The theories about invalid perceptual cognitions (khyativada): akhyati, anyathakhyati,
viparitakhyati, atmakhyati, asatkhyati; anirvacaniyakhyati, satkhyati, abhinava, anyathakhyati,

Schools of vedanta with Ramanujacharya, Madhvacharya, Nimbakacharya, Vallabhacharya.
God: relation of god with world in Indian classical systems: the contest of god in Vaishnava Proofs
for and against the existence of God: God as karmadhyaksa.

Atman, nairatmyavada, nature and proofs for Atman. Atman and Jiva; the Jiva as karta, bhokta,
and jnata; different perspectives.

Nature of Bandhan and Mokahsa, and means of mokasha according to various schools of Indian

Universals: the debate amongst the classical Indian systems.

Causation: a comparative study of causality in classical Indian system.

Suggested Readings:

Debabrata Sen : The Concept of Knowledge, Calcutta, 1984.
K.N. Jayatileke : Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, London, 1963.
Swami Satprakasananda : Methods of Knowledge, London, 1965.
D.M. Datta : The Six Ways of Knowing, Calcutta, 1960.
Satischandra Chatterjee : The Nyava Theory of Knowledge, Calcutta, 1965.
Govardhan P. Bhatt : Epistemology of the Bhatta School of Purva Mimamsa, Varanasi, 1962
P.S. Sastri : Indian Idealism, Vols. I & II, Delhi, 1975-76.
J.N. Mohanty : Gangesas Theory of Truth, Visva Bharti, 1966
B.K. Matilal : Perception, Oxford University Press, 1986.
Srinivasa Rao : Perceptual Error: The Indian Theories, University Press of Hawaii,
Honolulu, 1998
Visvanatha : Siddha Cntamuktavali (Tr. Swami Madhavananda)
Dharmakitrti : Nyayabindu (Tr. In Stcherbatskys Buddhist Logic, Vol. II)
Dharmaraja Adhvarin : Vedantaparibhasa.
Narayana Bhatta : Manameyodaya
Ramanuja : Vedarthasangraha
Madhva : Vishnutattvavinirnaya


Analytic Philosophy
Ryle : Systematically misleading Expressions.

Austine : Other mind

Quine : Two dogmas of Empiricism

Logical Positivism and Philosophy of Language.

Rudulf Carnap : Theory of Meaning and Elimination of Metaphysics.

A.J. Ayer : The Principle of verification and elimination of Metaphysics.

Moritz Schlick : The meaning of verifiability.

Existentialism and Phenomenology

Sartre : Existence and essence, consciousness and nothingness.
Man and freedom for itself and in itself. Human relation of love and hate.
: Notion of Truth and existential subjectivity, three stages in existential

Heidegger : Analysis of Dasein, Anxiety.

Husserl : Phenomenological method, Epochy and Reduction.

William James : Pragmatic Approach, Theory of truth.

Pirce : Doubt belief and inquiry; Theory of meaning, Doctrine of fallibism.

Dewy : Instrumentalism; Naturalism

Dialectic Materialism and Idealism

Marx : Material priority over consciousness; Dialectic Materialism and
Bradley : Appearance and Reality; Doctrine of Internal Relation

Suggested Readings:

D.M. Dutta : The Chief Currents of contemporary philosophy
A.J. Ayer : Language, Truth and Logic
J. Passmore : A Hundred Years of Philosophy
B.R. Gross : Analytic Philosophy
Paul Edward : Encyclopedia of Philosophy
B.K. Lal : Samkaleen pashchatya Darshan
Laxmi Saxena : Samkaleen Pashchatya Darshan


Nature and Scope of Applied Ethics: Theoretical formulation of applied ethics; analysis of concept
of prima facie obligation.

Deontological and teleological approaches to moral action,

Values: Value and disvalue; value neutrality and culture specific value; Ethical challenges of post
modernism; non-violence as a social value, swdeshi and morality

Private and Public morality.

Social justice: Philosophical perspectives and presuppositions.

Legal implications of social justice, equity and good conscience; their relevance for social
progress and development.

Limits of applied ethics.

