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ABSTRACT

Experiment was conducted to study the relationship between temperature and pressure of
saturated steam in equilibrium with water. A curve was plotted and compared with theoretical
graph. As the volume kept constant in the experiment, pressure increase as the temperature
increase since heat kept supplied. Theoretically and experimentally prove that the curve is
directly proportional. The slope was calculated and compared with steam table. The values
likely the same. Overall, the experiment is a success and the theory has been proved in the
experiment.

INTRODUCTION
Thermodynamics is one of physical science that involve heat and relate to the forms of work
and energy. Obviously the term thermo in the thermodynamics word, concerned and really
depends on heat. Therefore, some macroscopic variables such as temperature, entropy and
pressure that related to each other and explain the thermodynamic laws. Connection between
heat and work between a system and surrounding is actually the origin of the thermodynamic
studies.
Thermodynamics also concerned about the changes in the fluid properties. Gasses and fluids
properties always refer to P-V-T relationship. One of the properties must kept constant
throughout the process. Ideal gas which is a very light gas follows the equation of state that
involve pressure, specific volume or density, and absolute temperature with mass of molecule
with gas constant, R. there is no such thing as ideal gas, but ideal gas only as a reference in a
particular research or experiment. But, there is some modification done to the equation of state
that perform better estimation and more reliable for real gas.
The state of equilibrium mostly depends on the pressure between the water surface and steam.
When the pressure is low, theoretically the movement of molecule in the tank is less and easier
for the molecules to leave the water surface thus, less energy required to achieve the state of
equilibrium that is a boiling point. Saturated temperature at known pressure is a point where the
equilibrium temperature is achieved. While, saturated pressure at known temperature is another
point where the pressure equilibrium was achieved.
Marcer Boiler commonly used to investigate the relationship between pressure and temperature
of saturated steam in equilibrium with water. Therefore, as the temperature increase, pressure
also expected to be increased since the volume is kept constant in the process and vice versa.
Increase and decrease in temperature at every 0.5barr of pressure was observed and recorded.
The reading of temperature taken from 1 to 10barr and inverse the step.

OBJECTIVE
To study the relationship between pressure and temperature of saturated steam under
equilibrium condition.

THEORY
Ideal gas obeys the equation of state that relates the pressure, specific volume or density, and
absolute temperature with mass of molecule and gas constant R. The equation cannot be used
by real gasses except after some modification was done on it.


Heat supplied to the system in order to increase its temperature is directly increased its energy.
After the energy increase in the system, the activities between molecules become more actives
and the number of molecules escape from water surface increase until equilibrium is achieved.
The equilibrium state depends on pressure between the water surface and steam. Molecule
leaving water surface easier at low pressure since less energy required to reach boiling point.
Saturated temperature occur when temperature is in equilibrium at given pressure level and the
phase start to change from liquid to gas. Same thing happen when saturation pressure happen,
the phase start to change at given temperature. This experiment only focus on relationship
between saturation temperature at given pressure for water.
The water in the boiler heated up until the steam come out. Steam come out as the process of
evaporation and the high pressure inside the tank push out the light molecule. Every recorded
data was tabulated in order to plot a graph. From the graph, the slope value was compared with
theoretical value using Clausius-Clapeyron states:

fg
fg
SAT
h
Tv
dP
dT
=
|
.
|

\
|


g f
g f
SAT
h h
v v T
dP
dT

=
|
.
|

\
|
) (
and h
f
+h
fg
=h
g
h
fg
=h
g
- h
f


fg
g
fg
g f
SAT
h
Tv
h
v v T
dP
dT
=

=
|
.
|

\
|
) (
as v
g
>>v
f


in which, v
f
= specific volume of saturated liquid
v
g
= specific volume of saturated vapor
h
f
= enthalpy of saturated liquid
h
g
= enthalpy of saturated vapor
h
fg
= latent heat of vaporization