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M A S T E R ' S T H E S

I S
2009:106
Design a Nano-Satellite for Observation
of Transient Lunar PhenomenaTLP!
"ao #an
Luleå University of Technology
Master Thesis, Continuation Courses
Sace Science an! Technology
"eart#ent of Sace Science, $iruna
2009: 106 - $SSN: 16%&-01'( - $S)N: LT*-P"-+,--09- 106--S+
I
Design a Nano-Satellite for Observation
of Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLP)
SpaceMaster Thesis
II
Stu!ents%
&ao Han
Suervisor%
'rof( "r( Ha)an $ayal
"ate of Su*#ission% +, Se +--.
III
DECLARATION
I here*y !eclare that this su*#ission is #y o/n /or) an! that, to the *est of #y )no/le!ge an!
*elief, it contains no #aterial reviously u*lishe! or /ritten *y other erson or #aterial /hich to
a su*stantial e0tent has *een accete! for the a/ar! of other !egree or !ilo#a of university or
other institute of high learning, e0cet !ue ac)no/le!g#ent has *een #a!e in the te0t(
12r3*urg, the +-
th
, Sete#*er,
+--.
4&ao Han5
I6
ACKNOWLEGMENT
I /oul! li)e to e0ress #y gratitu!e to all those /ho gave #e the ossi*ility to co#lete this thesis(
7irst I a# !eely in!e*te! to #y suervisor 'rof( "r( Ha)an $ayal for rovi!ing #e the ossi*ility
to !o a very interesting an! changeling #aster thesis *y contri*uting to the 8ano9Satellite ro:ect
an! his sti#ulating suggestions an! encourage#ent hele! #e in all the ti#e of research for an!
/riting of this thesis( This thesis /or) allo/e! #e to have a goo! insight in the 8ano9satellite
ro:ect /hile gaining #any satellite syste# !esign e0erience in #any fiel!s(
I have further#ore to than) the 'rof( $laus Schilling, the chair of the co#uter science 6II
!eart#ent, /ho encourage! #e to go ahea! /ith #y thesis(
Also, I than) "r( 6ictoria &ara*ash fro# LuleåUniversity of Technology for suervising the thesis
re#otely an! assisting #e(
Esecially in satellite syste# !esign I /oul! al/ays count on #uch suort fro# the si!e of ;ian
Ma as /ell as the /hole tea# of S
+
A8Sat tea# an! also the other eole of co#uter science
!eart#ent(
Many than)s go to "r( Lei Ma /ho /as giving #e a lot of hel in *oth aca!e#ic an! !aily life in
12r3*urg( He /as not only #y teacher in 12r3*urg *ut also our el!er *rother in #y
life(
In general I also /ant to say *ig <than) you= to #y frien!s in 12r3*urg( Esecially I a# o*lige! to
#y frien!s Meng >hou, ?u=ang ?ang an! ;in ?u( ?ou gave #e suort an! #otivation !uring the
/hole ti#e(
At last I a# than)ful to #y arents /ho gave #e the oortunity to stu!y in @er#any an!
suorting #e in #any /ays in #y life(
6
Abstract
7or #ore than t/o centuries terrestrial o*servers have recor!e! a nu#*er of events /hich have
*een groue! un!er the title of Transient Lunar 'heno#ena 4TL'5( TL's are *asically aarent
short ter# an! regional changes on the #oon surface, although !ifferent tyes e0ist( The ossi*le
causes of these heno#ena have al/ays *een su*:ect to consi!era*le !e*ate( An the other han!,
/ith resect to lanne! e0e!itions an! er#anently #anne! *ases to the Moon, an! as a
rereBuisite to e0ten!e! hu#an resence into our solar syste#, it is i#ortant to gather the
infor#ation on TL', !o the evaluation an! give the e0lanations on the courses of these yet
une0laine! sace heno#ena(
In this ro:ect, a !e!icate! an! lo/ cost TL' o*servation satellite /hich consist a constellation
/ith t/o satellites to attain the sustaine! ti#e coverage /as roose!( The aer !escri*es the
#otivation, o*:ectives, )ey reBuire#ents an! the #ission concet for the autono#ous !etection an!
o*servation of the Transient Lunar 'heno#enon 4TL'5( The focus of the !esign /as ut on the
ayloa! an! the #ost i#ortant su*syste# interacting /ith it( 7urther#ore, the aer sho/s it is
feasi*le to o*serve the TL' *y using a 8ano9satellite(
i
Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
C(C "E7I8ITIA8 A7 MASTER THESIS((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( C
C(+ CA8TRI&UTIA8S A8" STRUCTURE A7 THESIS((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( +
. TRANSIENT LUNAR !"ENOMENON #TL!$ ................................................................................. %
+(C "ESCRI'TIA8 A7 TL'((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( D
+(+ H?'ATHESES 7AR EE'LAI8I8@ TL' E6E8TS ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,
+(D A&SER6ATIA8 7AR LACALI>ATIA8 A8" RECAR"I8@ TL' (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( F
2.3.1 Past Lunar Observation Programs ............................................................................................ 5
2.3.2 Currently Active Programs ........................................................................................................ 6
2.3.3 Future Programs ....................................................................................................................... 6
+(, "E7ICITS A7 EARTH &ASE" MAA8 A&SER6ATIA8(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( G
%. MISSION O&ER&IEW....................................................................................................................... 1'
D(C MISSIA8 A&;ECTI6ES A8" SCIE8CE A&;ECTI6ES (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( C-
3.1.1 Mission Objectives................................................................................................................... 10
3.1.2 Science Objectives .................................................................................................................. . 10
D(+ MISSIA8 S'ECI7ICATIA8S (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( CD
D(D MISSIA8 "RI6I8@ REHUIREME8TS (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( C,
D(, MISSIA8 "ESI@8 (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( CF
3.4.1 Mission Orbit esign............................................................................................................... 15
3.4.2 Orbit !cli"se Analysis ............................................................................................................. 16
3.4.3 Mission O"eration Consi#eration ........................................................................................... 1$
D(F MISSIA8 E86IRA8ME8T (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( CI
D(G LU8CH 6EHICLE S?STEM (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( C.
3.6.1 Can#i#ate Launc% &e%icles ..................................................................................................... '0
3.6.2 Launc%er Accommo#ation an# Mec%anical (nter)ace ............................................................. '1
D(J MISSIA8 TIMELI8E (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( +C
3.7.1 Mission P%ases ........................................................................................................................ '1
3.7.2 L!OP *entative Mission *imeline ........................................................................................... ''
D(I MISSIA8 A'ERATIA8S A8" "ATA 7LA1 (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( +D
3.8.1 S"ace + ,roun# ata system.................................................................................................. '-
ii
(. S!ACE S)STEM DESIGN ................................................................................................................. *
,(C S?STEM ARCHITECTURE (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( +F
4.1.1 System Functional .loc/ iagram .......................................................................................... '5
4.1.2 0ar#1are .loc/ iagram ....................................................................................................... '6
,(+ S?STEM &U"@ET (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ( +I
4.2.1 S"ace System Mass .u#get ...................................................................................................... '2
4.2.2 S"ace System "o1er .u#get .................................................................................................... -0
4.2.3 System Lin/ .u#get.................................................................................................................. -1
,(D SCIE8TI7IC 'A?LAA" I8STRUME8T ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( DD
4.3.1 esign 3e4uirements ............................................................................................................... --
4.3.2 O"tics an# Sensors .................................................................................................................. -5
4.3.3 Payloa# ata 0an#ling 5P06 system ................................................................................... -7
,(, ATTITU"E "ETERMI8ATIA8 A8" CA8TRAL S?STEM 4A"CS5 ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,D
4.4.1 ACS Overvie1 ....................................................................................................................... 8-
4.4.2 ACS Subsystem esign ......................................................................................................... 88
4.4.3 ACS Algorit%m ...................................................................................................................... 86
4.4.4 ACS *ec%nical escri"tion................................................................................................... 8$
4.4.5 Pro"ose# Com"onents ............................................................................................................. 82
,(F A89&AAR" "ATA HA8"LI8@ 4A&"H5 ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( F-
4.5.1 O.0 3e4uirements ............................................................................................................... 50
4.5.2 O.0 Functional Arc%itecture ............................................................................................... 51
4.5.3 Pro"ose# Com"onents ............................................................................................................. 5'
,(G CAMMU8ICATIA8 SU&S?STEM (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( FF
4.6.1 Communication Overvie1 ....................................................................................................... 55
4.6.2 Communication subsystem 3e4uirements................................................................................ 56
4.6.3 Communication subsystem esign .......................................................................................... 56
4.6.4 Satellite Antenna #esign .......................................................................................................... 52
4.6.5 Pro"ose# Com"onents ............................................................................................................. 57
,(J ELECTRICAL 'A1ER S?STEM 4E'S5 (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( GC
4.7.1 !PS 3e4uirements ................................................................................................................... 61
4.7.2 !PS Arc%itecture ..................................................................................................................... 6'
4.7.3 !PS Subsystem esign ............................................................................................................ 6-
4.7.4 Synt%esi9e# Po1er .u#get Simulation..................................................................................... 68
4.7.5 !PS Subsystem Management ................................................................................................... 66
iii
,(I STRUCTURE A8" CA87I@URATIA8 (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( GJ
4.8.1 Satellite Structure Overvie1 .................................................................................................... 6$
4.8.2 Preliminary Structure .............................................................................................................. 6$
4.8.3 Structure Con)iguration........................................................................................................... 62
,(. THERMAL CA8TRAL A8" MA8A@EME8T (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( JC
,(C- 7LI@HT SA7T1ARE((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ( JD
*. GROUND S)STEM DESIGN ............................................................................................................ +(
F(C @RAU8" S?STEM A6ER6IE1 (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( J,
F(+ @RAU8" STATIA8 S?STEM (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( JF
5.2.1 ,roun# Station System 3e4uirement ....................................................................................... $5
5.2.2 ,roun# Station :et1or/ .......................................................................................................... $6
F(D MISSIA8 CA8TRAL S?STEM((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( JJ
5.3.1 Mission Control System 3e4uirements .................................................................................... $$
5.3.2 Mission Control So)t1are Arc%itecture ................................................................................... $7
5.3.3 Programming !nvironment an# ;ser (nter)ace ...................................................................... 21
,. CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................... -
A. A!!ENDICES ..................................................................................................................................... . -%
A(C TL'9 ACTI6E 7EATURES A8 THE MAA8((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ID
A(+ S'E86IS((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ( IF
A(D S'ACE @RAU8" "ATA 7LA1 (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( IG
A(, SATELLITE 'ERTUR&ATIA8 MA"ELS((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( IJ
A(F TL'A8 MISSIA8 1AR$ 'AC$A@E "ESCRI'TIA8 ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( I.
A(G MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIA8 A7 LI8$ &U"@ET ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( .-
A(J MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIA8 A7 ELECTRICAL 'A1ER S?STEM (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( .D
RE.ERENCES ............................................................................................................................................. . /*
iv
Acron01s an2 Abbre3iations
A"CS Attitu!e "eter#ination an! Control Syste#
CCS"S Consultative Co##ittee for Sace "ata Syste#s
E'S Electrical 'o/er Syste#
ESA Euroean Sace Agency
@SS @roun! Syste# Soft/are
IR7 Inertial Reference 7ra#e
LEA Lo/ Earth Ar*it
8ASA 8ational Aeronautics an! Sace A!#inistration
A&"H An9&oar! "ata Han!ling
AR7 Ar*it Reference 7ra#e
'"H 'ayloa! "ata Han!ling
R7 Ra!io 7reBuency
SEU Sin g l e E v ent U s e t s
S8R Signal to 8oise Ratio
SR7 Satellite Reference 7ra#e
ST$ Satellite Tool $it
TL' Transient Lunar 'heno#enon
TL'A8 Transient Lunar 'heno#enon A*servation 8ano9satellite
v
List o4 .i56res
7igure +9C The general classification of TL' K+CL ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( D
7igure +9+ The Earth at#oshere #ass !ensity #o!el 4Cre!it% S/e!ish Institute of Sace
'hysics5 (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( I
7igure +9D Earth an! Moon geo#etry an! satellite constellation for continuous o*servation ((( I
7igure D9C 'erfor#ance of &rightening TL' Events K,L(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( CC
7igure D9+ TL'A8 Secification "ocu#ents Tree(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( C,
7igure D9D The configuration of Sun9synchronous or*it (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( CG
7igure D9, Sun9synchronous or*it Altitu!e as a function of or*it inclination(((((((((((((((((((((((((( CG
7igure D9F Mean eclise !uration as a function of inclination an! Altitu!e (((((((((((((((((((((((((((( CJ
7igure D9G Mean access ti#e in one !ay erio! ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( CI
7igure D9J Sa#le ti#e line for TL'A8 4Sun9synchronous or*it /ith inclination .IM5((((((((( CI
7igure D9I Illustration of the E'A" syste# 4Cre!it% UTIASNS7L5 ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( +C
7igure D9. Satellite groun! trac) after in:ection fro# &ai)onour Cos#o!ro#e ((((((((((((((((((((( +D
7igure ,9C Sace Syste# 7unctional &loc) "iagra# (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( +G
7igure ,9+ Satellite Har!/are &loc) "iagra# ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( +J
7igure ,9D The e0tensi*le *oo# of 'RISM 4Cre!it% ISSL, Univ( of To)yo5 ((((((((((((((((((((((((((( D.
7igure ,9, '"H internal sche#atics an! e0ternal interfaces ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,C
7igure ,9F The '"H Soft/are "ata 7lo/(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,+
7igure ,9G A"CS functional !iagra# (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,,
7igure ,9J The !istur*ance torBue in LEA (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,F
7igure ,9I A"CS coor!inate reference fra#e ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,G
7igure ,9. A"CS har!/are tra!e9off((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,I
7igure ,9C- A&"H functional architecture(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( FC
7igure ,9CC &loc) "iagra# of Co##unication Su*syste# (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( FJ
7igure ,9C+ UH7 Trans#itter &loc) "iagra# ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( FJ
7igure ,9CD +" ra!iation attern of !iole antenna ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( FI
7igure ,9C, D" ra!iation attern of !iole antenna ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( F.
7igure ,9CF E'S architecture /ith M''T (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( G+
7igure ,9CG E'S architecture /ithout M''T ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( G+
7igure ,9CJ E'S *aseline architecture ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( GD
7igure ,9CI Energy !ensity of !ifferent *atteries (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( G,
7igure ,9C. Synthesi3e! o/er *u!get for one tyical or*it erio! (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( GF
vi
7igure ,9+- The si#ulation of the energy feature in one or*it erio! ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( GG
7igure ,9+C TL'A8 satellite reli#inary structure ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( GI
7igure ,9++TL'A8 Satellite Configuration((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( G.
7igure ,9+D TL'A8 Satellite E0ternal configuration 4a0ono#etric vie/5 (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( J-
7igure ,9+, Satellite E0ternal configuration 47our9vie/ !ra/ing5(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( J-
7igure F9C @roun! Syste# Architecture (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( J,
7igure F9+ The groun! syste# router Interface (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( JI
7igure F9D @roun! Soft/are Syste# Architecture ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( I-
7igure F9, @SS User Interface Structure ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( IC
7igure A9CHost Sots of TL' Events, original grahic% K+DL (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ID
7igure A9+ TL'A8 Mission Sace @roun! "ata 7lo/ ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( IG
vii
List o4 Tab7es
Ta*le +9C The future lunar #ission in ne0t F years(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( G
Ta*le D9CTrae! ra!iation !ose *ehin! Alu#inu# shiel!ing (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( C.
Ta*le ,9C Sace syste# controller reBuire#ents ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( +I
Ta*le ,9+ The Syste# Mass &u!get Esti#ation (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( +.
Ta*le ,9D The Syste# 'o/er &u!get Esti#ation (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( D-
Ta*le ,9, The Syste# Lin) &u!get Esti#ation ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( DC
Ta*le ,9F "etecta*le Infor#ation for Sensing of a TL' Event, Ar!ere! *y Tye ((((((((((((((((( DD
Ta*le ,9G The reBuire#ents for otics an! sensors(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( DI
Ta*le ,9J ReBuire#ents for '"H syste#((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,-
Ta*le ,9I The reBuire#ents for A"CS (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,,
Ta*le ,9. A"CS oeration #o!es ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,G
Ta*le ,9C- The reBuire#ents for A&"H syste# ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( F-
Ta*le ,9CC 7ailure Scenarios for An9&oar! Microcontrollers ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( FC
Ta*le ,9C+ Caacities of A&"H Me#ories ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( F+
Ta*le ,9CD The reBuire#ents for co##unication syste# (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( FG
Ta*le ,9C, AE(+F 'rotocol 'ac)et 7or#at (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( FI
Ta*le ,9CF The 7eatures of S9*an! Trans#itter (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( F.
Ta*le ,9CG The 7eatures of 'atch Antenna (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( G-
Ta*le ,9CJ The reBuire#ents of E'S ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( GC
Ta*le ,9CI The reBuire#ents for structure su*syste# ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( GJ
Ta*le ,9C. Center of Mass roerties (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( GI
Ta*le ,9+- Satellite structure inertial roerties (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( GI
Ta*le ,9+C The reBuire#ents for ther#al syste#((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( JC
Ta*le ,9++ Te#erature Li#its for TL'A8 Satellite Su*syste# (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( JC
Ta*le F9C The reBuire#ents of @roun! Station 4@S5 !esign ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( JG
Ta*le F9+ Co#arison of otential TL'A8 @roun! Stations(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( JJ
Ta*le A9C Statistics of TL'9active features on the Moon K++L (((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( I,
C
1. Intro26ction
7or #ore than t/o centuries terrestrial o*servers have recor!e! a nu#*er of events /hich have
*een groue! un!er the title of Transient Lunar 'heno#ena 4TL'5( TL's are *asically aarent
short ter# an! regional changes on the #oon surface, although !ifferent tyes e0ist( The ossi*le
causes of these heno#ena have al/ays *een su*:ect to consi!era*le !e*ate( An the other han!,
/ith resect to lanne! e0e!itions an! er#anently #anne! *ases to the Moon, an! as a
rereBuisite to e0ten!e! hu#an resence into our solar syste#, it is i#ortant to gather the
infor#ation on TL', !o the evaluation an! give the e0lanations on the courses of these yet
une0laine! sace heno#ena(
Ane tye of TL' occurs only for a fe/ secon!s or even less, /hich #a)es a continuous o*servation
necessary in or!er to cature such events( Since the technological !ifficult o*servation fro# groun!
*ase! syste#, for#er o*servation techniBues can not !elivere! enough infor#ation( Therefore, it is
necessary to esta*lish a continuous, syste#atic, relia*le an! co#ara*le sace *ase! o*servation
syste# /hich ta)es over a long ti#e erio!(
Sela#a le*ih !ari !ua a*a! enga#at terestrial telah #encatat se:u#lah eristi/a yang
#e#ili)i telah !i)elo#o))an !engan :u!ul 7eno#ena I#le) Transient 4TL'5( TL'S
!asarnya :elas :ang)a en!e) !an regional eru*ahan a!a er#u)aan *ulan, #es)iun
*er*agai :enis a!a( yang #ung)in enye*a* feno#ena ini selalu tun!u) a!a er!e*atan( "i
sisi lain, sehu*ungan !engan e)se!isi yang !irencana)an !an *asis er#anen *era/a) )e
&ulan, !an se*agai rasyarat untu) )e*era!aan #anusia !ieran:ang )e !ala# siste# surya
)ita, enting untu) #engu#ul)an infor#asi tentang TL', #ela)u)an evaluasi !an
#e#*eri)an en:elasan a!a rogra# ;u#lah ini *elu# !i:elas)an ruang feno#ena( Salah
satu :enis TL' ter:a!i hanya sela#a *e*eraa !eti) atau *ah)an )urang, yang #e#*uat
enga#atan terus9#enerus !ierlu)an !ala# rang)a untu) #enang)a eristi/a terse*ut(
Se:a) enga#atan sulit te)nologi !ari tanah siste# *er*asis, te)ni) o*servasi !ahulu ti!a)
!aat !isa#ai)an infor#asi yang cu)u( Aleh )arena itu, erlu untu) #eneta)an
enga#atan ruang ang)asa *er)elan:utan, siste#atis, !aat !ian!al)an !an se*an!ing
*er*asis siste# yang #e#a)an /a)tu sela#a erio!e /a)tu yang la#a(
1.1 De4inition o4 Master Thesis
"uring the ast !eca!e, the !evelo#ent of s#all satellite is of great concern *y the sace in!ustry
an! sace scientists( Tra!itional satellites are tyifie! *y *u!gets in the #illions or *illions of
Euros an! sche!ules on the or!er of ten years( 7ailure of tra!itional satellites is e0tre#ely costly
hence they ten! to utili3e sace9roven, often out!ate! technologies, leaving very little roo# for
innovation( Thus historically, the !evelo#ent of tra!itional satellites has *een li#ite! to countries
/ith large #ilitary an!Nor co##ercial *u!gets(
The 8ano9satellite #ission for TL' o*servation /ill *e )no/n as TL'A8, /here the acrony#,
TL'A8, reresents Transient Lunar 'heno#enon A*servation 8ano9satellite( The TL'A8 #ission
carries as its ayloa! a high recision an! long focal length otical telescoe to !etect an! recor!
+
the Transient Lunar 'heno#enon 4TL'5 fro# Lo/ Earth Ar*it 4LEA5( The innovations of this
satellite are the #iniaturi3ation of the otical telescoe an! the three9a0is attitu!e !eter#ination
an! control syste#( To suort the /hole TL'A8 Mission, the satellite #ust contain a suite of
su*syste#, inclu!ing electrical o/er syste# 4E'S5, co##unication syste#, attitu!e !eter#ination
an! control syste# 4A"CS5, an! a co##an! an! !ata han!ling syste# to coor!inate the entire
satellite syste#( In a!!ition, a favora*le groun! syste# is also i#ortant for suorting the
#ission(
D
Accor!ing to the analyses a*ove, the focus of this thesis shoul! *e !esign the /hole TL'A8
#ission syste#, /hich inclu!es *oth sace seg#ent an! groun! seg#ent(
Tas)s%
 "efine the TL'A8 #ission o*:ectives an! #ission reBuire#ents to achieve the o*:ectives(
 I!entify the #ission concet, inclu!ing the #ission oeration scenario an! #ission
architecture(
 "esign the Sace seg#ent of TL'A8 #ission, inclu!ing scientific ayloa!, A"CS,
co##unication, A&"H an! ther#al su*syste#( In a!!ition, !esign the #echanical structure
an! acco##o!ate the co#onents of the satellite(
 Investigate an! !esign the groun! station for TL'A8 #ission, /hich in!entify the har!/are
an! soft/are reBuire#ents an! architectures(
 In!icate the critical function an! reBuire#ents of the syste# in or!er to #a)e a /ell *alance!
an! feasi*le 8ano9satellite syste#(
Sela#a !e)a!e tera)hir, enge#*angan satelit )ecil #en:a!i erhatian *esar oleh in!ustri !an
il#u/an ruang ang)asa( Satelit tra!isional !itan!ai oleh anggaran !i :utaan atau #iliaran
Euro !an :a!/al a!a urutan seuluh tahun( $egagalan satelit tra!isional sangat #ahal #a)a
#ere)a cen!erung #e#anfaat)an te)nologi ruang9ter*u)ti, sering )etinggalan :a#an,
#eninggal)an se!i)it ruang untu) inovasi( ;a!i secara historis, enge#*angan satelit
tra!isional telah ter*atas a!a negara9negara !engan #iliter yang *esar !an N atau anggaran
)o#ersial(
Misi 8ano9satelit untu) enga#atan TL' a)an !i)enal se*agai TL'A8, !i #ana sing)atan,
TL'A8, #erua)an 'enga#atan 7eno#ena Transient Lunar 8ano9satelit( Misi TL'A8
#e#*a/a se*agai #uatan resisi tinggi !an :ang)a an:ang fo)us teles)o oti) untu)
#en!ete)si !an #ere)a# 7eno#ena I#le) Transient 4TL'5 !ari Ar*it &u#i Ren!ah 4LEA5(
Inovasi9inovasi !ari satelit ini a!alah #iniaturisasi teles)o oti) !an tiga9su#*u enentuan
si)a !an siste# )ontrol( Untu) #en!u)ung Misi TL'A8 )eseluruhan, satelit harus *erisi
seerang)at su*siste#, ter#asu) siste# tenaga listri) 4E'S5, siste# )o#uni)asi, enentuan
si)a !an siste# )ontrol 4A"C5, !an siste# )o#an!o !an enanganan !ata untu)
#eng)oor!inasi)an seluruh siste# satelit( Selain itu, siste# tanah yang #enguntung)an :uga
enting untu) #en!u)ung #isi(

