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2.1 Task 1(a) Human Resource Management Activities 2

2.2 Task 1(b) Objectives of Activities and Evaluation of its

Effectiveness 4

2.3 Task 1(c) Significance of HRM models 6


3.1 Task 2(a) HR Planning and Development Methods 7

3.2 Task 2(b) Evaluation of Methods







In any organisation, the most complicated activity is to manage the

human resource. Today, at this fast pace development of machines
and other equipments, Human Resource is in-evitable. No machine
can replace Human Resource in utilizing the available resources
effectively. In this competitive market, every company ensures that
it has an efficient Human Resources Department that supports to
achieve every objective. The HR department works as hard as any
other team in achieving the organisation’s goals and objectives.
Utmost utilization of every available human resource to realize the
organisation’s by linking it with the policies and strategies is the
main objective of any HR department. The HR department also helps
the employs understand and respect the values of the organisation
by constantly conducting activities that involve the employees from
every level in the organisation.

Every large scale business activity needs to be supported by

different departments integrated into one and therefore can be
referred to as a group activity. Then it becomes a coordinated
activity carried out at different levels to achieve the organisational
goals. Therefore in achieving these strategic objectives, the most
sensitive department is controlled by the HR department which is
the Human Resource management within the organisation. In this
assignment, I have chosen to analyse the HR management one of
the leading supermarket chains in the country. The organisation is
Tesco and I am going to evaluate the performance of the HR
management team and its effectiveness.


2.1 Task 1(a).Human Resource Management Activities.

The noted activities carried out by the HR dept are

1. Recruitment and pay revision.

2. Talent analysis and appropriate process allotment
3. Providing healthy work atmosphere
4. Compliance with rules and regulations
5. Retention of employees who perform best
6. Ensuring every employee is treated equally

Recruitment, Training and Healthy work atmosphere are the three
different characteristics that analysed in this discussion. The process
of new employment is referred to as recruitment. Recruitment
generally consists of important steps like, call for application, criteria
allocation, short listing, interview, salary negotiation and offer of
employment. Recruitment occurs in several ways. It’s all about
acquiring more human resources as per requirement. The
requirements can be met in various ways. Some of them are open
day recruitment, applications through own website, interview from
campus for fresh brains, employment from agencies on contractual
basis, and IJP which is internal job postings. Every job offer should be
in compliance with the rules and regulations. Some of them are

1. Sex Discrimination Act (1975)

2. Race Relations Act (1976)
3. Equal Pay Act (1970)
4. Disability Discrimination Act (1995)
5. Employment Protection Act (1978)

By recruiting a suitable candidate, as per requirements begins the

next process which is training. This is stage where the realised
potential of a candidate is transformed with the help of available
resources to convert them into standard employees who know their
functionalities. There are generally two types of traning available.
The first kind is called process training. Here the employee is made
aware of the process and his/her duties. An overall review of the
organisation’s requirements is provided so that the employee is
aware of actions and its implications in the society while on duty.
The second mode of training is referred to as “on the job” training.
This happens after the process training as and when the
management feels that the employee is ready to take
responsibilities. Once on the job, every employee is given a learning
curve so as to learn on the job without the pressure of making many
mistakes. Every step is overlooked by the HR dept and carefully
studied. There can be noted changes in behaviour from the first day
of appointment to the performance on duty. This happens due to the
variation of energy levels in the employee. This could be due to a
whole lot of reasons which will be explained at a later stage in the

Providing a healthy work environment is another challenge for the
HR dept. This is mainly due to the factor that there exists a multi
cultural society and it is not easy for people to mix into the crowd
that they feel is not welcoming, which is very humane. But these are
the things are to be discussed and evaluated for before the
employee comes on board. Personal Health and Safety guarantee is
also a concern which needs be addressed by the HR dept very

Tesco plc is one of the organisations in UK which follows a very strict

procedure in recruitment. Every different position has its own unique
procedure. When it comes to starting level customer support agent
and its immediate higher level appointments, it is always done
through the online based systems. The candidates before a direct
interview, is shortlisted by an online procedure by a questionnaire
procedure. Then those qualified candidates are called in for
interview thereby saving time and energy from both sides. Direct
application is also available in stores which help in the same
procedure. For higher management positions, there are a few ways
like appointing external agencies and direct recruitment from
reputed institutions, and also through IJP (internal job positing). Such
procedures are carried out by Tesco to ensure apt recruitment.