Fundamentals of medical ethics: Doctor-patient relationship; euthanasia; abortion.
Applied ethics and ecology.
Applied ethics and politics, Ethics and society
Applied ethics and business: Business ethics and practical morality.
Applied ethics and human resource development. Environmental ethics
Professional ethics: Profession and business; morals and law in profession.
Ethical codes of conduct for various kinds of professionals.

Suggested Readings:

Peter Singer (ed) : Applied Ethics in the Oxford Readings in Philosophy Series.
W.K. Frankena : Ethics, Prentice-Hall, 1973.
T.L. Beauchamp & Walters : Contemporary Issues in Bioethics.
David Lamb : Down the Slippery Slop: Arguing in Applied Ethics, 1998.
Winker E R & Combe, J.R. : Applied Ethics: A Reader, Blackwell, 1993.
Almond, Brenda & Hill, Donald : Applied Philosophy: Morals and Metaphysics in
Contemporary Debates, London: Routledge & Kegan Pal,
Chidrese J.F. & Beauchamp T. L. : Principles of Bio-medical Ethics, New York, Oxford
University Press, 1989.
Graber G. C. & Thomasma, D.C. : Theory and Practie in Medical Ethics, New York, The
Continuum Co., 1989.
Springge, T.I.S. : The National Foundaion of Ethics, London, Routledge &
Kegan Paul, 1997.Hanfling Oswald : The Quest for Meaning, Oxford: Basil& Blackwell, 1999.


Probability: Alternative Conception of Probability, the Probability Calculus, joint occurrences,
Alternative occurrences, Expectation or Expected Value.
Sets, set operations, relation, ordering relation, equivalence, relation and partition, functions,
equinumerosity of sets, finite and infinite sets, countable and uncountable sets.

Classical proportional language and their sementics, Boolean valuations, satisfiability, validity,
sementic entailment, sementic equivalence. Replacement theorem for semantically equivalence
wffs conjunctive and disjunctive normal form ,functional[ expressive] completeness of sets of
prpotional connectives Analystic tableau techniques due to Beth ,Hintikka and Smullyan
,consistency and completeness of propotiona logic via tableau technique .l

Suggested Readings:

Irving M Copy : Introduction to logic

R .C .Jaffrey : Formal Logic: its scope and limits, Tata McGraw Hill

Dellieot Mandel Son : Introduction to Mathematical logic, van Nostrand

P. Suppes :Introduction to Logic, Litton Educational Publishing In. 1957


The nature of Research in Philosophy, Scope of research, Hypothesis, Criterion of judging a
Hypothesis, Unique features of research in Philosophy relation of natural and Social Sciences
Synopsis, Bibliography: the form and style in thesis writing and paper writing.
Recent trends in national and international problems connected with different fields of Philosophy
published in various journals.

Basic knowledge of computer hardware and software, files and folders, Internet and web,
Computer security and virus, cybercrimes.

Basics of M.S. Word, M.S. Excel and PowerPoint: Creating, saving, opening, editing and exiting
of documents, tables, graphs and presentation, calculations and analysis of data with the help of
functions key. Page layout including page set up and page printing.

Suggested Readings:
Campbell, W. C : Form and style of Thesis writing, Bostan Houghton Mefinn co.
Chandra, A. &. Saxena, T.P.: Style Manual for writing Thesis, Dissertation, etc Metropolitan Book
Co. New Delhi
Collingwood, R. G. : An Essay on Philosophical Method.
Rai, Chhaya : Studies in Philosophical Methods.
Young, Pantive V. : Scientific Social Surveys and Research, Prentice Hall, 1966.
Irving M Copy : Introduction to logic (complete Book except Chapter 7, 10, & 14).
Mahalingam : Computer Concept and Facts.
Sinha, P.K. : Computer Fundamentals, B.P.B. publication, New Delhi.
Timothy J. OLeary and : Computing Essentials, Tata McGraw Hill publication
Linda I. O Leary

Dheenadayalur. : Computer Science Vol. II
Lacy : Understanding Computer System: Architecture
Rajaraman : Fundamental of Computers.


1. Research Methodology
Types of Research.
Identification of Problem and Preparation of Research Design.
Research Methods in social science.
Sampling- Various Sampling Procedures.
Tools and Data Collection- Questionnaire, Interview, Content Analysis.
Processing of Data.
Measures of central tendency- Mean, Mode and Median.
Report Writing.