Menurut analisis !i atas, fo)us !ari tesis ini harus #erancang seluruh TL'A8
#isi siste#, yang #eliuti seg#en ruang !an seg#en tanah( Tugas%
Menentu)an tu:uan #isi TL'A8 !an ersyaratan #isi untu) #encaai tu:uan( 
Mengi!entifi)asi )onse #isi, ter#asu) s)enario oerasi #isi !an #isi arsite)tur( 
"esain seg#en Ruang #isi TL'A8, ter#asu) #uatan il#iah, A"C, )o#uni)asi, A&"H
!an su*siste# ter#al(  Selain itu, #erancang stru)tur #e)ani) !an #enga)o#o!asi
)o#onen satelit(
,
  Seli!i)i !an !esain sta3siun tanah untu) #isi TL'A8, yang #engi!entifi)asi erang)at
)eras !an ersyaratan erang)at luna) !an arsite)tur(
Tun:u))an fungsi )ritis !an ersyaratan siste# agar siste# 8ano9satelit sei#*ang !an
laya)( 

1. Contrib6tions an2 Str6ct6re o4 thesis
This reort is slit in G chaters%
 Chapter 1 is giving the *asic intro!uction into the satellite ro:ect conte0t that is the TL'A8
#ission itself, along /ith the rereBuisites that are useful to )no/ /hen rea!ing this reort(
 Chapter intro!uces the *ac)groun! of Transient Lunar 'heno#enon 4TL'5, inclu!ing the
!efinition an! hyotheses for e0lanation of TL', as /ell as the o*servation of TL' *oth fro#
Earth9*ase! an! Sace9*ase!( In a!!ition, this chater also in!icates the a!vantage of
o*servation of TL' fro# Lo/ Earth Ar*it 4LEA5 satellite(
 Chapter % gives the insight into the TL'A8 #ission analysis an! !esign( This inclu!es
!efinition of #ission o*:ectives an! #ission reBuire#ents as /ell as the #ission analysis
*ase! on the or*it an! launch syste# an! #ission oeration scenario !esign(
 Chapter ( !escri*es the analysis an! !esign of sace syste#( This contains the sace syste#
architecture !esign an! syste# *u!get analysis, as /ell as the !esign of su*syste#s /hich
#entione! a*ove( This chater is the core art of the thesis(
 Chapter * gives the !esign of groun! seg#ent( This in!icates the reBuire#ents of the
har!/are an! soft/are in groun! syste# for the TL'A8 #ission oerations(
 Chapter , conclu!es the !esign the /hole TL'A8 syste# an! in!entifies the critical oints of
the !esign in or!er to #a)e it a /ell *alance! syste#(
F
. Transient 76nar !heno1enon #TL!$
Transient lunar heno#enon 4TL'5 is !escri*e! as short9live! changes in the *rightness of atches
on the face of the Moon(KCL They last any/here fro# a fe/ secon!s to a fe/ hours an! can gro/
fro# less than a fe/ to a hun!re! )ilo#eters in si3e( In the follo/ing sections, the TL' events are
!escri*e!, inclu!ing the historical *ac)groun! an! also the hyothetical e0lanation for TL'(
.1 Description o4 TL!
TL's reorte! over the years have inclu!e! re! glo/s, flashes, o*scurations, an! a*nor#al a l*e!o
an! sha!o/ effects( The first scientific roof of the e0istence of TL' /as !elivere! *y the Soviet
astrono#er 8i)olai A( $o3yrev( 1hen $o3yrev too) hotograhic sectra of the lunar surface
!uring the night of 8ove#*er +n! C.FI, he reali3e! a change in aearance in Alhonsus Crater
47igure5( The charging aearance /as e0resse! *y a charge of color an! intensity of the reflecte!
sunlight( KCL The sectra he o*taine! sho/e! the e#ission *an!s of #olecular car*on

an!
(
Accor!ing to $o3yrev=s interretation of the !ata, he /itnesse! so#e )in! of volcanic erution *ut
less violent(
Accor!ing to the o*servation aearance, there are five tyes of TL' KFL, /hich are sho/n in
7igure +9C(
.i56re 81 The 5enera7 c7assi4ication o4 TL! 91:
7or all of these TL' a*ove, the affecte! areas are tyically only several sBuare )ilo#eters in real
Moon surface( The !istri*ution of recor!e! TL' across the lunar surface cannot *e e0laine!
statistically in contrast to the #eteorite, since the recor!e! TL' !ata*ase is Buite s#all( Accor!ing
to the analyses of the availa*le !ata, TL' events occur ri#arily at the e!ge of Maria an! close to
volcanic features such as rilles an! craters( A*ove all so#e lunar features are TL' hotsots, at least
one9thir! co#e fro# the vicinity of the Aristarchus lateau( K+L In a!!ition, the total nu#*er of the
surface features reorte! for e0hi*iting TL' activity at least once counts u to t/o hun!re!(
G
. "0potheses 4or E;p7ainin5 TL! E3ents
The hysical #echanis# resonsi*le for creating a TL' is not /ell un!erstoo!( @enerally, #eteors
are one hyothesis accete! *y #ost astrono#ers for the a*rut aearance an! !isaearance of
lunar scintillations( Another consi!eration is that ra!iant lunar !islays !o not originate /ith the
Moon( The &ritish astrono#er ;( He!ley Ro*inson resente! a co#ilation of at least eleven
ossi*le e0lanations to/ar!s the cause of TL' in C.IG /hich shall *e e0laine! shortly K,L(
Tensions generate! *y the ti!al effect of Earth=s gravity fiel! O esecially /hile the Moon asses
through erigee O releases trae! gas fro# the lunar crust( This effect is aro0i#ately D+(F ti#es
greater than the Moon effect on the Earth( Change of Al*e!o !ue to the !ust #ove#ent on Moon
surface(
Ther#al Shoc) cause! *y the te#erature !ifference at the Ter#inator 4the night9!ay e!ge5( There
the te#erature varies fro# 9I- to C+F /ithin t/o hours( The !ifferent e0tension an!
contraction rates of lunar #aterial #ight cause tensions to *uil! u in the roc) /hich cause trae!
gas to *e release! to ease tensions(
 Magnetic interaction of solar las#a *o#*ar!#ent an! the #ove#ent of Moon through
Earth=s #agnetic fiel!
 Ultraviolet ra!iation of the Sun causes fluorescence in the visual sectru# as a result of the
a*sence of a lunar at#oshere(
 Solar9 /in! las#a ro!uces electric !ischarge(
 Sectral !iffraction at surface features too s#all for telescoe resolutions use! for o*servation
an! thus ro!ucing color(
 Meteor stri)es on the Moon surface(
 Moon Bua)es /hich causes trae! gas to *e release!(
 7alse color cause! *y otical effects in the terrestrial at#oshere(
 'ie3oelectric effects cause! *y tensions in lunar roc), as also o*serve! on Earth(
It has *een suggeste! that effects relate! to either e l e c tr o s ta ti c ch arging or !ischarging #ight *e
a*le to account for so#e of the transient lunar heno#enon( Accor!ing to "r( Ro*inson=s
e0lanations of hyotheses for TL' events, the #ost ro*a*le cause is the ti!al strain or ther#al
shoc) causing out9gassing an! ro!ucing a ie3oelectric effect( Ather astrono#ers an!
astrohysicists favor the gas e#itting cause! *y coruscular ra!iation( 7or all of these theories
a*ove, there is concrete evi!ence% the Ra!on /as !etecte! over various Hotsots *y the AAS'
instru#ent on *oar! the co##an! #o!ules of Aollo CF an! CG( Ho/ever, the largest resource of
J
Ra!on is !etecte! over the area of Aristarchus an! @ri#al!i, /here #ost of TL' events /ere
o*serve! in these areas( The !etection of Ra!on !e#onstrate! the gas e#itting fro# lunar groun!(
In a!!ition, the recent A#erican Lunar Satellite Mission =Lunar 'rosector= rove that on the lunar
surface, the !ust is electro statistically charge! u to ,(F $6KDL( 7urther#ore, it is ossi*le that
#any transient heno#ena #ight not *e associate! /ith the #oon itself *ut coul! *e a result of
unfavora*le o*serving con!itions or heno#ena associate! /ith the earth( 7or instance, so#e
reorte! transient heno#ena are for the #isinterrete! #oving o*:ects 4e(g( Aircrafts, Satellites5
*et/een o*server an! Moon(
.% Obser3ation 4or Loca7i<ation an2 Recor2in5 TL!
7or #ore than t/o centuries terrestrial o*servers have recor!e! a nu#*er of events /hich have
*een groue! un!er the title of Transient Lunar 'heno#ena 4TL'5( 1ith resect to lanne!
e0e!itions an! er#anently #anne! *ases to the Moon, an! as a rereBuisite to e0ten!e! hu#an
resence into our solar syste#, it is i#ortant to gather the infor#ation on TL', !o the evaluation
an! give the e0lanations on the courses of these yet une0laine! sace heno#ena( The #ost
significant ro*le# that faces reorts of transient lunar heno#ena is that the vast #a:ority of these
/ere #a!e either *y a single o*server or at a single location on Earth( Mean/hile, the #ultitu!e of
reorts for transient heno#ena occurring at the sa#e lace on the #oon coul! *e use! as evi!ence
suorting their e0istence( The Earth *ase! o*servations of Moon have various !isa!vantages an!
it see#s i#ossi*le to o*tain the evi!ence *y only the Earth o*servations( Therefore, the ne/ tye
of TL' o*servation shoul! *e e0lore! an! i#le#ente! to hit the target(
.%.1 'ast Lunar A*servation 'rogra#s
In C.F-s an! C.G-s, several #oon o*servation rogra#s /ere esta*lishe! for rearation of Moon
lan!ing rogra# of USSR an! USA( Esecially, in Unite! States, several o*servation ca#aigns
/ere ai#e! at Moon( In a!!ition, there /ere also so#e a#ateur o*servation rogra#s for the
Moon o*servation( Ane of the# /as set u at Coralitos A*servatory in C.GJ /hich ro!uce!
roughly D--- hours of o*servation *y using a +, inch refractor telescoe( In C.G., the International
A*servation 8et/or) /as foun!e!, /hich /as lea! *y &ar*ara Mi!!lehurst( This International
A*servation 8et/or) /as hoste! *y *oth a#ateur astrono#ers as /ell as rofessionals( The &ritish
Astrono#ical Association 4&AA5 an! the Association of Lunar an! 'lanetary A*servers 4AL'A5
/ere art of that net/or) an! still oerate o*server net/or)s to!ay( There net/or)s are oerate! as
<loose= net/or)s, /hich #eans, that there is no o*ligation an! #e#*ers are volunteers( Together
I
/ith sace agencies, such as ESA an! 8ASA, so#e investigations /ere carrie! out in connection
/ith Cle#entine, Lunar 'rosector, an! SMART9C Satellite #issions(
.%. Currently Active 'rogra#s
Af those rogra#s launche! a*ove, #ainly the o*server net/or)s of &AA an! AL'A are still
active( 7urther#ore, the Lunar Meteoroi! I#act Monitoring 'rogra# /hich /as suorte! *y
8ASA also hol!s the secon!ary #ission state#ent of o*serving TL' in or!er to search the
connection *et/een TL' an! Lunar Meteoroi! I#act( &ut also local rogra#s are o*serving the
Moon, #ost ri#arily are not /ith the o*:ective of !etecting TL', *ut #aing the Moon(
.%.% 7uture 'rogra#s
1ith the rene/e! focus on the Moon e0loration, #any lanne! lunar ro*otic an! re#ote sensing
#issions /ill *e i#le#ente! in the follo/ing !eca!e( It can *e e0ecte! that several of these
#ission /ill ta)e the instru#ents on *oar! that /ill ena*le the astrono#ers an! astrohysicist to
carry out !eeer research on Transient Lunar 'heno#enon 4TL'5( In a!!ition, it can *e also
e0ecte! that the a#ateur astrono#ers /ill continue to /or) on TL' research for the cooeration
/ith the Earth *ase! o*servation net/or)( Ta*le +9C sho/s the lanne! lunar #issions /hich /ere
un!er !evelo#ent to our celestial neigh*or in ne0t five years(
Tab7e 81 The 46t6re 76nar 1ission in ne;t * 0ears
Lan! 8a#e launch "ue
USA
Lunar Reconnaissance Ar*iter
;un +--.
LCRASS
Russia 7e!eration Luna9@lo* C +-C-
USA
@RAIL G Se +-CC
LA"EE +-CC
China Chang'e9+ +-CC
In!iaNInternation Chan!rayaan9+ +-C+
Russia 7e!eration Luna9@lo* + +-C+
USA
IL8 8o!e C +-CD
IL8 8o!e + +-C,
.( De4icits o4 Earth base2 Moon obser3ation
The Earth *ase! o*servation of Moon in cature for TL' events involves series of !eficiencies( The
t/o #a:or influences are the effects state! *elo/ the Earth9Moon Syste# an! the Earth
At#oshere(
.
The rotation of Moon aroun! earth is +J ti#es slo/er than the rotation of The Earth itself(
Therefore, the visi*ility of Moon for the o*servation /ith fi0e! location is li#ite! to less than half
of the night ti#e /hen the sun fell !o/n *elo/ the hori3on(
"esite of the visi*ility of Moon at night, another ro*le# for lunar o*servation is the Earth
at#oshere( In Earth at#oshere, the evaorate! /ater can con!ense an! fro# clou!s or even lea!
to reciitation( Ather causes of *a! visi*ility are !ust articles an! aerosols fro# in!ustries(
7urther#ore, there are #any factors /hich can ro!uce tur*ulences in the Earth at#oshere,
inclu!ing the air #asses react to local !ifferences in te#erature( This reaction al/ays e0ists an!
#oves in the at#oshere( Therefore, it lea!s the o*servation feature to aear to flic)er an! the
i#age of the Moon /ill *e *lurre!( Esecially, this reaction #a)es it very !ifficult to !etect the
short9ter# TL' events on lunar surface(
As it is )no/n in the hysics note*oo)s, the Earth at#oshere acts li)e a secial ris#( The light
reflecte! fro# the Moon surface is assing fro# a vacuu# sace through the Earth at#oshere
/hich causes !isersion an! reflection of the light( This lea!s the varying si3e of o*serve! o*:ects
/hen trace! fro# hori3on to hori3on /ith nearest to the real si3e *eing in 3enith, an! #ay*e also
changes the color of the o*serve! o*:ects to re! close to the hori3on(
In a!!ition, the International A*servation 8et/or), as #ention a*ove, is #ainly oerate! *y
a#ateur astrono#ers /ith no stan!ar! eBui#ents an! criterions( So it is !ifficult to #a)e a
rofessional scientific co#arison of reorte! events( A!!itionally, TL' o*servation net/or) is not
glo*ally organi3e!, since the TL' research nee!s a continuous o*servation, /hat #a)es it a#
i#ossi*le tas) for groun! *ase! o*servation(
A!vantages of Lunar A*servation fro# Lo/ Earth Ar*it 4LEA5
The a!vantages of lunar o*servation fro# LEA are liste! *elo/%
8o Earth at#oshere influences
Continuous o*servation of the Moon
A*servation of the entire visi*le Moon surface
6erifia*le !ata for statistics, recor! /ith sa#e eBui#ent an! !evices
Autono#ous !etection an! recor!ing of TL' events
Monetary an! ti#e a!vantage in contrast to lunar Ar*it Mission
C-
.i56re 8 The Earth at1osphere 1ass 2ensit0 1o2e7 #Cre2it= S>e2ish Instit6te o4 Space !h0sics$
As !iscusse! a*ove, the influence of the Earth at#oshere is the #ost essential factor to avoi!
/hen o*serving TL' fro# Earth *ase! o*servers( In 7igure +9+, the curve of the Earth at#osheric
!ensity !e#onstrates that the !ensity of aro0i#ately +-- )# a*ove the Earth surface !ros
e0onentially to one *illionth co#are! to the sea level( Mean/hile, the !ensity re#ains one
trillionth in F-- )# altitu!e co#are! to the sea level /ith continuous linear !ro( Even in I-- )#
altitu!e or*it /hich locates in the e!ge of earth at#oshere, the #ass !ensity /ill *e #uch s#aller
than it in F-- )#( This #eans that in lo/ Earth Ar*it, the effects of the Earth at#oshere can *e
negligi*le( Therefore, *y i#le#enting the sace *ase! Moon o*servation, #ost of the !eficits
for# Earth at#oshere is eli#inate!(
.i56re 8% Earth an2 Moon 5eo1etr0 an2 sate77ite conste77ation 4or contin6o6s obser3ation
CC
The !ata ro!uce! *y such sace! *ase! o*servation syste# is al/ays *ase! on the sa#e
instru#ents, /hich #ini#i3es #isinterretation !ue to charging eBui#ent or !ifferent o*servers(
As the illation of a*ove assu#tion, the sace! *ase! lunar o*servation syste# /ill *e locali3e! in
Lo/ Earth Ar*it( This syste# is ossi*le /ith only t/o satellites in the sa#e or*it lane /ith one
half aart( Therefore, as sho/n in 7igure +9D, at least one satellite /ill al/ays have an uno*structe!
vie/ of the co#lete visi*le Moon surface(
A high !egree of autono#y of the satellites ensures #ini#al ti#e, effort, an! cost for oeration of
the syste#( In the #ission oeration scenario, the !etection, notification, recor!ing an! even
ossi*le classification of TL' events /ill *e i#le#ente! auto#atically(
In a!!ition, another conceiva*le or*it for sace *ase! o*servation syste# is the Lagrange oints
*et/een Earth an! Moon( Ho/ever, there are so#e a!vantages in contrast to o*servation fro#
LEA, /hich inclu!e,
A satellite #ission to the Moon or one of the Lagrange oint /oul! nee! #ore fuel for
#aneuvering, in or!er to escae Earth gravitational ull, an! to transfer into lunar or*it( It is also
necessary to rovi!e for *etter shiel!ing for the sace ra!iation, /hich is not necessary in LEA for
the #agnetic fiel! of the Earth is still resent( This #eans shorter !evelo#ent ti#e an! lo/er
*u!get( A!!itionally, a Moon re#ote sensing satellite /ith circular Moon or*it /ill not ta)e the
enough fiel! of vie/ for o*servation of lunar surface( Therefore, the o*servation syste# in LEA
ro!uces the ossi*ility of /i!ely fiel! of vie/ an! the sta*ility for cature the short9ter# TL'
events(
As a #ission to Lo/ Earth Ar*it 4LEA5, the syste# has its a!vantages in less !evelo#ent cost an!
ti#e( It is also conceiva*le to co#*ine the scientific #ission o*:ectives /ith verification of ne/
technologies for ico9 an! nano9Satellites, or even /ith e!ucational o*:ectives to e!ucate stu!ents
an! to co9finance /ith other satellite #ission grous(
C+
%. Mission O3er3ie>
The #otivation for the overall TL'A8 #ission is ri#arily to serves a test *e! for the ne/
technologies for 'ico9 an! 8ano9satellites( The goal of TL'A8 #ission is to o*serve the visi*le
lunar surface for Transient Lunar 'heno#enon 4TL'5, in or!er to gather the science !ata for the
astrono#ers an! astrohysicists to analysis an! un!erstan! this a#a3ing lunar heno#enon( The
#otivation has several i#acts%
 The ro:ect is a University 8ano9Satellite 'rogra# an! it /ill involve the stu!ents an! young
engineers through the /hole life cycle of #ission !evelo#ent(
 Since the ro:ect is a 8ano9satellite #ission, the ro:ect *u!get is relatively lo/, in accor!ance
/ith a 8ano9sat tye of !evelo#ent(
 Co#are! to an in!ustry tye sace ro:ect, !ecisions are ta)en to si#lify the !esign or
!esign for lo/9cost an! thus #ight not co#ly /ith the usual satellite stan!ar!s(
%.1 Mission Ob?ecti3es an2 Science Ob?ecti3es
%.1.1 Mission A*:ectives
$eeing the #otivation in #in!, the #ission an! science o*:ectives for the ro:ect are su##ari3e!
in the follo/ing reBuire#ents( The #ission o*:ectives are liste! *elo/(
 The ro:ect shall !esign, *uil!, an! test a 8ano9satellite( This o*:ective assu#es the
!evelo#ent of *oth a groun! an! sace syste#(
 The success criterion is% "eliver a fully teste! satellite to the launch site(
 The ro:ect shall launch the satellite an! co##unicate /ith it using the groun! an! sace
syste#s(
 The success criterion is% esta*lish a ra!io connection /ith the !eveloe! groun! syste# an!
!o/nloa! tele#etry(
 The ro:ect shall oerate a scientific or technology !e#onstration ayloa!(
 The success criterion is% Receive !ata fro# the ayloa! an! confir# oerations(
%.1. Science A*:ectives
As !e#onstrate! /ith the Mission na#e <TL'A8<, the #ission shoul! on the o*servation of
Transient Lunar 'heno#enon *ase! on the 8ano9satellite in Lo/ Earth Ar*it 4LEA5( The
#otivation for these o*servations is to gather science !ata for the astrono#ers an! astrohysicist to
CD
analysis an! un!erstan! this lunar heno#enon 4TL'5( In a!!ition, the secon! #otivation is to
!e#onstrate the feasi*ility of o*serving TL' as *asis for !evelo#ent of the lo/ cost #iniature
star sensor an! otical telescoe( There are several hyotheses for E0laining TL' Events, the
o*:ectives of science #ission are to collect !ata that /ill vali!ate, or last rovi!e the evi!ence for
these hyotheses( The !evelo#ent of the #iniature star sensor is a searate activity to 'ico9 an!
8ano9satellite follo/ing the aroval of fun!ing fro# the @er#an Aerosace Center 4"LR5 in
University of 12r3*urg(
In a!!ition, at the ro:ect level an! as a technology !e#onstration, it /as !eci!e! to !evelo a
otical telescoe that has the #ost synergy as ossi*le /ith the #iniature star sensor( This !ecision
i#acts the !esign of the ayloa! an! the reBuire#ent to this effect can *e foun! in the follo/ing
reBuire#ents(
The hysical #echanis# resonsi*le for creating a TL' is not /ell un!erstoo!( The chosen tye of
TL' for our #ission to focus on ri#arily shall *e the *rightening tye /ith !uration !o/n to D-
#ini9secon!s( 4As sho/n in 7igure58evertheless, it is reco##en!e! to try to o*serve the other
tyes of TL' events( In or!er to gather enough !ata an! constrain of the general 8ano9satellite
#ission life cycle, the #ini#u# science !uration /ill *e fi0e! u to C year(
.i56re %81 'erfor#ance of &rightening TL' Events K,L
Accor!ing to the #ission an! science o*:ectives, at the #ission level, the #ain science
reBuire#ents are liste! *elo/(
SR@1 Science 1ission 26ration
C,
The science #ission !uration shall *e at least C year, in or!er to get enough science !ata for
the science user to analysis an! un!erstan! the Transient Lunar 'heno#enon 4TL'5(
*%e scienti)ic goal is to observe t%e *ransient Lunar "%enomenon at least one year. A year o)
observation 1oul# gat%er enoug% science #ata )or analysis an# ensure t%e un#erstan#ing t%e
seasonal variations )or observation.
SR@ !ri1ar0 science ob?ecti3e
The ri#ary science o*:ective is to o*serve *rightening tye of Transient Lunar
'heno#enon 4TL'5 *oth at night an! !uring !ay continuously( This )in! of TL' events
#ight *e /ith the !uration !o/n to D- #ini9secon!s(
*%is re4uirement 1as #erive# )rom #e)inition o) science objectives.
SR@% Science obser3ations a7tit62e
The sace seg#ent shall *e locate! at the altitu!e for# ,-- to C--- )# of the Lo/ Earth
Ar*it(
Since most o) t%e :ano<satellites missions are t%e "iggy bac/ system o) t%e great S"ace
mission= t%e orbit can not be )i>e# be)ore t%e roc/et launc%.
SR@( Science obser3ations co3era5e
The o*servation fiel! of vie/ 47A65 of the satellite shoul! cover the /hole visi*le Moon
surface(
!nsure t%e ma>imum visible Moon sur)ace.
SR@* Obser3ation Conste77ation
In or!er to o*serve the Moon surface continuously /ith C--P !uty cycle, the sace seg#ent
shoul! *e a constellation /ith t/o satellites, *ecause of the eclise ti#e of the satellite(
!nsure t%e continuous observation o) *LP.
SR@, Science 2ata pro26cts
The science !ata ro!ucts 4!ata nee!e! for each o*servation5 shall inclu!e the short9ter#
vi!eo of TL' events, an! the local solar ti#e of the TL' events of o*servation(
*%e #ata s%all "rovi#e t%e results o) measurements= t%e local solar time an# vi#eo o) t%e *LP
events. (n a##ition= t%e local solar time is t%e local time in re)erence to t%e "osition o) t%e
sun.
SR@+ Spectra7 ran5e
The ro:ect shall o*serve the TL' events in the sectral range of DI- OJI-n#(
*LP !vents occur 1it%in t%e visible lig%t 1avelengt% ban#.
CF
%. Mission Speci4ications
The TL'A8 #ission secifications have *een classifie! into levels an! categories, as e0laine! in
the follo/ing art( At this oint reBuire#ents are *eing classifie! into , !ifferent levels%
 Mission an! Science 4Level C5
 Syste# 4Level +5
 Su*syste# 4Level D5
 Asse#*ly 4Level ,5
In general, the MissionNScience an! 'ro:ect secifications /ere ela*orate! !uring 'hase A an!
u!ate! in #ission hase &( "uration 'hase &, the su*syste# secifications /oul! *e initially
/ritten *ase! on the analysis erfor#e! an! the *aseline syste# !esign an! u!ate! as further
analysis /as erfor#e!(
In the follo/ing ages, 7igure D9+ sho/s the secification !ocu#ents tree of TL'A8 #ission(
Searate gui!elines /ere /ritten to facilitate the ela*oration of the reBuire#ents( These gui!elines
inclu!e !escrition an! e0a#les of the categories use! to classify the reBuire#ents( 'ro:ect level
reBuire#ents have an i#act at the follo/ing #ain syste#s% Mission an! Science, Launch Syste#,
Sace Syste#, @roun! Syste#, Syste# Integration an! Test or Mission Aerations(
CG
.i56re %8 TL!ON Speci4ication Doc61ents Tree
%.% Mission Dri3in5 ReA6ire1ents
The ri#ary #ission reBuire#ents of TL'A8 #ission are liste! *elo/%
DR@1 Nano8Sate77ite
The ro:ect shall use the organi3ational fra#e an! reBuire#ents of the 8ano9Satellite
Stan!ar!(
*%e term ?nano<satellite? or ?nano<sat? is usually a""lie# to t%e name o) an arti)icial
satellite 1it% a 1et mass bet1een 1 an# 10 /g.
DR@ Space to 5ro6n2 4reA6encies an2 protoco7s
CJ
The groun! to sace co##unication lin) shall co#ly /ith the A#ateur Ra!io Satellites
services(
For a stu#ent satellite t%is is t%e easiest solution to im"lement.
DR@% La6nch 3ehic7e
The ro:ect shall *e a*le to launch on a K"8E'R, 6E@A, Roc)ot, $os#os, M69I, In!ian
'SL6, SA?U> or Ariane FL launch vehicle(
Possible o"tions o) launc%ers t%at %ave been use# so )ar )or :ano<Sats or t%at are "lausible
solutions )or t%e "roject.
DR@( Co116nication A3ai7abi7it0
The ro:ect shall rovi!e !o/nlin) caa*ility *et/een the sace syste# an! the groun! at
every oortunity after antennas !eloy#ent(
*%is re4uirement ensures communication ca"ability bet1een t%e s"ace system an# a groun#
station available an# in vie1.
%.( Mission Desi5n
%.(.1 Mission Ar*it "esign
There are !ifferent tyes of !esign !rivers on the TL'A8 satellite or*it !esign, inclu!ing%
 The location of the groun! stations at 12r3*urg an! at &erlin reBuires an inclination at
least
FDMto achieve reasona*le ass !urations( The #ost ro*a*le or*its that /ill *e flo/n are thus
sun9synchronous( Ho/ever, !ue to or*ital ertur*ation, the satellite /ill !rift out of the sun9
synchronous state( The !rift has not yet *een assesse!( 7or the analysis, the assu#tion /as
#a!e that the or*it /oul! re#ain sun9synchronous(
 Analysis of ast Lo/ Earth Ar*it 4LEA5 launches sho/e! that the #ost li)ely range for
altitu!e heights is fro# ,-- to C--- )#(
 The sace syste# has no tra:ectory station )eeing or #aneuvering caa*ility(
7or the TL'A8 satellite #ission other tyes of or*its coul! *e consi!ere! *elo/ C---)# an!
a*ove FDMinclination( "ue to the enor#ous range of ossi*ilities other or*its /ill only *e
stu!ie! if reBuire! *y the launch rovi!er( The reBuire#ents for the sace seg#ent or*it are
liste! *elo/(
OR@1 Orbit A7tit62e
The ro:ect shall oerate at Earth !istances *et/een ,-- an! C--- )# altitu!es(
Analysis s%o1s t%at )or Sun<sync%ronous orbits= t%e e>"ecte# altitu#e range is @800<1000A
/m.
O
r
b
i
t

