Cpen Letter on the Io|nt kev|ew Þane| report regard|ng the Northern Gateway Þro[ect

May 26, 2014
1he 8lghL Pon. SLephen Parper
Þrlme MlnlsLer of Canada
Langevln 8ulldlng
80 WelllngLon SLreeL
CLLawa Cn k1A 0A6
uear Þrlme MlnlsLer Parper:
8ased on Lhe evldence presenLed below, we, Lhe underslgned scholars, have concluded LhaL Lhe !olnL
8evlew Þanel's (!8Þ) assessmenL of Lhe norLhern CaLeway Þro[ecL (Lhe Þro[ecL) represenLs a flawed
analysls of Lhe rlsks and beneflLs Lo 8rlLlsh Columbla's envlronmenL and socleLy. ConsequenLly, Lhe !8Þ
reporL should noL serve as Lhe basls for concludlng LhaL Lhe norLhern CaLeway Þro[ecL ls ln Lhe besL
lnLeresLs of Canadlans. We urge you |n the strongest poss|b|e terms to re[ect th|s report.
1he Canadlan elecLoraLe expecLed Lhe !8Þ rullng Lo presenL a balanced and approprlaLe conslderaLlon of
Lhe rlsks and beneflLs of Lhe Þro[ecL, drawlng upon Lhe besL avallable evldence, and expresslng a cogenL
raLlonale for Lhe flnal rullng.
!" $%& '(')"*+*, -./ 0'('1+'( /)/2-$&'-/ &/2/+3/1 ' &%)+(4 -.'- +* ($- 5')'(2/1 $& 1/6/(*+5)/ 1%/ -$ 6+3/
7'8$& 6)'9*: 1he Þanel's revlew:
1. lalled Lo adequaLely arLlculaLe Lhe raLlonale for lLs flndlngs,
2. Consldered only a narrow seL of rlsks buL a broad array of beneflLs, Lhereby omlLLlng adequaLe
conslderaLlon of key lssues,
3. 8elled on lnformaLlon from Lhe proponenL, wlLhouL exLernal evaluaLlon,
4. ConLradlcLed sclenLlflc evldence conLalned ln offlclal governmenL documenLs, and
3. 1reaLed uncerLaln rlsks as unlmporLanL rlsks, and assumed Lhese would be negaLed by Lhe
proponenL's yeL-Lo-be-developed mlLlgaLlon measures.
8elow, we expand on Lhese flve fundamenLal flaws LhaL lnvalldaLe Lhe reporL as an approprlaLe basls for
your CablneL Lo approve Lhe Þro[ecL.
1. Ia||ure to Art|cu|ate a kat|ona|e
1he panel falled Lo arLlculaLe a raLlonale for numerous flndlngs
l
, and falled Lo saLlsfy Lhe crlLerla of
º[usLlflcaLlon, Lransparency and lnLelllglblllLy" expecLed of admlnlsLraLlve Lrlbunals.
ll
Such a raLlonale ls
fundamenLal Lo boLh sclenLlflc and legal [udgmenL. 1he Þanel's charge was Lo deLermlne wheLher Lhe
Þro[ecL ls ln Lhe publlc lnLeresL of 8rlLlsh Columblans and Canadlans, based on a crlLlcal analysls of Lhe
Þro[ecL's economlc, envlronmenLal and soclal beneflLs, cosLs '(1 rlsks over Lhe long Lerm. lnsLead of
such a balanced conslderaLlon, Lhe panel [usLlfled lLs recommendaLlon of Lhe pro[ecL by summarlzlng Lhe
panel's undersLandlng of envlronmenLal burdens ln flve shorL paragraphs
lll
and [udglng LhaL Lhese
adverse envlronmenLal ouLcomes were ouLwelghed by Lhe poLenLlal socleLal and economlc beneflLs.
WlLhouL a raLlonale for why Lhe expecLed beneflLs [usLlfy Lhe rlsks (e.g., why musL an envlronmenLal
2
effecL be cerLaln and/or permanenLly wldespread Lo ouLwelgh economlc beneflLs LhaL Lhemselves are
sub[ecL Lo some uncerLalnLy?), any rullng of overall publlc lnLeresL ls unsupporLable.
2. Cons|derat|on of Narrow k|sks but 8road 8enef|ts, Cm|ss|on of key Issues
1he panel lncluded ln lLs dellberaLlon a broad vlew of Lhe economlc beneflLs, buL an asymmeLrlcally
narrow vlew of Lhe envlronmenLal rlsks and cosLs. 1he need for Lhe Þro[ecL as sLlpulaLed by Lnbrldge
lncludes conslderaLlon of Lhe enhanced revenues LhaL would accrue from hlgher prlces for oll sands
producLs ln Aslan markeLs. 1hese enhanced revenues are beneflLs Lo producers 6&$7 ;&$1%2-+$(. 1he
envlronmenLal rlsks, however, were only consldered lf Lhey are '**$2+'-/1 9+-. -&'(*;$&-, ($-
;&$1%2-+$( $& )'-/& 5%&(+(4/consumpLlon. All negaLlve effecLs assoclaLed wlLh Lhe enhanced producLlon
of oll sands blLumen, or Lhe burnlng of such producLs ln Asla, were excluded, as were greenhouse gas
emlsslons generally.
lv
1hls excluslon of Lhe pro[ecL's conLrlbuLlons Lo lncreased aLmospherlc emlsslons
undermlnes Canada's formal lnLernaLlonal commlLmenLs and federal pollcles on greenhouse emlsslons.
v

