# Applied Discrete Mathematics

Mathematical Induction

William Shoaﬀ

Spring 2008

Outline

1

Introduction to Induction

2

Induction on Sequences

3

Induction on Sums

Outline

1

Introduction to Induction

2

Induction on Sequences

3

Induction on Sums

Outline

1

Introduction to Induction

2

Induction on Sequences

3

Induction on Sums

Quotation

The concept of “mathematical induction”

should be distinguished from what is usually called

“inductive reasoning” in science.

– Don Knuth “The Art of Computer Programming: Fundamental

Algorithms”

American computer scientist (1938 – )

Mathematical Induction

Inductive reasoning is a logic used for discovery in science

Repeated observation of consistent results leads to a conjecture

The principle of mathematical induction is an axiom in the

theory of natural numbers

Mathematical induction is a template procedure used to

establish facts about enumerable sets

There is a basis for induction, an observation of the fact in

some instance

And there is a material implication that “if the fact is true in

some instance, then it will be true in the next instance”

Mathematical Induction

Inductive reasoning is a logic used for discovery in science

Repeated observation of consistent results leads to a conjecture

The principle of mathematical induction is an axiom in the

theory of natural numbers

Mathematical induction is a template procedure used to

establish facts about enumerable sets

There is a basis for induction, an observation of the fact in

some instance

And there is a material implication that “if the fact is true in

some instance, then it will be true in the next instance”

Mathematical Induction

Inductive reasoning is a logic used for discovery in science

Repeated observation of consistent results leads to a conjecture

The principle of mathematical induction is an axiom in the

theory of natural numbers

Mathematical induction is a template procedure used to

establish facts about enumerable sets

There is a basis for induction, an observation of the fact in

some instance

And there is a material implication that “if the fact is true in

some instance, then it will be true in the next instance”

Mathematical Induction

Inductive reasoning is a logic used for discovery in science

Repeated observation of consistent results leads to a conjecture

The principle of mathematical induction is an axiom in the

theory of natural numbers

Mathematical induction is a template procedure used to

establish facts about enumerable sets

There is a basis for induction, an observation of the fact in

some instance

And there is a material implication that “if the fact is true in

some instance, then it will be true in the next instance”

Mathematical Induction

Inductive reasoning is a logic used for discovery in science

Repeated observation of consistent results leads to a conjecture

The principle of mathematical induction is an axiom in the

theory of natural numbers

Mathematical induction is a template procedure used to

establish facts about enumerable sets

There is a basis for induction, an observation of the fact in

some instance

And there is a material implication that “if the fact is true in

some instance, then it will be true in the next instance”

Mathematical Induction

Inductive reasoning is a logic used for discovery in science

Repeated observation of consistent results leads to a conjecture

The principle of mathematical induction is an axiom in the

theory of natural numbers

Mathematical induction is a template procedure used to

establish facts about enumerable sets

There is a basis for induction, an observation of the fact in

some instance

And there is a material implication that “if the fact is true in

some instance, then it will be true in the next instance”

Mathematical Induction

Inductive reasoning is a logic used for discovery in science

Repeated observation of consistent results leads to a conjecture

The principle of mathematical induction is an axiom in the

theory of natural numbers

Mathematical induction is a template procedure used to

establish facts about enumerable sets

There is a basis for induction, an observation of the fact in

some instance

And there is a material implication that “if the fact is true in

some instance, then it will be true in the next instance”

Observations: Full Binary Trees

The full binary tree of height h = 0 has 1 node

The full binary tree of height h = 1 has 3 nodes

1

2 3

Observations: Full Binary Trees

The full binary tree of height h = 0 has 1 node

The full binary tree of height h = 1 has 3 nodes

1

2 3

Observations: Full Binary Trees

The full binary tree of height h = 0 has 1 node

The full binary tree of height h = 1 has 3 nodes

1

2 3

Observations: Full Binary Trees

The full binary tree of height h = 2 has 7 nodes

1

2

4 5

3

6 7

Observations: Full Binary Trees

The full binary tree of height h = 2 has 7 nodes

1

2

4 5

3

6 7

Question

What is the functional relationship between the height h of a

full binary tree and the number of nodes n in the tree?

Observations

Height Nodes

h = 0 n = 1

h = 1 n = 3

h = 2 n = 7

Question

What is the functional relationship between the height h of a

full binary tree and the number of nodes n in the tree?

Observations

Height Nodes

h = 0 n = 1

h = 1 n = 3

h = 2 n = 7

Question

What is the functional relationship between the height h of a

full binary tree and the number of nodes n in the tree?

Observations

Height Nodes

h = 0 n = 1

h = 1 n = 3

h = 2 n = 7

Question

What is the functional relationship between the height h of a

full binary tree and the number of nodes n in the tree?

Observations

Height Nodes

h = 0 n = 1

h = 1 n = 3

h = 2 n = 7

Hypothesis

The full binary tree of height h has n = 2

h+1

−1 nodes

This statement is true for h = 0, 1 and 2

Height Nodes

0 1 = 2

(0+1)

−1

1 3 = 2

(1+1)

−1

2 7 = 2

(2+1)

−1

To prove the statement for every integer

show that if it is true for some height h ≥ 0, then it will be

true for height h + 1

Hypothesis

The full binary tree of height h has n = 2

h+1

−1 nodes

This statement is true for h = 0, 1 and 2

Height Nodes

0 1 = 2

(0+1)

−1

1 3 = 2

(1+1)

−1

2 7 = 2

(2+1)

−1

To prove the statement for every integer

show that if it is true for some height h ≥ 0, then it will be

true for height h + 1

Hypothesis

The full binary tree of height h has n = 2

h+1

−1 nodes

This statement is true for h = 0, 1 and 2

Height Nodes

0 1 = 2

(0+1)

−1

1 3 = 2

(1+1)

−1

2 7 = 2

(2+1)

−1

To prove the statement for every integer

show that if it is true for some height h ≥ 0, then it will be

true for height h + 1

Hypothesis

The full binary tree of height h has n = 2

h+1

−1 nodes

This statement is true for h = 0, 1 and 2

Height Nodes

0 1 = 2

(0+1)

−1

1 3 = 2

(1+1)

−1

2 7 = 2

(2+1)

−1

To prove the statement for every integer

show that if it is true for some height h ≥ 0, then it will be

true for height h + 1

Hypothesis

The full binary tree of height h has n = 2

h+1

−1 nodes

This statement is true for h = 0, 1 and 2

Height Nodes

0 1 = 2

(0+1)

−1

1 3 = 2

(1+1)

−1

2 7 = 2

(2+1)

−1

To prove the statement for every integer

show that if it is true for some height h ≥ 0, then it will be

true for height h + 1

Hypothesis

The full binary tree of height h has n = 2

h+1

−1 nodes

This statement is true for h = 0, 1 and 2

Height Nodes

0 1 = 2

(0+1)

−1

1 3 = 2

(1+1)

−1

2 7 = 2

(2+1)

−1

To prove the statement for every integer

show that if it is true for some height h ≥ 0, then it will be

true for height h + 1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

A full binary tree of height h + 1 is constructed from

1 root node

A full left subtree of of height h

A full right subtree of of height h

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

A full binary tree of height h + 1 is constructed from

1 root node

A full left subtree of of height h

A full right subtree of of height h

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

A full binary tree of height h + 1 is constructed from

1 root node

A full left subtree of of height h

A full right subtree of of height h

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

A full binary tree of height h + 1 is constructed from

1 root node

A full left subtree of of height h

A full right subtree of of height h

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

A full binary tree of height h + 1 is constructed from

1 root node

A full left subtree of of height h

A full right subtree of of height h

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

A full binary tree of height h + 1 is constructed from

1 root node

A full left subtree of of height h

A full right subtree of of height h

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

A full binary tree of height h + 1 is constructed from

1 root node

A full left subtree of of height h

A full right subtree of of height h

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

If the left and right subtree both have 2

h+1

−1 nodes, then

the nodes in the higher tree are

(1 root node) + (nodes in left) + (nodes in right)

1 + (2

h

−1) + (2

h+1

−1) = 1 + 2(2

h+1

−1)

= 1 + (2

h+2

−2)

= 2

h+2

−1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

If the left and right subtree both have 2

h+1

−1 nodes,

then

the nodes in the higher tree are

(1 root node) + (nodes in left) + (nodes in right)

1 + (2

h

−1) + (2

h+1

−1) = 1 + 2(2

h+1

−1)

= 1 + (2

h+2

−2)

= 2

h+2

−1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

If the left and right subtree both have 2

h+1

−1 nodes,

then

the nodes in the higher tree are

(1 root node) + (nodes in left) + (nodes in right)

1 + (2

h

−1) + (2

h+1

−1) = 1 + 2(2

h+1

−1)

= 1 + (2

h+2

−2)

= 2

h+2

−1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

If the left and right subtree both have 2

h+1

−1 nodes, then

the nodes in the higher tree are

(1 root node) + (nodes in left) + (nodes in right)

1 + (2

h

−1) + (2

h+1

−1) = 1 + 2(2

h+1

−1)

= 1 + (2

h+2

−2)

= 2

h+2

−1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

If the left and right subtree both have 2

h+1

−1 nodes, then

the nodes in the higher tree are

(1 root node) + (nodes in left) + (nodes in right)

1 + (2

h

−1) + (2

h+1

−1) = 1 + 2(2

h+1

−1)

= 1 + (2

h+2

−2)

= 2

h+2

−1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

If the left and right subtree both have 2

h+1

−1 nodes, then

the nodes in the higher tree are

(1 root node) + (nodes in left) + (nodes in right)

1 + (2

h

−1) + (2

h+1

−1) = 1 + 2(2

h+1

−1)

= 1 + (2

h+2

−2)

= 2

h+2

−1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

If the left and right subtree both have 2

h+1

−1 nodes, then

the nodes in the higher tree are

(1 root node) + (nodes in left) + (nodes in right)

1 + (2

h

−1) + (2

h+1

−1)

= 1 + 2(2

h+1

−1)

= 1 + (2

h+2

−2)

= 2

h+2

−1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

If the left and right subtree both have 2

h+1

−1 nodes, then

the nodes in the higher tree are

(1 root node) + (nodes in left) + (nodes in right)

1 + (2

h

−1) + (2

h+1

−1) = 1 + 2(2

h+1

−1)

= 1 + (2

h+2

−2)

= 2

h+2

−1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

If the left and right subtree both have 2

h+1

−1 nodes, then

the nodes in the higher tree are

(1 root node) + (nodes in left) + (nodes in right)

1 + (2

h

−1) + (2

h+1

−1) = 1 + 2(2

h+1

−1)

= 1 + (2

h+2

−2)

= 2

h+2

−1

Height h, Full Binary Tree Has 2

h+1

−1 Nodes

root

left

subtree

right

subtree

height h

height 1

If the left and right subtree both have 2

h+1

−1 nodes, then

the nodes in the higher tree are

(1 root node) + (nodes in left) + (nodes in right)

1 + (2

h

−1) + (2

h+1

−1) = 1 + 2(2

h+1

−1)

= 1 + (2

h+2

−2)