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l
t
i
t
u
/
e

0
1
m
2
CI
OR@1 Operationa7 orbit
The ro:ect shall select an or*it /hich has an inclination a*ove FD !egrees( 7or #ission
analysis a sun9synchronous or*it shall *e consi!ere!(
*o %ave #irect access 1it% t%e ,roun# Station in ,ermany= t%is re4uirement im"lies a very
%ig% "robability o) )lying on a sun<sync%ronous orbit.
7or TL'A8 #ission, the #ost ro*a*le or*it is the Sun9synchronous or*it, therefore, the analysis
is *ase! on the Sun9synchronous or*it( 1ith Sun9synchronous or*it, the satellite crosses the
EBuator al/ays at the sa#e local ti#e, further *y suing Sun9synchronous or*it the satellite !esign
/ill *e si#lifie! since the eclise !urations are al#ost constant of each or*it erio!(
.i56re %8% The con4i56ration o4 S6n8s0nchrono6s orbit
2200
2000
1'00
1600
1300
1200
1000
'00
600
300
200
9( 9' 99 100 101 102 10& 103 10%
Orbit $n4lination 0Deg2
.i56re %8( S6n8s0nchrono6s orbit A7tit62e as a 46nction o4 orbit inc7ination
%.(. Ar*it Eclise Analysis
+
4
l
i
5
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e

D
u
r
a
t
i
o
n

0
6
i
n
2
C.
The eclise !uration is an i#ortant ara#eter for the !esign of the sace syste#( An analysis /as
erfor#e! that calculate! the eclise ti#e as a function of the or*it inclination an! the or*it altitu!e(
7igure D9F sho/s the si#ulation results of the #ean eclise !uration in LEA /hen the or*it
inclination varies fro# +- !eg to CC- !eg 4Using Matla*5(
30
&0
20
10
0
1000
900
'00
(00
600
0
%0
100
.ltitu/e 01m2
%00
300
1%0
$n4lination 0Deg2
.i56re %8* Mean ec7ipse 26ration as a 46nction o4 inc7ination an2 A7tit62e
%.(.% Mission Aeration Consi!eration
The access ti#e analysis ai#s to esti#ating the access freBuency an! !uration /ith the groun!
station( Ti#elines offer an overvie/ of the #ission course an! hel !esign a sche!ule for the
!ifferent tas)s such as #aintenance, scientific #easure#ent an! !ata e0change( The follo/ing
analysis assu#es a single groun! station of 8eustrelit3 locate! in &erlin( The access ti#e !uration
/as co#ute! /ith resect to the altitu!e, the elevation angle Q an! the or*it inclination( 7igure D9G
sho/s the #ean access ti#e as a function of altitu!e for a #ini#u# elevation of FM( In this
si#ulation, the satellite or*it is sun9synchronous or*it /ith the inclination .IM( Therefore, the
si#ulation results of #ean access ti#es *et/een G an! CC #inutes can *e e0ecte!(
&ase! on the analysis of the eclise ti#e an! access ti#e, it is ossi*le to esta*lish a ti#e lan over
a fi0e! erio! ranging fro# one tyical !ay to the /hole #ission !uration( Ti#elines offer an
overvie/ of the #ission oeration an! hel !esign a sche!ule for !ifferent tas)s such as scientific
#easure#ent an! !ata e0change /ith groun! station( 7igure D9J sho/s the sa#le ti#eline over
the erio!s of one !ay erio! for a Sun9synchronous or*it /ith inclination of .IM( In a!!ition, the
access ti#e is esti#ate! /ith the #ini#u# elevation of FM(
This or*it has an average eclise ti#e of ++ #in /ith a freBuency of CF eclises er !ay( 7or
co##unication, there are at #ost five ossi*le asses /ith the #a0i#u# ossi*le !uration of CC
#inutes er ass( The nu#*er of asses an! the !uration ti#e is constraine! un!er the variation
of the elevation angle Q( The t/o ti#es for co##unication /hich /ere chosen are the access
ti#e aroun! C+ o=cloc) in each !ay(
.i56re %8, Mean access ti1e in one 2a0 perio2
.i56re %8+ Sa1p7e ti1e 7ine 4or TL!ON #S6n8s0nchrono6s orbit >ith inc7ination
/-B$
%.* Mission En3iron1ent
Sace environ#ent see)s to un!erstan! an! a!!ress con!itions e0isting in sace that affect the
oeration of sacecraft( The sace environ#ent is far fro# *enign in its effects on sacecraft(
Therefore, un!erstan!ing of the sace environ#ent an! its interactions on sacecraft is the first ste
in #itigating these effects( 7or tyical Lo/ Earth Ar*it satellite #issions, several tyes of
environ#ents shoul! *e evaluate!, such as%
 8eutral at#oshere% 'ri#arily resonsi*le for !rag, glo/ an! o0ygen erosionR
 Magnetic an! electric fiel!s% Resonsi*le for #agnetic torBues an! in!uce! electric fiel!sR
 U6NEU6 ra!iation% Resonsi*le for hotoelectrons an! long ter# changes in #aterial
roertiesR
 'las#aNIonoshere% Resonsi*le for /a)e effects an! solar array arcingR
 Ra!iation &elts an! Aurora 3oneR
 'articulate environ#ent 4Sace !e*ris an! #icro9#eteoroi!s5(
The rincial interactions of concern are then% cu#ulative ra!iation effectsR single event usets
4SEU5R latch uR surface an! internal chargingR surface !egra!ation an! erosionR conta#inationR
glo/R sace !e*ris an! #icro9#eteoroi! i#acts( Ther#al effects an! torBues /ere ta)en into
account an! /ere inclu!e! in the sace syste# !esign( In our #ission, SEUs /ill *e #itigate! *y
har!/are an! soft/are !esign ractices( In a!!ition, a searate latch9u rotection circuit has *een
!esigne! an! /ill *e i#le#ente! in each electronic su*syste#(
The sace environ#ent of TL'A8 satellite /as si#ulate! *y using ESA S'E86IS tool( S'E86IS
is a /e* *ase! sace environ#ent infor#ation syste# /hich rovi!es the interface to #o!els of the
sace environ#ent an! its effects to sacecraft( The intro!uction to S'E86IS syste# is attache! in
Aen!i0 A(+(
Tab7e %81Trappe2 ra2iation 2ose behin2 A761in61 shie72in5
Ar*it Configuration
Cu#ulate! "ose
4Ra!KSiL, C ## Al,
Solar Ma05
Cu#ulate! "ose
4Ra!KSiL, C ## Al,
Solar Ma05
,--)#, one year ,--- +---
GF.)#, one year IG.+ F++-
C---)#, one year ++--- CF---
Ta*le D9C su##ari3es the trae! ra!iation !ose cu#ulate! for , #onths an! C year *ehin! ,-
#iles of Alu#ni 4C##5 for #a0i#u# an! #ini#u# solar activity( The si#ulation is *ase! on a
sherical shell shiel! configuration an! the target #aterial of ra!iation is Silicon( In a!!ition,
further ra!iation analysis nee!s to *e !one to evaluate the ra!iation !ose an! effects on the
co#onents in the har!/are tests hase(
%., L6nch &ehic7e S0ste1
8ano9Satellites are not attache! to a searation ring as !o SclassicalS satellites *ut are lace! insi!e
a close! o!( Ance in or*it the li! of o! is oene! an! the 8ano9Satellites insi!e are release!( The
fun!a#ental goal of the !esign is therefore to fit the interface reBuire#ents of the 8ano9Satellites
launch o!( This stan!ar!i3ation allo/s for the satellite to *e lace! on virtually any launcher
caa*le of carrying the 8ano9Satellites launch o!s( 7or the lo/ cost launch service, the
8anosatellites Launch Syste# 48LS5 /hich /as !evelo#ent *y Institute for Aerosace Stu!ies,
University, is a ossi*le launcher( The !etails of 8LS /ill *e !iscusse! in the follo/ing section(
%.,.1 Can!i!ate Launch 6ehicles
Cu*eSats an! 8ano9Satellites have *een launche! fro# #any !ifferent launchers in ast several
years( The list hereafter is not e0haustive%
 STS9CCD, Cae Canaveral, 8ove#*er +--C
 Roc)ot, 'lesets), ;une +--D
 $os#os9DM, 'lesets), Acto*re +--F
 M969I, Uchinoura, 7e*ruary +--G
 "ner, &ai)onour, Su##er +--G
 'SL69C., SHAR, Srihari)ota, Aril, +--I
The #ost lausi*le otions i!entifie! so far for the 8ano9Satellites launch are liste! as follo/s%
&EGA Mai2en .7i5ht an2 2e1onstration 47i5hts
The first launch of 6E@A is lanne! for late in +--., /ith a launch !ate to *e release!( 7ollo/ing
the first flight, a series of Bualification flights are lanne! to launch( It is assu#e! that the sa#e
structure as the E9'A" searation syste# of 8anosatellites Launch Service 48LS5 /ill *e
i#le#ente! on 6E@A, as e0ecte!( The Launch is also e0ecte! to *e /ith lo/er *u!get(
Ca7!o70 7a6nch ser3ices
Cal'oly offers a*out one launch of 'ico9 an! 8ano9satellites er year( The ro:ect registere! to the
Tintereste! list‖ for flight on "8E'R #i! +--.( Launch cost are a*out
UF----(
KA! on Ariane *
The $aiser9Thre!e Arianesace 'latfor# 4$A'5 is an e0eri#ental latfor# for in9or*it
!e#onstration of technology an! scientific e0eri#ents( Arianesace as launcher authority as /ell
as ESA an! "LR are suorting $A' as future au0iliary ayloa! for Technology In9Ar*it
"e#onstration( It is unclear if 8ano9Satellites /ill *e accete! on the flight, *ut #ore !etaile!
infor#ation shoul! *e investigate!(
Nanosate77ites La6nch Ser3ice #NLS$
8anosatellites Launch Service 48LS5 is a lo/9cost launch service for nano9satellites /hich
rovi!e! *y the Sace 7light La*oratory, University of Toronto Institute for Sace Stu!ies
4UTIASNS7L5( In the ast several years, F 8LS have alrea!y launche! successfully( As it is )no/n,
the U1E9C 'ico9Satellite /as also launche! into sace /ith the 8LSD on Act( +J, +--F( The ne0t
ossi*le launch for 8LSI shoul! *e in the #i!9+-C-, *ut the e0act !ate is not fi0e!( In a!!ition, the
launch o! for 8LS /ill *e E'A" searation syste# /hich is !e!icate! for 8ano9satellite(
%.,. Launcher Acco##o!ation an! Mechanical Interface
The #echanical interface *et/een the satellite an! the launcher is achieve! through the E9'A"
launcher( E9'A", also referre! to as E'A", is a custo# !esigne! searation syste# that /as
!eveloe! at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerosace Stu!iesNSace 7light La*oratory
4UTIASNS7L5( The E'A" syste# can *e tailore! to suit s#all satellites of !ifferent si3es ranging
fro# a single Cu*eSat to larger 8ano9satellites of ar*itrary !i#ensions( The first E'A" of
UTIASNS7L, for#erly )no/n as T9'A" II, asse! its vi*ration an! ther#al vacuu# Bualification
in +--G( The 7igure D9I sho/s the illustration of the E9'A" syste#(
.i56re %8- I776stration o4 the C!OD s0ste1 #Cre2it= UTIASDS.L$
%.+ Mission Ti1e7ine
Accor!ing to the #ission reBuire#ents, the follo/ing e0ternal ara#eters /ill influence the
#ission ti#eline%
 Ar*ital ara#eters
 @roun! stations location(
 8ano9Satellite reBuire#ents an! constrains(
%.+.1 Mission 'hases
The follo/ing art su##ari3es the various hases after final satellite accetance until the !isosal
of the satellite(
!re8La6nch
In the re9launch hase the final launch site tests are erfor#e! an! the satellite is reare! for
launch( Activities inclu!e the charging of *atteries an! the chec)9out of the satellites su*syste#s(
This action /ill *e erfor#e! /hile the satellite is alrea!y integrate! into its launch o!(
La6nch an2 ear70 operations #LEO!$
LEA' hase /ill start after satellite searation fro# its launch o!( It /ill inclu!e the follo/ing
seg#ents%
 CF #inutes trans#ission an! antenna !eloy#ent !ea! ti#e(
 S/itch9on an! antenna !eloy#ent(
 Initial satellite acBuisition 4R7 &eacon5(
 6ali!ation of the correct oeration environ#ent on9*oar! the satellite(
 6ali!ation of the sace9groun! !ata lin) 4R7 Transceiver5(
This hase /ill en! once the vali!ation stes a*ove have *een erfor#e!( @enerally, this hase
/ill *e ter#inate! /ithin , !ays after e:ection fro# the launch container(
Co11issionin5 phase
"uring satellite co##issioning the on9*oar! syste#s of the TL'A8 satellite /ill *e teste! an!
their oerational erfor#ances confir#e!( The results /ill *e use! to correct an! cali*rate the on
groun! satellite #o!els(
No1ina7 phase
"uring no#inal hase TL'A8 satellite /ill *e fully oerational an! shall erfor# the !efine!
science #ission( This hase /ill *e u to one year after the en! of the co##issioning hase(
Reco3er0 phases
7or each hase, ossi*le failure scenarios an! recovery lans /ill *e ela*orate!( The recovery
lans for the no#inal /ill *e i!entical in the future stu!y(
%.+. LEA' Tentative Mission Ti#eline
7igure D9. sho/s the si#ulate! groun! trac) after in:ection fro# &aV)onour Cos#o!ro# in
$a3a)hstan( As for $ourou a tentative ti#eline /as esta*lishe! for the &aV)onour Cos#o!ro#e
situate! in $a3a)hstan( 7or this otion the launch /oul! *e #ost li)ely /ith a "ner launch
vehicle( 7or the resent si#ulation a .IMSun9synchronous launch has *een assu#e!( The /hite
art of the groun! trac) resent the co##unication ti#e /ith the four groun! station, /hich are
locate! in &erlin, To)yo, &angalore an! Stanfor! University(
7igure D9. Satellite groun! trac) after in:ection fro# &ai)onour Cos#o!ro#e
%.- Mission Operations an2 Data 47o>
TL'A8 satellite oerations /ill *e erfor#e! *y an oeration tea#, ossi*le the tea# consists
/ith a grou of &achelor an! Master Stu!ents( They /ill *e traine! *y #eans of a satellite
oerations syste#( Aeration scenarios /ill *e ela*orate! an! traine! *y using one of the t/o
TL'A8 satellites test *enches( The follo/ing scenarios /ill *e consi!ere!%
 Satellite co##issioning
 8o#inal satellite oerations
 7ault han!ling(
Training sessions /ill *e erfor#e! in an oerative environ#ent( This /ill inclu!e real9ti#e
si#ulations /here the oerations tea# /ill try to resolve a syste# failure *y fault assess#ent an!
!e*ugging(
%.-.1 Sace W @roun! "ata syste#
The !ata rate *et/een sace an! groun! reBuires the ela*oration of a SlightS !ata e0change rotocol(
7urther the !esign shoul! consi!er the !istri*ute! syste# architecture of TL'A8 #ission( 7or
teleco##an! an! tele#etry e0changes /ith TL'A8 satellite an! #ission control a ac)et service
has *een ela*orate!, insire! *y the CCS"S an! the ESA 'ac)et Utili3ation Stan!ar!( 7igure A9+
in the aen!ices sho/s the sace groun! !ata flo/ of TL'A8 #ission(
Tele#etry !ata /ill *e generate! *y the various on9*oar! alications( TL'A8 satellite foresees a
!istri*ute! TM rocessing /here each su*syste#Nayloa! /ill *e a*le to generate TM an! route it
through the R7 syste# !irectly to the groun! station or it #ight *e *uffere! in the A&"H of the
satellite for later retrieval( All tele#etry /ill *e store! an! rocesse! at #ission control for analysis
an! !islay(
Teleco##an! ac)et !ata generate! at the Mission Aerations centre /ill *e ulin)e! to TL'A8
sace seg#ent, receive! *y the R7 receiver an! !irectly route! to the !estination su*syste# or
lace! in the A&"H oeration sche!uler( 7or the R7 groun!9to9sace !ata lin), the AE(+F has
*een selecte!(
The #ore infor#ation of Tele#etry an! Teleco##an! /ill *e availa*le in the co##unication
su*syste# !esign(
(. Space S0ste1 Desi5n
(.1 S0ste1 Architect6re
Accor!ing to the scientific reBuire#ents, a !e!icate! 'ayloa! "ata Han!ling 4'"H5 syste# shall
*e i#le#ente! for on9*oar! i#age rocessing( In a!!ition, the !e!icate! chassis of the satellite
/as !esigne!( The ATMEL AT.CMFFII--A /ill *e one otion for the #ain MCU, /hich /ill
orchestrates the various functionalities rovi!e *y the follo/ing su*syste#s%
 9*oar! "ata Han!ling 4A&"H5 Syste#
 on an! Control Syste# 4A"CS5
 4E'S5

