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1
Building a New
Code
Overview of Presentation
ACI Committee 318
A brief history of ACI 318 building code
Why reorganize?
How 318-14 is organized
Benefits
Available resources and process timetable
Some substantive technical changes
2
8/9/2013
2
ACI 318-14 Reorganization Process
3
ACI Committee 318
Materials engineers
Structural engineers
Contractors
Building officials
Researchers
4
8/9/2013
3
www.concrete.org/ACI318 #ConcreteCode
5
ACI Committee 318
International Scope
Members of ACI Committee 318 represent the
interests of and reside in the following countries:
Argentina
Brazil
Canada
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
El Salvador
Guatemala
Mexico
Panama
Peru
Taiwan
United States
Venezuela
6
Countries adopting ACI 318
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4
History 1904
Wilbur Wright makes first flight
Puccini's "Madama Butterfly" premieres in Milan
Federation Internationale de Football Association
forms in Paris
Meat Massacre in Santiago
Construction begins on Panama Canal
ACI founded as National Association of Cement
Users
7
1
st
Reinf. Conc. Code
February 1910
14 Pages
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Goal: Life Safety
History
Structural provisions of ACI 318 based on
pseudo-working stress through 1956
Ultimate Strength approach firmly
established in 1971 edition.
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www.concrete.org/ACI318 #ConcreteCode
Significant Changes from 1971 to 2011 :
Development lengths
Torsional strength
Integrity reinforcement
Seismic design and detailing
Load & strength reduction factors
Unified design provisions
Concrete exposure classes
Anchoring to concrete
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History
www.concrete.org/ACI318 #ConcreteCode
1971 Code had 750
provisions
Ten Code editions
published since 1971
2011Code has more
than 2,500 provisions
ACI 318-11 compared to ACI 318-71
12
History
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7
ACI 318-11
CHAPTER1GENERALREQUIREMENTS
CHAPTER2NOTATIONANDDEFINITIONS
CHAPTER3MATERIALS
CHAPTER4DURABILITYREQUIREMENTS
CHAPTER5CONCRETEQUALITY,MIXING,ANDPLACING
CHAPTER6FORMWORK,EMBEDDEDPIPES,CONSTRUCTIONJOINTS
CHAPTER7DETAILSOFREINFORCEMENT
CHAPTER8ANALYSISANDDESIGNGENERALCONSIDERATIONS
CHAPTER9STRENGTHANDSERVICEABILITYREQUIREMENTS
CHAPTER10FLEXUREANDAXIALLOADS
CHAPTER11SHEARANDTORSION
CHAPTER12DEVELOPMENTANDSPLICESOFREINFORCEMENT
CHAPTER13TWOWAYSLABSYSTEMS
CHAPTER14WALLS
CHAPTER15FOOTINGS
CHAPTER16PRECASTCONCRETE
CHAPTER17COMPOSITECONCRETEFLEXURALMEMBERS
CHAPTER18PRESTRESSEDCONCRETE
CHAPTER19SHELLSANDFOLDEDPLATEMEMBERS
CHAPTER20STRENGTHEVALUATIONOFEXISTINGSTRUCTURES
CHAPTER21EARTHQUAKERESISTANTSTRUCTURES
FlexuralandAxialStrength,
ShearStrength,
StrengthReduction
Factors,,
LapSplice,
Cover,
Ties,
TiesinJoint,
Slope,
Chapter10
Chapter11
Chapter9
12.1512.17
7.8.1.1
11.10.2
7.7
7.10.5
14
11 ACI 318-
Organization
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ACI 318-11 organization cross referencing
18.1.2 All provisions of this Code not specifically
excluded, and not in conflict with provisions of
Chapter 18, shall apply to prestressed concrete.
18.1.3 The following provisions of this Code shall
not apply to prestressed concrete, except as
specifically noted: Sections 6.4.4, 7.6.5, 8.12.2,
8.12.3, 8.12.4, 8.13, 10.5, 10.6, 10.9.1, and 10.9.2;
Chapter 13; and Sections 14.3, 14.5, and 14.6,
except that certain sections of 10.6 apply as
noted in 18.4.4.
15
Need to find a tool?
16
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9
Need to find a tool?
17
ACI 318-14 Reorganization Process
ACI continuously hears comments about ACI 318 in
seminars, letters, etc.
In 2003: committee members began discussion
In 2006: surveyed users
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10
ESurveyResults
OrganizationalItems:
Engineerswantallrelatedinformation
foramembersdesignanddetailing
easilylocated
Engineerswantthecodetobe
configuredparalleltohowtheydesign
members
ACI 318-14 Reorganization Process
ACI continuously hears comments about ACI 318 in
seminars, letters, etc.
In 2003: committee members began discussion
In 2006: surveyed users
20
: focus groups with practicing engineers
In 2007: a two day workshop