= 2

h+2

−1

Gauss Fools the Third Grade Teacher

There is an often told story, with many variations, of how

young Gauss irritated his third grade teacher

The class was asked to compute the value of the sum

1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + 99 + 100

Almost immediately Gauss answered 5050

Perhaps Gauss knew the total would be the number of terms

(100) times the average of the ﬁrst and last term

1+2+3+· · · +99+100 = 100

1 + 100

2

= 50(101) = 5050

Gauss Fools the Third Grade Teacher

There is an often told story, with many variations, of how

young Gauss irritated his third grade teacher

The class was asked to compute the value of the sum

1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + 99 + 100

Almost immediately Gauss answered 5050

Perhaps Gauss knew the total would be the number of terms

(100) times the average of the ﬁrst and last term

1+2+3+· · · +99+100 = 100

1 + 100

2

= 50(101) = 5050

Gauss Fools the Third Grade Teacher

There is an often told story, with many variations, of how

young Gauss irritated his third grade teacher

The class was asked to compute the value of the sum

1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + 99 + 100

Almost immediately Gauss answered 5050

Perhaps Gauss knew the total would be the number of terms

(100) times the average of the ﬁrst and last term

1+2+3+· · · +99+100 = 100

1 + 100

2

= 50(101) = 5050

Gauss Fools the Third Grade Teacher

There is an often told story, with many variations, of how

young Gauss irritated his third grade teacher

The class was asked to compute the value of the sum

1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + 99 + 100

Almost immediately Gauss answered 5050

Perhaps Gauss knew the total would be the number of terms

(100) times the average of the ﬁrst and last term

1+2+3+· · · +99+100 = 100

1 + 100

2

= 50(101) = 5050

Gauss Fools the Third Grade Teacher

There is an often told story, with many variations, of how

young Gauss irritated his third grade teacher

The class was asked to compute the value of the sum

1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + 99 + 100

Almost immediately Gauss answered 5050

Perhaps Gauss knew the total would be the number of terms

(100) times the average of the ﬁrst and last term

1+2+3+· · · +99+100 = 100

1 + 100

2

= 50(101) = 5050

Generalizing the Problem

Consider the more general sum

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1)

The sum has n terms

The ﬁrst term is 0, the last term is (n −1), and their average

is (n −1)/2

Is it true that

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) = n

n −1

2

?

Generalizing the Problem

Consider the more general sum

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1)

The sum has n terms

The ﬁrst term is 0, the last term is (n −1), and their average

is (n −1)/2

Is it true that

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) = n

n −1

2

?

Generalizing the Problem

Consider the more general sum

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1)

The sum has n terms

The ﬁrst term is 0, the last term is (n −1), and their average

is (n −1)/2

Is it true that

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) = n

n −1

2

?

Generalizing the Problem

Consider the more general sum

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1)

The sum has n terms

The ﬁrst term is 0, the last term is (n −1), and their average

is (n −1)/2

Is it true that

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) = n

n −1

2

?

Generalizing the Problem

Consider the more general sum

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1)

The sum has n terms

The ﬁrst term is 0, the last term is (n −1), and their average

is (n −1)/2

Is it true that

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) = n

n −1

2

?

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

To prove

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) = n

n −1

2

**is true for all natural numbers n, show
**

Basis: For n = 0

The sum on the left is empty, and so equal to 0

0 +1 +· · · + (0 −2) + (0 −1) = 0 (empty sum)

The right hand side is also equal to 0 for n = 0

0

0 −1

2

= 0

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

To prove

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) = n

n −1

2

**is true for all natural numbers n, show
**

Basis: For n = 0

The sum on the left is empty, and so equal to 0

0 +1 +· · · + (0 −2) + (0 −1) = 0 (empty sum)

The right hand side is also equal to 0 for n = 0

0

0 −1

2

= 0

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

To prove

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) = n

n −1

2

**is true for all natural numbers n, show
**

Basis: For n = 0

The sum on the left is empty, and so equal to 0

0 +1 +· · · + (0 −2) + (0 −1) = 0 (empty sum)

The right hand side is also equal to 0 for n = 0

0

0 −1

2

= 0

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

To prove

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) = n

n −1

2

**is true for all natural numbers n, show
**

Basis: For n = 0

The sum on the left is empty, and so equal to 0

0 +1 +· · · + (0 −2) + (0 −1) = 0 (empty sum)

The right hand side is also equal to 0 for n = 0

0

0 −1

2

= 0

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

To prove

0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) = n

n −1

2

**is true for all natural numbers n, show
**

Basis: For n = 0

The sum on the left is empty, and so equal to 0

0 +1 +· · · + (0 −2) + (0 −1) = 0 (empty sum)

The right hand side is also equal to 0 for n = 0

0

0 −1

2

= 0

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

Induction: Pretend

0 + 1 + 2 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

for some n ≥ 0

Then the next sum is:

[0 + 1 +· · · + (n −1)] + n =

n(n −1)

2

+ n

=

n(n −1)

2

+

2n

2

=

n(n + 1)

2

Which shows the next sum equals the function

at the next natural number

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

Induction: Pretend

0 + 1 + 2 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

for some n ≥ 0

Then the next sum is:

[0 + 1 +· · · + (n −1)] + n =

n(n −1)

2

+ n

=

n(n −1)

2

+

2n

2

=

n(n + 1)

2

Which shows the next sum equals the function

at the next natural number

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

Induction: Pretend

0 + 1 + 2 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

for some n ≥ 0

Then the next sum is:

[0 + 1 +· · · + (n −1)] + n =

n(n −1)

2

+ n

=

n(n −1)

2

+

2n

2

=

n(n + 1)

2

Which shows the next sum equals the function

at the next natural number

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

Induction: Pretend

0 + 1 + 2 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

for some n ≥ 0

Then the next sum is:

[0 + 1 +· · · + (n −1)] + n =

n(n −1)

2

+ n

=

n(n −1)

2

+

2n

2

=

n(n + 1)

2

Which shows the next sum equals the function

at the next natural number

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

Induction: Pretend

0 + 1 + 2 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

for some n ≥ 0

Then the next sum is:

[0 + 1 +· · · + (n −1)] + n =

n(n −1)

2

+ n

=

n(n −1)

2

+

2n

2

=

n(n + 1)

2

Which shows the next sum equals the function

at the next natural number

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

Induction: Pretend

0 + 1 + 2 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

for some n ≥ 0

Then the next sum is:

[0 + 1 +· · · + (n −1)] + n

=

n(n −1)

2

+ n

=

n(n −1)

2

+

2n

2

=

n(n + 1)

2

Which shows the next sum equals the function

at the next natural number

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

Induction: Pretend

0 + 1 + 2 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

for some n ≥ 0

Then the next sum is:

[0 + 1 +· · · + (n −1)] + n =

n(n −1)

2

+ n

=

n(n −1)

2

+

2n

2

=

n(n + 1)

2

Which shows the next sum equals the function

at the next natural number

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

Induction: Pretend

0 + 1 + 2 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

for some n ≥ 0

Then the next sum is:

[0 + 1 +· · · + (n −1)] + n =

n(n −1)

2

+ n

=

n(n −1)

2

+

2n

2

=

n(n + 1)

2

Which shows the next sum equals the function

at the next natural number

Prove

¸

k =

n(n−1)

2

Induction: Pretend

0 + 1 + 2 +· · · + (n −2) + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

for some n ≥ 0

Then the next sum is:

[0 + 1 +· · · + (n −1)] + n =

n(n −1)

2

+ n

=

n(n −1)

2

+

2n

2

=

n(n + 1)

2

Which shows the next sum equals the function

at the next natural number

Inductive Template For Functional Equality

To prove “f (n) = g(n)” is true for all natural numbers n

Basis: Show: both functions map 0 to the same value, that

is,

f (0) = g(0)

Induction: Show: if f (n) = g(n) for some n ≥ 0, then

f (n + 1) = g(n + 1)

Inductive Template For Functional Equality

To prove “f (n) = g(n)” is true for all natural numbers n

Basis: Show: both functions map 0 to the same value, that

is,

f (0) = g(0)

Induction: Show: if f (n) = g(n) for some n ≥ 0, then

f (n + 1) = g(n + 1)

Inductive Template For Functional Equality

To prove “f (n) = g(n)” is true for all natural numbers n

Basis: Show: both functions map 0 to the same value, that

is,

f (0) = g(0)

Induction: Show: if f (n) = g(n) for some n ≥ 0, then

f (n + 1) = g(n + 1)

Inductive Template For Functional Equality

To prove “f (n) = g(n)” is true for all natural numbers n

Basis: Show: both functions map 0 to the same value, that

is,

f (0) = g(0)

Induction: Show: if f (n) = g(n) for some n ≥ 0, then

f (n + 1) = g(n + 1)

Quotation

The so-called law of induction cannot possibly be a law

of logic, since it is obviously a proposition with a sense.

Nor, therefore, can it be an a priori law.

Ludwig Wittenstein, "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus"

Austrian-British philosoper (1889 - 1951)