 Co##unication Syste#
(.1.1 Syste# 7unctional &loc) "iagra#
7igure ,9C sho/s the functionality of each su*syste# an! of the interactions *et/een the
su*syste#s( The electrical interfaces are reresente! *y a gray !otte! line an! the !ata flo/ in
*lac) arro/( The E'S rovi!es electrical o/er to all other su*syste#s an! #anages the *atteries
recharge fro# the solar cell( The E'S also grous the *atteries, the solar arrays, a control unit an!
!iverse #easure#ents !evices 4te#erature, current, an! voltage5( The Co##unication Syste#,
/hich is the #ain co##unication unit /ith the groun! station, is co#ose! of a UH7 transceiver,
an S9&an! trans#itter, a 6H7 trans#itter for the event #essage an! a controller to co##unicate
/ith the #ain *us( The A&"H #anages the sche!uler, erfor#s house)eeing, rovi!es the
su*syste#s a reference ti#e an! stores all the !ata that has to *e sent to the groun! station *et/een
the co##unication asses( It is co#ose! of a controller, #e#ories an! a ti#er /hich rovi!es the
cloc) for the controller( The A&"H also #onitor the satellite health status in nor#al #o!e( The
ayloa! syste# is the science #o!ule co#ose! of the otical syste# an! a !e!icate! ayloa! !ata
han!ling 4'"H5 syste#( This '"H syste# rocesses the i#age on9*oar! an! sen!s the event
#essage to the groun! *y using the S9&an! trans#itter via the satellite relay net/or)( The A"CS
!eter#ines an! controls the attitu!e of the satellite( It has !ifferent )in! of sensors an! actuators
an! a !e!icate! #icrocontroller( In a!!ition, the ther#al su*syste# is a assive syste# that
#onitors the te#erature /ithin the satellite( 7inally the structure has to assure the structural
integrity of the satellite(
.i56re (81 Space S0ste1 .6nctiona7 E7ocF Dia5ra1
(.1. Har!/are &loc) "iagra#
The follo/ing 7igure ,9+ is a co#ilation of the electrical an! !ata flo/ *loc) !iagra#( The *lue
!ashe! fra#es reresent the !ifferent *oar!s( The #other*oar! /ill *e slotte! into the connectors
of the su*syste# *oar!s(
Consi!ering the s#all si3e of the satellite there /ill *e no nee! for a Thigh9voltage‖ *us, i(e(
+I6( The voltages reBuire! *y the loa!s /ill *e generate! !irectly *y the o/er con!itioning
syste#( The E'S an! A"CS /ill acBuire infor#ation through their sensors for internal functions(
This infor#ation /ill not *e sent to A&"H over the #ain *us( &oth su*syste#s /ill only sen!
house)eeing an! TM !ata to A&"H, /ho /ill store the# until the ne0t trans#ission oortunity(
The CAM su*syste# is resonsi*le for sen!ing the house)eeing an! TM to the groun! station via
the UH7 transceiver( The S9*an! trans#itter sen!s the science !ata !irectly fro# 'ayloa! "ata
Han!ling 4'"H5 syste#( In a!!ition, the 6H7 trans#itter /ill sen! the event #essage in case of
the TL' /as !etecte!(
7urther#ore, a su##ary of the #icro9controller nee!s of various su*syste#s is sho/n in Ta*le ,9C(
.i56re (8 Sate77ite "ar2>are E7ocF Dia5ra1
Tab7e (81 Space s0ste1 contro77er reA6ire1ents
Su*syste# Controller Architecture Me#ory Re#ar)
E'S I *it 99
Rea! E'S vital ara#eters, such as
*attery voltage, te#erature etc(
Co##unication I *it 99
Manage the AE(+F rotocol for
!ata trans#ission
A&"H D+ *it ,M&
TMNTC sche!uling, storage,
verification W e0ecution, A"CS
algorith#s, on9*oar! ti#e
A"CS I *it 99 Rea! !ata fro# the A"CS sensors
'ayloa!W '"H I *it 99
Control ara#eters of the ayloa!
sensor an! ayloa! !ata han!ling
(. S0ste1 E625et
(..1 Sace Syste# Mass &u!get
The 8ano9satellite secifications state a CF )g #a0i#u# #ass allocation( Since it is the 'hase A
!esign, the #ass *u!get is *ase! on the ri#ary !esign( It /ill *e u!ate! in the follo/ing hase(
The overall #ass of the TL'A8 is C-(G,. )g, /hich #eans a #argin of a*out +.P( "uration the
follo/ing !esign hase, it is ossi*le to refine the esti#ation #a!e *efore, *ecause the structural
#o!el of the har!/are /ere availa*le( Ta*le sho/s the #ass an! !i#ension esti#ates of each
co#onents( The esti#ation of the !i#ensions an! the #ass are *ase! on the for#er 8ano9satellite
ro:ects an! the e0isting syste# co#onents(
Tab7e (8 The S0ste1 Mass E625et Esti1ation
Su*syste# Co#onents an! Ite#s4nu#*er5 Total Mass4$g5
A"CS
Star Sensor 4C5 -(FG-
Sun Sensor 4G5 -(-G-
@yroscoe 4D5 -(,F-
Micro/heel 4,5 -(CI-
A"CS MCU 4C5 -(-F-
'ayloa!
Atical Telescoe 4C5 -(F--
'"H &oar! 4C5 -(+--
A&"H A&"H &oar! 4C5 -(+--
CAM(
S9&an! 'atch Antenna4C5 -(-GF
"iole Antenna4+5 -(+--
S9&an! Trans#itter -(CC-
UH7 Transceiver TMNTC -(C--
6H7 Trans#itter -(C--
CAM( MCU4C5 -(-F
E'S Solar Array +(I+,
&attery C(---
Structure
Inclu!ing !eloya*le !evices,
suorters, scre/s, ca*les an!
shiel!ing #aterials for Ther#al
control syste#
,(---
Su#( C-(G,.
(.. Sace Syste# o/er &u!get
The esti#ation of o/er *u!get is !one using #any assu#tions( The /orst case in ter# of or*it
!uration is consi!ere! an! a D- P #argin is *oo) )et( "uration the !aylight, the #ean ro!uce!
o/er fro# solar cell is C,(G K1hL( The o/er in /atts, nee!e! *y each co#onent is resente! in
Ta*le ,9D(
Tab7e (8% The S0ste1 !o>er E625et Esti1ation
Co#onent
8A( of
co#onents
'ea)
o/erK1L
Mini#u#
'o/erK1L
Average
'o/erK1L
"uty
Cycle
Average
"uty K1L
A
&
"
HMCU C -(C-- -(-CF -(-F-- C -(-F
Mass Me#ory C -(D+, -(----J+ -(D+, C -(D+,
A"C C -(--+ -(--CI -(--CI C -(--CI
'
a
y
l
o
a
!
Ca#era C D -(-- D -(GJ +
Electronics C -(F -(-- -(F -(GJ -(DDD
'"H C C(F -(-- C(F -(GJ C
A
"
C
S
Star Sensor C C(F -(-- C(F -(GJ C
Sun Sensor , -(-C -(-- -(-C -(GJ -(-GJ
@yroscoe , -(C -(-- -(C -(GJ -(GJ
Micro 1heel D C(F -(D C(F -(GJ C
A"CS MCU C -(-. -(-CF -(-F C -(-F
S9&an!
Trans#itter
C C -(--- C -(-C, -(-C,
UH7
Transceiver
C C(+F -(CJF -(JC+F -(-C, -(C--
6H7
Trans#itter
C C(+F C(+F C(+F -(--C -(--C
CAM( MCU C -(-. -(-CF -(-F C -(-F
E
'
S
A"C C -(--+ -(--CI -(--CI C -(--CI
E'S( MCU C -(-. -(-CF -(-F C -(-F
Ather
Co#onents
C + -(-- + C +
S
u
#
D- CJ(+-I -(FDI CF(G I(J,
(..% Syste# Lin) &u!get
The co##unication architecture *et/een the groun! an! sace syste#s as currently !efine!
features a lo/ !ata rate continuous !o/nlin) trans#ission an! a high !ata rate s/itche! on *y
co##an! fro# the groun! ulin) an! an S9*an! trans#ission of scientific !ata !o/nlin)( Ta*le
,9, su##ari3es the generate! TMNTC *u!get for sace an! groun! co##unication syste#(
Tab7e (8( The S0ste1 LinF E625et Esti1ation
'ara#eters Units TM TC
7reBuency MH3 ,DJ(F ,DJ(F
Trans#it 'o/er 1atts C +-
Trans#it 'o/er !&1 -(- CD(-C
Trans#it Line Loss !& 9C 9C
Trans#it antenna &ea# /i!th !eg CC- DD
'ea) trans#it antenna gain !&i D(,J+ CD(.
Antenna ointing offset !eg .- CF
Trans#it antenna ointing loss !& 9I(-DD 9+(,J.
Trans#it antenna gain !&i 9,(FGC CC(,F
EIR' !&1 9F(FG +D(,G
'roagation ath length )# DC.,(F DC.,(F
Sace loss !& 9CFF(,C 9CFF(,C
'roagation W 'olari3ation loss !& 9-(D 9-(D
'ea) receive antenna gain !&i ,+(+I 9F(JG
Receive antenna &ea# /i!th !eg +. C--
Receive antenna ointing error !eg CF .-
Receive antenna ointing loss !& 9D(+C 9.(J+
Receive antenna gain !&i DI(JG 9CF(,I
Syste# noise te#erature !&$ +D(, +J(.
"ata Rate *s .G-- .G--
Energy er *it noise ratio !& D.(.G CD(JD
Carrier9to98oise ratio !&9H3 J.(JI ,D(FF
&it Error Rate 9 C-e9F C-e9G
ReBuire! E*N8o !& .(G C-(F
Margin !& D-(DG D(+D
Satellite &us !ata *u!get
The sace !ata *us is an IXC *us at C-- $*its er secon! to e0change !ata *et/een
su*syste#s( The transferre! !ata inclu!es the house)eeing of all su*syste#s, ti#e synchroni3ation
!ata(
"uring co##unication /ith the groun!, the see! of the R7 lin) reresents only a*out FP of this
*an!/i!th in a very /orst case scenario( The rest of the !ata, e0clu!ing ayloa!, accounts only for
C-P of the IXC *an!/i!thR once #ore /ith a /orst case scenario ta)en very large% house)eeing
of
+-- octets of !ata at F H3(
This leaves #ore than enough roo# for the ayloa!'s !ata( 1ith the *an!/i!th left 4IFP5, an
i#age coul! still *e transferre! in a*out D secon!s fro# the ayloa! to the A&"H( An! that
/ithout ta)ing into account that the ayloa! /ill never oerate at the sa#e ti#e as the R7 lin) !ue
to o/er li#itation of the 8ano9satellite(
(.% Scienti4ic !a07oa2 Instr61ent
The reBuire#ents to the ayloa! are e0traolate! fro# the roerties of the Transient Lunar
'heno#enon 4TL'5 to *e o*serve!( At first, the ri#ary goal is to o*serve the *rightening tye
TL's( In the follo/ing, Ta*le ,9F sho/s the !etecta*le infor#ation an! gives an i#ression on the
#agnitu!e of the for#er TL' o*servation infor#ation( In a!!ition, the ta*le /as !erive! fro#
research on TL' reorts an! verifie! *y "r( Anthony C(Coo) of &ritish Astrono#ical Association
4&AA5( It shoul! *e note! that all of these ara#eters are esti#ate! fro# the real o*servation !ata,
esecially the geo#etric constrains, /hich is also the crucial ara#eter for the otical syste#
!esign(
Tab7e (8* Detectab7e In4or1ation 4or Sensin5 o4 a TL! E3entG Or2ere2 b0 T0pe
TL' Tye Sectral Range
@eo#etric
Constrains
Ra!io#etric
Constrains
"uration
&rightening DI-n#9JI-n# at least +- )#
+
Increase of intensity
u to C- ti#es of
nor#al Al*e!o
D-#s to #inutes
"ar)ening DI-n#9JI-n# at least F )#
+
Re!uction in intensity
u to I-P of nor#al
Al*e!o
#inutes to hours
Re! Coloration G+-n#9JI-n# at least F )#
+
99 #inutes to hours
&lue
Coloration
DI-n#9,.-n#
+
at least F )# 99 #inutes to hours
A*scuration DI-n#9JI-n#
"een!ent on
surface feature,
*ut at least C )#
+
99 #inutes to hours
(.%.1 "esign ReBuire#ents
The ayloa! of the TL'A8 satellite /ill *e an otical telescoe that /ill ta)e i#ages an! vi!eos of
TL' an! that /ill also !e#onstrate the ne/ technologies /hich /ill *e i#le#ente! for 'ico9 an!
8ano9satellites( @enerally, it shall satisfy the follo/ing con!itions%
 The instru#ent shall *e caa*le of !etecting light in the visi*le sectral *an!, /hich #eans the
/avelength fro# DI-n# to JI-n#(
 The sensor shall resolve the #onochro#e i#ages /ith I er i0el an! the sensor shall cover
the /hole face of the Moon(
 The otical instru#ent shall have a @roun! Sa#ling "istance 4@S"5 at least +- )#
+
an! the
sensor of the otical telescoe shall offer a sa#ling rate at least D- fs to cature the
&rightening tye TL'(
 The ayloa! shall *e a*le to !etect the chosen tye TL' 4also /ith very short ti#e events5 on a
full Moon, as /ell as on a ne/ Moon, an! also the erio! in9*et/een the#(
 The ayloa! shall !etect an increase in lighting of +F-P of the original #agnitu!e, an! also a
!ecrease of I-P in case of !ar)ening9tye TL'(
Operationa7 reA6ire1ents
In the first hase, *rightening9tye TL' shall *e o*serve! /ith a @roun! Sa#ling "istance 4@S"5
of +- )#
+
or *etter( The ayloa! shall han!le u to D- fra#es er secon! to also !etect the very
short9ti#e TL' events( A !e!icate! 'ayloa! "ata Han!ling 4'"H5 shall han!le the !ata generate!
*y the otical instru#ent( It shall !etect the changes in intensity of otical signals of lunar surface
features( In case of a !etecte! TL' event, the '"H shoul! cature a short vi!eo of the event
starting so#e secon!s *efore it haens( This is significant for verification of the TL' event on the
groun!(
In the follo/ing !esign hase, as state! in the reli#inary #ission o*:ectives, the secon! goal is to
!etect the !ar)ening9tyes of TL' as /ell, therefore in this con!ition the !esire! @S" shall *e F
)#
+
or *etter(
!h0sica7 Constrains
Since there /ill not *e enough lace to attach all the reBuire! electronic co#onents of the ayloa!
su*syste# to the otical syste#, the ayloa!=s electronics shall consist of a hea!*oar!, inclu!ing
the !etector /hich is attache! to the otical syste#, an! a #ain9*oar! on a secon! 'C&, housing
the o/er suly, an! other co#onents reBuire! to successfully oerate the !etector an!
co##unicate /ith the A&"H su*syste#( The sace /hich has *een attri*ute! to the ayloa! has a
volu#e of KG-4length5 0 G- 4height5 0 J- 4!eth5L ##
D
for the otical syste# an! the hea!*oar!,
an! a volu#e of KJ- 4length5 0 D- 4height5 0 +- 4!eth5L ##
D
for the #ain9*oar!( The total #ass of
the ayloa! shall *e less than C $g(
The ayloa! syste# consists of t/o #ain ele#ents%
 An otical syste# use! to #agnify an! i#age the *rightening9tye TL' on the CC" sensor,
an! also inclu!ing its correson!ing electronic circuit, /hich rovi!es the reBuire! o/er an!
control signals for the !etector an! interface /ith '"H syste#(
− % − r −
 A !e!icate! 'ayloa! "ata Han!ling 4'"H5 syste# /ill han!le the i#age !ata fro# the otical
instru#ent, /hich is resonsi*le for on9*oar! i#age rocessing an! e0ecutes the vali!
co##an!s for A&"H(
(.%. Atics an! Sensors
Optics an2 Sensors Ca7c67ation
The otics an! sensors reBuire#ents are !erive! fro# the general ayloa! reBuire#ents regar!ing
the sectral an! geo#etric resolution( The follo/ing calculations are *ase! on the !esign of otical
ayloa! on the reference KJL(
In or!er to esti#ate the ara#eters of the otics an! sensors, follo/ing assu#tion are #a!e *efore%
Circular or*it in the Lo/ Earth Ar*it /ith an altitu!e %
L!Os
= G.-/m , an! the inclination is o#itte!(
The #ean !istance *et/een the Earth an! Moon% #
!M
The #ean ra!ius of the Earth is r
!
= GDJC/m
The #ean ra!ius of the Moon is r
M
= CJDJ/m
= DI,,--/m
The Angular Ra!ius of the Moon as seen fro# the satellite is calculate! *y%

ρ

=
arcsin
+r
M

=
-(FD-
o
#EBu( ,(C$
 

#
!M L!Os ! M 
The Ma0i#u# !istance
= 4# − %
5
+
− r
+
= DIDFI,(+F/m
!M !M L!Os M
4EBu( ,(+5
The sensor loo)ing angle%
η =
ρ
+
4EBu( ,(D5
Here, chose a #a0i#u# @roun! Sa#ling "istance 4@S"5 of B
Ma>
= ,(,J/m , /hich
correson!s to the reBuire! #a0i#u# groun! i0el resolution of +-/m
+
(
Therefore, the instantaneous fiel! of vie/ /ill *e
(FO& =
The /i!th of one i0el is
B
Ma>
#
!M
− %
L!Os
− r
!

r
M
= -(---GIC
o
4EBu( ,(,5
int Ma>
#
"i>el
= G(-µm 4EBu( ,(F5
/hich correson!s to the tyical CC" sensors(
So the nu#*er of i0els in one ro/
ρ
C
c
=
(FO&
= JJI 4EBu( ,(G5
1ith EBu( ,(, an! EBu( ,(F, the focal length of the telescoe can *e calculate! as
⋅ #
) =
!M "i>el
B
Ma>
= -(FCGm 4EBu( ,(J5
1ith the average visi*le light /avelength of
λ
Ave
= FI-nm
An! a Buality factor for i#aging of
D = -(G
4EBu( ,(I5
4EBu( ,(.5
/hich a H9factor of -(G to -(J is co##on for #ost of the co##ercial earth o*servation satellite(
7inally, the !iffraction li#ite! aerture is

A"er
=

+(,, ⋅ λ
Ave
⋅ ) ⋅ D
=

-(-JDm
#
"i>el
4EBu( ,(C-5
In or!er to esti#ate the integrate! u/elling ra!iance, follo/ing assu#tions are #a!e%
The solar constant is
S = CDGJ(G
E
m
+
4EBu( ,(CC5
Lunar geo#etric9al*e!o is
A
Alb
= -(C+
The integrate! u/elling ra!iance results in
L = S ⋅ A = CG,(CC+
E
int Alb
m
+
4EBu( ,(C+5
4EBu( ,(CD5
Although the solar constant inclu!es the energy of the /hole solar sectru#, it is sufficiently e0act
for this esti#ation(
L = L ⋅B
+
= D(+I+ ⋅C-
.
E
4EBu( ,(C,5
The inut o/er at the sensor is
P =
L
4

5
+
π = .(D+I
⋅C-
−CC
4EBu( ,(CF5
in
%
+
+
1here the 'lan)=s Constant
% = G(G+G ⋅C-
−D,
F ⋅ sec
1ith a tyical otical trans#ission factor of
τ
-
= -(JF
The inut o/er at the !etector i0el is
4EBu( ,(CG5
4EBu( ,(CJ5
P

= P
in
⋅τ
-
= G(..G
⋅C-
−CC
E
4EBu( ,(CI5
1ith an esti#ate! integration ti#e of
t
int
= -(--Csec
The availa*le energy after integration ti#e is
4EBu( ,(C.5
! = P