CLher key lssues omlLLed lnclude Lhe dlfflculLy of conLalnlng freshwaLer spllls under lce, as has already
been demonsLraLed on Lhe ALhabasca 8lver from oll sands developmenLs.
vl

3. ke||ance on Informat|on from the Þroponent, w|thout Lxterna| Lva|uat|on
Cn crlLlcal lssues, Lhe panel relled on lnformaLlon from Lhe proponenL wlLhouL exLernal assessmenL. lor
example, on Lhe plvoLal maLLer of Lhe rlsks of a dlluLed blLumen Lanker splll, Lhe panel concluded LhaL a
ma[or splll was unllkely.
vll
?eL, a professlonal englneers' reporL concluded LhaL Lhe quanLlLaLlve rlsk
assessmenL upon whlch Lhe panel relled was so flawed as Lo provlde no meanlngful resulLs.
vlll
8egardlng
Lhe consequences of such a splll, Lhe panel relled on Lhe proponenL's modellng Lo conclude LhaL Lhe
adverse consequences of a splll would noL be wldespread
lx
or permanenL,
x
even as lL acknowledged LhaL
Lhere ls much uncerLalnLy abouL Lhe behavlor of dlluLed blLumen ln Lhe marlne envlronmenL. 1haL
modellng dlscounLed Lhe prospecL LhaL dlluLed blLumen could be LransporLed long dlsLance by currenLs,
when Lhe producL submerges, as lL does under a wlde range of condlLlons.
xl
1hus, Lhe panel may have
underesLlmaLed Lhe scale of poLenLlal damages. 8ecause Lhe proponenL ls ln a clear confllcL of lnLeresL,
an lndependenL assessmenL of poLenLlal oll splll damage should have been commlssloned.
4. Contrad|ct|on of Cff|c|a| Government Documents
A declslon on Lhe poLenLlal for slgnlflcanL adverse envlronmenLal effecLs on any specles or hablLaL musL
be conslsLenL wlLh Lhe governmenL's own offlclal documenLs. 1he panel's concluslons LhaL marlne
mammals ln general wlll noL suffer slgnlflcanL adverse cumulaLlve effecLs sLands ln dlrecL conLradlcLlon
Lo Lhe governmenL's own managemenL and recovery plans.
xll
lor example, Lhe 8ecovery Þlan for large
whales (blue, fln, and sel whales-specles-aL-rlsk under Lhe federal <;/2+/* '- =+*> ?2-, SA8A) llsLs
ºcolllslons wlLh vessels, nolse from lndusLrlal . acLlvlLles, [and] polluLlon" as lmmlnenL LhreaLs -all
Lhree LhreaLs are assoclaLed wlLh Lhe nCÞ proposal
xlll
. ConLamlnaLlon has also been ldenLlfled as a LhreaL
for oLher marlne mammals: Lhe managemenL plans for boLh Lhe sea oLLer
xlv
and Lhe SLeller sea llon
xv