Checking Solutions to Algebraic Equations

Pretend you want to check that x = 4 is a solution to the

linear equation

3x −5 = 7

You can do this by substitiuting 4 for x on the left-hand side

and show the result is the right-hand side

3(4) −5 = 12 −5 = 7

Checking Solutions to Algebraic Equations

Pretend you want to check that x = 4 is a solution to the

linear equation

3x −5 = 7

You can do this by substitiuting 4 for x on the left-hand side

and show the result is the right-hand side

3(4) −5 = 12 −5 = 7

Checking Solutions to Algebraic Equations

Pretend you want to check that x = 4 is a solution to the

linear equation

3x −5 = 7

You can do this by substitiuting 4 for x on the left-hand side

and show the result is the right-hand side

3(4) −5 = 12 −5 = 7

Checking Solutions to Algebraic Equations

Pretend you want to check that x = (1 +

√

5)/2 is a solution

to the quadratic equation

x

2

= x + 1

You can do this by substitiuting (1 +

√

5)/2 for x in both the

left-hand and right-hand sides and show the results are equal

The left-hand side is

1 +

√

5

2

2

=

1 + 2

√

5 + 5

4

=

3 +

√

5

2

The right-hand side is

1 +

√

5

2

+ 1 =

1 +

√

5

2

+

2

2

=

3 +

√

5

2

Checking Solutions to Algebraic Equations

Pretend you want to check that x = (1 +

√

5)/2 is a solution

to the quadratic equation

x

2

= x + 1

You can do this by substitiuting (1 +

√

5)/2 for x in both the

left-hand and right-hand sides and show the results are equal

The left-hand side is

1 +

√

5

2

2

=

1 + 2

√

5 + 5

4

=

3 +

√

5

2

The right-hand side is

1 +

√

5

2

+ 1 =

1 +

√

5

2

+

2

2

=

3 +

√

5

2

Checking Solutions to Algebraic Equations

Pretend you want to check that x = (1 +

√

5)/2 is a solution

to the quadratic equation

x

2

= x + 1

You can do this by substitiuting (1 +

√

5)/2 for x in both the

left-hand and right-hand sides and show the results are equal

The left-hand side is

1 +

√

5

2

2

=

1 + 2

√

5 + 5

4

=

3 +

√

5

2

The right-hand side is

1 +

√

5

2

+ 1 =

1 +

√

5

2

+

2

2

=

3 +

√

5

2

Checking Solutions to Algebraic Equations

Pretend you want to check that x = (1 +

√

5)/2 is a solution

to the quadratic equation

x

2

= x + 1

You can do this by substitiuting (1 +

√

5)/2 for x in both the

left-hand and right-hand sides and show the results are equal

The left-hand side is

1 +

√

5

2

2

=

1 + 2

√

5 + 5

4

=

3 +

√

5

2

The right-hand side is

1 +

√

5

2

+ 1 =

1 +

√

5

2

+

2

2

=

3 +

√

5

2

Checking Solutions to Algebraic Equations

Pretend you want to check that x = (1 +

√

5)/2 is a solution

to the quadratic equation

x

2

= x + 1

You can do this by substitiuting (1 +

√

5)/2 for x in both the

left-hand and right-hand sides and show the results are equal

The left-hand side is

1 +

√

5

2

2

=

1 + 2

√

5 + 5

4

=

3 +

√

5

2

The right-hand side is

1 +

√

5

2

+ 1 =

1 +

√

5

2

+

2

2

=

3 +

√

5

2

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

The same basic idea can be used to check a proposed solution

to a recurrence equation

Suppose you want to show that m

n

= 2

n

−1 is a solution to

the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

You can do this by substitiuting 2

n

−1 for m

n

in the left-hand

side and 2

n−1

−1 for m

n−1

in the right-hand sides and show

the results are equal

The left-hand side is

2

n

−1

The right-hand side is

2

2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = (2

n

−2) + 1 = 2

n

−1

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

The same basic idea can be used to check a proposed solution

to a recurrence equation

Suppose you want to show that m

n

= 2

n

−1 is a solution to

the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

You can do this by substitiuting 2

n

−1 for m

n

in the left-hand

side and 2

n−1

−1 for m

n−1

in the right-hand sides and show

the results are equal

The left-hand side is

2

n

−1

The right-hand side is

2

2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = (2

n

−2) + 1 = 2

n

−1

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

The same basic idea can be used to check a proposed solution

to a recurrence equation

Suppose you want to show that m

n

= 2

n

−1 is a solution to

the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

You can do this by substitiuting 2

n

−1 for m

n

in the left-hand

side and 2

n−1

−1 for m

n−1

in the right-hand sides and show

the results are equal

The left-hand side is

2

n

−1

The right-hand side is

2

2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = (2

n

−2) + 1 = 2

n

−1

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

The same basic idea can be used to check a proposed solution

to a recurrence equation

Suppose you want to show that m

n

= 2

n

−1 is a solution to

the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

You can do this by substitiuting 2

n

−1 for m

n

in the left-hand

side and 2

n−1

−1 for m

n−1

in the right-hand sides and show

the results are equal

The left-hand side is

2

n

−1

The right-hand side is

2

2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = (2

n

−2) + 1 = 2

n

−1

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

The same basic idea can be used to check a proposed solution

to a recurrence equation

Suppose you want to show that m

n

= 2

n

−1 is a solution to

the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

You can do this by substitiuting 2

n

−1 for m

n

in the left-hand

side and 2

n−1

−1 for m

n−1

in the right-hand sides and show

the results are equal

The left-hand side is

2

n

−1

The right-hand side is

2

2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = (2

n

−2) + 1 = 2

n

−1

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

The same basic idea can be used to check a proposed solution

to a recurrence equation

Suppose you want to show that m

n

= 2

n

−1 is a solution to

the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

You can do this by substitiuting 2

n

−1 for m

n

in the left-hand

side and 2

n−1

−1 for m

n−1

in the right-hand sides and show

the results are equal

The left-hand side is

2

n

−1

The right-hand side is

2

2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = (2

n

−2) + 1 = 2

n

−1

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

There’s is one problem with this

For any constant c, you can show m

n

= c2

n

−1 is a solution

to the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

The left-hand side would be

c2

n

−1

And the right-hand side would be

2

c2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = c2

n

−1

An initial value nails down the solution: If m

0

= 0, then

c2

0

−1 = c −1 = 0 forces c to be 1

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

There’s is one problem with this

For any constant c, you can show m

n

= c2

n

−1 is a solution

to the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

The left-hand side would be

c2

n

−1

And the right-hand side would be

2

c2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = c2

n

−1

An initial value nails down the solution: If m

0

= 0, then

c2

0

−1 = c −1 = 0 forces c to be 1

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

There’s is one problem with this

For any constant c, you can show m

n

= c2

n

−1 is a solution

to the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

The left-hand side would be

c2

n

−1

And the right-hand side would be

2

c2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = c2

n

−1

An initial value nails down the solution: If m

0

= 0, then

c2

0

−1 = c −1 = 0 forces c to be 1

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

There’s is one problem with this

For any constant c, you can show m

n

= c2

n

−1 is a solution

to the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

The left-hand side would be

c2

n

−1

And the right-hand side would be

2

c2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = c2

n

−1

An initial value nails down the solution: If m

0

= 0, then

c2

0

−1 = c −1 = 0 forces c to be 1

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

There’s is one problem with this

For any constant c, you can show m

n

= c2

n

−1 is a solution

to the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

The left-hand side would be

c2

n

−1

And the right-hand side would be

2

c2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = c2

n

−1

An initial value nails down the solution: If m

0

= 0, then

c2

0

−1 = c −1 = 0 forces c to be 1

Checking Solutions to Recurrence Equations

There’s is one problem with this

For any constant c, you can show m

n

= c2

n

−1 is a solution

to the recurrence

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

The left-hand side would be

c2

n

−1

And the right-hand side would be

2

c2

n−1

−1

+ 1 = c2

n

−1

An initial value nails down the solution: If m

0

= 0, then

c2

0

−1 = c −1 = 0 forces c to be 1

Induction on The Triangular Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the triangular numbers

t

n

= t

n−1

+ (n −1)

To show that t

n

= n(n −1)/2 solves the recurrence substitute

into the left-hand and right hand sides

The left-hand side is

n(n −1)/2

The right-hand side is

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+ (n −1) =

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+

2(n −1)

2

=

(n −1)(n −2) + 2(n −1)

2

=

n(n −1)

2

To complete the induction, establish the basis:

t

0

= 0(0 −1)/2 = 0

Induction on The Triangular Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the triangular numbers

t

n

= t

n−1

+ (n −1)

To show that t

n

= n(n −1)/2 solves the recurrence substitute

into the left-hand and right hand sides

The left-hand side is

n(n −1)/2

The right-hand side is

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+ (n −1) =

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+

2(n −1)

2

=

(n −1)(n −2) + 2(n −1)

2

=

n(n −1)

2

To complete the induction, establish the basis:

t

0

= 0(0 −1)/2 = 0

Induction on The Triangular Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the triangular numbers

t

n

= t

n−1

+ (n −1)

To show that t

n

= n(n −1)/2 solves the recurrence substitute

into the left-hand and right hand sides

The left-hand side is

n(n −1)/2

The right-hand side is

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+ (n −1) =

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+

2(n −1)

2

=

(n −1)(n −2) + 2(n −1)

2

=

n(n −1)

2

To complete the induction, establish the basis:

t

0

= 0(0 −1)/2 = 0

Induction on The Triangular Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the triangular numbers

t

n

= t

n−1

+ (n −1)

To show that t

n

= n(n −1)/2 solves the recurrence substitute

into the left-hand and right hand sides

The left-hand side is

n(n −1)/2

The right-hand side is

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+ (n −1) =

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+

2(n −1)

2

=

(n −1)(n −2) + 2(n −1)

2

=

n(n −1)

2

To complete the induction, establish the basis:

t

0

= 0(0 −1)/2 = 0

Induction on The Triangular Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the triangular numbers

t

n

= t

n−1

+ (n −1)

To show that t

n

= n(n −1)/2 solves the recurrence substitute

into the left-hand and right hand sides

The left-hand side is

n(n −1)/2

The right-hand side is

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+ (n −1) =

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+

2(n −1)

2

=

(n −1)(n −2) + 2(n −1)

2

=

n(n −1)

2

To complete the induction, establish the basis:

t

0

= 0(0 −1)/2 = 0

Induction on The Triangular Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the triangular numbers

t

n

= t

n−1

+ (n −1)

To show that t

n

= n(n −1)/2 solves the recurrence substitute

into the left-hand and right hand sides

The left-hand side is

n(n −1)/2

The right-hand side is

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+ (n −1) =

(n −1)(n −2)

2

+

2(n −1)

2

=

(n −1)(n −2) + 2(n −1)

2

=

n(n −1)

2

To complete the induction, establish the basis:

t

0

= 0(0 −1)/2 = 0

Induction on The Mersenne Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Mersenne numbers

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1

If m

n

= 2

n

−1, then

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1 = 2(2

n

−1) + 1

Which can be rewritten as

m

n+1

= 2

n+1

−1

The function 2

n

−1 maps 0 to 0 which matches the initial

Mersenne number m

0

= 0

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Mersenne numbers m

n

can be computed by the

function m(n) = 2

n

−1 for all natural numbers n

Induction on The Mersenne Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Mersenne numbers

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1

If m

n

= 2

n

−1, then

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1 = 2(2

n

−1) + 1

Which can be rewritten as

m

n+1

= 2

n+1

−1

The function 2

n

−1 maps 0 to 0 which matches the initial

Mersenne number m

0

= 0

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Mersenne numbers m

n

can be computed by the

function m(n) = 2

n

−1 for all natural numbers n

Induction on The Mersenne Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Mersenne numbers

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1

If m

n

= 2

n

−1, then

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1 = 2(2

n

−1) + 1

Which can be rewritten as

m

n+1

= 2

n+1

−1

The function 2

n

−1 maps 0 to 0 which matches the initial

Mersenne number m

0

= 0

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Mersenne numbers m

n

can be computed by the

function m(n) = 2

n

−1 for all natural numbers n

Induction on The Mersenne Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Mersenne numbers

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1

If m

n

= 2

n

−1, then

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1 = 2(2

n

−1) + 1

Which can be rewritten as

m

n+1

= 2

n+1

−1

The function 2

n

−1 maps 0 to 0 which matches the initial

Mersenne number m

0

= 0

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Mersenne numbers m

n

can be computed by the

function m(n) = 2

n

−1 for all natural numbers n

Induction on The Mersenne Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Mersenne numbers

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1

If m

n

= 2

n

−1, then

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1 = 2(2

n

−1) + 1

Which can be rewritten as

m

n+1

= 2

n+1

−1

The function 2

n

−1 maps 0 to 0 which matches the initial

Mersenne number m

0

= 0

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Mersenne numbers m

n

can be computed by the

function m(n) = 2

n

−1 for all natural numbers n

Induction on The Mersenne Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Mersenne numbers

m

n

= 2m

n−1

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1

If m

n

= 2

n

−1, then

m

n+1

= 2m

n

+ 1 = 2(2

n

−1) + 1

Which can be rewritten as

m

n+1

= 2

n+1

−1

The function 2

n

−1 maps 0 to 0 which matches the initial

Mersenne number m

0

= 0

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Mersenne numbers m

n

can be computed by the

function m(n) = 2

n

−1 for all natural numbers n

Induction on The Fermat Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Fermat numbers

r

n

= (r

n−1

−1)

2

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

r

n+1

= (r

n

−1)

2

+ 1

If r

n

= 2

2

n

+ 1, then

r

n+1

= ((2

2

n

+ 1) −1)