⋅ t
int
= G(..G
⋅C-
−C,
E
4EBu( ,(+-5
An! /ith this, the nu#*er of availa*le hotons
! ⋅ λ
:
"
=
% ⋅
c
= +-,CDG 4EBu( ,(+C5
/here λ is the #ean /avelength, an! c the see! of light
λ = FI-nm
c = D ⋅C-
I
m
s
4EBu( ,(++5
4EBu( ,(+D5
In or!er to evaluate the nu#*er of electrons availa*le :
e
, nu#*er of noise electrons :
n
, an! total
nu#*er of noise electrons :
t
, it is assu#e! that
The Buantu# efficiency of the !etector is
D! = -(F
The nu#*er of rea! out noise electrons
:
r
= +F
8u#*er of availa*le electrons
:
e
= :
"
⋅ D! =
C-+-GI
4EBu( ,(+,5
4EBu( ,(+F5
4EBu( ,(+G5
8u#*er of noise electrons
:
n
= :
e
= DC.(,I 4EBu( ,(+J5
Total nu#*er of noise electrons
: = :
+
+ :
+
=
DC.(ID
4EBu( ,(+I5
t n r
1ith these values, an esti#ation of Signal9to98oise ratio an! the reBuire! !yna#ic range of the
sensor are calculate!
S:3 =
:
e
= DC.(CD
:
t
3 =
:
e
= ,-I+(J+
:
r
4EBu( ,(+.5
4EBu( ,(D-5
7ro# the calculation a*ove, the reBuire#ents for the otics an! sensors are sho/n in Ta*le ,9G(
Tab7e (8, The reA6ire1ents 4or optics an2 sensors
8u#( Reference Attri*ute ReBuire#ent
+C-C @S"
The Ma0i#u# @S" shall not *e s#aller than D)#, in or!er to
stay /ithin the *oun!ary of a nano9satellite, an! shall not *e
greater than ,(,J )#, regar!ing the !etecting of *rightening9
tye TL' Events(
+C-+ CC" Sensor
The sensor chosen shall *e a CC" array /ith no #ore than JJI
i0els er ro/ an! /ith no #ore than JJI ro/s(
+C-D 'i0el Si3e
The si3e of one i0el of the sensor array shall not *e greater
than G u#(
+C-, 7ocal Length
The focal length of the instru#ent shall not *e greater than
-(FCG#
+C-F Aerture The aerture of the instru#ent shall not *e greater than J(Dc#(
+C-G
Signal to 8oise
Ratio
The instru#ent shall have a signal to noise ratio of at least DC.(
+C-J "yna#ic Range The sensor shall offer a !yna#ic range of at least ,-I+(
7or otical syste#, the reli#inary analyses sho/ that the use of several lenses is reBuire!( The
!etails /ill *e !e#onstrate! in the follo/ing arts(
7ro# the calculation, for the TL'A8 #ission, the lens reBuires at least F- ## focal length to
fulfill the o*servation reBuire#ents( "ue to the 'hysical constrains of 8ano9Satellites an! the
launch o! reBuire#ents, the TL'A8 satellite /as constraine! as K+--E+--E+--L ##
D
( Ho/ever,
the !esire! focal length of the otics shoul! *e at least F-- ##R therefore, the e0tensi*le structure
shoul! *e !esigne! for earn the focal length of lens for otical instru#ents( Ane of the ossi*le
e0tensi*le structures is i#le#ente! *y Intelligent Sace Syste#s la*oratory 4ISSL5 at University
of To)yo 4;aan5( An! this e0tensi*le *oo# /as also i#le#ente! an! launche! /ith the 'ico9
satellite 'RISM on early +--.( The 7igure ,9D !e#onstrates the general structure of the !eloya*le
#echanis# of 'RISM(
.i56re (8% The e;tensib7e boo1 o4 !RISM #Cre2it= ISSLG Uni3. o4 ToF0o$
(.%.% 'ayloa! "ata Han!ling 4'"H5 syste#
The function of the ayloa! !ata han!ling 4'"H5 syste# is resonsi*le for on9*oar! i#age
rocessing an! e0ecutes the vali! co##an!s for A&"H( The '"H unit shoul! cature the transient
Lunar 'heno#enon 4TL'5 autono#ously an! !o the i#age rocessing in or!er to get relate!
infor#ation of the event( In case of a !etecte! TL' event, the '"H shoul! cature a short vi!eo of
the event starting so#e secon!s *efore it haens( This is significant for verification of the TL'
event on the groun!(
After the event /as cature!, the '"H also store the !ata in a suita*le for#at /ith full resolution(
The !o/nlin) of !ata of one single event shall *e co#lete! /ithin +, hours( In a!!ition, in or!er
to store the TL' event vi!eo, the '"H unit shall have the #ass #e#ory( The calculations of
a#ount of !ata an! reBuire! !o/nlin) !ata rate /ill *e sho/n in the follo/ing '"H !esign chater(
The !esigne! !uty cycle of the #ission is C--P, therefore, there /ill *e a#ount of !ata an! in
connection /ith it the high !ata rates, the scientific !ata has to *e !o/nloa! via a searate
trans#itter, oerating in high freBuencies( Usually, a #iniature s9*an! trans#itter /ill *e
i#le#ente! for the !ata trans#itting( The '"H unit shall have the incororate interface to access
the #iniature trans#itter( This trans#itter an! trans#itting technology /ill *e !escri*e! in the
TTWC chater(
In a!!ition, the re!un!ant '"H unit /ill *e i#le#ente! an! s/itche! *y the /atch !og #o!ule
/hen the failures or contingencies occur( Mean/hile, the soft/are of the '"H unit shall *e
u!ata*le via the !ata uloa! an! the ara#eters for TL' event !etection shall *e a!:usta*le( Ta*le
,9J sho/s the reBuire#ents for the '"H syste#(
Accor!ing to the calculate! results of the otics an! sensor reBuire#ents, the si3e of one i#age /ill
*e esti#ate! as follo/ing%
JJI× JJI×I = ,I,++J+4bits5 =
,(IMbits
4EBu( ,(DC5
In or!er to o*server the *rightening tye TL' events, the 7ra#e Rate of the telescoe shoul! *e at
least D- 7s, /hich #eans the ayloa! /ill ta)e D- i#ages in one secon!s( Therefore, the !ata rate
*et/een ayloa! an! '"H syste# is calculate! as%
,(I× D- =
C,,Mb"s
4EBu( ,(D+5
Tab7e (8+ ReA6ire1ents 4or !D" s0ste1
8u#( Reference Attri*ute ReBuire#ent
++-C I#age rocessing
The '"H shall a*le to !etect the changes of *rightness in the
ictures receive! fro# the otical sensor(
++-+ 6i!eo Cature
In or!er to verify the TL' events on the groun! station, the
'"H shall cature a vi!eo of each !etecte! event /ith five
secon!s( 7or the five secon!s vi!eo, it shall *e at least t/o
secon!s rior to the events(
++-D 6i!eo &uffer
The '"H shall reBuire to *e incororate! /ith a vi!eo *uffer
/ith caacity of storing a five secon! of vi!eo(
++-, 6i!eo Storage
In case of a TL' event, the ra/ !ata shoul! *e store! in '"H
unit, an! then transfer to the groun! station through !o/nlin)(
++-F "o/nlin)
The '"H shall have an interface to a searate ultra high
freBuency trans#itter in +9, @H3 *an! 4S9&an!5 for !o/nlin)(
++-G Event Han!ling
In case of a TL' event, the '"H shall infor# the A&"H, /hich
/ill sen! an event #essage to the scientists via satellite relay
syste#(
++-J Soft/are U!ate
The '"H soft/are shall *e u!ate! /hen contacte! /ith
groun! station(
++-I
'ara#eter
A!:ust#ent
The ara#eters for the !efinition of TL' shoul! *e a!:usta*le(
!D" "ar2>are Desi5n
.i56re (8( !D" interna7 sche1atics an2 e;terna7 inter4aces
As sho/n in 7igure ,9, a*ove, the '"H has the follo/ing co#onents, !ata rocessor /ith the
function to rocess the !ata receive!, an! the high caacity #e#ory /hich stores the large volu#es
of the !ata, as /ell as the !ata for#atting an! control logic unit /ith the function of for#atting the
!ata into suita*le for#at for !ata transfer an! also i#le#enting the control logic( The last art is
the co##an! !eco!er( This unit vali!ates an! !eco!es the co##an!s co#ing in an! out of the
"HU(
The har!/are of the '"H is attache! to the otical syste# an! *ears the !etector an! the
co#onents reBuire! to successfully han!le the i#age receive! fro# ayloa! an! co##unicate
/ith the A&"H su*syste#( It inclu!es%
 A #icrocontroller 4MS',D-7CGCC5, use! to oerate the !etector an! the ayloa! !ata han!ling
rocess, co##unicate /ith the A&"H,
 A SRAM 4RCL6-,CGCS&9JLI5, use! to store the i#age !ata an! the vi!eo !ata of the
!etecte! TL' events until transfer to the A&"H via I
+
C *us(
In a!!ition, as seen fro# the a*ove figure, the '"H syste# interacts /ith the otical ayloa!,
A&"H an! !o/nlin) transon!er( @enerally, the '"H has a !irect connection /ith the otical
ayloa!( In a!!ition, '"H has a *i!irectional connection /ith the A&"H( It is interface! via I
+
C
&us( Mean/hile, it also has a connection /ith the !o/nlin) transon!er /ith the !ata rate CM*its,
/hich interface! via RS+D+(
!D" So4t>are Desi5n
7or the '"H soft/are !esign of TL'A8 #ission, a successful roce!ure to ta)e an i#age consists
of the follo/ing stes%
 A&"H sen!s a #essage to E'S to turn on the ayloa! su*syste#
 E'S turns on the ayloa! su*syste# an! sen!s an ac)no/le!ge#ent to A&"H
 A&"H sen!s a co##an! to the ayloa! #icrocontroller to initiali3e the otical !etector
 'ayloa! #icrocontroller initiali3es the otical !etector accor!ing to the receive! ara#eters
an! sen!s an ac)no/le!ge#ent to A&"H for successful initiali3ation of the !etector
 A&"H sen!s a co##an! to the ayloa! !ata han!ling syste# to ta)e an i#age
1hen the i#age /as ta)ing, the i#age /oul! *e rocesse! *y the '"H syste# to in!entify the
!esire! TL' i#age( In case of the TL' events !etecte!, the '"H controllers triggers the i#age
caturing, stores the five secon!s vi!eo *efore the events, for#ats the scientific !ata an! sen!s
the# to A&"H( Mean/hile, the '"H unit sen!s an event #essage to the groun! via the !o/nlin)
transon!er an! satellite relay net/or)(
A&"H rea!s the science !ata, co#resses it if necessary an! stores it in a #e#ory until transfer to
the groun! station(
@enerally, the recovery lans have to *e ela*orate! for all ossi*le failure scenarios !uring this
roce!ure( The ayloa! rogra# is *ase! on interruts co#ing fro# A&"H via the I
+
C interface as
visuali3e! in 7igure ,9F( Such interruts allo/ configuring the !etector, triggering an i#age
cature an! ossi*le vi!eo storage( The science !ata /ill *e transferre! to the A&"H in ac)ets via
the I
+
C interface /here it is store! until transfer to the groun! station(
.i56re (8* The !D" So4t>are Data .7o>

(.( Attit62e Deter1ination an2 Contro7 S0ste1 #ADCS$
(.(.1 A"CS Avervie/
The reBuire#ents for the A"CS su*syste# are !riven *y the science reBuire#ents( In general, The
Attitu!e "eter#ination an! Control Syste# 4A"CS5 of the satellite /ill *e resonsi*le for
acBuiring an! controlling the satellites current orientation an! attitu!e( In or!er to !eter#ine the
ara#eters reBuire! for attitu!e control #aneuvers, various sensors /ill *e reBuire! for our #ission(
The *aseline !esign for the instru#ent is an otical sensor /ith JJIYJJI i0els giving each i0el a
fiel! of vie/ of -(---GICM( 1ith an esti#ation of a C-+,YC-+, i0els sensor, the accuracy is
Acuracy = (FO& ⋅ 4C-+, − JGI5 =
-(CGJ
o
4EBu( ,(DD5
The ointing sta*ility reBuire! for Moon o*servation is calculate! fro# ayloa! reBuire#ents( The
tolerance for ointing sta*ility of one i0el is C-P of I7A6 !ivi!e! *y the integration ti#e( The
general integration ti#e is liste! as -(--C s( Therefore, the sta*ility is esti#ate! as follo/ing%
Fitter =
(FO& ⋅ -(C
= -(-GIC
o
N
sec
t
int
4EBu( ,(D,5
The sle/ rate of the sacecraft /hich resonsi*le for trac)ing of the Moon is calculate! *ase! on
the A"CS !esign chater of reference KJL( The sle/ rate /as esti#ate! *y the follo/ing for#ula,
/here the su# of the vie/ angle is CI-M(
 
ω

=



vie1angle 
=
-(-DC
o
N
sec
4EBu( ,(DF5
Sle1 



P
orbit

+ 
The calculations a*ove are :ust rough esti#ation, *ecause the necessary angular velocity changes
!uring rotation aroun! the Earth, *ut the #a0i#u# at the selecte! oints, an! the #ini#u# in the
#i!!le oints( In or!er to achieve the continuous o*servation of Moon, this sle/ rate reBuire#ent
is vali! for all three a0es( Accor!ing to the calculation for A"CS, the reBuire#ents for A"CS are
sho/n in Ta*le ,9I(
Tab7e (8- The reA6ire1ents 4or ADCS
8u#*er Reference 7unction ReBuire#ent
D+-C Sensors
The sensors for A"CS shall inclu!e%
Star sensor, sun sensor, gyroscoes
D+-+ Actuators
The reaction /heels in all the three a0es are
nee!e!(
D+-D 'ointing Accuracy
The A"CS shall rovi!e a ointing accuracy at
least -(CGJ
o
D+-, 'ointing sta*ility
The A"CS shall rovi!e a ointing sta*ility at
least -(-GIC
o
er secon!(
D+-F Sle/ Rate
7or the o*servation of the Moon, the sle/ rate of
the A"CS shall *e at least -(-DC !eg er secon!(
(.(. A"CS Su*syste# "esign
The !esign of the A"CS /ill *e *ase! on the reBuire#ent in Ta*le ,9I a*ove( The !esign
i#le#entation of the A"CS syste# to achieve the ointing accuracy an! sta*ility reBuire#ents is
sho/n in 7igure ,9G( The !eter#ination is the #ost i#ortant oint, as )no/le!ge of the location
/here the ayloa! is ointing is nee!e! to characteri3e the Transient Lunar 'heno#enon
4TL'5(The #a:or issue of the control is to )ee the satellite ayloa! to/ar!s to the Moon of the
no#inal oeration #o!e(
.i56re (8, ADCS 46nctiona7 2ia5ra1
The "eter#ination an! Control algorith#s as /ell as the Ar*it 'roagator an! Earth Magnetic
7iel! Mo!el run on the A&"H syste# 4/hich is the #ain co#uter of the TL'A8 satellite5( The
A"CS #icro9controller itself is in charge of the sensor rea!ings an! actuators control(
The sensors use! for the A"CS syste# are%
T
o
r
7
u
e
s

0
N
m
2
Star sensor
 Three gyroscoes to #easure the sinning rate for each a0is
Sun sensors
 Te#erature sensors to co#ensate the te#erature !rift of the other sensors
The actuators are%
 Three #icro9/heels as the actuators are resonsi*le for the three9a0is sta*ility(
Dist6rbance 1o2e7
The !istur*ances of the in sace environ#ent are #ainly !ue to four sources of torBues on lo/
Earth or*it 4LEA5( They are gravity9gra!ient effects, #agnetic fiel!s, !istur*ance *y solar ra!iation
an! aero!yna#ic torBues( These torBues are categori3e! as secular an! cyclic( Cyclic torBue varies
in a sinusoi!al #anner !uring an or*it an! secular accu#ulate /ith ti#e an! !on=t average out over
an or*it( 7or a satellite in LEA, gravity9gra!ient an! aero!yna#ic torBue is secular an! solar
ra!iation an! #agnetic fiel! cyclic(
The !istur*ances torBues /ere searately calculate! in the very /orst case for every altitu!e
*et/een ,-- )ilo#eters an! C--- )ilo#eters /ith a ste of C-- )ilo#eters( 7or the /orst case each
ara#eter /as ta)en at its #a0i#al value( 7or this reason no #argin /as a!!e! at this oint( The
#a:or !istur*ance factor is aero!yna#ic u to G--)#, higher the #agnetic fiel! *eco#es #ore
i#ortant( The su##ari3e! results can *e seen in 7igure ,9J(
-(
8 10
3
S5a4e Disturban4e as 9un4tion of Orbit .ltitu/e
&:%
&
2:%
2
1:%
1
0:%
0
300 %00 600 (00 '00 900 1000
Orbit .ltitu/e 01m2
.i56re (8+ The 2ist6rbance torA6e in LEO
Attit62e Mo2e
"esite the science #o!e for o*serving the TL' events, the other three !istinctive oeration #o!es
/ere !efine! for TL'A8 satellite A"CS( They are su##ari3e! in Ta*le ,9.( "ue to our #ission<s
launch styleZiggy*ac) launch, there is no or*it in:ection #o!e for our #ission( After release
fro# the launcher, the initiali3ation #o!e is the safe #o!e /hich is use! also in the e#ergency
con!ition( The Earth ointing #o!e is resonsi*le for the co##unication /hen assing over /ith
the groun! station( The Moon ointing #o!e is also calle! <Science #o!e= /hich resonsi*le for
o*servation of the TL' events( 7inally, the sle/ #o!e is alie! if the satellite nee!s to
reorientation for focusing on Moon surface(
Tab7e (8/ ADCS operation 1o2es
Mo!e "escrition
Safe Use! in initiali3ation or e#ergencies
Earth 'ointing 7or co##unication /ith groun! station
Moon 'ointing 4Science5 7or #ission science o*:ectives
Sle/ Mo!e Reorientation for focusing on Moon surface
(.(.% A"CS Algorith#
Coor!inate Reference 7ra#e
7or the !erivation of the !yna#ic #o!el of the satellite three !ifferent reference fra#es /ere
!efine! an inertial reference fra#e 4IR75,/hich fi0e! to the Earth center, an or*ital reference fra#e
4AR754The re! #ar)5, fi0e! to the or*it /ith the ositive 09!irection ointing in the !irection of
!islace#ent an! a ositive 39!irection ointing to/ar! the center of the Earth( The last one is the
*o!y9fi0e! reference fra#e 4SR75 /hich coinci!es /ith the AR7 /hen the satellite has the !esire!
no#inal orientation( The satial !efinitions of three reference fra#es a*ove /ere !e#onstrate! in
7igure ,9I(
.i56re (8- ADCS coor2inate re4erence 4ra1e
Control Algorith# "esign
@enerally, there are three #o!els of the aroriate control algorith#s for three sta*ili3e! 8ano9
Satellites in current alications( The three #o!els are liste! *elo/%
 Inertial Buaternion *ase!R
 8on9inertial Buaternion *ase!R
 8on9inertial Euler angles *ase!(
The #ore /or) shoul! *e i#le#ente! on the #ission hase &( The ossi*le solution is to
esta*lish the satellite control !iagra# to !o the attitu!e si#ulation(
Attitu!e "eter#ination
In or!er to /or) roerly, the #icro9/heels nee! to )no/ the current satellite attitu!e an!
rotational see!( &ase! on #easure#ents fro# the star sensor, sun sensors an! gyroscoes, the
attitu!e !eter#ination algorith# tries to esti#ate the syste# state varia*les 4i(e( attitu!e an!
rotational see!5(
In general, the ossi*le attitu!e !eter#ination algorith#s are liste! *elo/%
7irst, a co#lete continuous $al#an filter /as i#le#ente! to serve as a co#arison *asis to the
other si#ler an! easier to i#le#ent esti#ators(
&esi!e a !iscre!ite! $al#an filter, other ossi*le #etho!s /ere
9 TRIA" algorith#
9 "avenort=s B9#etho!
9 Ati#al T/o A*servation Huaternion Esti#ation
These #etho!s shoul! *e teste! an! si#ulate! in #ission 'hase & in or!er to fulfill the satellite
attitu!e !eter#ination reBuire#ents(
(.(.( A"CS Technical "escrition
The current !esign /as *ase! on the A"CS !esign for# reference KJL an! for#er S
+
A8Sat #ission
!esign reort 4Reference KGL5( 7igure ,9. sho/s the ossi*le !eter#ination an! control syste#s, the
selecte! ones are #ar)e! in green9*lue(
"uring !aylight, three )in!s of sensors are use!, /hich inclu!es gyroscoes, sun sensor an! the star
sensor( "uring the eclise, the sun sensors /ill *eco#e useless( The star sensors an! the
gyroscoes /ill still *e use!( "ue to !rift, the gyroscoes /ill ro*a*ly nee! to *e recali*rate!( It
/ill *e !one *y using the sun sensors !uring !aylight(
An efficient cali*ration #etho!s nee!s to *e foun! for the gyroscoes in the !esign hase( A
!etaile! an! co#lete #o!el of the sun sensors an! star sensors #ust *e create!R for that a #o!el
rovi!ing the !irection of the sun as a function of the !ate, satellite or*it an! osition shoul! *e
esta*lishe! for the attitu!e control algorith#(
.i56re (8/ ADCS har2>are tra2e8o44
The A"CS #icrocontroller /ill not suort !eter#ination an! control algorith#s( It /ill *e use! to
collect the sensors values an! to store the# on*oar! until the An9&oar! Co#uter 4A&C5 uses
the#( It /ill also *e use! to control the actuators once the #ain co#uter has calculate! the
co##an! values(
In a!!ition, all !ata are sent to the A"CS using the #ain I
+
C *us( These !ata #ainly co#e fro# the
A&"H syste# an! the E'S( The A"CS *oar! /ill have only one suly voltage of D(D6 than)s to
the E'S su*syste#( Therefore, the A"CS co#onents #ust co#ly /ith this reBuire#ent(
7urther#ore, to ensure the relia*le oeration, the current an! voltage li#itations #ust *e
i#le#ente! for each co#onent( This revents the shut!o/n of the /hole A"CS *oar! if the
short circuits occur(
The /hole A"CS /ill *e asse#*le! insi!e the satelliteR therefore, /ith a #argin of +-°C,
the
te#erature range for A"CS *oar! /ill *e 9D-°C to
[G-°C(
(.(.* 'roose! Co#onents
The follo/ing su*9section lists the roose! ro!ucts for TL'A8 A"CS( Most of the co#onents
can *e !irectly foun! in the #ar)et an! have *een roven in so#e sace alications(
A"CS Control &oar!
The A"CS control *oar! shoul! *e !esigne! in the future /or)( The control *oar! can *e !esigne!
in the revious ro:ect( All the A"CS co#onents /ill *e chosen to fulfill the A"CS reBuire#ents(
The #icro9controller of A"CS /ill not run the attitu!e !eter#ination an! control algorith#, *ut it
/ill collect the sensor values an! store the# until the A&C 4An9*oar! Co#uter5 use the#(
Therefore, one can!i!ate #icro controller for A"CS /ill *e MS',D-7CG. fro# Te0as Instru#ents(
The #icrocontroller has an internal C+9*it analog to !igital converter 4A"C5( It is #ainly use! to
#easure the star sensors, sun sensors, gyroscoes an! te#erature sensors signals(
@yroscoe
In the A"CS !esign hase, the MEMs gyroscoes I"@9C--- or I"@9D-- fro# InvenSense /ill *e
use!( They /or) /ith a +(J6 to D(D6 o/er suly an! have a o/er consu#tion of I(F#A( Each
chi contains a +9a0is gyroscoe, so t/o chis of these gyroscoes are necessary to o*tain
#easure#ent in the D a0is of rotation(
Sun Sensor
The sun sensors /hich have *een investigate! are rovi!e! *y Technical University of "en#ar)
4"TU5( The sensors can #easure the sun !irection on t/o a0es( Therefore, one sensor stan!s on
each face of the satellite 4G at all5( The outut of the sun sensor is a current /hich is converte! into
an analog voltage an oerational a#lifier(
Star Sensor
The #iniature star sensors are #ight *e rovi!e! *y Co#tech AeroAstro( The star sensor is a s#all,
lo/ o/er one, /ith an accuracy of *etter than \J- arc9 secon!s in all three a0es 4D]5( This
#iniature star trac)er has a \D- !egree of fiel! of vie/, a trac)ing u!ate rate of C H3, an! a #ass
of only D-- gra#s rovi!ing reasona*le star trac)ing accuracy /ith lo/ #ass an! o/er
consu#tion at less than half the cost of other star trac)ers availa*le( The outut of star sensor
coul! *e Buaternion /hich can *e !irectly use! in the attitu!e !eter#ination algorith#(
Micro 1heel
In the A"CS !esign hase, the four #icro /heels 4Ane for re!un!ancy5 are selecte! as the
actuators( Ane suita*le can!i!ate is the #icro /heel /hich !eveloe! *y the !eart#ent of
Aeronautics in Technical University of &erlin( Each #icro /heel is having an angular #o#entu#
of at least C(F 0 C-
9,
8#s /ith a #ini#u# torBue of C(F 0 C-
9G
8#R the si3e of a single !evice is +-
## in !ia#eter an! CF ## in height an! a #ass of D- gra#( The TL'A8 satellite A"CS /ill
utili3e four #icro /heels for D9 a0is sta*ili3ation( 1ith a total #ass a*out C,-g, a torBue of D 0 C-
9F
8# er /heel an! a #a0i#u# o/er consu#tion of C 1 for the co#lete #icro /heel syste#
inclu!ing the /heel !rive electronics(
(.* On8Eoar2 Data "an27in5 #OED"$
The An*oar! Co#uter is the su*syste# controlling all the functions of the satellite an! can *e
regar!e! as the *rain of satellite( It /ill have an oerating syste# installe! that /ill #anage the
rogra#s, /hich han!le out various tas)s( The rogra#s /ill also rea! the status of the !ifferent
sensors( The ri#ary reBuire#ent of the An9&oar! Co#uter 4A&C5 is to co##unicate /ith other
su*syste#s in the satellite an! to )ee a trac) of all the rocess going on in the satellite(
(.*.1 A&"H ReBuire#ents
The har!/are an! soft/are !esign !een!s uon the essential function to *e !one *y the A&C( The
reBuire#ents of A&"H syste# are sho/n in Ta*le ,9C-(
Tab7e (81' The reA6ire1ents 4or OED" s0ste1
8u#( Attri*ution ReBuire#ents
D,-C Architecture
The An*oar! co#uter #ust *e a*le to co##unicate /ith
!ifferent su*syste#(
D,-+ Soft/are
A high level language 4#o!ular5 shall *e use! for on*oar!
soft/are an! #ust *e a*le to u!ate it fro# groun! station(
D,-D E#ergency
The An*oar! soft/are stores co##an!s /hich are e0ecute! in
case of e#ergency(
D,-, Tele#etry
The A&"H recor!s the tele#etry !ata for sen!ing to groun!
station for analysis(
D,-F Teleco##an!
'rocessing of teleco##an!s fro# groun! station, inclu!ing ti#e
tagge! teleco##an!s(
D,-G Autono#y
I!entify an! autono#ously react to the situation *oth critical
events 4soft/are #alfunctions5 an! event !etection 4TL' events5(
In or!er to have the essential functions, it is clear that the A&AH syste# /oul! nee! to have
follo/ing co#onents%
 An analogue9to9!igital converter, for recor!ing tele#etry !ata on the satellite(
 Me#ory for storing the tele#etry !ata(
 Relia*le #e#ory for storing the soft/are to run on the A&C(
 It is !eci!e! to have the self re9rogra##ing feature on the A&C as /ell, so the syste# #ust
*e caa*le of this(
 Ane or #ore stan!ar! *uses for co##unicating *et/een the !evices an! su*syste#s(
 Ti#ers for /atch!og functions as /ell as running ti#e !elaye! co##an!s( This #ay also
reBuire an e0ternal oscillator(
 Stan!ar! Interfaces for the A&C to co##unicate *et/een sensors an! other Su*syste#
har!/are
(.*. A&"H 7unctional Architecture
The functional architecture as sho/n in 7igure ,9C- features a /atch!og ti#er for syste# resets(
The syste# has *een *uilt to rovi!e ra!iation ro*ustness( The #ost co##on failure scenarios are
liste! in Ta*le ,9CC(
.i56re (81' OED" 46nctiona7 architect6re
Tab7e (811 .ai76re Scenarios 4or On8Eoar2 Microcontro77ers
7ailure ConseBuence Mitigation Metho!
Soft/are loc)9u
1rong oerations are e0ecute!, no
controller not controlla*le
Har!/are /atch9!og ti#er
Single event latch9u
Short9circuit /ithin se#icon!uctor
chi( &urn9out of co#onent
Latch9u rotection circuit(
Single event uset
4ra!iation5
&it flis in #e#ory
^RAM for rogra# co!e
^Error !etection an!
correction for RAMN7LASH
The critical reBuire#ent /hich li#its the !esign of the A&"H architecture is the sace oerating
!e#an!( As no one /ill *e a*le to reset the rocessor #anually in case of a soft/are #alfunction,
the syste# #ust *e a*le to !o this *y itself( Therefore, a /atch!og ti#er /ill *e i#le#ente! in
A&"H syste#( In a!!ition, the /atch !og can either *e *uil!9in in the #icro9rocessor or it can *e
a searate har!/are unit as sho/n in 7igure ,9C-(
"een!ing on the criticality of the su*syste# an! the co#le0ity of the nee!e! #icrorocessor,
arts or all functional ele#ents /ill *e a!ote!( Three tyes of #e#ories have *een selecte!( RAM
rogra# storage, RAM as te#orary #e#ory an! 7lash #e#ory that /ill *e use! as non9volatile
#e#ory sace( Ta*le gives the caacities of the #e#ories for A&"H syste#(
Tab7e (81 Capacities o4 OED" Me1ories
Me#ory Tye Caacity K&ytesL
RAM FC+$
7lash ,M
RAM FC+$
In or!er to co##unicate /ith other su*syste#, the co#uter #ust rovi!e !ifferent interface, a *us
interface to e0change !ata /ith other su*syste#( I
+
C *us has *een chosen for the #ain *us !ue to
its lo/ o/er consu#tion an! availa*ility on #ost s#all #icrocontrollers(
In a!!ition, in the sace environ#ent, the A&"H co#onents are sensi*le to latch9u( To avoi!
*urn9out, a latch9u rotection circuitry #ust *e i#le#ente! *et/een o/er *us an! sensi*le
co#onent( 1hen a latch9u occurs the o/er #ust *e turn off i##e!iately(
The urose of the !e*ug interface is to #a)e it ossi*le to fin! an! correct errors in the har!9 an!
soft/are !esign( It can also uloa! the ne/ soft/are to the flash(
(.*.% 'roose! Co#onents
Consi!ering the li#ite! financial *u!get of the 8ano9satellite #ission, the co##ercial off9 the9
shelf 4CATS5 co#onents that has *een i#le#ente! in sace #ission are investigate!(
Micro9controller
As the #icrocontroller is ro*a*ly the #ost i#ortant co#onent of A&"H, it /ill *e resente! in
!etails( The #icro9controller /hich has *een chosen is ATM AT.CMFFII--A fro# At#el( The
AT.CMFFI--A is a #e#*er of the At#el AT.C CGND+9*it #icrocontroller fa#ily, /hich is *ase!
on the ARMJT"MI rocessor core( This rocessor has a high9erfor#ance D+9*it RISC
architecture /ith a high9!ensity CG9*it instruction set an! very lo/ o/er consu#tion( In a!!ition,
the At#el AT.CMFFI--A is also a o/erful #icrocontroller that rovi!es a highly9fle0i*le an!
cost9effective solution to #any ultra lo/9o/er alications( The follo/ing section lists the #ain
features of At#el AT.CMFFI--A(
 Utili3es the ARMJT"MI ARM Thu#* 'rocessor Core
 I$&ytes internal SRAM
 7ully9rogra##a*le E0ternal &us Interface 4E&I5
 I9level riority, vectore! interrut controller
 7ifty9eight rogra##a*le INA lines
 G9channel CG9*it Ti#erNCounter
 Three USART
 'rogra##a*le 1atch!og ti#er
 I9channel C-9*it A"C
 +9channel C-9*it "AC
 Real9ti#e Cloc)
 A!vance! 'o/er Manage#ent Controller 4A'MC5
 IEEE CC,.(C ;TA@ &oun!ary9scan on all !igital ins
 7ully static oeration% -H3 to DDMH3
Me#ories
The A&"H #ust rovi!e sufficient #e#ory to store flight soft/are, science !ata, tele#etry an!
enough RAM to e0ecute all the soft/are( In or!er to store the i#ages cature! *y the ayloa!, the
A&"H shoul! have the flash #e#ory( Ane can!i!ate flash chi is the Ma0/ell J.L6-,-I( This
#e#ory chi has a si3e of ,KM*itL an! has a o/er !issiation of IIK#1NMH3L in active #o!e
an! ,,-K_1L in stan!9*y #o!e( The suly voltage use! is D(DK6L an! the si3e is ++Y+FYGK##L for
a /eight of C-KgL(
The volatile #e#ory /ill *e use! as /or)ing #e#ory, for the stac) an! to save te#orary !ata(
The AT.CMFFI--A rovi!es only G,K$*itL of internal RAM, /hich is ro*a*ly not enough(
Co#aring to other Cu*esat an! 8ano9satellite an! the infor#ation a*out oerating syste# that are
oti#i3e! for the reBuire#ent, it see#s that C to , KM*itL /ill *e sufficient for TL'A8 satellite, *ut
the e0act value #ust *e confir#e! in the su*syste# !esign /or)( T/o !ifferent #e#ories chis
/hich are investigate!
As the satial environ#ent is articular, the finial flight soft/are is lanne! to /rite on a RAM(
The RAM /ill *e rogra##e! only /ith the finial soft/are( The one ossi*le can!i!ate selecte!
for RAM is the AT+J&6,-.G /hich rovi!e ,KM*itL /ith a CG9*it !ata *us(
&us Interface
The AT.CMFFI--A !oes not rovi!e a har!/are I
+
C interface( It is ossi*le to #anage the I
+
C *us
*y soft/are /ith @'IA, so#e li*raries are rovi!e! *y At#el, an! #oreover the A&"H rototye
*oar! rovi!es a *ri!ge *et/een the S'I internal controller an! the I
+
C *us( The final selection
*et/een har!/are an! soft/are i#le#entation of *us interface /ill *e !eci!e! in the follo/ing
A&"H har!/are !esign(
(., Co116nication S6bs0ste1
(.,.1 Co##unication Avervie/
The co##unication su*syste# ri#ary #ission is to rovi!e a co##unications lin) to relay
trac)ing an! co##an! infor#ation *ac) an! forth *et/een the 8ano9satellite an! Earth( The
syste# receives co##an! fro# the groun! station, sen! the tele#etry !ata fro# the satellite an!
also transfer the scientific !ata fro# the '"H to groun! station via S9*an! trans#itter(
The architecture is *uilt so that the !ata are continuously availa*le fro# the '"H an! A&"H an!
transferre! to the groun! station *y co##unication syste# !uring contact ti#e( &ut in case a ne/
o*:ect is !etecte! a #essage is transferre! fro# co##unication syste# to the satellite relay
net/or) 4AR&CAMM5 an! is infor#e! to the user on the groun!, /hich in turn /oul! *e helful
for the groun! *ase! o*servers to trac) it( The co##unication su*syste# co#letely co#rises of
Co##ercial of the shelf co#onents so as to #a)e it chea an! ro*ust(
The teleco##an! an! tele#etry !ata /oul! *e transferre! at a lo/ rate at an UH7 freBuency( &ut
!ue to the high a#ount of !ata reBuire! to transfer fro# the '"H a high !ata rate /oul! *e
e#loye! at S9&an!( The thir! freBuency assigne! /oul! *e use! to transfer the #essage to the
relay net/or)( The transceiver use! for this relay trans#ission is alrea!y availa*le in #ar)et( The
relay net/or) Trans#ission of !ata using the AR&CAMM tele#etry syste# is far #ore relia*le
since the uses han!sha)ing an! error chec)ing to ensure that !ata corrution is e0tre#ely rare(
In or!er to esti#ate the e0tract !ata rate of the scientific !ata via the S9&an! trans#itter, it is
necessary to calculate the a#ount of !ata to *e store! in '"H(
The ra/ !ata rate of the otical telescoe
3
ra1
= C,,Mb"s
7or the five secon!s ra/ vi!eo, this accu#ulates to
4EBu( ,(DG5
ata
ra1vi#eo
=
C,,Mb"s ⋅ Fs
=
.-M.
I ⋅C---
4EBu( ,(DJ5
The vi!eo !ata can also *e co#resse!( &ut the co#ression /oul! lea! a loss of infor#ation, so
the !ecision of intro!ucing co#ression algorith#s !een!s on the *alance of the infor#ation an!
vi!eo si3e( 4Less !o/nlin) !ata rate, if co#resse!5( The follo/ing calculation of !o/nlin) !ata
rate is *ase! on the ra/ vi!eo !ata(
1ith the reBuire#ents a*ove, the usually contact ti#e of LEA satellite ena*le a erio! of contact of
C- #inutes t/ice er !ay( Therefore, the reBuire! !ata rate for S9&an! trans#itter is roughly
calculate!(
3
S.an#
=