2. Computer Applications
Basic and fundamental knowledge of Computer and its Applications.
Introduction, Application Area, Operating System, Windows, Office, Internate.

3. Review of Books
Review of published research in Social Sciences.


Meaning, Nature and importance of Research Methodology in Social Sciences with special
reference to Public Administration. Scope and limitations of Ecological dimensions of
research in Public Administration.
Scientific Method: Meaning, definitions basic elements, Hypothesis, Theory and Fact: their
definitions and inter relationship, Theory building in Public Administration, Definition of
problem and formulation of a working Hypothesis.
Concept of research design; Methods and tools of Data Collection; Field Observation,
Interview, Questionnaire and Schedules.
Data Processing; Classification, Tabulation, Presentation, Data interpretation, concept of
Content Analysis and Case Study Method, Report Writing.
Sampling: Meaning and types of Sampling.
Statistical Techniques: Meaning and Importance, Measures of Central Tendency, Mean
Deviation, Standard Deviation, Co-efficient of variations, Skewness , Chi-square test,
Coefficient of Correlation.
Basic Knowledge of Computer, use and importance of Computer in Social Science research,
Applicability of internet in research, Use of Computer in Report writing.

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1. John Galtung: Theory and Methods of Social Research.
2. C.A. Moser and A. kalton: Survey Methods in Social Investigation.
3. W. Philips Shivly : The Craft of Political Research : A Primer.
4. Goode and Hatt: Methods in Social Research
5. Hide Sola Poo (Ed.) : Contemporary Political Analysis.
6. Rodert Golembiewsk: A Methodological Primer for Public Administration
7. F. A. Kerlinger : The Foundations of Behavioural Research.
8. Paulin V. Young : Scientific Surveys and Research.
9. Bernard S. Philips : Social Research : Strategy and Tactics
10. K. N. Nagar - Fundamantal of statistics (Hindi)
11. S.P. Gupta - Statistics
12. R.N. Mukharji Shodh Pravidi (Hindi)
13. C.R. Kothari Research Methodology: Methods & Techniques
14. B.M. Jain Shodh Pravidi (Hindi)


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25. P.K. Sinha : Computer Fundamental, B.P.B. Publications, Delhi
26. Sheila S. Dienes : Microsoft Office Professional, B.P.B. Publications, New Delhi

Advance Research Methodology
Nature of Social Reality. Logic in Sociological Inquiry, Model Paradigm Theory Building.
Exposition of Operation Process and Techniques. Research Design, Sampling, Punching, Coding, Data gathering
and Data Analysis. Quantitative and Qualitative Research.
Statistical Analysis : Central Tendency, Variation, Association Measures, Test of significance : Chi-Teste, F test
and T test.
Information Technology : An introduction, Operating System ,M.S. Office and Internet.

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Books for Readings :
Bulmer Martin Sociological Research Methods An Introduction
Champion Basic Statistics for Social Research
Cohen Morris Reason and Nature An Introduction on the Meaning of
Scientific Research.
Denzen N & Lincoin Y Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry
Elifson Runyon Haber Fundamental of Social Statistics
Gibbs Sociological Theory and Construction.
Goode and Halt Research Method in Social Science
Gross Alwin Sociological Theory Inquires and paradigms.
Handel Introductory Statistics for Sociology
Hegdrown & Labowich An Introduction to Sociological Orientation
John C. Mekinney Constructing Typology and Social Theory.
Levin Elementary Statistics for Social Research
Loether & Metavish Descriptive Statistics for Sociologist :An Introduction
Loether & Metavish Inferential statistics for Sociologist :An introduction
Lutz Understanding statistic for sociology.
Iynds Robert Knowledge for what?
Lazersfield & Rosenberg (ed) The Language of social research.
Madge John The tools of Social Science
Moories Rosenberg The logic of survey analysis.
Ram Ahuja Research Method.
Sanders W & Pinhey T The conduct of social Research
Setliz Jahoda & Others Research Method in Behavioral Science
Silverman David Qualitative Methodology and sociology
Sjoberg and Nett A Methodology for social Research
Young. P.V. Scientific Social Survey and Research
Sinha P.K. Computer Science

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