2

+ 1

Which can be rewritten as

r

n+1

= 2

2

n+1

+ 1

The function 2

2

n

+ 1 maps 0 to 3 which matches the initial

Fermat number r

0

= 3

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Fermat numbers r

n

can be computed by the function

r (n) = 2

2

n

+ 1 for all natural numbers n

Induction on The Fermat Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Fermat numbers

r

n

= (r

n−1

−1)

2

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

r

n+1

= (r

n

−1)

2

+ 1

If r

n

= 2

2

n

+ 1, then

r

n+1

= ((2

2

n

+ 1) −1)

2

+ 1

Which can be rewritten as

r

n+1

= 2

2

n+1

+ 1

The function 2

2

n

+ 1 maps 0 to 3 which matches the initial

Fermat number r

0

= 3

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Fermat numbers r

n

can be computed by the function

r (n) = 2

2

n

+ 1 for all natural numbers n

Induction on The Fermat Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Fermat numbers

r

n

= (r

n−1

−1)

2

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

r

n+1

= (r

n

−1)

2

+ 1

If r

n

= 2

2

n

+ 1, then

r

n+1

= ((2

2

n

+ 1) −1)

2

+ 1

Which can be rewritten as

r

n+1

= 2

2

n+1

+ 1

The function 2

2

n

+ 1 maps 0 to 3 which matches the initial

Fermat number r

0

= 3

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Fermat numbers r

n

can be computed by the function

r (n) = 2

2

n

+ 1 for all natural numbers n

Induction on The Fermat Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Fermat numbers

r

n

= (r

n−1

−1)

2

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

r

n+1

= (r

n

−1)

2

+ 1

If r

n

= 2

2

n

+ 1, then

r

n+1

= ((2

2

n

+ 1) −1)

2

+ 1

Which can be rewritten as

r

n+1

= 2

2

n+1

+ 1

The function 2

2

n

+ 1 maps 0 to 3 which matches the initial

Fermat number r

0

= 3

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Fermat numbers r

n

can be computed by the function

r (n) = 2

2

n

+ 1 for all natural numbers n

Induction on The Fermat Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Fermat numbers

r

n

= (r

n−1

−1)

2

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

r

n+1

= (r

n

−1)

2

+ 1

If r

n

= 2

2

n

+ 1, then

r

n+1

= ((2

2

n

+ 1) −1)

2

+ 1

Which can be rewritten as

r

n+1

= 2

2

n+1

+ 1

The function 2

2

n

+ 1 maps 0 to 3 which matches the initial

Fermat number r

0

= 3

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Fermat numbers r

n

can be computed by the function

r (n) = 2

2

n

+ 1 for all natural numbers n

Induction on The Fermat Sequence

Consider the recurrence for the Fermat numbers

r

n

= (r

n−1

−1)

2

+ 1

or, relabeling subscripts

r

n+1

= (r

n

−1)

2

+ 1

If r

n

= 2

2

n

+ 1, then

r

n+1

= ((2

2

n

+ 1) −1)

2

+ 1

Which can be rewritten as

r

n+1

= 2

2

n+1

+ 1

The function 2

2

n

+ 1 maps 0 to 3 which matches the initial

Fermat number r

0

= 3

Since both the basis and the inductive conditional are both

true, the Fermat numbers r

n

can be computed by the function

r (n) = 2

2

n

+ 1 for all natural numbers n

Quotation

MacPherson told me that my theorem can be viewed

as blah blah blah Grothendick blah blah blah, which

makes it much more respectable. I think some

intuition leaks out in every step of an induction proof.

Jim Propp, American mathematician

Induction on Sums

To prove a summation

¸

a

k

can be expressed as a function

g(·) on the natural numbers,

Establish a basis for induction, that is, show

0

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

= g(0)

Prove the inductive conditional: If

If

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= g(n),

then

n

¸

k=0

a

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

¸

+ a

n

= g(n) + a

n

= g(n + 1)

Induction on Sums

To prove a summation

¸

a

k

can be expressed as a function

g(·) on the natural numbers,

Establish a basis for induction, that is, show

0

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

= g(0)

Prove the inductive conditional: If

If

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= g(n),

then

n

¸

k=0

a

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

¸

+ a

n

= g(n) + a

n

= g(n + 1)

Induction on Sums

To prove a summation

¸

a

k

can be expressed as a function

g(·) on the natural numbers,

Establish a basis for induction, that is, show

0

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

= g(0)

Prove the inductive conditional: If

If

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= g(n),

then

n

¸

k=0

a

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

¸

+ a

n

= g(n) + a

n

= g(n + 1)

Induction on Sums

To prove a summation

¸

a

k

can be expressed as a function

g(·) on the natural numbers,

Establish a basis for induction, that is, show

0

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

= g(0)

Prove the inductive conditional: If

If

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= g(n),

then

n

¸

k=0

a

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

¸

+ a

n

= g(n) + a

n

= g(n + 1)

Induction on Sums

To prove a summation

¸

a

k

can be expressed as a function

g(·) on the natural numbers,

Establish a basis for induction, that is, show

0

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

= g(0)

Prove the inductive conditional: If

If

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= g(n),

then

n

¸

k=0

a

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

¸

+ a

n

= g(n) + a

n

= g(n + 1)

Induction on Sums

To prove a summation

¸

a

k

can be expressed as a function

g(·) on the natural numbers,

Establish a basis for induction, that is, show

0

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

= g(0)

Prove the inductive conditional: If

If

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= g(n),

then

n

¸

k=0

a

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

¸

+ a

n

= g(n) + a

n

= g(n + 1)

Induction on Sums

To prove a summation

¸

a

k

can be expressed as a function

g(·) on the natural numbers,

Establish a basis for induction, that is, show

0

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

= g(0)

Prove the inductive conditional: If

If

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= g(n),

then

n

¸

k=0

a

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

¸

+ a

n

= g(n) + a

n

= g(n + 1)

Induction on Sums

To prove a summation

¸

a

k

can be expressed as a function

g(·) on the natural numbers,

Establish a basis for induction, that is, show

0

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

= g(0)

Prove the inductive conditional: If

If

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= g(n),

then

n

¸

k=0

a

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

¸

+ a

n

= g(n) + a

n

= g(n + 1)

Induction on Sums

To prove a summation

¸

a

k

can be expressed as a function

g(·) on the natural numbers,

Establish a basis for induction, that is, show

0

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

= g(0)

Prove the inductive conditional: If

If

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= g(n),

then

n

¸

k=0

a

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

¸

+ a

n

= g(n) + a

n

= g(n + 1)

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

The Alice sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0

The sum

n−1

¸

k=0

1 =

0−1

¸

k=0

1

is empty and equal to 0

The value on the right hand, n, is 0 too

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

The Alice sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0

The sum

n−1

¸

k=0

1 =

0−1

¸

k=0

1

is empty and equal to 0

The value on the right hand, n, is 0 too

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

The Alice sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0

The sum

n−1

¸

k=0

1 =

0−1

¸

k=0

1

is empty and equal to 0

The value on the right hand, n, is 0 too

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

The Alice sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0

The sum

n−1

¸

k=0

1 =

0−1

¸

k=0

1

is empty and equal to 0

The value on the right hand, n, is 0 too

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

The Alice sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0

The sum

n−1

¸

k=0

1 =

0−1

¸

k=0

1

is empty and equal to 0

The value on the right hand, n, is 0 too

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

Induction: Show that

If

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n,

then

n

¸

k=0

1 = n + 1

By computing

n

¸

k=0

1 =

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

1

¸

+ 1

= n + 1

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

Induction: Show that

If

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n,

then

n

¸

k=0

1 = n + 1

By computing

n

¸

k=0

1 =

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

1

¸

+ 1

= n + 1

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

Induction: Show that

If

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n,

then

n

¸

k=0

1 = n + 1

By computing

n

¸

k=0

1 =

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

1

¸

+ 1

= n + 1

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

Induction: Show that

If

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n,

then

n

¸

k=0

1 = n + 1

By computing

n

¸

k=0

1 =

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

1

¸

+ 1

= n + 1

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

Induction: Show that

If

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n,

then

n

¸

k=0

1 = n + 1

By computing

n

¸

k=0

1

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

1

¸

+ 1

= n + 1

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

Induction: Show that

If

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n,

then

n

¸

k=0

1 = n + 1

By computing

n

¸

k=0

1 =

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

1

¸

+ 1

= n + 1

Alice Sum Math Induction Proof

Induction: Show that

If

n−1

¸

k=0

1 = n,

then

n

¸

k=0

1 = n + 1

By computing

n

¸

k=0

1 =

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

1

¸

+ 1

= n + 1

Gauss Sum Math Induction Proof

The Gauss sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

k = 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side is 0(0 −1)/2 = 0 too

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=0

k = n(n −1)/2, then

n

¸

k=0

k =

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

k

¸

+ n = (n + 1)n/2

Gauss Sum Math Induction Proof

The Gauss sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

k = 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side is 0(0 −1)/2 = 0 too

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=0

k = n(n −1)/2, then

n

¸

k=0

k =

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

k

¸

+ n = (n + 1)n/2

Gauss Sum Math Induction Proof

The Gauss sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

k = 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side is 0(0 −1)/2 = 0 too

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=0

k = n(n −1)/2, then

n

¸

k=0

k =

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

k

¸

+ n = (n + 1)n/2

Gauss Sum Math Induction Proof

The Gauss sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

k = 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + (n −1) =

n(n −1)

2

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side is 0(0 −1)/2 = 0 too

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=0

k = n(n −1)/2, then

n

¸

k=0

k =

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

k

¸

+ n = (n + 1)n/2

Zeno Sum Math Induction Proof

The Zeno sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

2

k

= 1 + 2 + 4 +· · · + 2

n−1

= 2

n

−1

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side n is 0 too

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=0

2

k

= 2

n

−1, then

n

¸

k=0

2

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

2

k

¸

+ 2

n

= 2

n+1

−1

Zeno Sum Math Induction Proof

The Zeno sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

2

k

= 1 + 2 + 4 +· · · + 2

n−1

= 2

n

−1

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side n is 0 too

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=0

2

k

= 2

n

−1, then

n

¸

k=0

2

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

2

k

¸

+ 2

n

= 2

n+1

−1

Zeno Sum Math Induction Proof

The Zeno sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

2

k

= 1 + 2 + 4 +· · · + 2

n−1

= 2

n

−1

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side n is 0 too

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=0

2

k

= 2

n

−1, then

n

¸

k=0

2

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

2

k

¸

+ 2

n

= 2

n+1

−1

Zeno Sum Math Induction Proof

The Zeno sum formula

n−1

¸

k=0

2

k

= 1 + 2 + 4 +· · · + 2

n−1

= 2

n

−1

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side n is 0 too

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=0

2

k

= 2

n

−1, then

n

¸

k=0

2

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=0

2

k

¸

+ 2

n

= 2

n+1

−1

Sum of the Odd Integers is a Square

The ancient formula

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n −1) = n

2

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side n is 0 too.

Sum of the Odd Integers is a Square

The ancient formula

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n −1) = n

2

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side n is 0 too.

Sum of the Odd Integers is a Square

The ancient formula

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n −1) = n

2

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side n is 0 too.