Like every other reputed organisation, Tesco ensures that the new
recruits are carefully nested into the organisation. They provide
training with payment options and all other facilities available for a
full time employee. Proficiency in work is the main aspect that Tesco
demands from the candidates. There are other facilities provided
like career development programs which also include personality
development and advanced career options. Every employee
maintains a PTR which is a Professional Track Record for upcoming
job options within the organisation.

Providing a better work environment where every employee is

encouraged to perform to topmost efficiency is one of the major
challenges for any organisation. This is carefully taken care of by
ensuring that every employee is aware of his/her rights within the
organisation. Moreover, there are more opportunities like part time
and weekend jobs where more students are encouraged to work
with Tesco. This can be a complicated procedure but Tesco ensures
that this is carried out carefully with the help of an efficient HR Dept.

It is the responsibility of the HR team to ensure that proper shifts are
allocated and there is no mix up between the employees. This is also
a challenge since there are students who are not very keen on
appearing to work even though they know their responsibilities.
These are regular occurrences in any organisation and therefore
providing a back up whenever required is another task for HR dept
which they have been performing very well all this time. To ensure
safe working environments and safer facilities for the customers
Tesco prohibited the consumption Alcohol and related products
within the premises. This reflects the capability and vision of Tesco
to provide better work conditions for its employees. Tesco also
ensures that every employee is trained with disaster management
and other safety procedures so that safety is a priority for
employees and customers.

2.2 Task 1(b). Objectives of Activities and Evaluation of its


In every business activity, there is a step by step procedure that is

laid out for the better performance of the activities undertaken. The
analysis of HR management in based on the different actions carried
out with caution and care. The different sectors that are going to be
analysed here are recruitment, process training and safety
management. Tesco is one of those companies which thrive for
customer satisfaction and retention. Providing the best possible
prices to keep the customer from going anywhere else is the main
objective of Tesco in improving their market. For this Tesco needs to
make sure that their customer are happy not only with the prices,
but also the quality of products, facilities, and most importantly
customer service. For providing better customer service, the
employees should be trained to perfection. Not every employee joins
the firm with ample experience and customer service skills and so
the need to be developed from scratch for a few. Tesco’s venture in
providing employment for students and other part time options is
one of the ways in which cost of production can be regulated. This is
a vital factor since Tesco is trying to reduce cost by introducing
customer to new low priced products. Tesco also encourage
employees to work close to their homes to ensure that the
employees do not lose time in transit to work and it makes life easy
for all. In addition to this employees are allowed to opt for transfers

which help them to keep the employees in work than appoint a new

Training and employee reveals the involvement and dedication of

any HR dept in an organisation. Training is a cost incurring process
which cannot be provided more than once unless it is unavoidable.
For this reason, the HR dept has to be careful in providing the right
and efficient training. Training can be two types as discussed before.
It can be Process Training and On the Job training. The Main
components of Tesco’s training procedure are

1. Core skill programme – Fundamental training for handling the

2. Winning in Europe – The training designed especially for
countries other than UK
3. Excel programme – Ranges from fundamentals to manager

training program

Training procedures are carried out to perfection in this

organisation. Training with pay and training alongside senior
experienced employees provide the best work atmosphere for the
right performance. So the training can be accounted as extremely

Safety at work is a criteria that Tesco management insists be

accounted for in the best possible means. Disaster management and
other safety training are provided to employees at no extra charges.
This is a contribution that the organisation makes to the benefit of
employees career, a certain advantage. Prohibition of intake of any
alcohol related products or any form or drug unless prescribed by a
doctor is another step to ensure safety of fellow employees and the

2.3 Task 1(c). Significance of HRM models

Management of Human Resource can be explained as linking Human
Resource with the Business Goals of the organisation. In this diverse
world, no two human beings are the same. They come with
complications of behaviour and invidual differences. To counter such
differences, two types of approaches has been developed, namely
Hard Approach and Soft Approach. There are two models of activity
developed in HR management based on these concepts which are
called Control Based Model and Commitment Based Model. The
former deals with an activity based which is strictly mechanical and
the latter is psychological. In the primary model of activity, every
aspect is controlled and monitored by external agents, which is the
Control Based Model. In the Commitment based model, the main
component of involvement is personal attitude of the employee.
Explained below are the activies of both the models.

Control based model.

1. A group is formed and work is allocated accordingly, and every

individual becomes responsible for his/her part.