: an outline was developed
In 2008: committee approved effort
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11
The beginning of a marathon
The end of a marathon
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12
Major goals of reorganizing 318
Find and understand the information you need
quickly
Increase certainty that a design fully meets the
Code
23
Conceptual design of the code
Organized by what you are designing
a structural system
a slab or beam
a column
a wall
a diaphragm
etc.
Plus some additional topics required to
design and construct a building
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The structural system and its loads (Ch. 4)
25
Seismic systems
(Ch. 18)
Slabs (Ch. 7, 8)
Walls (Ch. 11)
Columns (Ch. 10)
Foundations (Ch. 13)
Loads (Ch. 5)
Analysis (Ch. 6)
Diaphragms (Ch. 12)
Beams (Ch. 9)
Part Chapter
1.General 1.General
2.NotationandTerminology
3.ReferencedStandards
4.StructuralSystems
2.Analysis 5.LoadsandLoadCombinations
6.StructuralAnalysis
3.Memberdesign 7.OneWaySlabs
8.TwoWaySlabs
9.Beams(includingDeepBeams)
10.Columns
11.Walls
12.Diaphragms&Collectors
13.Foundations
14.PlainConcreteMembers
4.Joints,Connections,and
AnchoringtoConcrete
15.BeamColumnandSlabColumnJoints
16.ConnectionsBetweenMembers
17.AnchoringtoConcrete
5.SeismicDesign 18.EarthquakeResistantStructures
6.MaterialsandDurability 19.ConcretePropertiesandDurability
20.SteelReinforcementPropertiesandDurability
7.StrengthandServiceability 21.StrengthReductionFactors
22.SectionalStrength
23.StrutandTieMethod
24.Serviceability
8.GeneralReinforcementDetails 25.ReinforcementDevelopment,Splices,andDetails
9.Construction 26.ConstructionDocumentsandInspectionRequirements
10.ExistingStructuresEvaluation 27.StrengthEvaluationofExistingStructures
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14
ACI 318-14 chapter organization
Example: Chapter 10 Columns
10.1 Scope
10.2 General
10.3 Design Limits
10.4 Required Strength
10.5 Design Strength
10.6 Reinforcement Limits
10.7 Reinforcement Detailing
27
14 11
StrengthReduction
Factors,,
9.5.2
9.5.3
9.7.5
9.7.4
9.2.2
9.7.1
9.7.6.1
9.5.1
FlexuralandAxialStrength,
ShearStrength,
LapSplice,
Cover,
TiesinJoint,
Slope,
Chapter10
Chapter11
Chapter9
12.1512.17
7.8.1.1
11.10.2
7.7
7.10.5
28
Ties,
ACI 318-
Organization
8/9/2013
15
14
StrengthReduction
Factors,,
10.5.2
10.5.3
10.7.5
10.7.4
10.2.2
10.7.1
10.7.6.1
10.5.1
FlexuralandAxialStrength,
ShearStrength,
LapSplice,
Cover,
TiesinJoint,
Slope,
29
Ties,
ACI 318-
Organization
Part Chapter
1.General 1.General
2.NotationandTerminology
3.ReferencedStandards
4.StructuralSystems
2.Analysis 5.LoadsandLoadCombinations
6.StructuralAnalysis
3.Memberdesign 7.OneWaySlabs
8.TwoWaySlabs
9.Beams(includingDeepBeams)
10.Columns
11.Walls
12.Diaphragms&Collectors
13.Foundations
14.PlainConcreteMembers
4.Joints,Connections,and
AnchoringtoConcrete
15.BeamColumnandSlabColumnJoints
16.ConnectionsBetweenMembers
17.AnchoringtoConcrete
5.SeismicDesign 18.EarthquakeResistantStructures
6.MaterialsandDurability 19.ConcretePropertiesandDurability
20.SteelReinforcementPropertiesandDurability
7.StrengthandServiceability 21.StrengthReductionFactors
22.SectionalStrength
23.StrutandTieMethod
24.Serviceability
8.GeneralReinforcementDetails 25.ReinforcementDevelopment,Splices,andDetails
9.Construction 26.ConstructionDocumentsandInspectionRequirements
10.ExistingStructuresEvaluation 27.StrengthEvaluationofExistingStructures
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ACI 318-14 Organization
Column Chapter
10.5 Design strength
10.5.1.1 Design strength shall
satisfy (a) to (c)
(a) P
n
P
u
(b) H
n
H
u
(c) I
n
I
u
10.5.2.1 P
n
and H
n
shall be
calculated in accordance with
22.4.
10.5.3.1 I
n
shall be calculated
in accordance with 22.5.
Sectional Strength Chapter
22.4 Axial strength or combined
moment and axial strength
22.5 One-way shear strength
31
ACI 318-11 Organization
21.9.9 Construction joints
All construction joints in structural walls shall conform to 6.4
and contact surfaces shall be roughened as in 11.6.9.
6.4.3 Construction joints shall be so made and located
as not to impair the strength of the structure. Provision shall
be made for transfer of shear and other forces through
construction joints. See 11.6.9.