Sum of the Odd Integers is a Square

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n −1) = n

2

Induction: If

¸

n

k=1

(2k −1) = n

2

, then

n+1

¸

k=1

(2k −1) =

¸

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1)

¸

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2n + 1

= (n + 1)

2

Sum of the Odd Integers is a Square

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n −1) = n

2

Induction: If

¸

n

k=1

(2k −1) = n

2

, then

n+1

¸

k=1

(2k −1) =

¸

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1)

¸

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2n + 1

= (n + 1)

2

Sum of the Odd Integers is a Square

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n −1) = n

2

Induction: If

¸

n

k=1

(2k −1) = n

2

, then

n+1

¸

k=1

(2k −1) =

¸

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1)

¸

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2n + 1

= (n + 1)

2

Sum of the Odd Integers is a Square

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n −1) = n

2

Induction: If

¸

n

k=1

(2k −1) = n

2

, then

n+1

¸

k=1

(2k −1)

=

¸

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1)

¸

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2n + 1

= (n + 1)

2

Sum of the Odd Integers is a Square

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n −1) = n

2

Induction: If

¸

n

k=1

(2k −1) = n

2

, then

n+1

¸

k=1

(2k −1) =

¸

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1)

¸

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2n + 1

= (n + 1)

2

Sum of the Odd Integers is a Square

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n −1) = n

2

Induction: If

¸

n

k=1

(2k −1) = n

2

, then

n+1

¸

k=1

(2k −1) =

¸

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1)

¸

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2n + 1

= (n + 1)

2

Sum of the Odd Integers is a Square

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n −1) = n

2

Induction: If

¸

n

k=1

(2k −1) = n

2

, then

n+1

¸

k=1

(2k −1) =

¸

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1)

¸

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2n + 1

= (n + 1)

2

Sum of the Odd Integers is a Square

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n −1) = n

2

Induction: If

¸

n

k=1

(2k −1) = n

2

, then

n+1

¸

k=1

(2k −1) =

¸

n

¸

k=1

(2k −1)

¸

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2(n + 1) −1

= n

2

+ 2n + 1

= (n + 1)

2

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

The formula

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side n is 0 too.

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

The formula

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side n is 0 too.

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

The formula

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

can be established by mathematical induction

Basis: For n = 0 the sum on the left is empty, and so equal

to 0. And the right hand side n is 0 too.

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=1

k

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

/4, then

n

¸

k=1

k

3

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

¸

+ n

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

+ n

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

4

+ n

= n

2

(n + 2n + 1)

4

=

1

2

n(n + 1)

2

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=1

k

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

/4, then

n

¸

k=1

k

3

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

¸

+ n

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

+ n

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

4

+ n

= n

2

(n + 2n + 1)

4

=

1

2

n(n + 1)

2

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=1

k

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

/4, then

n

¸

k=1

k

3

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

¸

+ n

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

+ n

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

4

+ n

= n

2

(n + 2n + 1)

4

=

1

2

n(n + 1)

2

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=1

k

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

/4, then

n

¸

k=1

k

3

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

¸

+ n

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

+ n

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

4

+ n

= n

2

(n + 2n + 1)

4

=

1

2

n(n + 1)

2

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=1

k

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

/4, then

n

¸

k=1

k

3

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

¸

+ n

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

+ n

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

4

+ n

= n

2

(n + 2n + 1)

4

=

1

2

n(n + 1)

2

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=1

k

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

/4, then

n

¸

k=1

k

3

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

¸

+ n

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

+ n

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

4

+ n

= n

2

(n + 2n + 1)

4

=

1

2

n(n + 1)

2

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=1

k

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

/4, then

n

¸

k=1

k

3

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

¸

+ n

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

+ n

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

4

+ n

= n

2

(n + 2n + 1)

4

=

1

2

n(n + 1)

2

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=1

k

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

/4, then

n

¸

k=1

k

3

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

¸

+ n

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

+ n

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

4

+ n

= n

2

(n + 2n + 1)

4

=

1

2

n(n + 1)

2

Sum of Cubes is a Squared Triangular Number

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

Induction: If

¸

n−1

k=1

k

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

/4, then

n

¸

k=1

k

3

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

k

3

¸

+ n

3

=

1

2

n(n −1)

2

+ n

3

= n

2

(n −1)

2

4

+ n

= n

2

(n + 2n + 1)

4

=

1

2

n(n + 1)

2

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

Recall the Fibonacci sequence

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

Also recall the recurrence for the Fibonacci numbers

f

n

= f

n−1

+ f

n−2

, n ∈ {2, 3, 4, . . .}, f

0

= 0, f

1

= 1

Let’s write the sequence using the names of the numbers

rather than their values

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

Recall the Fibonacci sequence

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

Also recall the recurrence for the Fibonacci numbers

f

n

= f

n−1

+ f

n−2

, n ∈ {2, 3, 4, . . .}, f

0

= 0, f

1

= 1

Let’s write the sequence using the names of the numbers

rather than their values

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

Recall the Fibonacci sequence

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

Also recall the recurrence for the Fibonacci numbers

f

n

= f

n−1

+ f

n−2

, n ∈ {2, 3, 4, . . .}, f

0

= 0, f

1

= 1

Let’s write the sequence using the names of the numbers

rather than their values

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

Recall the Fibonacci sequence

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

Also recall the recurrence for the Fibonacci numbers

f

n

= f

n−1

+ f

n−2

, n ∈ {2, 3, 4, . . .}, f

0

= 0, f

1

= 1

Let’s write the sequence using the names of the numbers

rather than their values

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

F = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

F = f

0

, f

1

, f

2

, f

3

, f

4

, f

5

, f

6

, f

7

, f

8

, . . .

Consider the sequence of partial sums

S

0

= f

0

= 0

S

1

= f

0

+ f

1

= 1

S

2

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

= 2

S

3

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

= 4

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

= 7

S

4

= f

0

+ f

1

+ f

2

+ f

3

+ f

4

+ f

5

= 12

Can you make a conjecture about these sums?

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Basis: For n = 0

The sum on the left-hand side is empty and so

equal to 0

The formula on the right-hand side is also equal

to 0

f

0+1

−1 = f

1

−1 = 1 −1 = 0

This establishes the basis for induction

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Basis: For n = 0

The sum on the left-hand side is empty and so

equal to 0

The formula on the right-hand side is also equal

to 0

f

0+1

−1 = f

1

−1 = 1 −1 = 0

This establishes the basis for induction

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Basis: For n = 0

The sum on the left-hand side is empty and so

equal to 0

The formula on the right-hand side is also equal

to 0

f

0+1

−1 = f

1

−1 = 1 −1 = 0

This establishes the basis for induction

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Basis: For n = 0

The sum on the left-hand side is empty and so

equal to 0

The formula on the right-hand side is also equal

to 0

f

0+1

−1 = f

1

−1 = 1 −1 = 0

This establishes the basis for induction

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Basis: For n = 0

The sum on the left-hand side is empty and so

equal to 0

The formula on the right-hand side is also equal

to 0

f

0+1

−1 = f

1

−1 = 1 −1 = 0

This establishes the basis for induction

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Induction: Pretend that

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

n

¸

k=0

f

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

f

k

¸

+ f

n

= [f

n+1

−1] + f

n

= [f

n+1

+ f

n

] −1

= f

n+2

−1

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Induction: Pretend that

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

n

¸

k=0

f

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

f

k

¸

+ f

n

= [f

n+1

−1] + f

n

= [f

n+1

+ f

n

] −1

= f

n+2

−1

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Induction: Pretend that

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

n

¸

k=0

f

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

f

k

¸

+ f

n

= [f

n+1

−1] + f

n

= [f

n+1

+ f

n

] −1

= f

n+2

−1

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Induction: Pretend that

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

n

¸

k=0

f

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

f

k

¸

+ f

n

= [f

n+1

−1] + f

n

= [f

n+1

+ f

n

] −1

= f

n+2

−1

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Induction: Pretend that

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

n

¸

k=0

f

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

f

k

¸

+ f

n

= [f

n+1

−1] + f

n

= [f

n+1

+ f

n

] −1

= f

n+2

−1

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Induction: Pretend that

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

n

¸

k=0

f

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

f

k

¸

+ f

n

= [f

n+1

−1] + f

n

= [f

n+1

+ f

n

] −1

= f

n+2

−1

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Induction: Pretend that

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

n

¸

k=0

f

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

f

k

¸

+ f

n

= [f

n+1

−1] + f

n

= [f

n+1

+ f

n

] −1

= f

n+2

−1

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Induction: Pretend that

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

n

¸

k=0

f

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

f

k

¸

+ f

n

= [f

n+1

−1] + f

n

= [f

n+1

+ f

n

] −1

= f

n+2

−1

Sum of Fibonacci Numbers

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

Induction: Pretend that

n−1

¸

k=0

f

k

= f

n+1

−1

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

n

¸

k=0

f

k

=

¸

n−1

¸

k=1

f

k

¸

+ f

n

= [f

n+1

−1] + f

n

= [f

n+1

+ f

n

] −1

= f

n+2

−1

Pascal’s Triangle

1

1 1

1 2 1

1 3 3 1

1 4 6 4 1

1 5 10 10 5 1

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

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Pascal’s Triangle

1

1 1

1 2 1

1 3 3 1

1 4 6 4 1

1 5 10 10 5 1

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

.

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Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1

= 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1

= 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1

= 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1

= 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1

= 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1

= 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1

= 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

There are many identities that can be found in Pascal’s triangle

Perhaps the most famous one is found by summing values in a

row

1 = 1

1 +1 = 2

1 +2 +1 = 4

1 +3 +3 +1 = 8

1 +4 +6 +4 +1 = 16

1 +5 +10 +10 +5 +1 = 32

1 +6 +15 +20 +15 +6 +1 = 64

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

We can make the conjecture

The sum of values in row n of Pascal’s triangle is 2

n

for

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

When you notice how a row is computed from the previous

row, it becomes clear why the row sums double

Every term, except the ﬁrst and last 1, is added twice to

generate the next row

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

We can make the conjecture

The sum of values in row n of Pascal’s triangle is 2

n

for

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

When you notice how a row is computed from the previous

row, it becomes clear why the row sums double

Every term, except the ﬁrst and last 1, is added twice to

generate the next row

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

We can make the conjecture

The sum of values in row n of Pascal’s triangle is 2

n

for

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

When you notice how a row is computed from the previous

row, it becomes clear why the row sums double

Every term, except the ﬁrst and last 1, is added twice to

generate the next row

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

We can make the conjecture

The sum of values in row n of Pascal’s triangle is 2

n

for

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

When you notice how a row is computed from the previous

row, it becomes clear why the row sums double

Every term, except the ﬁrst and last 1, is added twice to

generate the next row

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

We can make the conjecture

The sum of values in row n of Pascal’s triangle is 2

n

for

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

When you notice how a row is computed from the previous

row, it becomes clear why the row sums double

Every term, except the ﬁrst and last 1, is added twice to

generate the next row

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1 1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1 1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1 1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1 1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6

6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6

6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1

7

21 35 35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6 6 + 15

15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1

7

21 35 35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6 6 + 15

15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1

7 21

35 35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20

20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1

7 21

35 35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20

20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1

7 21 35

35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15

15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1

7 21 35

35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15

15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1

7 21 35 35

21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6

6 + 1 1

1

7 21 35 35

21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6

6 + 1 1

1

7 21 35 35 21

7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1

1

1

7 21 35 35 21

7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1

1

1

7 21 35 35 21 7

1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1

1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1

1

1

7 21 35 35 21 7

1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

Consider row 6 of Pascal’s Triangle

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

It can be used to generate row 7

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Sum adjacent numbers in row 6 yields