2. Work based payment and there is always scope for further
growth based on the commitment and involvement of the
3. Job evaluation and appraisal is promoted.
4. Less participation of employees in solving problems and zero
importance for opinions.
5. Committing to only stakeholders, management decisions are the


Comparatively, Commitment based model gives priority to

psychological approach. Here, the employee’s attitude has no
contribution. The main attributes of commitment bases HR Model

1. The employees are not forced to work according to a fixed

2. A fixed structure is actively sustained and mutual respect, self
control and coordination are considered the main ingredients
to achieve the common goals.

3. This activity is purely based on psychological approach and
here motivation and reinforcement plays a very vital role in
achieving the goals set by the management.
4. There is total involvement of employees and their opinions are
valued in problem solving and idea formulation.
5. The total satisfaction of employee is a major component in this
HR model.

Tesco plc can improve and succeed further only if its customers are
satisfied. The characteristics of commitment based approach suits
best since it provides the employees an equal opportunity of
participation to improve the standards of service. Therefore, Tesco
has adapted commitment based model which encourages the
employee in understanding the core activities of the organisation
not forgetting that there is scope of improvement from all corners.
The suggestions and complaints of all employees are welcome and a
common effort is always taken to ensure a healthy atmosphere
within the organisation.


3.1 Task 2(a) HR planning and Development Methods

HR planning is an effective mechanism to understand and estimate

the employee requirements. It is also an opportunity to effectively
tackle the changes in the organisation with increase of decrease in
need of employees. Retaining of efficient staff and new recruitment
becomes much easy with the understanding of the requirements
and forecasting of future needs.

1. Data collection
2. Data Analysis and forecasting the results

3. Career planning

The above mentioned activities are directly linked with the various factors in an
organisation like culture, workforce development, values and existing salary structure.
HR planning involves various factors like Job Description, Selection Procedure,
Analysis of collated data etc. Future requirements are forecasted depending on the
existing turnover ratio and a detailed study into the reason for the same. This helps in
the recruitment which follows by analysing the new candidates and scaling them

across the existing situations. Forecasted result helps better understanding of the
requirements and avoids recruitment of excess staff.

There are different methods of analysis of Candidates for the requirements of the jobs.
If the candidates are not allotted the jobs according to their calibre, it could end up in
wastage of resources. Different techniques like tests and questionnaires followed by
interviews and survey methods are some of the methods that are generally adopted for
this purpose. Tests like aptitude tests and attitude tests are the ones that are generally
applied. Recent developments are performance tests which are conducted in large
scales and then prospective candidates are shortlisted accordingly.

The procedure names supply analysis is adopted to allocate the number of candidates
required to perform a group activity. Identification of availability of staff and
minimum number required are the factors that help in right allocation. This analysis is
carried out depending on the existing market trends and technological developments.
Allocation of effective routine and schedules help wastage of resources, thereby
resulting in effective utilisation and improved productivity.

Apart from recruitment, there are other inevitable roles performed by the HR dept that
are appreciated across the management. This includes leadership development, career
analysis, personal development, quality development, performance analysis and so on.
The total purpose of a Career development program can be to improve the
performance of an individual on professional grounds. These programs can also
include external training opportunities in lines with the requirement of the role
undertaken. They come at and extra cost to the company which the company would
expect to recover from the performance of the employee for the future requirements.
Orientation of employees helps understand the value of employment and personally
attend and be responsible for upholding the values of the organisation. Technical
training on some levels help improving the thought process of an employee which
could trigger brighter ideas regarding the process he/she is involved.

In the existing conditions, where the world is a global village, the understanding of
international values is very necessary. This lets us understand the importance in the
application levels of different techniques and ideas which has been tested and proved
in different parts of the world. High levels of communication are always required in
this situation and better understanding of comradeship is also developed as a result.
This could also lead to development in both Organisational and Personal grounds.

Tesco recruitment process involves almost all of the above discussed methods. Some
of them are interview, questionnaires, and aptitude and attitude tests. There are three
important legs in the Management Development program adopted by Tesco which are
Core skills programme, Winning in Europe and Excel programme. Core skills are soft
skills which are engineered to comfort customers and meet their requirements.
International exposure of Tesco is the chief ingredient of “winning in Europe”. Excel

program consists of every program that will help the entire development of a manager.
It ranges from physical activities in-store to the role of an assistant manager of an
outlet. These methods adapted by the HR dept in Tesco plays effective role to achieve
the targets set by the management by ensuring smooth cooperation of all its

3.2 Task 2.(b) Evaluation of Methods

When the methods adapted by Tesco are evaluated, we can see that
the HR planning has been done carefully and to perfection. They
enrich the organisational objectives and values. The recruitment
process has many adavantages. As discussed before, the tests and
questionnaires help reduce time loss and have proven to be cost
effective. This helps Tesco maintain production costs to minimum
helping achive organisational objectives.