ldenLlfy a rlsk from marlne conLamlnaLlon-ln parLlcular Lhe acuLe effecLs of large oll spllls, buL also from
Lhe LoxlclLy of smaller, chronlc spllls LhaL are llkely Lo lncrease proporLlonally wlLh vessel Lrafflc. 1he
panel also falled Lo accounL for newly ldenLlfled crlLlcal hablLaL of Lhe humpback whale and falled Lo
speclfy how Lhe proponenL's mlLlgaLlon plan would reduce Lhe slgnlflcanL rlsks from lncreased shlpplng,
a serlous LhreaL ldenLlfled ln Lhe recenLly publlshed 8ecovery SLraLegy for Lhe specles.
xvl
A plan Lo
3
manage Lhe LhreaLs Lo Lhe specles and lLs hablLaL ls a legal requlremenL glven LhaL Lhe humpback whale
ls a specles of Speclal Concern under SA8A.
S. Inappropr|ate 1reatment of Uncerta|n k|sks, and ke||ance on ¥et-1o-8e-Deve|oped M|t|gat|on
Measures
1he panel effecLlvely LreaLed uncerLaln rlsks as unlmporLanL. lor lnsLance, norLhern CaLeway omlLLed
speclfled mlLlgaLlon plans for numerous envlronmenLal damages or accldenLs. 1hls omlsslon produced
fundamenLal uncerLalnLles abouL Lhe envlronmenLal lmpacLs of norLhern CaLeway's proposal
(assoclaLed wlLh Lhe behavlour of blLumen ln salLwaLer, adequaLe dlsperslon modellng, eLc.). 1he panel
recognlzed Lhese fundamenLal uncerLalnLles, buL soughL Lo remedy Lhem by demandlng Lhe fuLure
submlsslon of plans. Powever, Lhe panel descrlbed no mechanlsm by whlch Lhe evaluaLlon of Lhese
plans could reverse Lhelr rullng. Slnce Lhese uncerLalnLles are prlmarlly a producL of omlLLed mlLlgaLlon
plans, such plans *.$%)1 .'3/ 5//( &/@%+&/1 '(1 /3')%'-/1 5/6$&/ -./ A=B &/;$&- 9'* +**%/1. 1o assume
LhaL such uncerLalnLles would noL lnfluence Lhe flnal declslon of Lhe panel, ls Lo sancLlon Lhe
proponenL's sLraLeglc omlsslons, and effecLlvely dlscounL Lhese poLenLlally slgnlflcanL rlsks of Lhe
Þro[ecL, Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe Canadlan publlc.
Conc|us|on

1he !8Þ reporL could have offered guldance, boLh Lo concerned Canadlans ln formlng Lhelr oplnlons on
Lhe pro[ecL and Lo Lhe federal governmenL ln lLs offlclal declslon. Powever, glven Lhe ma[or flaws
deLalled above, Lhe reporL does noL provlde Lhe needed guldance. 8aLher, Lhe !8Þ's concluslon-LhaL
Canadlans would be beLLer off wlLh Lhan wlLhouL Lhe norLhern CaLeway Þro[ecL glven all
ºenvlronmenLal, soclal, and economlc conslderaLlons"
xvii
-sLands unsupporLed.

Clven such flaws, Lhe !8Þ reporL ls lndefenslble as a basls Lo [udge ln favour of Lhe Þro[ecL.