1 1 + 6 6 + 15 15 + 20 20 + 15 15 + 6 6 + 1 1

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

Adding in the initial and terminal 1 in row 7 shows each term

in row 6 is summed twice when summing row 7

Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

To make the preceding argument precise we must name things

We’ll name the rows and columns by the natural numbers

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 · · ·

0 1

1 1 1

2 1 2 1

3 1 3 3 1

4 1 4 6 4 1

5 1 5 10 10 5 1

6 1 6 15 20 15 6 1

7 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

8 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

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Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

To make the preceding argument precise we must name things

We’ll name the rows and columns by the natural numbers

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 · · ·

0 1

1 1 1

2 1 2 1

3 1 3 3 1

4 1 4 6 4 1

5 1 5 10 10 5 1

6 1 6 15 20 15 6 1

7 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

8 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

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Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

To make the preceding argument precise we must name things

We’ll name the rows and columns by the natural numbers

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 · · ·

0 1

1 1 1

2 1 2 1

3 1 3 3 1

4 1 4 6 4 1

5 1 5 10 10 5 1

6 1 6 15 20 15 6 1

7 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

8 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

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Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

To make the preceding argument precise we must name things

We’ll name the rows and columns by the natural numbers

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 · · ·

0 1

1 1 1

2 1 2 1

3 1 3 3 1

4 1 4 6 4 1

5 1 5 10 10 5 1

6 1 6 15 20 15 6 1

7 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

8 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

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Pascal’s Triangle: Sum of Rows

To make the preceding argument precise we must name things

We’ll name the rows and columns by the natural numbers

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 · · ·

0 1

1 1 1

2 1 2 1

3 1 3 3 1

4 1 4 6 4 1

5 1 5 10 10 5 1

6 1 6 15 20 15 6 1

7 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

8 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

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Pascal’s Triangle: Binomial Coeﬃcients

We’ll name terms in row n, column m by the symbol

n

m

The symbol

n

m

**is called a binomial coeﬃcient
**

The symbol

n

m

is read “n choose m”

The binomial coeﬃcient “n choose m” can be expressed in

terms of factorials

n

m

=

n!

m!(n −m)!

Pascal’s Triangle: Binomial Coeﬃcients

We’ll name terms in row n, column m by the symbol

n

m

The symbol

n

m

**is called a binomial coeﬃcient
**

The symbol

n

m

is read “n choose m”

The binomial coeﬃcient “n choose m” can be expressed in

terms of factorials

n

m

=

n!

m!(n −m)!

Pascal’s Triangle: Binomial Coeﬃcients

We’ll name terms in row n, column m by the symbol

n

m

The symbol

n

m

**is called a binomial coeﬃcient
**

The symbol

n

m

is read “n choose m”

The binomial coeﬃcient “n choose m” can be expressed in

terms of factorials

n

m

=

n!

m!(n −m)!

Pascal’s Triangle: Binomial Coeﬃcients

We’ll name terms in row n, column m by the symbol

n

m

The symbol

n

m

**is called a binomial coeﬃcient
**

The symbol

n

m

is read “n choose m”

The binomial coeﬃcient “n choose m” can be expressed in

terms of factorials

n

m

=

n!

m!(n −m)!

Pascal’s Triangle: Binomial Coeﬃcients

We’ll name terms in row n, column m by the symbol

n

m

The symbol

n

m

**is called a binomial coeﬃcient
**

The symbol

n

m

is read “n choose m”

The binomial coeﬃcient “n choose m” can be expressed in

terms of factorials

n

m

=

n!

m!(n −m)!

Pascal’s Triangle

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 · · ·

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

2

2

0

2

1

2

2

3

3

0

3

1

3

2

3

3

4

4

0

4

1

4

2

4

3

4

4

5

5

0

5

1

5

2

5

3

5

4

5

5

6

6

0

6

1

6

2

6

3

6

4

6

5

6

6

7

7

0

7

1

7

2

7

3

7

4

7

5

7

6

7

7

8

8

0

8

1

8

2

8

3

8

4

8

5

8

6

8

7

8

8

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Pascal’s Triangle

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 · · ·

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

2

2

0

2

1

2

2

3

3

0

3

1

3

2

3

3

4

4

0

4

1

4

2

4

3

4

4

5

5

0

5

1

5

2

5

3

5

4

5

5

6

6

0

6

1

6

2

6

3

6

4

6

5

6

6

7

7

0

7

1

7

2

7

3

7

4

7

5

7

6

7

7

8

8

0

8

1

8

2

8

3

8

4

8

5

8

6

8

7

8

8

.

.

.

.

.

.

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.

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.

.

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.

.

.

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.

.

.

.

.

Pascal’s Identity

The relationship between terms in row n −1 and row n is

called Pascal’s identity

Pascal’s identity states that

n −1

m −1

+

n −1

m

=

n

m

**That is, the sum of terms in columns m −1 and m of row
**

n −1 equals the term in column m row n

Pascal’s Identity

The relationship between terms in row n −1 and row n is

called Pascal’s identity

Pascal’s identity states that

n −1

m −1

+

n −1

m

=

n

m

**That is, the sum of terms in columns m −1 and m of row
**

n −1 equals the term in column m row n

Pascal’s Identity

The relationship between terms in row n −1 and row n is

called Pascal’s identity

Pascal’s identity states that

n −1

m −1

+

n −1

m

=

n

m

**That is, the sum of terms in columns m −1 and m of row
**

n −1 equals the term in column m row n

Pascal’s Identity

The relationship between terms in row n −1 and row n is

called Pascal’s identity

Pascal’s identity states that

n −1

m −1

+

n −1

m

=

n

m

**That is, the sum of terms in columns m −1 and m of row
**

n −1 equals the term in column m row n

Pascal’s Identity

An example of Pascal’s identity is

7

4

=

7!

4!3!

=

7 ×6 ×5

3 ×2 ×1

= 35

and

7

5

=

7!

5!2!

=

7 ×6

2 ×1

= 21

Therefore

8

5

=

7

4

+

7

5

= 35 + 21

Pascal’s Identity

An example of Pascal’s identity is

7

4

=

7!

4!3!

=

7 ×6 ×5

3 ×2 ×1

= 35

and

7

5

=

7!

5!2!

=

7 ×6

2 ×1

= 21

Therefore

8

5

=

7

4

+

7

5

= 35 + 21

Pascal’s Identity

Another example of Pascal’s identity is

12

8

=

12!

8!4!

= 495

and

12

9

=

12!

9!3!

= 660

Therefore

13

9

**= 495 + 660 = 1155
**

Pascal’s Identity

Another example of Pascal’s identity is

12

8

=

12!

8!4!

= 495

and

12

9

=

12!

9!3!

= 660

Therefore

13

9

**= 495 + 660 = 1155
**

Pascal’s Triangle Row Sum

Armed with Pascal’s identity, we can use induction to establish

the sum of values in row n is 2

n

To sum the elements in row n we write

n

¸

k=0

n

k

=

n

0

+

n

1

+

n

2

+· · · +

n

n −1

+

n

n

**Leave the ﬁrst and last terms alone, but use Pascal’s identity
**

on the middle terms

n

0

+

¸

n −1

0

+

n −1

1

+

¸

n −1

1

+

n −1

2

+· · · +

¸

n −1

n −2

+

n −1

n −1

+

n

n

**Pascal’s Triangle Row Sum
**

Armed with Pascal’s identity, we can use induction to establish

the sum of values in row n is 2

n

To sum the elements in row n we write

n

¸

k=0

n

k

=

n

0

+

n

1

+

n

2

+· · · +

n

n −1

+

n

n

**Leave the ﬁrst and last terms alone, but use Pascal’s identity
**

on the middle terms

n

0

+

¸

n −1

0

+

n −1

1

+

¸

n −1

1

+

n −1

2

+· · · +

¸

n −1

n −2

+

n −1

n −1

+

n

n

**Pascal’s Triangle Row Sum
**

Armed with Pascal’s identity, we can use induction to establish

the sum of values in row n is 2

n

To sum the elements in row n we write

n

¸

k=0

n

k

=

n

0

+

n

1

+

n

2

+· · · +

n

n −1

+

n

n

**Leave the ﬁrst and last terms alone, but use Pascal’s identity
**

on the middle terms

n

0

+

¸

n −1

0

+

n −1

1

+

¸

n −1

1

+

n −1

2

+· · · +

¸

n −1

n −2

+

n −1

n −1

+

n

n

**Pascal’s Triangle Row Sum
**

Armed with Pascal’s identity, we can use induction to establish

the sum of values in row n is 2

n

To sum the elements in row n we write

n

¸

k=0

n

k

=

n

0

+

n

1

+

n

2

+· · · +

n

n −1

+

n

n

**Leave the ﬁrst and last terms alone, but use Pascal’s identity
**

on the middle terms

n

0

+

¸

n −1

0

+

n −1

1

+

¸

n −1

1

+

n −1

2

+· · · +

¸

n −1

n −2

+

n −1

n −1

+

n

n

**Pascal’s Triangle Row Sum
**

Collect the terms that appear twice

n

0

+

n −1

0

+2

n −1

1

+· · ·+2

n −1

n −2

+

n −1

n −1

+

n

n

**Recognize that the ﬁrst two and last two terms are equal to 1
**

and so can be replaced as

2

n −1

0

+ 2

n −1

1

+· · · + 2

n −1

n −2

+ 2

n −1

n −1

**Therefore, if the sum of terms in row n −1 is 2
**

n−1

, the sum of

terms in row n is 2

n

Pascal’s Triangle Row Sum

Collect the terms that appear twice

n

0

+

n −1

0

+2

n −1

1

+· · ·+2

n −1

n −2

+

n −1

n −1

+

n

n

**Recognize that the ﬁrst two and last two terms are equal to 1
**

and so can be replaced as

2

n −1

0

+ 2

n −1

1

+· · · + 2

n −1

n −2

+ 2

n −1

n −1

**Therefore, if the sum of terms in row n −1 is 2
**

n−1

, the sum of

terms in row n is 2

n

Pascal’s Triangle Row Sum

Collect the terms that appear twice

n

0

+

n −1

0

+2

n −1

1

+· · ·+2

n −1

n −2

+

n −1

n −1

+

n

n

**Recognize that the ﬁrst two and last two terms are equal to 1
**

and so can be replaced as

2

n −1

0

+ 2

n −1

1

+· · · + 2

n −1

n −2

+ 2

n −1

n −1

**Therefore, if the sum of terms in row n −1 is 2
**

n−1

, the sum of

terms in row n is 2

n

Pascal’s Triangle Row Sum

Collect the terms that appear twice

n

0

+

n −1

0

+2

n −1

1

+· · ·+2

n −1

n −2

+

n −1

n −1

+

n

n

**Recognize that the ﬁrst two and last two terms are equal to 1
**

and so can be replaced as

2

n −1

0

+ 2

n −1

1

+· · · + 2

n −1

n −2

+ 2

n −1

n −1

**Therefore, if the sum of terms in row n −1 is 2
**

n−1

, the sum of

terms in row n is 2

n

Epigraph

φ is an H of a lot cooler than π.