Tesco has classified itself into different categories with growing

customer needs. And according to these categories, they have
initiated recruitment locally. The social factors also involve in this
process because customer service is priority. In a diverse culture in
the UK, Tesco stores have designed their outlets to meet customer
requirements. Candidates are appointed keeping in mind the range
of customers that visit the shop. For eg, if the store is located in a
location were the Indian population is considered to be high, the
stored would be equipped with products related to that culture and
the employees are recruited to meet the needs of customers of that
community. This is a tactic made to ensure that Tesco doesn’t lose
business due to cultural variances. This method is commonly known
as Regression analysis.

HR dept in Tesco is well equipped to handle all the existing market

challenges with the above mentioned diverse actions. They also
ensure that the organisational objective is achieved maintaining all
standards of employment.


Analysis of the performance of any process plays a key role in the

development of an organisation. As a result of this analysis,
revaluation of any existing strategy is possible thereby making it
easy to realise drawbacks and counter it immediately. Recruitment,
training and development of employees calibre and also providing
best working conditions with suitable growth opportunities has been
met with high standards. Apart from these functions, being
compliant with rules and regulations of the country and keeping a
track of the best performing employees and providing them with
opportunities for growth and retaining them for the best results has
been carried out systematically. The analysis shows that HR dept
has been performing to the required standards in the existing

Upon analysing Tesco’s HR management, we can see that they have

a fool proof system of recruitment, system to maintain low cost and
a highly effective traning department that consists of senior
employees as well. Use of external approved and recognised
agencies ensures quality recruitment for the higher management

The training programme adapted by the HR management has

proven to be suitable and effective. For starting level employmet,
there is a two day traning program and for the management
positions, there are other options discussed earlier. Tesco ensures
that every employee is recruited in lines with the National Wages
requirement to pay minimum or wages above minimum. Permanent
positions are generally not offered to students as they are likely to

change grounds because the primary activity is education.
Therefore, they are opted for part time or weekend options which
would suit them and also meet the Tesco’s requirement.

Every employee is made aware of his/her position and the duties

involved and that is one of the primary activities of the HR dept. A
job description is often handed out to make the employee aware of
the activities that are involved in the job. A copy of the same is
retained by the HR team to keep track of the employee during his
growth in the company, they are carefully documented.

The payment procedure is the responsibility of the HR Dept and

Tesco ensure that they follow the national minimum wage act.
Periodical increment in the payment and evaluation based on
performance is an attractive feature.

Safety concerns of the employee are met with extreme caution.

There are given training to help themselves in the event of any
unfortunate incidents like a fire accident or burglary. This will ensure
the employee as feel of safety and boost the confidence to perform
without fear.


The HR team in Tesco has been careful in implementing its policies

while recruitment. Due to the high growth the organisation, there
has been situations were highly inexperienced candidates were
recruited. And when there are short staffed situations, inexperienced
employees could live up to the standards of the customers. Students
and part time employees also give a challenge of high employee
turnover ratio due to the vastness of market and availability of jobs.
On the other hand, lack of disclosure of immediate vacancies can
also be a negative aspect of the recruitment process.


Job opportunities should be advertised instore and application

should be always done only online. Single window option can be
adopted. Students should be provided opportunities and be made
aware of growth within company and possible provided extra career
options. This should be seen as potential managerial candidates and

if identified at an earlier stage, it could save cost of recruitment for
more managers. Tesco should also advertise available vacancies
through job centres.


The role of Human resource management in any organisation that

has a well defined framework of functionality is inevitable. This is a
vital requirement in the achievement of organisational goals. The HR
dept involves in every decision of the organisation because it
manages the most important factor in an organisation which is
Human Resource. The various analyses carried out on the different
activities of a general HR dept and that of Tesco’s explain that Tesco
has been highly successful in implementing the right activities
helping them maintain their position in the market.


1. Kelly, P. (2008), “International Business and Management”, custom

edition, EMEA: Cengage learning.

economy/1628434- forecasting-hr-supply-demand/(07-09-09)