.-M. ⋅ I
4+ ⋅ G--
sec5
= -(GMb"s 4EBu( ,(DI5
As the results sho/n a*ove, the !ata rate of CM*s is chosen for the S9&an! trans#itter, /hich
/oul! ensure Buality /ithin the ti#e li#it(
(.,. Co##unication su*syste# ReBuire#ents
The #ain !esign !rivers for the co##unication syste# are the lo/ availa*le o/er on9*oar! the
satellite( A secon! !river is the caa*ility of satellite !e*ugging an! co##an!ing at any rate or
attitu!e( The reBuire#ents for co##unication syste# are sho/n in the follo/ing ta*le(
Tab7e (81% The reA6ire1ents 4or co116nication s0ste1
8u#*er Attri*ution ReBuire#ents
DD-C Tas)s
The co##unication shall have follo/ing function%
 Receive, verify an! interret tele9co##an!s(
 Ensure enco!ing of tele#etry into the !o/nlin) strea#(
 Use a searate freBuency for scientific !o/nlin)(
 Sen! Event #essages to a satellite relay net/or), /hich
/ill *e relaye! to the groun! station(
DD-+ Co#onents
The co##unication syste# is co#ose! of follo/ing
co#onents%
A ter#inal no!e controller 4T8C5, an UH7 transceiver, an UH7
antenna, an S9*an! transceiver, an S9*an! Antenna(
DD-D "ata Rate
The !ata rate for scientific !o/nlin) shall not *e s#aller than C
M*s(
(.,.% Co##unication su*syste# "esign
The co##unication architecture #ainly co#rises of CATS syste#( The satellite co##unication
syste# consists of a ter#inal no!e controller 4T8C5, co##ercial9off9the9shelf Transceiver, an! an
antenna( "ata fro# the TL'A8 satellite C'U is sent to the T8C, /hich enco!es the !ata using
freBuency shift )eying an! the AE(+F a#ateur ra!io rotocol( The ac)ets are then *roa!cast in the
J-9c# UH7 *an! using a Hisico transceiver, /hich in turn is connecte! to !iole antenna that
rovi!es an aro0i#ate A#ni !irectional ra!iation attern( The satellite co##unicates /ith the
groun! station using an 7M ra!io /ith a carrier freBuency of ,DJ(FKMH3L /ith a \ KD )H3L
!eviation( The antenna is a crosse! !iole antenna /ith the length of D+G## 4Half /ave length5( In
a!!ition, it shall *e oerate! in half9!ule0 #o!e( The co##unication syste# also contains an S9
&an! Trans#itter /hich uses a freBuency of +9, @H3 for !ata trans#ission an! an associate! S9
&an! 'atch antenna for !ata trans#ission( The AR&CAMM transceiver uses 6H7 freBuency 4CDI
KMH3L5 for #essage relay net/or)( The t/o !iole antennas are cross coule! so as to rovi!e
re!un!ancy(
.i56re (811 E7ocF Dia5ra1 o4 Co116nication S6bs0ste1
Data Trans1itter
The architecture use! for UH7 trans#ission is sho/n in 7igure ,9C+( The #o!ulation is 7S$( The
!ata is !irectly filtere! an! use! to !rive the 7M #o!ulator( The generate! 7M signal is then
asse! through a o/er a#lifier( The o/er a#lifier is caa*le of trans#itting +I!&# 4`-(F 15(
This is reBuire! to satisfy the lin) *u!get reBuire#ents for &ERaC-9G( The o/er a#lifier use! is
R7FCC-@ #anufacture! *y R7 #icro !evices(
.i56re (81 U". Trans1itter E7ocF Dia5ra1
!acFet .or1at
The !ata for the u9 an! !o/nlin) are trans#itte! in ac)ets( 7or co#ati*ility /ith e0isting an!
/i!ely use! ra!io a#ateur eBui#ent, the !ata are sent using the AE(+F rotocol( To re!uce the
overhea!, only the connectionless #o!e using unnu#*ere! infor#ation 4UI5 fra#es is suorte!(
To have a #a0i#u# fle0i*ility of the infor#ation content, the $ISS for#at is use! for the
infor#ation fiel!(
Tab7e (81( AC.* !rotoco7 !acFet .or1at
Information and Unnumbered Information (UI) Frame
Start Flag Address Control PID Info. FC
S
Stop Flag
01111110 112!"0 #its $ #its $ #its %&$ #its 1" #its 01111110
(.,.( Satellite Antenna !esign
Mo!eling of the antennas length, satellite *ac)lane #aterial an! osition on the satellite anel /as
erfor#e! an! several solutions /ere analy3e!( In convergence /ith the antenna !eloy#ent
structure, the chosen antenna for co##unication syste# inclu!e a Buarter9/avelength !iole
antenna of CDIKMH3L for the event #essage trans#itter an! another !iole antenna for ,DJ(FKMH3L
for ulin) an! !o/nlin)( In a!!ition, for the s9*an! trans#itter, the chosen antenna is the atch
antenna an! the features of the atch antenna are liste! in the follo/ing section(
7igure ,9CD an! 7igure ,9C, !e#onstrate the ra!iation atterns for TL'A8 satellite( &oth antennas
are #a!e of *erylliu# coer(
The 6H7 antenna 4CDI KMH3L5 is C-DG ## long /hen the antenna is in straight i!eal osition( The
#a0i#al gain is a*out +(CF !&i 4Half /ave antenna5 an! the return loss is 9CD(C !& 4D P of o/er
is reflecte! an! therefore .J P is transferre! to the antenna5(
The UH7 antenna is D+J ## /hen the antenna is in straight i!eal osition( The gain is +(CF !&i for
the first case /hereas the return loss is 9CD(C !&( 4As !efine! a*ove, D P of o/er is reflecte! an!
therefore .J P is transferre! to the antenna5(
Antenna Si#ulation
0
.ntenna 5attern
&&0 &0
&00 60
2(0
0:2
0:3
1
0:6
0:'
90
230
120
210
1%0
1'0
.i56re (81% D ra2iation pattern o4 2ipo7e antenna
.i56re (81( %D ra2iation pattern o4 2ipo7e antenna
(.,.* 'roose! Co#onents
The follo/ing section sho/s the co#onent /hich are roose! to *e use!( Most of the
co#onents are !irectly availa*le in the #ar)et an! have *een roven in for#er sace #issions(
Ta*le ,9CF sho/ the features of one can!i!ate S9*an! trans#itter 4Highly Integrate! S9*an!
trans#itter for 'ico9satellites5, /hich rovi!es the freBuency u to +(+ @H3 an! the !ata rate u to
C M*s(
Tab7e (81* The .eat6res o4 S8ban2 Trans1itter
Attri*ute 6alue
7reBuency +(+ @H3
"ata Rate C M*s
Mo!ulation H'S$
&it Error Rate
C-
9G
H7 9Trans#itting 'o/er C 1
'o/er Consu#tion F 1
Suly 6oltage D(D 6
"i#ensions .F 0F- 0 CF ##
Mass CC-g
The features of atch antenna are sho/n in Ta*le ,9CG( The atch antenna is olari3ation circular
antenna /ith the H79 o/er one 1att, an! the hysical !i#ension GI0 D, ##(
Tab7e (81, The .eat6res o4 !atch Antenna
Attri*ute 6alue
H7 9'o/er C 1
'olari3ation Circular RHC'
"i#ension GI0 D, ##
(.+ E7ectrica7 !o>er S0ste1 #E!S$
The 8ano9satellite is suose! to *e in a ,--9C--- )# sun9synchronous or*it, the e0act or*ital
characteristics /ill not *e )no/n until /ell after construction is co#lete!( Therefore, the o/er
syste# !esign is incororating *oth solar anels for o/er /hile satellite is in sunlight an!
*atteries for storing an! rovi!ing o/er /hen satellite #ay *e in the Earth's sha!o/(
(.+.1 E'S ReBuire#ents
The satellite=s Electrical 'o/er Syste#=s tas) is to rovi!e o/er to the various su*syste#s as
reBuire! *y the #ission ti#eline( It /ill ensure o/er generation *y #eans of solar cells, energy
storage in *atteries an! regulate the o/er !istri*ution to the various su*syste#s( $eeing the
satellite o/ere! in the !ar) an! the !uty cycle of C-- P for the ayloa! a!!s consi!era*le
co#le0ity to the !esign, since the o/er syste# #ust *e resonsi*le for !eter#ining the o/er
level of the *atteries an! #aintaining the# at an a!eBuately charge! level( In a!!ition, the o/er
syste# is reBuire! to rovi!e several !ifferent voltage *usses to !ifferent su*syste#s /ithin
satellite an! to !istri*ute o/er throughout these su*syste#s( Regulate! *usses to the co#uter
syste#s an! ayloa! are essential for a successful scientific #ission( Ta*le ,9CJ sho/s the
reBuire#ents for TL'A8 #ission electrical o/er syste#(
Tab7e (81+ The reA6ire1ents o4 E!S
8u#( Attri*ution ReBuire#ents
DC-C 'o/er continuity
A continuous o/er suly shoul! *e !esigne! to satisfy all sacecraft
loa!s throughout all #ission hases an! all oerational #o!es
DC-+ Solar cell
The 'o/er shall *e generate! *y solar arrays of @aAs trile :unction
/ith a #ini#u# average efficiency of +-P(
DC-D 'ea) o/er
The ea) o/er shall *e less than +D 1 an! En! of Life 4EAL5 o/er
generate! *y solar array #ust *e #ore than +-F(CG(
DC-, Energy storage
The energy storage shall *e !one *y Li Ion !ue to its high energy
!ensityN$g(
DC-F E'S architecture The high efficiency energy transfer syste# shoul! *e i#le#ente!(
DC-G E'S !istri*ution
The !esign of solar array an! !istri*ution #ust *e si#le an! #o!ular
so as to re!uce cost an! si3e(
(.+. E'S Architecture
T/o #ain architectures have *een stu!ie! for E'S, the first one inclu!ing a Ma0i#u# 'o/er 'oint
Trac)ing 4M''T5 syste# the secon! one /ithout( The *est layout for the architecture using M''T
is sho/n in 7igure ,9CF( This !esign contains a #a0i#u# re!un!ancy in case of *attery or solar
cell *rea)!o/n( In this case the #icrocontroller reresents a single oint of failure an! its failure
/oul! cause the loss of the #ission( The only solution for this /oul! therefore *e to create a
re!un!ant syste# /ith t/o #icrocontrollers /here each one controls a *attery an! F solar cells(
.i56re (81* E!S architect6re >ith M!!T
.i56re (81, E!S architect6re >itho6t M!!T
A secon! aroach is to use a fi0e! /or)ing oint of the solar cell characteristics( Ma:or a!vantage
is that the control of the *us can *e !one *y an analogue circuit, as sho/n in 7igure ,9CG(
7urther#ore, the charge an! !ischarge circuits are re!un!ant, since the loss of one *attery /ill not
cause a #ission critical failure( This aroach /ill *e chosen for the E'S *aseline !esign(
7urther#ore, this concet has the a!vantage that C--P of the energy can *e !irectly trans#itte! to
the users an! !oes not nee! any #icrocontroller to oerate( To vali!ate this concet an! to sho/
that the o/er losses !ue to a #issing M''T can *e )et lo/, an analytical #o!el of the solar cells
/as create! /hich /ill *e !iscusse! hereafter(
(.+.% E'S Su*syste# "esign
&ase! on the consi!erations resente! a*ove, a *aseline !esign /ithout M''T /as chosen 47igure
,9CJ5( The current li#iters also serve as s/itches for the suly of the !ifferent su*syste#s(
.i56re (81+ E!S base7ine architect6re
So7ar Ce77 Ana70ses
The satellites s#all si3e an! o/er reBuire#ents reBuire the use of the #ost efficient solar cells on
the #ar)et( @aAs *ase! solar cells have the otential to reach efficiencies greater than D-P(
Currently cells /ith u to +IP efficiency are co##only availa*le( To carry out the electrical
o/er calculation /e have initially consi!ere! the follo/ing cell tye% R1ED@9I"+NCF-9I-,-C
/hich has an average efficiency of +G(G P( In a!!ition, to analy3e the *ehavior of the solar cell
/ith resect to insulation an! te#erature an analytical #o!el of the cell *ehavior shoul! *e
i#le#ente! in the future E'S !esign(
Eatteries
7igure ,9CI sho/s the energy !ensity of !ifferent *atteries /hich are availa*le in the #ar)et(
Currently Lithiu#9Ion 'oly#er *atteries are consi!ere! for the #ission( Their #a:or a!vantage
over Lithiu#9Ion cells *eing a higher energy !ensity( The *aseline !esign foresees the use of t/o
'oLi7le0 *atteries fro# 6ARTA+( So far *ulging has *een a #a:or issue /ith Li9'oly, recent tests
at ESA has sho/n that the 'oLi7le0 series, in co#arison to other Li9'oly *atteries, !o not suffer
fro# this ro*le#( They further are ra!iation tolerant an! conserve their charge un!er vacuu#
con!itions(
.i56re (81- Ener50 2ensit0 o4 2i44erent batteries
The chosen "A" for our syste# is CFP if *oth *atteries are oerational an! D-P in the case of one
oerational unit( The lo/ "A" has *een chosen to increase life e0ectancy of the *attery(
(.+.( Synthesi3e! 'o/er &u!get Si#ulation
Here is !escri*e! a si#lifie! o/er *u!get /hich ta)es into consi!eration the average o/er
consu#tion !uring the !aylight an! !uring the eclise( The consu#tion of E'S is inclu!e! in the
user=s consu#tion(
Assu#tions% 4fro# the o/er *u!get in Syste# &u!get Esti#ation5
 Av( energy ro!uce! /ith the solar cells !uring the !aylight% C,(G 1h
 Av( energy ro!uce! /ith the solar cells !uring the eclise% - 1h
 Av( energy consu#e! *y the users !uring the !aylight /ith D-P #argin% CC(JD 1h
 Av( energy consu#e! *y the users !uring the eclise /ith D-P #argin% C(,+ 1h
Therefore the energy stoc)e! in the *attery after the !aylight ti#e is%
E&at b +(IJ 1h c.-P b +(FI 1h
This a#ount of energy reresents a Caacity of%
C b +(FI 1hND(G 6 b JCG #Ah
The caacity availa*le on the *attery is CD+- #Ah, so there is no ro*le# for the energy storage( 7igure
,9C. sho/s the synthesi3e! o/er *u!get for one tyical or*it erio!( The figure resents that the
generate! o/er is feasi*le for the /hole syste# o/er consu#tion( 7urther#ore, 7igure ,9+-
resents the si#ulation for the energy feature of the sace syste# in one erio!(
.i56re (81/ S0nthesi<e2 po>er b625et 4or one t0pica7 orbit perio2
"
a
t
t
e
r
;