Stettner, in Dan Brown’s “The Da Vinci Code”

Cassini’s Identity

Theorem (Cassini’s Identity)

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Interpret Cassini’s identity as stating the area of a rectangle

with sides F

n−1

and F

n+1

is plus or minus one the area of a

square with sides F

n

Arithmetically, multiply every other Fibonacci number and

subtract the square of the number in the middle

The result alternates between −1 and +1

Cassini’s Identity

Theorem (Cassini’s Identity)

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Interpret Cassini’s identity as stating the area of a rectangle

with sides F

n−1

and F

n+1

is plus or minus one the area of a

square with sides F

n

Arithmetically, multiply every other Fibonacci number and

subtract the square of the number in the middle

The result alternates between −1 and +1

Cassini’s Identity

Theorem (Cassini’s Identity)

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Interpret Cassini’s identity as stating the area of a rectangle

with sides F

n−1

and F

n+1

is plus or minus one the area of a

square with sides F

n

Arithmetically, multiply every other Fibonacci number and

subtract the square of the number in the middle

The result alternates between −1 and +1

Cassini’s Identity

Theorem (Cassini’s Identity)

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Interpret Cassini’s identity as stating the area of a rectangle

with sides F

n−1

and F

n+1

is plus or minus one the area of a

square with sides F

n

Arithmetically, multiply every other Fibonacci number and

subtract the square of the number in the middle

The result alternates between −1 and +1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Cassini’s Identity

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . .

F

n

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 . . .

0 · 1 −1

2

= −1

2 · 1 −1

2

= 1

3 · 1 −2

2

= −1

5 · 2 −3

2

= 1

8 · 3 −5

2

= −1

Lewis Carroll’s Favorite Trick

Cassini’s identity is the basis of an absurdity attributed Lewis

Carroll

Cut the 8 ×8 square along the lines indicated below and

arrange the pieces into a 5 ×13 rectangle to conclude that

64 = 65.

Lewis Carroll’s Favorite Trick

Cassini’s identity is the basis of an absurdity attributed Lewis

Carroll

Cut the 8 ×8 square along the lines indicated below and

arrange the pieces into a 5 ×13 rectangle to conclude that

64 = 65.

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Replace F

n−1

by F

n+1

−F

n

in the left-hand side of Cassini’s

proposed identity to obtain

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= F

n+1

(F

n+1

−F

n

) −F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n+1

F

n

−F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

(F

n+1

+ F

n

)

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

F

n+2

= −(F

n

F

n+2

−F

2

n+1

)

= −(F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

)

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Replace F

n−1

by F

n+1

−F

n

in the left-hand side of Cassini’s

proposed identity to obtain

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= F

n+1

(F

n+1

−F

n

) −F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n+1

F

n

−F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

(F

n+1

+ F

n

)

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

F

n+2

= −(F

n

F

n+2

−F

2

n+1

)

= −(F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

)

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Replace F

n−1

by F

n+1

−F

n

in the left-hand side of Cassini’s

proposed identity to obtain

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= F

n+1

(F

n+1

−F

n

) −F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n+1

F

n

−F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

(F

n+1

+ F

n

)

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

F

n+2

= −(F

n

F

n+2

−F

2

n+1

)

= −(F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

)

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Replace F

n−1

by F

n+1

−F

n

in the left-hand side of Cassini’s

proposed identity to obtain

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= F

n+1

(F

n+1

−F

n

) −F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n+1

F

n

−F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

(F

n+1

+ F

n

)

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

F

n+2

= −(F

n

F

n+2

−F

2

n+1

)

= −(F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

)

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Replace F

n−1

by F

n+1

−F

n

in the left-hand side of Cassini’s

proposed identity to obtain

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= F

n+1

(F

n+1

−F

n

) −F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n+1

F

n

−F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

(F

n+1

+ F

n

)

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

F

n+2

= −(F

n

F

n+2

−F

2

n+1

)

= −(F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

)

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Replace F

n−1

by F

n+1

−F

n

in the left-hand side of Cassini’s

proposed identity to obtain

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= F

n+1

(F

n+1

−F

n

) −F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n+1

F

n

−F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

(F

n+1

+ F

n

)

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

F

n+2

= −(F

n

F

n+2

−F

2

n+1

)

= −(F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

)

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Replace F

n−1

by F

n+1

−F

n

in the left-hand side of Cassini’s

proposed identity to obtain

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= F

n+1

(F

n+1

−F

n

) −F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n+1

F

n

−F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

(F

n+1

+ F

n

)

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

F

n+2

= −(F

n

F

n+2

−F

2

n+1

)

= −(F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

)

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Replace F

n−1

by F

n+1

−F

n

in the left-hand side of Cassini’s

proposed identity to obtain

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= F

n+1

(F

n+1

−F

n

) −F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n+1

F

n

−F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

(F

n+1

+ F

n

)

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

F

n+2

= −(F

n

F

n+2

−F

2

n+1

)

= −(F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

)

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Replace F

n−1

by F

n+1

−F

n

in the left-hand side of Cassini’s

proposed identity to obtain

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= F

n+1

(F

n+1

−F

n

) −F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n+1

F

n

−F

2

n

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

(F

n+1

+ F

n

)

= F

2

n+1

−F

n

F

n+2

= −(F

n

F

n+2

−F

2

n+1

)

= −(F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

)

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Thus if

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

Then

F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

= (−1)

n+1

Since F

2

F

0

−F

1

= 1 · 0 −1 = (−1)

1

, the basis for induction is

true, so Cassini’s identity holds for all n.

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Thus if

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

Then

F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

= (−1)

n+1

Since F

2

F

0

−F

1

= 1 · 0 −1 = (−1)

1

, the basis for induction is

true, so Cassini’s identity holds for all n.

Inductive Proof of Cassini’s Identity

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

, for n > 0

Thus if

F

n+1

F

n−1

−F

2

n

= (−1)

n

Then

F

n+2

F

n

−F

2

n+1

= (−1)

n+1

Since F

2

F

0

−F

1

= 1 · 0 −1 = (−1)

1

, the basis for induction is

true, so Cassini’s identity holds for all n.

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

The fundamental theorem of arithmetic states that every

positive integer greater than 1 can be written as a (unique)

product of primes

As a basis 2 is prime, hence a product of primes

Pretend that for some n ≥ 2, every integer k = 2, 3, . . . , n

can be written as the product of primes

Consider n + 1

If n + 1 is prime, then it is the product of primes

If n + 1 is composite, then n + 1 = ab where 1 < a < n + 1

and 1 < b < n + 1

Therefore, by the inductive assumption, a and b are the

product of primes, and so n + 1 is the product of primes

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

The fundamental theorem of arithmetic states that every

positive integer greater than 1 can be written as a (unique)

product of primes

As a basis 2 is prime, hence a product of primes

Pretend that for some n ≥ 2, every integer k = 2, 3, . . . , n

can be written as the product of primes

Consider n + 1

If n + 1 is prime, then it is the product of primes

If n + 1 is composite, then n + 1 = ab where 1 < a < n + 1

and 1 < b < n + 1

Therefore, by the inductive assumption, a and b are the

product of primes, and so n + 1 is the product of primes

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

The fundamental theorem of arithmetic states that every

positive integer greater than 1 can be written as a (unique)

product of primes

As a basis 2 is prime, hence a product of primes

Pretend that for some n ≥ 2, every integer k = 2, 3, . . . , n

can be written as the product of primes

Consider n + 1

If n + 1 is prime, then it is the product of primes

If n + 1 is composite, then n + 1 = ab where 1 < a < n + 1

and 1 < b < n + 1

Therefore, by the inductive assumption, a and b are the

product of primes, and so n + 1 is the product of primes

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

The fundamental theorem of arithmetic states that every

positive integer greater than 1 can be written as a (unique)

product of primes

As a basis 2 is prime, hence a product of primes

Pretend that for some n ≥ 2, every integer k = 2, 3, . . . , n

can be written as the product of primes

Consider n + 1

If n + 1 is prime, then it is the product of primes

If n + 1 is composite, then n + 1 = ab where 1 < a < n + 1

and 1 < b < n + 1

Therefore, by the inductive assumption, a and b are the

product of primes, and so n + 1 is the product of primes

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

The fundamental theorem of arithmetic states that every

positive integer greater than 1 can be written as a (unique)

product of primes

As a basis 2 is prime, hence a product of primes

Pretend that for some n ≥ 2, every integer k = 2, 3, . . . , n

can be written as the product of primes

Consider n + 1

If n + 1 is prime, then it is the product of primes

If n + 1 is composite, then n + 1 = ab where 1 < a < n + 1

and 1 < b < n + 1

Therefore, by the inductive assumption, a and b are the

product of primes, and so n + 1 is the product of primes

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

The fundamental theorem of arithmetic states that every

positive integer greater than 1 can be written as a (unique)

product of primes

As a basis 2 is prime, hence a product of primes

Pretend that for some n ≥ 2, every integer k = 2, 3, . . . , n

can be written as the product of primes

Consider n + 1

If n + 1 is prime, then it is the product of primes

If n + 1 is composite, then n + 1 = ab where 1 < a < n + 1

and 1 < b < n + 1

Therefore, by the inductive assumption, a and b are the

product of primes, and so n + 1 is the product of primes

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

The fundamental theorem of arithmetic states that every

positive integer greater than 1 can be written as a (unique)

product of primes

As a basis 2 is prime, hence a product of primes

Pretend that for some n ≥ 2, every integer k = 2, 3, . . . , n

can be written as the product of primes

Consider n + 1

If n + 1 is prime, then it is the product of primes

If n + 1 is composite, then n + 1 = ab where 1 < a < n + 1

and 1 < b < n + 1

Therefore, by the inductive assumption, a and b are the

product of primes, and so n + 1 is the product of primes

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Deﬁne the falling factorial power n

m

by

n

m

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)

The following identity is true

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

m =

n−1

¸

k=0

k(k −1) · · · (k −m + 2) = n

m

As a basis for induction, when n = 0 the left-hand side equals

the right-hand side

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Deﬁne the falling factorial power n

m

by

n

m

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)

The following identity is true

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

m =

n−1

¸

k=0

k(k −1) · · · (k −m + 2) = n

m

As a basis for induction, when n = 0 the left-hand side equals

the right-hand side

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Deﬁne the falling factorial power n

m

by

n

m

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)

The following identity is true

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

m =

n−1

¸

k=0

k(k −1) · · · (k −m + 2) = n

m

As a basis for induction, when n = 0 the left-hand side equals

the right-hand side

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Pretend

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

m

n

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

+ mn

m−1

= n

m

+ mn

m−1

= [n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)] + [m(n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2))]

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)[(n −m + 1) + m]

= (n + 1)n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)

= (n + 1)

m

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Pretend

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

m

n

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

+ mn

m−1

= n

m

+ mn

m−1

= [n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)] + [m(n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2))]

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)[(n −m + 1) + m]

= (n + 1)n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)

= (n + 1)

m

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Pretend

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

m

n

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

+ mn

m−1

= n

m

+ mn

m−1

= [n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)] + [m(n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2))]

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)[(n −m + 1) + m]

= (n + 1)n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)

= (n + 1)

m

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Pretend

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

m

n

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

+ mn

m−1

= n

m

+ mn

m−1

= [n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)] + [m(n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2))]

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)[(n −m + 1) + m]

= (n + 1)n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)

= (n + 1)

m

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Pretend

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

m

n

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

+ mn

m−1

= n

m

+ mn

m−1

= [n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)] + [m(n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2))]