11.6.9 When concrete is placed against previously
hardened concrete, the interface for shear transfer shall be
clean and free of laitance. If is assumed equal to 1.0,
interface shall be roughened to a full amplitude of
approximately 1/4 in.
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ACI 318-14 Organization
23.4.7 Joints in concrete
23.4.7.1 Design information:
(a) Locations and details of construction, isolation and
contraction joints if required by the design
(b) Provisions required for transfer of shear and other forces
through construction joints.
23.4.7.2 Compliance requirements:
(a) Joint locations or joint details that differ from those
indicated in construction documents shall be submitted for
approval by the licensed design professional to ensure they
do not impair the strength of the structure.
.
In 318-11:
7.6.7.1Center-to-center spacing of pretensioning
tendons at each end of a member shall be not less
than 4d
b
for strands, or 5d
b
for wire, except that if
specified compressive strength of concrete at time of
initial prestress, f
ci
, is 4000 psi or more, minimum
center-to-center spacing of strands shall be 1-3/4 in.
for strands of 1/2 in. nominal diameter or smaller and 2
in. for strands of 0.6 in. nominal diameter. See also
3.3.2.
ACI 318-14 Style
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ACI 318-14 Style
Same requirements in a table
35
Table 25.2.4 Minimum center-to-center spacing
of pretensioned strands at ends of members
f
ci
, psi
Nominal
strand
diameter
in.
Minimum s
< 4000 All 4d
b
(a)
4000
0.5 in. 1-3/4 in. (b)
0.6 in. 2 in. (c)
Chapter 10 - Columns
10.1 Scope
10.1.1 Provisions of this chapter shall apply
to the design of nonprestressed, prestressed,
and composite columns. The provisions shall
also apply to the design of reinforced concrete
pedestals: <10.1>
10.1.2 The provisions of Chapter 14 shall
apply for the design of plain concrete pedestals.
<22.2.1>
SourceofthisprovisioninACI31811
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Chapter 10 - Columns
10.2 General
10.2.1 Materials
10.2.1.1 Design properties for concrete
shall conform to Chapter 19.
10.2.1.2 Design properties for steel
reinforcement and structural steel used in
composite columns shall conform to
Chapter 20.
10.2.2 Composite columns
.
10.2.3 Connection to other members
10.2.3.1 For cast-in-place construction,
beam-column and slab-column joints shall
satisfy the requirements of 15.2.
10.2.3.2 For precast construction,
connections shall satisfy the force transfer
requirements of 16.3.
10.2.3.3 Connections of columns to
foundations shall satisfy the requirements
of 16.4.
Chapter 10 - Columns
10.3 Design limits
10.3.1 Dimensional limits
.
10.3.1.3 For columns built monolithically
with a concrete wall, the outer limits of the
effective cross section of the column shall not
be taken greater than 1.5 in. outside the
transverse reinforcement.
10.3.1.4 For columns with two or more
interlocking spirals, outer limits of the
effective cross section shall be taken at a
distance outside the spirals equal to the
minimum required concrete cover.
.
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Chapter 10 - Columns
10.4 Required strength
10.4.1 General
10.4.1.1 Required strength shall be
calculated in accordance with the factored load
combinations defined in Chapter 5 and analysis
procedures defined in Chapter 6.
10.4.2 Factored axial force and moment
10.4.2.1 P
u
and M
u
occurring
simultaneously for each applicable factored
load combination shall be considered.
Chapter 10 - Columns
10.5 Design strength
10.5.1 General
10.5.1.1 Design strength at all sections
along the column shall satisfy S
n
U,
including (a) to (c), for each applicable
factored load combination. Interaction
between axial force and moment, as well as
interactions between other load effects,
shall be considered.
(a) P
n
P
u
(b) M
n
M
u
(c) V
n
V
u
10.5.1.2 shall be determined in
accordance with 21.2
10.5.2 Axial force and moment
10.5.2.1 P
n
and M
n
shall be calculated in
accordance with 22.4.
10.5.2.2 For composite columns, forces
shall be transferred between the steel section
and concrete by direct bearing, shear
connectors, or bond in accordance to the axial
strength assigned to each component.
10.5.3 Shear
10.5.3.1 V
n
shall be calculated in accordance