+
n
e
r
g
;

0
<
2
12
10
'
6
3
2
0
0 0:2 0:3 0:6 0:' 1 1:2 1:3
Time 0h2
.i56re (8' The si167ation o4 the ener50 4eat6re in one orbit perio2
(.+.* E'S Su*syste# Manage#ent
'o/er Manage#ent an! "istri*ution
The 'o/er is #anage! *y s/itching onNoff the current li#iters( This #anage#ent is !one *y the
E'S #icrocontroller( This #icrocontroller is also use! for the follo/ing functions%
 Ma)ing several #easures, such as *attery voltage, solar cells current an! te#erature(
 Creating a soft/are signal /hich /ill *e sent to the An9*oar! co#uter(
 S/itching *et/een the har!/are an! the soft/are #onitoring signal(
 Turning A8NA77 current li#iters for each su*syste#(
In case of #icrocontroller *rea)!o/n, the current li#iters of the critical su*syste#s are naturally
turning on an! the #onitoring signal /ill *e generate! *y the har!/are syste#(
(.- Str6ct6re an2 Con4i56ration
(.-.1 Satellite Structure Avervie/
The urose of the structural su*syste# is to rovi!e a si#le stu!y structure that /ill survive
launch loa!s an! rovi!e a suita*le environ#ent for the oeration of all su*syste#s throughout
hases of the #ission life( The structure shall rovi!e easy access for integration an! satellite
chec)9out an! also re!uce the shoc) an! vi*ration of the internal co#onents !uring the satellite
launch( Moreover the structural su*syste# shall carry, suort, an! #echanically align the satellite
eBui#ent(
Structural !esign shall ai# for si#le loa! aths, a #a0i#i3ation in the use of conventional
#aterials, si#lifie! interfaces an! easy integration( "ue to the si3e of the satellite an! s#all
e0ense *u!get, this /as !one /ith the hilosohy of #a0i#i3ing usa*le interior sace, /hile
#ini#i3ing the co#le0ity an! cost of the !esign( Ta*le ,9CI sho/s the reli#inary reBuire#ents
for the TL'A8 satellite structure !esign(
Tab7e (81- The reA6ire1ents 4or str6ct6re s6bs0ste1
8u#( 7unction ReBuire#ent
DF-C Structure suort
'rovi!e structural fra#e/or) for the integrity of the satellite,
/ithstan! the static an! !yna#ic forces
DF-+ "i#ension W Mass +-9+Fc# Cu*e, Less than CF )g
DF-D Launch Launch rail reBuire!
DF-, Antenna "eloya*le antenna nee!e!
(.-. 'reli#inary Structure
The reli#inary structure is the #ost i#ortant art of structure !esign an! the !esign is *ase! on
the /eight constrains an! the structure strength consi!eration( The ayloa! an! latfor# ele#ents
are inserte! into the ri#ary structure, as sho/n in 7igure ,9+C( Moreover, the reli#inary
structure /ill *e #a!e out of either Al9J-JF9TJD or Al9G-GC9TG(
In or!er to vali!ate the reli#inary structure, the static an! !yna#ic analyses /ere erfor#e!(
7urther#ore, the hysical an! inertial roerties of the satellite /ere !eter#ine! through the CA"
#o!el /hich !esigne! *y using Soli!/or)s 're#iu# +--J(
'rincial #o#ents of inertia
6alue K$g ##
+
L
I
C
+FFDF
I
+
+I,J,
I
D
+,I.+
Ta*le ,9C. an! Ta*le ,9+- give the center of gravity an! the inertial roerties of TL'A8 satellite
/ith resect to the satellite reference fra#e(
.i56re (81 TL!ON sate77ite pre7i1inar0 str6ct6re
Tab7e (81/ Center o4 Mass properties
Center of @ravity
A0is 6alue K##L
E -(-F
? 9C(+I
> I(+G
Tab7e (8' Sate77ite str6ct6re inertia7 properties
'hysical #o#ents of inertia
6alue K$g ##
+
L
I
00
+FFDF
I
yy
+,I.C
I
33
+I,J,
(.-.% Structure Configuration
7igure ,9++ sho/s the layout of all co#onents for#ing the satellite structure( In this figure,
satellite configuration co#*ines three #a:or asse#*lies%
 'reli#inary structure /ith the attache! si!e an! solar anel
 'ayloa! an! A"CS co#onents asse#*ly
 'rinte! circuit *oar! 4'C&5 connecte! to a co##on #other *oar!(
Solar 5anel
.D=S "oar/
=ommu4ation
"oar/
PD# "oar/
Left Panel
Sun Sensor
Preliminar;
Stru4ture
S5a4er
6other "oar/
"a4> Panel
*#9 .ntenna
.ntenna 6elting
Devi4e
?#9 .ntenna
"atter;
Star Sensor
9ront Panel
)ight 5anel
Pa;loa/Teles4o5e!
Pa;loa/ "oar/
+PS "oar/
S-"an/ Transmitter
"ottom 5anel
.i56re (8TL!ON Sate77ite Con4i56ration
.i56re (8% TL!ON Sate77ite E;terna7 con4i56ration #a;ono1etric 3ie>$
.i56re (8( Sate77ite E;terna7 con4i56ration #.o6r83ie> 2ra>in5$
(./ Ther1a7 Contro7 an2 Mana5e1ent
The role of the ther#al control su*syste# 4TCS5 is to #aintain all the sacecraft an! co#onents
an! su*syste#s /ithin their reBuire! te#erature li#its for the #ission( The ta*le *elo/ sho/s the
TCS reBuire#ents for the TL'A8 Mission( The ther#al syste# ensures the satellite sustain the
level of te#erature in the harsh environ#ent an! the te#erature sensors use for evaluating the
syste# te#erature( Ta*le ,9+C sho/s the reBuire#ents for the TL'A8 satellite ther#al syste#(
Tab7e (81 The reA6ire1ents 4or ther1a7 s0ste1
8u#*er Attri*utes ReBuire#ents
DF-F Ther#al control
Ensure the satellite sustain the level of te#erature in
the harsh environ#ent(
DF-G Sensor The sensors evaluate the environ#ent te#erature(
7or the TL'A8 satellite, a assive ther#al #anage#ent aroach has *een selecte!, i(e( no active
ther#al co#onents, such as heaters /ill *e i#le#ente!( Usually, the satellite ther#al #o!el /ill
*e investigate! in t/o #o!els *elo/%
 Structural9ther#al #o!el O inclu!es fra#e, e0ternal anels, ther#al glue, solar cells an!
internal 'C&s(
 &attery9ther#al #o!el O focuse! on *attery stu!y an! internal ra!iation effects( This #o!el
inclu!es a #o!el of ther#al roerties of stan!9*y, charging an! !ischarging #o!es of the
*attery(
Tab7e (8 Te1perat6re Li1its 4or TL!ON Sate77ite S6bs0ste1
S6bs0ste1 Mini161
Te1perat6re
#HC$
Ma;i161
Te1perat6re
#HC$
&attery - F-
E'S 9D- [F-
MESA 9,- [IF
"ata Han!ling 9,- [IF
Co## 9,- [IF
Solar 'anels 9C-- [CC-
Structure 8NA 8NA
The follo/ing environ#ental con!itions shoul! *e ta)en into account%
 Sun e#issions
 Al*e!o effect
 Earth e#issions
 Sunlight an! eclise ti#es
 Sun vector9function
The ther#al analysis ensures that the oeration of the satellite can continue !uring e0tre#e
con!itions *y utili3ing a co#*ination of heaters, te#erature sensors an! insulation techniBues(
Ta*le ,9++ sho/s the te#erature li#its for TL'A8 satellite su*syste#( In the event that e0ternal
heating /ill *e nee!e! for oeration, the health #onitoring syste# /ill trigger the heaters for
oti#al involve#ent( Te#erature sensors /ill *e inter#ittent /ithin the critical ite#s such as
*atteries an! circuitry te#eratures( 1here necessary, insulation /ill *e i#le#ente!( Ane #etho!
of insulation is to aly te#erature resistant resins to co#onent surfaces( The co#onents /ill
un!ergo tests in a ther#al vacuu# cha#*er in the ther#al testing( The reli#inary ther#al !esign
is co#arative to the Cornell University Cu*esat Ther#al Su*syste# reort(
(.1' .7i5ht So4t>are
TMNTC stan!ar!i3ation concets have *een ela*orate! *y the Consultative Committee )or S"ace
ata Systems, CCS"S, an! are *eing alie! to a certain e0tent *y #any sace agencies inclu!ing
ESA an! 8ASA( Although TL'A8 satellite is not reBuire! to follo/ these secifications they
serve as starting oint for the satellites soft/are layout( The concet use! is *ase! on the Aen
Syste#s Interconnection, ASI, #o!el, a J9layer structure that has *een !efine! *y the International
Stan!ar!i3ation Argani3ation, ISA, as net/or) architecture( This concet allo/s a stan!ar!i3e!
!ata e0change *et/een the !ifferent layers an! therefore si#lifies the !evelo#ent of
co##unication syste#s(
7light soft/are /ill *e inclu!e! in the follo/ing su*syste#s%
 E'S
 CAM
 C"MS
 A"CS
 'ayloa!(
The overall soft/are architecture shoul! therefore consi!er this !istri*ute! toology( The chosen
*aseline features a Co##an! an! "ata Manage#ent Syste# that /ill rovi!e certain services on9
*oar! the satellite, na#ely%
 House)eeing
 7unction #anage#ent
 Sche!uler
 "ata storage(
These services /ill *e accessi*le fro# groun!( This /ill allo/ )eeing the necessary har!/are
resources of the su*syste#s as s#all as ossi*le as each other su*syste#s /ill only *e resonsi*le
of rovi!ing its o/n house)eeing to the A&"H an! e0osing its o/n secific functions(
*. Gro6n2 S0ste1 Desi5n
*.1 Gro6n2 S0ste1 O3er3ie>
The roose! groun! syste# architecture for TL'A8 co#*ines the groun! station toology of
AMSAT, an! also /ith the a!!itional reBuire#ents for satellite #ission oerations( The chosen
architecture tries to #a0i#i3e the a#ount of har!9 an! soft/are :ointly use! !uring satellite testing
an! #ission oerations( 7igure F9C sho/s the har!/are lay9out of the groun! station seg#ent,
/hich /ill *e consiste! /ith follo/ing three arts(
 @roun! Station Syste#
 Mission Control Syste#
 Satellite Chec)9out Syste#
.i56re *81 Gro6n2 S0ste1 Architect6re
The three seg#ents shall *e a*le to oerate in a !istri*ute! syste#( The Aerational LA8 coul!
therefore *e for#e! *y a 1A8 connection using secure! channels( This toology has the #a:or
a!vantage to allo/ re#ote control for the satellite !uring the #ission testing an! #ission oeration(
In a!!ition, /ith this architecture, it is ossi*le to allo/ the !ata*ase oulation !uring the
su*syste# !evelo#ent(
The TL'A8 @roun! Station 4@S5 /ill *e locate! at Uni( 12r3*urg ca#us an! at the TU &erlin
ca#us 4If ossi*le5( The !esigne! antenna /ill *e locate! on a roof an! the electronic !evices /ill
*e locate! in the oeration roo# near the antenna( 7urther#ore, the Mission Control /ill *e also
locate! at Uni( 12r3*urg an! TU &erlin ca#us(
The #ain !rivers for the !evelo#ent of the groun! syste#s are su##ari3e! here%
,S3G1 S"ace to groun# )re4uencies an# "rotocols
The groun! to sace co##unication lin) shall co#ly /ith the A#ateur Ra!io Satellites services(
7or University 8ano9 satellite, this is the easiest solution to i#le#ent(
,S3G' Com"atibility o) groun# system 1it% ot%er satellites
The groun! syste# shall *e caa*le of oerating /ith other e0ternal a#ateur ra!io satellites than
the 'ro:ect's an! ossi*le net/or)s of a#ateur ra!io groun! stations(
This reBuire#ent allo/s an in!een!ent /ay to test the groun! station an! train ersonnel *efore
launch of the 8ano9Sat( The sa#e groun! syste# #ight *e use! for future trac)ing net/or), /hich
i#lies that the !esign shall have the ossi*ility to confor#Na!at to a stan!ar! net/or)(
,S3G- ,roun# system o"erating li)etime
The ro:ect shall !esign the groun! syste# to have an oerating lifeti#e greater than the satellite
life ti#e(
The t/o last reBuire#ents ensure continuity /ith follo/9u satellites( It also allo/s an in!een!ent
/ay to test the groun! station an! train #ission oeration ersonnel *efore launch of the Satellite(
The groun! syste# shall *e use! for future satellite trac)ing net/or), /hich i#lies that the
groun! station !esign shall a!at to a groun! station net/or) stan!ar!(
*. Gro6n2 Station S0ste1
*..1 @roun! Station Syste# ReBuire#ent
The groun! station syste# esta*lishes the hysical R7 lin) *et/een the sace an! groun! seg#ent(
It controls the antenna #otors, the ter#inal no!e controller 4T8C5 an! the transceiver( The groun!
station /ill *e consiste! /ith the co##ercial co#onents( In a!!ition, the groun! station !esign
has to guarantee co#ati*ility /ith the Ra!io A#ateur syste#s( In or!er to increase the
!o/nlin)Nulin) ti#e /ith the sace seg#ent, the !esign shoul! allo/ the co#ati*ility an!
colla*oration /ith other groun! station syste#s( In or!er to acco##o!ate the reBuire#ents
!escri*e! a*ove, the TL'A8 shoul! have follo/ing features, /hich are su##ari3e! in Ta*le F9C(
Tab7e *81 The reA6ire1ents o4 Gro6n2 Station #GS$ 2esi5n
8u#( Reference Attri*ute ReBuire#ent
,C-C Antenna Cross *ea# or circularly olari3e! ?agi antenna
,C-+ Satellite trac)ing Co#uter trac)ing syste#
,C-D Antenna control Co#uter controlle! A>9EL rotators
,C-, Ra!io control 7ull9!ule0 !ual *an! ra!io co#uter controlle! tuning
,C-F "istri*ution control T8C an! Soun!car! interface for TLM an! ac)et
,C-G Tranciever control "e!icate! transceiver control soft/are
,C-J Signle 're9rocessing Mast #ounte! receiver rea#lifier
*.. @roun! Station 8et/or)
It is ossi*le that the TL'A8 #ission /ill *enefit fro# arallel !evelo#ent in groun! station
net/or)ing 4@E8SA5 or fro# the esta*lishe! ra!io9 a#ateur co##unity of AMSAT( The @lo*al
E!ucational 8et/or) for Satellite Aerations 4@E8SA5 is a ro:ect carrie! out un!er the ausices
of the International Sace E!ucation &oar! an! coor!inate! *y the E!ucation "eart#ent of the
Euroean Sace Agency 4LEE9E5( The ro:ect ai#s at rovi!ing a #utually *eneficial service to
all e!ucational satellite ro:ects *y co#*ining their groun! stations into a colla*orative, internet9
*ase! net/or), vastly i#roving #ission return *y increasing the a#ount of availa*le
co##unication ti#e( Ta*le F9+ sho/s the various otions for TL'A8 using ra!io a#ateur
freBuencies(
In conclusion, it /oul! *e very a!vantageous to articiate in the @E8SA for satellite oeration
/hich /oul! significantly increase coverage ti#e( 7urther Ra!io A#ateurs shoul! *e inclu!e! to
o*tain e0tra house)eeing !ata( This is articularly true !uring LEA' /here the satellite shoul! *e
#onitore! as often as ossi*le to !eter#ine ossi*le errors(
Tab7e *8 Co1parison o4 potentia7 TL!ON Gro6n2 Stations
Ra!io A#ateurs @E8SA TL'A8
8u#*er of
Stations
`C-- D9C- +
Coverage @lo*al 4[[5 @lo*al4[5 Local495
Aerator Ra!io A#ateur
@E8SA Manage#ent
Aerator
TL'A8 Aeration
Tea#
TC Integrity 4995 4[5 4[[5
T" Integrity 495 4[5 4[[5
Constrains
8ee! to esta*lish a 1e*9
interface to #anage
TCNT"
8ee! to #a)e @roun!
station co#ati*le /ith
@E8SA stan!ar!
8o secial constrains
*.% Mission Contro7 S0ste1
*.%.1 Mission Control Syste# ReBuire#ents
The #ission control syste# !esign shall rovi!e the follo/ing *asic functions%
 Tele#etry recetion W rocessing
 Teleco##an!ing 4Manual or Auto#atic5
 "ata !islays an! rints
 Real ti#e u!ates
The syste# shall have a client O server toology /here the various su*syste#sNflight oerators
shall #onitor an! co##an! the satellite fro# ter#inals connecte! to the oerations server( More
a!vance! features such as the !islay of the su*syste# state in grahical for# can *e a!!e! once
the core ele#ents have *een !esigne! an! i#le#ente!(
7or #ission control the aroach shall *e consistent /ith the various oerational hases of the
#ission( T/o rincial #o!es have *een i!entifie!, /hich inclu!e,
In9or*it chec)9out of the satellite 4LEA' W Safe9Mo!e5 !uring /hich only *asic co##an!s are
sent one9*y9one an! the results #onitore! in real9ti#e(
7or the autono#ous oeration, in this #o!e the groun! seg#ent is Sre9rogra##e!S *y satellite
oerators in a!vance of a ass( "uring the ass the groun! seg#ent erfor#s autono#ous
oerations *y !o/nloa!ing tele#etry !ata an! uloa!ing ne/ teleco##an!s into the satellite's
sche!uling syste#(
"esign Avervie/
The architecture of the sace groun! seg#ent use! is si#ilar to the ESA groun! seg#ent( It uses a
#o!ular architecture *ecause all co#onents are connecte! to a soft/are router 4E@SE Router5
!eveloe! *y ESA(
.i56re *8 The 5ro6n2 s0ste1 ro6ter Inter4ace
The Mission Control Soft/are 4MCS5, also calle! @SS for @roun! Syste# Soft/are, is a
#onitoring an! control syste#( The role of the syste# in groun! syste# is to sen! teleco##an!s to
the sacecraft, an! to #anage the tele#etries receive!( 7or this tas), ESA uses the SCAS +---
syste# !eveloe! *y ESACNESA an! in!ustrial artners( SCAS +--- is a generic syste# an! is
functionally co#lete, *ut this #a)es it co#le0 to configure an! not Buite a!ate! to s#all
sacecraft( Therefore, for the TL'A8 #ission, the ne/ @SS shoul! *e !eveloe! in!ivi!ually( The
general architecture of the @SS /ill *e !escri*e! in the ne0t section(
The user interface is vital to the @SS( SCAS +--- has an interface to vie/ the house)eeing, an!
sen! teleco##an!s( In the TL'A8 @SS, /e have a core an! three syste# interfaces use! to create
clients aroun! it( 7our clients have *een !eveloe! so far( 7igure F9+ sho/s the interfaces to the
router( In a!!ition, the groun! station has an antenna an! uses a s#all soft/are alication to
co##unicate /ith the sacecraft( The SCAE is a test syste# use! to test a su*syste#( The
si#ulator is use! to si#ulate the *ehavior of the sacecraft /hen testing the @SS or the user
interfaces(
*.%. Mission Control Soft/are Architecture
7igure F9D sho/s the architecture of the #ission control soft/are( The architecture of the @SS
contains three layers( The first one at the *otto# is co#ose! of the Core an! the TCNTM Catalog
Access /here all the logic an! rocessing are !one( A*ove it are the syste# interfaces that e0ose
the syste# to the outsi!e /ith the use of 1e* Services an! rovi!e things li)e security, !ata
vali!ation, etc( The syste# is interoera*le so that clients or other ro:ect !eveloers, the thir!
layer, coul! !evelo their interfaces /ith various technologies via the use of 1e* Services(
The #ain art of this architecture is the Core( This is the central art /here of all the rocessing of
the !ataR to sen! or receive is !one( The core is !esigne! so that there is no #ission secific
rocessing !one in it 4e0cet the #onitoring #o!ules5 an! thus can *e )et the s#allest ossi*le to
#a0i#i3e its relia*ility an! scala*ility(
At the client level, the #onitoring 4rich #onitoring client5 an! the control 4TC #anager client5 are
/ell searate!( This /as !one after #uch !iscussion an! /ith the inut fro# e0erts fro# ESA(
1ith the searation, the !ecisions are #ore thoroughly thought of or are even ta)en *y t/o eoleR
one that #onitors an! the other that controls( This avoi!s controlling errors /hen it=s too easy to
interact /ith the sacecraft( At the other si!e of the syste#, all the co##unication is suose! to
*e !one via the E@SE Router, /hich is a routing soft/are !eveloe! *y ESA(
.i56re *8% Gro6n2 So4t>are S0ste1 Architect6re
*.%.% 'rogra##ing Environ#ent an! User Interface
&ase! on e0erience an! )no/le!ge, the Aeration Syste# for the @roun! Soft/are Syste# 4@SS5
chosen to !evelo the soft/are /as Microsoft 1in!o/s( @enerally, there /ere three ossi*le styles
of rogra##ing at !isosal%
• La*6ie/% Use! *y ESA for the ne/ version of their E@SE Router, the choice to use it /as
ta)en
seriously( &ut !ue to lac) )no/le!ge of it an! the co#letely !ifferent aroach to rogra##ing,
it /oul! have reBuire! too #uch ti#e to learn it(
• Scriting 4'ython, 'erl, etc(5% "is#isse! !irectly !ue to the lac) of tye9safety, scala*ility
an!
relia*ility /hen /or)ing /ith the#(
• Manage! 4(8ET, ;ava5% These technologies *ring great RA" 4Rai! Alication
"evelo#ent5 an! co#e /ith great fra#e/or) an! li*raries for al#ost everything( The greater
#e#ory usage is out/eighe! *y the auto#atic #e#ory #anage#ent esecially nee!e! for long
running alications that #ust not suffer fro# #e#ory lea)s(
This 7igure F9, *riefly !escri*es the function user interfaces of @SS( To #anage an! configure the
@SS, a TTCNTM Manage#ent‖ /e*site /oul! *e create! as so#e for#er 8ano9Satellite
#ission( The teleco##an!s can *e sent to the sacecraft *y the TTC Manager Client ( ‖ The
#onitoring can *e erfor#e! via t/o clients, a /e*site an! rich client( The rich client is real9ti#e
an! can !islay all the infor#ation relating the #onitoring to the sacecraft oerator(
.i56re *8( GSS User Inter4ace Str6ct6re
,. Conc76sion
The #aster thesis su##ari3es the satellite syste# !esign of the TL'A8 #ission( 7ro# the !esign
reort, it has *een !e#onstrate! that the TL'A8 #ission is feasi*le an! it is a suita*le solution for
o*serving the Transient Lunar heno#enon 4TL'5 *y using 8ano9satellites( In this thesis, the
syste# !esign of TL'A8 #ission /as i#le#ente!, inclu!ing the #ission !esign, sace seg#ent
!esign an! the groun! station !esign( The !esign concet sho/s the recise an! #iniature otical
telescoe an! attitu!e !eter#ination sensors shoul! *e !eveloe! an! i#le#ente! for TL'A8
#ission(
Although the !esign reort sho/s the ossi*ilities of o*servation of Transient Lunar 'heno#enon
4TL'5 *y using 8ano9satellites, the critical Buestions 4that coul! co#ro#ise the overall !esign5
re#ain in the areas of%
 The reBuire#ents for the otical telescoe are e0tre#ely strict for a 8ano9satellite alication(
The telescoe coul! not *e foun! in the #ar)et as a co##ercial ro!uct( Therefore, a
!e!icate! otical telescoe for TL'A8 #ission shoul! *e !eveloe!(
 The TL'A8 #ission reBuires the three9 a0is sta*ili3e! control( "ue to the 8ano9satellite
constrain, the #iniature co#onents 4star sensor, #icro /heel, etc(5 /oul! *e !eveloe! an!
i#le#ente!(
 The co##unication lin)s *et/een the satellite an! groun! station shoul! *e si#ulate! an!
teste!( Esecially, the s9*an! trans#itter for the scientific !ata an! 6H7 trans#itter for the
event #essage shoul! *e !esigne! in !etails an! refine! in the future /or)s(
 7or the 8ano9satellite hysical constrains, the ossi*le !eloya*le #echanis# shoul! *e
!esigne! for the telescoe an! the satellite antennas
Each of the critical Buestions shoul! *e refine! an! solve! in the uco#ing !evelo#ent hase( In
a!!ition, for the sace seg#ent !esign, all su*syste#s have functional #o!els that shoul! *e also
teste! an! refine!(
The ne0t stes in refining this aer are to roerly !efine reBuire#ents for each su*syste#
un!erreresente! in this aer( Esecially the A&"H, CAM( an! TCS su*syste# nee! refining(
The ro:ect is no/ rea!y to #ove for/ar! /ith the !etaile! !esign for each su*syste# an! test
hase(
A.Appen2ices
A.1 TL!8 acti3e 4eat6res on the Moon
.i56re A81"ost Spots o4 TL! E3entsG ori5ina7 5raphic= 9%:
Tab7e A81 Statistics o4 TL!8acti3e 4eat6res on the Moon 9:
LU8AR TRA8SLE8T 'HE8AME8A SITES
7ARMATIA8S LACATIA8 dLT' &R " @ R &L
Agria ,8NCCE D, CF . +J C CC
Alhonsus CDSND1 ,G C. . CJ +J +
Archi#e!es D-8N,1 F + C + - -
Aristarchus +,8N,I1 ,,I +FG DJ CDC CC+ ,D
Atlas ,J8N,,E CJ , F + C C
Censorinus -ND+E CC C- - + + C
Co*ra Hea! +,8N,I1 CD , F I CC D
Coernicus C-8N+-1 ++ CD + F G I
Mare Crisiu# CI8NFIE +J C, J C- F D
Eratosthenes CF8NCC1 CG C+ + F + +
@assen!i CISN,-1 DD G , . +, -
@ri#sl!i GSNGI1 CI . + F + I
Hero!otus +D8NF-1 D, CG J CC CG F
$eler I8NDI1 CJ C, C - D D
Linnie +I8NC+E C. J I G C -
Manilius CF8N.E C, C+ C , , D
Menelaus CG8NCGE CD C- D , , ,
'icar! CF8NFFE CF C+ + D + +
Mons ico ,G8N.1 I D + , + C
Mons iton ,C8NC1 C- D C I I -
'lato FC8N.1 CC, FD CD FC DC CD
'osi!onius D+8ND-E CC + - J D C
'roclus CG8N,JE J+ DC DD +G C- CF
SchroterSs 6alley +G8NF+1 +F , - +- F C
Schic)ar! ,,SN+GE I D + G - C
Theohilus C+SN+GE CC G - , . +
Tychu ,DSNCC1 CG C+ - G C +
A. S!EN&IS
The S'E86IS is a free /e* *ase! sace environ#ent infor#ation syste# for sace environ#ent,
effect research an! e!ucation(
The S'E86IS syste# rovi!es a 111 interface to #o!els of the sace environ#ent an! its
effects( The S'E86IS ro:ect has *een initiate! *y the ESANESTEC Sace Environ#ent an!
Effects Section 4TEC9EES5( The ro:ect is fun!e! via the ESA @eneral Suort Technologies
'rogra##e 4@ST'5 *y the &elgian 7e!eral Science 'olicy Affice 4&elso5( The ro:ect is
!eveloe! *y the &elgian Institute for Sace Aerono#y 4&IRA9IAS&5(
The S'E86IS /hich have *een use! to si#ulation is version ,(G(C *uilt on March G, +--.( The
official /e*site of S'E86IS is h tt % NN /// (s e n v i s (o # a(*e N (
1ith S'E86IS, the user can generate a sacecraft tra:ectory or a coor!inate gri! an! then calculate%
 geo#agnetic coor!inates
 trae! roton an! electron flu0es an! solar roton fluences
 ra!iation !oses 4ionising an! non9ionising5 for si#le geo#etries
 a sectoring analysis for !ose calculations in #ore co#le0 geo#etries
 !a#age eBuivalent fluences for Si, @aAs an! #ulti9:unction solar cells
 @eant, Monte Carlo analysis for !oses an! ulse height rates in lanar an! sherical shiel!s
 ion LET an! flu0 sectra an! single event uset rates
 trae! roton flu0 anisotroy
 at#osheric an! ionosheric !ensities an! te#eratures
 ato#ic o0ygen erosion !eths
Magnetic fiel! line tracing is i#le#ente!, as /ell as the generation of /orl! #as an! altitu!e
!een!ence lots of the #agnetic fiel! an! the current #o!els of the neutral at#oshere an! the
ionoshere(
Mo!els for sacecraft charging, *oth surface charging an! internal charging, are availa*le(
A tool to visuali3e satellite !ata ro!uces anel lots of #easure! Buantities in co#*ination /ith
geo#agnetic an! solar in!ices(
Micro#eteoroi! an! sace !e*ris #o!els are i#le#ente!, an! an i#act ris) analysis #o!ule is
currently un!er !evelo#ent(
A.% Space Gro6n2 Data .7o>
.i56re A8 TL!ON Mission Space Gro6n2 Data .7o>
u
= −
C
& 5&#A u
&
u & ≥ -
3
3 #m
3
3 × 4 ( 3 5L
i
3
3
D
D
A.( Sate77ite !ert6rbation Mo2e7s
Aero20na1ic torA6e
The interaction of the uer at#oshere /ith the satellite=s surface ro!uces a torBue aroun! the
center of #ass( 7or sacecraft at *elo/ aro0i#ately G--)#, the aero!yna#ic torBue is the
!o#inant environ#ental !istur*ance torBue(
The infinitesi#al force #)
aero
on a surface ele#ent #A /ith an out/ar! nor#al
n
is given *y
#) C ρ 4
⋅ 4EBu( A(C5
aero
+
# n
1here C
#
is the !rag coefficient 4+5, ρ the at#osheric !ensity an! the relative see! of the
sacecraft( This for#ulation is only acceta*le if
n
, other/ise the force is 3ero(
Gra3it0 5ra2ient torA6e
Any nonsy##etrical o*:ect of finite !i#ensions in or*it is su*:ect to a gravitational torBue *ecause
of the variation in the earth=s gravitational force over the o*:ect( This gravity9gra!ient torBue
results fro# the inverse sBuare gravitational force fiel!R there /oul! *e no gravitational torBue in a
unifor# gravitational fiel!( 7or our alication, it is sufficient to assu#e a sherical #ass
!istri*ution of the earth(
The gravitational force acting on a sacecraft #ass ele#ent #m
i
, locate! at a osition
i
relative to
the Earth center is
#F = −
µ