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)[(n −m + 1) + m]

= (n + 1)n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)

= (n + 1)

m

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Pretend

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

m

n

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

+ mn

m−1

= n

m

+ mn

m−1

= [n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)] + [m(n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2))]

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)[(n −m + 1) + m]

= (n + 1)n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)

= (n + 1)

m

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Pretend

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

m

n

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

+ mn

m−1

= n

m

+ mn

m−1

= [n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)] + [m(n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2))]

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)[(n −m + 1) + m]

= (n + 1)n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)

= (n + 1)

m

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Pretend

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

m

n

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

+ mn

m−1

= n

m

+ mn

m−1

= [n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)] + [m(n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2))]

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)[(n −m + 1) + m]

= (n + 1)n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)

= (n + 1)

m

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Pretend

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

m

n

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

+ mn

m−1

= n

m

+ mn

m−1

= [n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)] + [m(n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2))]

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)[(n −m + 1) + m]

= (n + 1)n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)

= (n + 1)

m

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

Pretend

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

is true for some n ≥ 0

Then

m

n

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

+ mn

m−1

= n

m

+ mn

m−1

= [n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 1)] + [m(n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2))]

= n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)[(n −m + 1) + m]

= (n + 1)n(n −1) · · · (n −m + 2)

= (n + 1)

m

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

The fundamental theorem of the sum and diﬀerence calculus is

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

Notice the analogy with the fundamental theorem of calculus

m

x

m−1

dx = x

m

The Fundamental Theorem of the Sum and Diﬀerence

Calculus

The fundamental theorem of the sum and diﬀerence calculus is

m

n−1

¸

k=0

k

m−1

= n

m

Notice the analogy with the fundamental theorem of calculus

m

x

m−1

dx = x

m

Exponential Beat Powers

The exponent 2

n

grows faster than the polynomial n

2

Prove n

2

≤ 2

n

for all n > 3

For n = 4 we have 4

2

= 162

4

Pretend n

2

≤ 2

n

for some n ≥ 4

Notice that

(n + 1)

2

≤ 2n

2

, when n > 3

since

0 ≤ 2n

2

−(n + 1)

2

= n

2

−2n −1 = (n −1)

2

−2

Therefore

(n + 1)

2

= 2n

2

≤ 2 · 2

n

= 2

n+1

Exponential Beat Powers

The exponent 2

n

grows faster than the polynomial n

2

Prove n

2

≤ 2

n

for all n > 3

For n = 4 we have 4

2

= 162

4

Pretend n

2

≤ 2

n

for some n ≥ 4

Notice that

(n + 1)

2

≤ 2n

2

, when n > 3

since

0 ≤ 2n

2

−(n + 1)

2

= n

2

−2n −1 = (n −1)

2

−2

Therefore

(n + 1)

2

= 2n

2

≤ 2 · 2

n

= 2

n+1

Exponential Beat Powers

The exponent 2

n

grows faster than the polynomial n

2

Prove n

2

≤ 2

n

for all n > 3

For n = 4 we have 4

2

= 162

4

Pretend n

2

≤ 2

n

for some n ≥ 4

Notice that

(n + 1)

2

≤ 2n

2

, when n > 3

since

0 ≤ 2n

2

−(n + 1)

2

= n

2

−2n −1 = (n −1)

2

−2

Therefore

(n + 1)

2

= 2n

2

≤ 2 · 2

n

= 2

n+1

Exponential Beat Powers

The exponent 2

n

grows faster than the polynomial n

2

Prove n

2

≤ 2

n

for all n > 3

For n = 4 we have 4

2

= 162

4

Pretend n

2

≤ 2

n

for some n ≥ 4

Notice that

(n + 1)

2

≤ 2n

2

, when n > 3

since

0 ≤ 2n

2

−(n + 1)

2

= n

2

−2n −1 = (n −1)

2

−2

Therefore

(n + 1)

2

= 2n

2

≤ 2 · 2

n

= 2

n+1

Exponential Beat Powers

The exponent 2

n

grows faster than the polynomial n

2

Prove n

2

≤ 2

n

for all n > 3

For n = 4 we have 4

2

= 162

4

Pretend n

2

≤ 2

n

for some n ≥ 4

Notice that

(n + 1)

2

≤ 2n

2

, when n > 3

since

0 ≤ 2n

2

−(n + 1)

2

= n

2

−2n −1 = (n −1)

2

−2

Therefore

(n + 1)

2

= 2n

2

≤ 2 · 2

n

= 2

n+1

Exponential Beat Powers

The exponent 2

n

grows faster than the polynomial n

2

Prove n

2

≤ 2

n

for all n > 3

For n = 4 we have 4

2

= 162

4

Pretend n

2

≤ 2

n

for some n ≥ 4

Notice that

(n + 1)

2

≤ 2n

2

, when n > 3

since

0 ≤ 2n

2

−(n + 1)

2

= n

2

−2n −1 = (n −1)

2

−2

Therefore

(n + 1)

2

= 2n

2

≤ 2 · 2

n

= 2

n+1

Exponential Beat Powers

The exponent 2

n

grows faster than the polynomial n

2

Prove n

2

≤ 2

n

for all n > 3

For n = 4 we have 4

2

= 162

4

Pretend n

2

≤ 2

n

for some n ≥ 4

Notice that

(n + 1)

2

≤ 2n

2

, when n > 3

since

0 ≤ 2n

2

−(n + 1)

2

= n

2

−2n −1 = (n −1)

2

−2

Therefore

(n + 1)

2

= 2n

2

≤ 2 · 2

n

= 2

n+1

Exponential Beat Powers

The exponent 2

n

grows faster than the polynomial n

2

Prove n

2

≤ 2

n

for all n > 3

For n = 4 we have 4

2

= 162

4

Pretend n

2

≤ 2

n

for some n ≥ 4

Notice that

(n + 1)

2

≤ 2n

2

, when n > 3

since

0 ≤ 2n

2

−(n + 1)

2

= n

2

−2n −1 = (n −1)

2

−2

Therefore

(n + 1)

2

= 2n

2

≤ 2 · 2

n

= 2

n+1

Exponential Beat Powers

The exponent 2

n

grows faster than the polynomial n

2

Prove n

2

≤ 2

n

for all n > 3

For n = 4 we have 4

2

= 162

4

Pretend n

2

≤ 2

n

for some n ≥ 4

Notice that

(n + 1)

2

≤ 2n

2

, when n > 3

since

0 ≤ 2n

2

−(n + 1)

2

= n

2

−2n −1 = (n −1)

2

−2

Therefore

(n + 1)

2

= 2n

2

≤ 2 · 2

n

= 2

n+1

Exponential Beat Powers

The exponent 2

n

grows faster than the polynomial n

2

Prove n

2

≤ 2

n

for all n > 3

For n = 4 we have 4

2

= 162

4

Pretend n

2

≤ 2

n

for some n ≥ 4

Notice that

(n + 1)

2

≤ 2n

2

, when n > 3

since

0 ≤ 2n

2

−(n + 1)

2

= n

2

−2n −1 = (n −1)

2

−2

Therefore

(n + 1)

2

= 2n

2

≤ 2 · 2

n

= 2

n+1

Exponential Beat Powers

The exponent 2

n

grows faster than the polynomial n

2

Prove n

2

≤ 2

n

for all n > 3

For n = 4 we have 4

2

= 162

4

Pretend n

2

≤ 2

n

for some n ≥ 4

Notice that

(n + 1)

2

≤ 2n

2

, when n > 3

since

0 ≤ 2n

2

−(n + 1)

2

= n

2

−2n −1 = (n −1)

2

−2

Therefore

(n + 1)

2

= 2n

2

≤ 2 · 2

n

= 2

n+1

Induction Over Products

Deﬁne the product notation

¸

a

k

by

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

a

1

· · · a

n−1

Prove by induction that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

For a basis, let n = 2, and ﬁnd

2

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

= 1 −

1

2

2

=

2 + 1

2 · 2

Induction Over Products

Deﬁne the product notation

¸

a

k

by

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

a

1

· · · a

n−1

Prove by induction that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

For a basis, let n = 2, and ﬁnd

2

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

= 1 −

1

2

2

=

2 + 1

2 · 2

Induction Over Products

Deﬁne the product notation

¸

a

k

by

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

= a

0

a

1

· · · a

n−1

Prove by induction that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

For a basis, let n = 2, and ﬁnd

2

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

= 1 −

1

2

2

=

2 + 1

2 · 2

Induction Over Products

Pretend that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

for some n ≥ 2

Then notice that

n+1

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

¸

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

¸

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

¸

n + 1

2n

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

1

2n

(n + 1)

2

−

1

(n + 1)

=

1

2n

n

2

+ 2n

(n + 1)

=

n + 2

2(n + 1)

Induction Over Products

Pretend that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

for some n ≥ 2

Then notice that

n+1

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

¸

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

¸

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

¸

n + 1

2n

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

1

2n

(n + 1)

2

−

1

(n + 1)

=

1

2n

n

2

+ 2n

(n + 1)

=

n + 2

2(n + 1)

Induction Over Products

Pretend that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

for some n ≥ 2

Then notice that

n+1

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

¸

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

¸

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

¸

n + 1

2n

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

1

2n

(n + 1)

2

−

1

(n + 1)

=

1

2n

n

2

+ 2n

(n + 1)

=

n + 2

2(n + 1)

Induction Over Products

Pretend that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

for some n ≥ 2

Then notice that

n+1

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

¸

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

¸

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

¸

n + 1

2n

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

1

2n

(n + 1)

2

−

1

(n + 1)

=

1

2n

n

2

+ 2n

(n + 1)

=

n + 2

2(n + 1)

Induction Over Products

Pretend that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

for some n ≥ 2

Then notice that

n+1

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

¸

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

¸

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

¸

n + 1

2n

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

1

2n

(n + 1)

2

−

1

(n + 1)

=

1

2n

n

2

+ 2n

(n + 1)

=

n + 2

2(n + 1)

Induction Over Products

Pretend that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

for some n ≥ 2

Then notice that

n+1

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

¸

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

¸

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

¸

n + 1

2n

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

1

2n

(n + 1)

2

−

1

(n + 1)

=

1

2n

n

2

+ 2n

(n + 1)

=

n + 2

2(n + 1)

Induction Over Products

Pretend that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

for some n ≥ 2

Then notice that

n+1

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

¸

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

¸

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

¸

n + 1

2n

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

1

2n

(n + 1)

2

−

1

(n + 1)

=

1

2n

n

2

+ 2n

(n + 1)

=

n + 2

2(n + 1)

Induction Over Products

Pretend that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

for some n ≥ 2

Then notice that

n+1

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

¸

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

¸

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

¸

n + 1

2n

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

1

2n

(n + 1)

2

−

1

(n + 1)

=

1

2n

n

2

+ 2n

(n + 1)

=

n + 2

2(n + 1)

Induction Over Products

Pretend that

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

n + 1

2n

for n ≥ 2

for some n ≥ 2

Then notice that

n+1

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

=

¸

n

¸

k=2

1 −

1

k

2

¸

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

¸

n + 1

2n

1 −

1

(n + 1)

2

=

1

2n

(n + 1)

2

−

1

(n + 1)

=

1

2n

n

2

+ 2n

(n + 1)

=

n + 2

2(n + 1)