Slncerely,





kal MA Chan, Anne Salomon Lrlc 8. 1aylor
AssoclaLe Þrofessor, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, Þrofessor,
unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla Slmon lraser unlverslLy unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla





Llena 8enneLL, Þrofessor, McClll unlverslLy
!ames M 8yrne, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of LeLhbrldge
Mlchael 8arkusky, loundlng ulrecLor, Þaclflc lnsLlLuLe for Lcologlcal Lconomlcs
Suzanne 8ayley, LmerlLus Þrofessor, unlverslLy of AlberLa
8aLana Chuenpagdee, Þrofessor, Memorlal unlverslLy
4
Slmon uonner, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Ldward Cregr, Þrofesslonal 8lologlsL / 8ecovery Þlan AuLhor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Lrlc Plggs, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
Ceorge Poberg, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
kaLhryn Parrlson, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
uon !ackson, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 1oronLo
Mark !accard, Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
!eremy kerr, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of CLLawa
ken LerLzman, Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
Sarah CLLo, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Lvgeny Þakhomov, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Þaul ÞaqueL, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
Wendy Þalen, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
uavld Schlndler, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of AlberLa
uouw SLeyn, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
usslf 8ashld Sumalla, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
8orls Worm, Þrofessor, ualhousle unlverslLy

Alan Lewls, LmerlLus Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, LarLh & Ccean Sclences
Andrew 8lseman, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, LlS
AnL[e Lllermann, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
AnLonla Mllls, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of norLhern 8rlLlsh Columbla
Arne Mooers, Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
8arrle WebsLer, Þrofessor (reLlred), unlverslLy of ManlLoba
8en Seghers, LecLurer, Cxford unlverslLy
ArL lredeen, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of norLhern 8C
8lake Þoland, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 1oronLo
8radley WalLers, Þrofessor of Ceography & LnvlronmenL, MounL Alllson unlverslLy
8rlan SLarzomskl, lan Mc1aggarL-Cowan Þrofessor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
8rendon Larson, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of WaLerloo
8rldgeL 8ergqulsL, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 1oronLo
8ruce PunLer, Þrofessor, Seneca College
C.S. Polllng, LmerlLus Þrofessor, unlverslLy of llorlda
Carol Þollock, Þrofessor of 1eachlng, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, uepL. of Zoology
Charles !. krebs, LmerlLus Þrofessor of Zoology, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Chrls 8arrlngLon-Lelgh, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, McClll unlverslLy
Chrls uarlmonL, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
ChrlsLlna 8oberLs, 8eLlred lnsLrucLor & AssoclaLe Þrof., unlverslLy of 1oronLo, Parvard unlverslLy,
unlverslLy of Calgary
uana Lepofsky, Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
uanlel 8alnham, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, LnvlronmenLal Sclence, ualhousle unlverslLy
uanny Parvey, Þrofessor, uepL. of Ceography, unlverslLy of 1oronLo
uarren lrwln, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
uavld 8. 8oyd, Ad[uncL Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
uawn Pemlngway, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of norLhern 8C
uayna nadlne ScoLL, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, Csgoode Pall Law School and Lhe laculLy of LnvlronmenLal
SLudles, ?ork unlverslLy
ueb nlemeler, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of Callfornla
3
uennls Murray, Canada 8esearch Chalr, 1renL unlverslLy
ulana Allen, Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
ulane SrlvasLava, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
uolph SchluLer, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
uonald Spady, Ad[uncL Þrofessor ÞedlaLrlcs & Þubllc PealLh, unlverslLy of AlberLa
uoug ÞresL, Þrofesslonal Lnglneer, Þrofesslonal Lnglneers CnLarlo
Ldd Pammlll, LecLurer, unlverslLy of 1echnology, Sydney
Llena Lazos, Þrofessor ln Soclo-envlronmenLal SLudles, unlversldad naclonal AuLonoma de Mexlco
Lrlca lrank, Þrofessor and Canada 8esearch Chalr, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
lred 8unnell, LmerlLus Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Ceorge Mcklbbon, Ad[uncL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of Cuelph
Cerardo Ceballos, Þrofessor, unlversldad naclonal AuLonoma de Mexlco, lnsLlLuLo de Lcologla