i i
i
4EBu( A(+5
Let s
i
*e the osition of the geo#etrical center of the sacecraft e0resse! in the &R7 an! ( the
Mo#ent9of9inertia tensor in the &R7 4&o!y Reference 7ra#e5(
Then the gravity9gra!ient torBue can *e e0resse! as
:
gravity =


K
i
s
=


s
4EBu( A(D5
Ma5netic 2ist6rbance torA6e
Magnetic !istur*ance torBues results fro# the interaction *et/een the sacecraft=s resi!ual
#agnetic fiel! an! the geo#agnetic fiel!( The ri#ary sources of #agnetic !istur*ances%
: = κ 4ω
'
× .5 × .
/here
e
is
.
= −
F
u + +4C 4u n5 +
C
C 5nL4u n5#A
n
ce,
#
the
u
 Sacecraft #agnetic #o#ents, since #agneto torBues are alrea!y ta)en into account in the
satellite !yna#ics(
 E!!y current loos% The e!!y current ro!uces a torBue /hich rocesses the sin a0is an! also
causes an e0onential !ecay of the sin rate( This torBue is given *y
e##y e
4EBu( A(,5
κ a constant coefficient /hich !een!s on the sacecraft geo#etry an! con!uctivity an!
the geocentric #agnetic flu0 !ensity(
E!!y currents are arecia*le only in structural #aterial that has er#ea*ility nearly eBual to that
of free sace(
In a er#ea*le #aterial rotating in a #agnetic fiel!, energy is !issiate! in the for# of heat !ue to
the frictional #otion of the #agnetic !o#ains( In our case, no high er#ea*ility #aterial /here
use!( The !istur*ance generates *y the #agneto torBues /ere alrea!y co#ute! in the attitu!e
control an! !eter#ination algorith#s(
A rai! esti#ation of the E!!y current loos effect gives an or!er of #agnitu!e of
C-

CF
: ⋅ m /hich can *e
neglecte!(
So7ar ra2iation torA6e
Ra!iation inci!ent on a sacecraft=s surface ro!uces a force /hich results in a torBue a*out the
sacecraft=s center of #ass( The surface is su*:ecte! to ra!iation ressure or force er unit area
eBual to the vector !ifference *et/een the inci!ent an! reflecte! #o#entu# flu0( &ecause the solar
ra!iation varies as the inverse sBuare of the !istance fro# the Sun, the solar ra!iation ressure is
essentially altitu!e in!een!ent for the sacecraft(
Assu#ing that a*sortion, secula an! !iffuse reflections all lay a art 4/ithout any trans#ission5,
then the total solar ra!iation force is
#)
e
K4C− C 5
⋅ ⋅ 4EBu( A(F5
solar
c
s s s s
D
# s
/here F
e
is the solar constant, c the light see! in vacuu#, C
s
the secula reflection coefficient of
the ele#entary surfa C !iffuse reflection coefficient of the ele#entary surface, the
out/ar! nor#al an!
s
the unit !irection of the sun(
A.* TL!ON Mission WorF !acFa5e Description
The TL'A8 #ission /as !ivi!e! into a*out C- /or) ac)ages( Each of the ac)ages reresents
one su*syste# of the satellite #ission( The reort /as /ritten accor!ing to the /or) ac)ages
!escrition /hich i#le#ente! *efore(
A., Mathe1atica7 Ca7c67ation o4 LinF E625et
The lin) *u!get calculation for s9*an! antenna
The lin) *u!get for the S9&an! trans#itter is esti#ate! as follo/ing(
The velocity of light
c = D(- ⋅C-
I
m
s
Ar*ital attitu!e 4The /orst case5
%
L!O
= C---/m
4EBu( A(G5
4EBu( A(J5
Earth ra!ius
r
!art%
=
GDJI(C,/m
4EBu( A(I5
"istance fro# center of Earth to the groun! station
= r
!art%
= GDJI(C,/m
4EBu( A(.5
"istance fro# center of Earth to the satellite
3
sat
= + %
L!O
=
JDJI(C,/m
4EBu( A(C-5
Min#in evevation of satellite contact
ε = F
o
4EBu( A(CC5
The S9*an! trans#itter freBuency
) = +(+,09
4EBu( A(C+5
The /ave length
c
λ
s − .an#
=
)
= -(C,m
4EBu( A(CD5
Receiving antenna !ia#eter
#
#is%
= C(F ⋅ -(C, =
+(Cm
4EBu( A(C,5
Efficiency of !ish antenna
sat
s
η = -(FF
4EBu( A(CF5
@ain of atch antenna
,
"atc%
= I#.
4EBu( A(CG5
'ointing loss esti#ation
L
"
= −D#.
4EBu( A(CJ5
Syste# noise te#erature
*
s
=
CDFH
4EBu( A(CI5
Trans#it o/er in !&1
P
#.
= C- ⋅ log4
P
1
5 =
-#.E
P
re) 4EBu( A(C.5
Trans#itting !ata rate
3
3 = C-
G
b"s
4EBu( A(+-5
The sloe !istance is calculate! as
S = 4 ⋅ sin ε 5
+
+
3
+

+
− ⋅ sin ε =
DC.,(F/m
4EBu( A(+C5
Therefore, the free sace loss is esti#ate! as
L = −C- ⋅ log4
,π ⋅ S
5
+
=
−CG.(CF#.
λ
s − .an#
4EBu( A(++5
The !ish antenna gain is calculate! as
η

⋅π


,
#is%
= C- ⋅ log4
λ
S
5
+
= +I(+J#.
s − .an#
4EBu( A(+D5
The EBuivalent Isotroic ra!iate! 'o/er 4EIR'5 is
!(3P = ,
"atc%
+ P
#.
= I#.
4EBu( A(+,5
The energy er *it to noise !ensity ratio is calculate! as
:
!
b
= !(3P +
,
+ L + L + ++I(G −C- ⋅ log4* 5 −C-
log43
5 = CC(,C#.
#is% " s s 3
o
4EBu( A(+F5
The reBuire!
!
b
:
o
ratio for H'S$ an! a &ER for
C-

G
is, accor!ing to reference KJL, the
reBuire! value is
!
b
:
o
= CC(+#.
4EBu( A(+G5
This leaves a #argin of
D(DF#.
, /hich is efficient(
A.+ Mathe1atica7 Ca7c67ation o4 E7ectrica7 !o>er S0ste1
Calculation for *attery caacity
The ra!ius of the Earth
r
!art%
=
GDJI(C,/m
4EBu( A(+J5
The altitu!e of satellite 4The /orst case5
%
L!O
= C---/m
The or*it erio! is calculate! as
t
orbit
= .J(JD #in
t
ecli"se
= - #in
t
#aylig%t
= t
orbit
Efficiency factor for !irect energy transfer 4"ET5 solar o/er syste#s
I
#aylig%t
= -(IF
I
ecli"se
= -(GF
4EBu( A(+I5
4EBu( A(+.5
4EBu( A(D-5
4EBu( A(DC5
The o/er nee!e! to generate! *y solar arrays is
P = t
P ⋅ t P ⋅ t
⋅ 4
ecli"se ecli"se
+
#aylig%t #aylig%t
5
solar #aylig%t
The solar constant
S = CDFI
E
m
+
I
ecli"se
I
#aylig%t
P
solar
=
CC(JDE
4EBu( A(D+5
4EBu( A(DD5
The efficiency factor of trile :unction @aAs solar cells
µ
tj
= -(++
4EBu( A(D,5
Therefore, the solar o/er !ensity is
P = µ ⋅ S = +.I(JG
E
o tj
m
+
4EBu( A(DF5
A*ove values ena*le an evaluation of the o/er of the solar arrays at *eginning of life 4&AL5 an!
at en! of life 4EAL5, as /ell as lifeti#e !egra!ation( 7or these the follo/ing assu#tions are #a!e%
The no#inal !egra!ation%
(
#
= -(JJ
4EBu( A(DG5
The /orst case angle at the solar cell
θ = ,F
o
4EBu( A(DJ5
The #ission !uration
t
mission
=
Cyear
4EBu( A(DI5
The o/er at EAL is
E
P
.OL
= P
-
⋅ (
#
⋅ cos4θ 5 = CG+(JG
+
m
Therefore, the lifeti#e !egra!ation is%
4C !eg5
tmission
4EBu( A(D.5
L
#
= −
4EBu( A(,-5
The o/er at EAL is
P = P

L
=
E
!OL .OL #
CFI(C.
m
+
4EBu( A(,C5
1ith the calculate! ara#eters a*ove, the necessary solar array area is
A
solar
=
P
solar
P
!OL
= -(-J,,m
+
4EBu( A(,+5
The #ass of the solar array is calculate! using
m ≈ ⋅ A
/g
=
/g 4EBu( A(,D5
solar
-(,
solar
E
-(,.+
Re4erences
91: 8i)olai A( $o3yrev, TA*servation of a 6olcanic 'rocess on the Moon‖= S/y an# *elesco"e=
S/y "ublis%ing, 7e* C.F., S(CI,9CIG(
9: ;(He!ley Ro*inson, TSo#e 'ossi*le Causes of TL' , ‖ S/y an# *elesco"e= S/y "ublis%ing,
Mar
C..C, S( +GI(
9%: 1inifre! S( Ca#eron, TLunar Transient 'heno#enaJ, S/y an# *elesco"e= S/y "ublis%ing, Mar
C..C, S( +GF9+GI(
9(: 1inifre! S( Ca#eron, TAnalyses o) Lunar *ransient P%enomena 5L*P6 Observation )rom 55$<
1778J, 8ational Sace Science "ata Center, C..,(
9*: Monten*ruc) A(, @ill E(, Satellite Orbits Mo#els= Met%o#s= an# A""lications, Sringer 6erlag,
Hei!el*erg ,+---(
9,: &ao Han, ;ian Ma, Malli)ar:una 6ayungun!la, an! Reveesh $an!iyil( T*eam esign Project K
S
'
A:Sat Mission Conce"tual esign 3e"ort ( ‖ University of 1uer3*urg( 7e* +--.(
9+: 1iley ;( Larson, ;a#es R( 1ert3, S"ace Mission Analysis an# esign, Thir! E!ition(
Microcos# Inc(+--F
9-: M( 8oca, @( Rethlis*erger, 7( ;or!an, 8( Schei!egger, T( Choueiri, &( Cosan!ier, 7( @eorge, M(
"u#ont, an! R( $roun(T S/issCu*e9 'hase &NC9 'ro:ect, Mission, Sace an! @roun! Syste#
Avervie/ Reort‖, E'7L Lausanne (August +--J(
9/: 7al) 8oh)a( Stu!ent Research 'aer9 TSatellite Mission Concet for the "etection of Transient
Lunar 'heno#ena , ‖ &erlin Institute of Technology( Mar( +--I(
91': Stuart Eagleson, $aran Sar!a, Stehen Mauthe, Tarun Tuli, an! "r( Ro*ert E( >ee( A!ata*le,
TMulti9Mission "esign of CanE 8anosatellites‖, In '0
t%
Annual A(AAL;S; Con)erence on
Small Satellite, Logan, Utah, C,9CJ August +--G(
911: Ronal! ;( &oain, TA9&9Cs of Sun9Synchronous Ar*it "esign , ‖ In 18
t%
AASL A(AA S"ace
Flig%t Mec%anics Con)erence, AAS u*lications, 7e*ruary +--,(
K1L Stuart Eagleson, $aran Sar!a, Stehen Mauthe, Tarun Tuli, an! "r( Ro*ert E( >ee, Anthony 7(
;( Moffat, 1erner 1( 1eiss, TThe &RITE Sace Telescoe% Using a 8ano9satellite
Constellation to Measure Stellar 6aria*ility in the Most Lu#inous Stars‖, In 5$
t%
Annual
(nternational Astronautical Congress, 6alencia, Sain, +9G Act( +--G(
91%: Trevor Sorensen, @lenn 'rescott, Marco 6illa, "e/ayne &ro/n, ;ohn Hic)s, Arthur E!/ar!s,
;a#es Ly)e, Tho#as @eorge, sohra* Mo*asser, $arl ?ee, T$UTESAT9+, A Stu!ent 8ano9
satellite Mission for Testing rai!9resonse S#all Satellite Technologies in Lo/ Earth
Ar*it , ‖ In A(AA -
r#
3es"onsive S"ace Con)erence, los Angeles, CA, Unite! States, Aril +F9
+I, +--F(
91(: ECSS9E9J-9,CA( MS"ace !ngineering K ,roun# Systems an# O"erations K *elemetry an#
*elecomman# Pac/et ;tili9ationJ. Euroean Cooeration for Sace Stan!ar!i3ation O ECSS,
;an( +--D(
91*: MAI.'5 Lin/ Access Protocol )or Amateur Pac/et 3a#ioJ( Tucson A#ateur 'ac)et Ra!io
Cororation 4TA'R5( 6er( +(+, ;ul( C..I(
91,: S($("un)in, "(;(HeatherG TRe#ote Sensing of the Moon% 'ast, 'resent an! 7uture, +---,
E0loration an! Utili3ation of the Moon‖, !SA Publications ivision, .+9.-.+9GI.9+
91+: Antenna Syste# W Solution Inc(G T'atch Antenna, Antenna Syste# WSolutions
Inc‖(
Schau#*urg, Illinois, USA, +--I(
91-: Ha)an $ayal, TSacecraft Aerations‖, Sace#aster Lecture, Univ( 12r3*urg,
1inter
Se#ester +--I(
91/: &( T/iggs an! ;( 'uig9Suari, TCU&ESAT "esign Secifications "ocu#ent‖,
Stanfor!
University an! California 'olytechnical Institute, +--D
9': ASTREC9C 'ro:ect Tea#, TASTRECOI S#allsat Mission Concetual "esign Reort‖,
University of 7lori!a an! 8orth Carolina State UniversityG "ece#*er Gth, +--J(
91: 7( 8oh)a, 7( &au#ann, $( &riess, H( $ayal, T$on3et eins or*italen Sensors 3ur &eo*achtung
vor )ur33eitigenLichthfno#enen auf !e# Mon!‖, Tagungs*an! "@'7 ;ahrestagung +--J(
9: "avi! Tyler, Lunar Transient A*servers Manual, h tt % NN /// (lt r e s e a r ch (o r g NMA 8 UA L(ht # l
9%L $ayal, H( TA 8ano Satellite Mission for Autono#ous "etection an! A*servation of the
Transient Lunar 'heno#enon , ‖ Procee#ings o) t%e international con)erence on Small
Satellites= :e1 Missions an# :e1 *ec%nologies, Istan*ul, Tur)ey, ;une +--I
9(: A!olf 6oigt, 1ilfrie! Tost, T"er !igitale &erliner Mon!atlas in C-I fotografischen
&lfttern‖, 1ilhel# 7erster Stern/arte &erlin, @rue &erliner Mon!*eo*achter(
9*: $ayal H(, &rieg, $( TAutono#ous "etection an! A*servation of the Transient Lunar
'heno#enon *y a Satellite Constellation IAC9-I9AD(+(I8TCF‖, 57t%
(nternational Astronautical Congress 5(ACN026, @lasgo/, Scotlan!, Acto*er
+--I