with 22.5.
10.5.4 Torsion
10.5.4.1 If.
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Chapter 10 - Columns
10.6 Reinforcement Limits
10.6.1 Minimum and maximum
longitudinal reinforcement
10.6.1.1 For noncomposite columns with
average f
pe
< 225 psi, area of longitudinal
reinforcement shall not be less than 0.01A
g
or more than 0.08 A
g
.
10.6.1.2 For composite columns with a
structural steel core, area of longitudinal
bars located within the transverse
reinforcement shall not be less than 0.01(A
g
A
sx
) or more than 0.08(A
g
A
sx
).
'
0.75
w
c
yt
b s
f
f
50
w
yt
b s
f
10.6.2.2 If shear reinforcement is required,
A
v,min
shall be the greater of (a) and (b).
(a)
(b)
10.6.2 Minimum shear reinforcement
10.6.2.1 A minimum area of shear
reinforcement, A
v,min
, shall be provided in all
regions where .
Chapter 10 - Columns
10.7 Reinforcement detailing
10.7.1 General
10.7.1.1 Concrete cover for reinforcement
shall be in accordance with 20.8.1.
10.7.1.2 Development lengths of
deformed and prestressed reinforcement
shall be calculated in accordance with 25.4.
10.7.1.3 Bundled bars shall be detailed in
accordance with 25.6.
10.7.2 Reinforcement spacing
10.7.2.1 Minimum spacing s shall be in
accordance with 25.2.
10.7.3 Longitudinal reinforcement
10.7.3.1 For columns with average f
pe
<
225 psi, the minimum number of longitudinal
bars shall satisfy (a), (b), or (c):
(a) 3 within triangular ties;
(b) 4 within rectangular or circular ties;
(c) 6 enclosed by spirals or for columns
of special moment frames enclosed by
circular hoops.
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Chapter 10 - Columns
10.7.4 Offset bent longitudinal
reinforcement
.
10.7.5 Splices of longitudinal
reinforcement
.
10.7.6 Transverse Reinforcement
.
V
s
Maximums,in.
Nonprestressed
Column
Prestressed
Column
Lesserof:
24
Lesserof:
12
'
4
c w
f b d
2
d 3
4
h
'
4
c w
f b d
4
d 3
8
h
10.7.6.5 Shear
10.7.6.5.1 If required, shear reinforcement
shall be provided using ties, hoops, or
spirals.
10.7.6.5.2 Maximum spacing of shear
reinforcement shall be in accordance with
Table 10.7.6.5.2.
Table 10.7.6.5.2 Maximum spacing of
shear reinforcement
ACI 318-14 chapter organization
Example: Chapter 10 Columns
10.1 Scope
10.2 General
10.3 Design Limits
10.4 Required Strength
10.5 Design Strength
10.6 Reinforcement Limits
10.7 Reinforcement Detailing
44
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23
Benefits of ACI 318-14
Organized from a designers perspective
Easier to find specific requirements
Intuitive location of information
Reduced cross references
45
Benefits of ACI 318-14
Tables and mathematical expressions improve
speed of understanding
Consistent language in text
Single idea for each requirement
46
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24
Schedule to Publication
Committee work ends summer 2013
Internal ACI review ends fall 2013
Public comment period spring 2014
Committee response summer 2014
Publication fall 2014
47
Publication
ACI 318-14 will be published in:
English
Spanish
ACI 318-14 will be published in:
US Customary units
SI units
It will be available in an variety of formats, including:
Printed copy
Enhanced PDF
EPUB, MOBI
48
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Additional Resources
Transition key maps:
ACI 318-11 to ACI 318-14
ACI 318-14 to ACI 318-11
ACI Reinforced Concrete Design Manual (SP-17)
will be consistent with 318-14
Online learning
In-person seminars
49
How To Get Involved:
Review 318-14 during public discussion period
Join the conversation on Twitter by using
#ACI318 and #ConcreteCode
www.facebook.com/AmericanConcreteInstitute
www.concrete.org/ACI318 for more information
(http://www.concrete.org/committees/pdf/tempdoc/documents/318-14/current318reorg.htm)
50
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Technical Changes in ACI 318-14
Diaphragms
Columns of special moment frames
Beam-column joints of special moment
frames
Special structural walls
Diaphragms and Collectors (Chapter 12)
diaphragm
transfer slab/
diaphragm
inclined
column
below grade
soil pressure
in-plane
inertial loads out-of-plane
wind pressure
or inertial loads
shear transfer
in diaphragm
collector
distributor
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Stiffness assumptions

wall

max
Lateralforce
Lateral
force
resisting
wallateach
end
Anysetofreasonableandconsistentassumptionsarepermitted.
(Mostdiaphragmscanbemodeledasrigidintheirplane.)
Diaphragm components (chords)
v
u
V
u
(a)Plan
M
V
(b)Simplebeamidealization
M
u
V
u
compressionchord
tensionchord
wall
diaphragm
(c)Internalmoment
andshearresistance
M
u
C
u
T
u
d
3.DiaphragmComponents
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Collectors (drags, struts)
(b)Collectoractions (a)Plan
a
b
c
d
collector
samewidth
aswall
b
eff
45
collector
spreadinto
slab
C
u,max
T
u,max
v
u
a
b
c
d
3.DiaphragmComponents
Typical collector and shear-friction
reinforcement detailing
Dowels
Collectorreinforcement
distributedtransversely
intothediaphragm
Structuralwall
Coldjoint
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Special moment frames
Columns
Beam-column joints
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08
Rotation, rad
M
o
m
e
n
t
,

k
-
i
n
.
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
'
6 . 0
c g
f A P
'
35 . 0
c g
f A P
'
1 . 0
c g
f A P
Calculated moment-rotation relations for columns
Target
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Drift capacity of columns
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
A
sh,podcd
A
sh,ACI

Driftratio,%
P A
g

c
i
u.2
u.2 < P A
g

c
i
u.4
P A
g

c
i
> u.4
Main changes to column provisions
SSu mm
P
u
u.SA
g

c
i
onJ
c
i
7u HPo
2uu mm
P
u
> u.SA
g

c
i
or
c
i
> 7u HPo
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Main changes to column provisions
k
]
=
]
c
|
25,000
+ u.6 1.u
k
n
=
n
l
n
l
-2
Transverse
reinforcement
Conditions Applicableexpressions
A
sh
sb
c
forrectilinear
hoop
P
u
0.3A
g
f
c

and
f
c

10,000psi
Greaterof(a)
and(b)
u.S
A
g
A
ch
- 1

c
i

t
a
u.u9

c
i

t
b
u.2k
]
k
n
P
u

t
A
ch
c
P
u
>0.3A
g
f
c

or
f
c

>10,000psi
Greaterof(a),
(b),and(c)
Effect on amount of confinement
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
A
s
h

2
0
1
4

A
s
h

2
0
1
1
columnwidth(in)
P/Agfc=0.3
P/Agfc=0.4
P/Agfc=0.5
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Beam-column joints in special moment frames
(a) (b)
Hooksmustbendintothejoint.
Headed reinforcement in joints
Minimumclearspacing3d
b
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(a)Elevation
l
d
(b)SectionAshowingverticalties
Knee joints with headed bars
ACI 318-14 Wall Design Provisions
Wall instability
At least two curtains of reinforcement shall be
used in a wall if I
u
> u.17A
c
z
c
i
(MPa) or
b
w
l
w
2, in which h
w
and l
w
refer to height and
length of entire wall, respectively.
Width b of flexural compression zone shall satisfy
b b
u
16 , where h
u
= unsupported height of wall.
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ACI 318-14 Wall Design Provisions
Special boundary elements
Special boundary elements are required where
c
I
w
600 1.56
u
h
w

,
in which o
u
b
w
shall not be taken less than 0.005.
For walls with b
w
l
w
2 and c l
w
S 8 , wall
thickness shall be at least 300 mm.
l
dh
or
l
dt
150mm
Straightorstandardbaroffset,
anchoredl
dh
orl
dt
inconfined
core
hoopsets@s min
h
x
=spacingofhooportielegslesserof360mmand
2
3
b
l
be
max(c 0.1l
w
, c/2)
b
Hoops/crosstiesalsosatisfyrequirementsforlongitudinal
barrestraintand:
ACI 318-14 Wall Design Provisions
Special boundary elements
b/3
6d
b
longitudinal
1uu +
SSS - b
x
7S
mm
1Su mm
A
sh
= u.u9sb
c

c
i

t
u.Ssb
c

c
i

t
A
g
A
ch
-1
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ACI 318-14 Wall Design Provisions
Ordinary boundary elements having
be
> 2.8/f
y
MPa
Standardhooksengagingvertical
edgereinforcement
h
x
=maxspacingofhooportielegs360mm)
hoopsets@s lesserof200mmand8d
b
(except
slesserof150mmand6d
b
atyieldingsection)
l
be
max(c 0.1l
w
, c/2)
Hoops/crosstiesalsosatisfyrequirements
forlongitudinalbarsupport
ACI 318-14 Wall Design Provisions
Wall detailing over height
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l

s
e
c
t
i
o
n
max
l
w
H
u,CS
4I
u,CS
special
boundaryelement
ordinary
boundaryelement
l
d
for 1.2S


SuS mm
tiesnotrequired
boundaryelementnear
edgeoffootingorother
support
boundaryelementnotnear
edgeoffooting
A
s,bc
A
g,bc
2.8

NPa
(orhookasreqd.)
A
s,bc
A
g,bc
> 2.8

NPa
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72