Cordon Laxer, Þrofessor LmerlLus, unlverslLy of AlberLa
Cunnar Schade, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, 1exas A&M unlverslLy
Pannah WlLLman, Assoc Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Pelke LoLze, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, ualhousle unlverslLy
lsabelle CoLe, Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
! 1homas 8eaLLy, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
!ames u !ohnson, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
!ames CranL, Þrofessor, 8lology, Concordla unlverslLy
!ames k. 8owe, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
!ames S Clark, nlcholas Þrofessor of Clobal LnvlronmenLal Change, uuke unlverslLy
!ohn u. McÞhall, Þrofessor LmerlLus, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
!ohn 8. ÞosL, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of Calgary
!ohn 8eynolds, Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
!ohn 8oblnson, AssoclaLe ÞrovosL, SusLalnablllLy, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, lnsLlLuLe for 8esources,
LnvlronmenL and SusLalnablllLy, uepL. of Ceography
!ohn Smol, Þrofessor and Canada 8esearch Chalr ln LnvlronmenLal Change, Cueen's unlverslLy
!ohn volpe, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
!onaLhan Moore, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
!onaLhan WlLL, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, uepL. of 8lology, unlverslLy of WaLerloo
!onn Axsen, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy, School of 8esource and LnvlronmenLal
ManagemenL
!ordl Poney-8oses, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
!ana vamosl, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of Calgary
!ane WaLson, unlverslLy-College Þrofessor, vancouver lsland unlverslLy
!ededlah 8rodle, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
!esslca uempsey, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
!esslca lorresL, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of CLLawa
!8 Welch, AssoclaLe Þrofessor and Canada 8esearch Chalr (1ler 2), Slmon lraser unlverslLy, Archaeology,
School of 8esource & LnvlronmenLal MgmL.
!udlLh Myers, Þrofessor LmerlLus, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
!ulla k. 8aum, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
kaLherlne Acheson, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of WaLerloo
kaLherlne L. Þarker, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of norLhern 8rlLlsh Columbla
kaLhleen MacLeod, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
ken Pall, Þrofessor LmerlLus, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
kenneLh uenman, Ad[uncL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
6
klLLy CorbeLL, Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
Laura Wegener Þarfrey, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
100Laurle Chan, ulrecLor and Canada 8esearch Chalr ln 1oxlcology and LnvlronmenLal PealLh, unlverslLy
of CLLawa, CenLer for Advanced 8esearch ln LnvlronmenLal Cenomlcs
Lawrence ulll, Þrofessor LmerlLus, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
Lenore lahrlg, Þrofessor, CarleLon unlverslLy
Locke 8owe, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 1oronLo
Louls 8ernaLchez, Þrofessor, unlverslLe Laval
Lyn 8aldwln, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, 1hompson 8lvers unlverslLy
Lynne Cuarmby, Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
Margo 1amez, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
MargoL Þarkes, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of norLhern 8rlLlsh Columbla
Mark S. 8oyce, Þrofessor of Lcology & AlberLa ConservaLlon AssoclaLlon Chalr ln llsherles & Wlldllfe,
unlverslLy of AlberLa
Mark Þoesch, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of AlberLa
MarLha SLark, Ad[uncL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of norLhern 8rlLlsh Columbla
MarLln 8unch, Þrofessor, ?ork unlverslLy
MarLln krkosek, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 1oronLo
Maxwell A. Cameron, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Melnhard uoelle, Þrofessor, ualhousle unlverslLy
Mlchael 8rauer, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Mlchael L. Mann, ulsLlngulshed Þrofessor and ulrecLor of LarLh SysLem Sclence CenLer, Þenn SLaLe
unlverslLy
Mlchael Cllllngham, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of norLhern 8rlLlsh Columbla
Mlchael 8ussello, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Mlllnd kandllkar, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, lnsLlLuLe for 8esources LnvlronmenL and
SusLalnablllLy
nancy 1urner, ulsLlngulshed professor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
naLalle 8an, AsslsLanL professor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
nlck uulvy, Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
Þaul 8enLzen, Þrofessor, ualhousle unlverslLy
Þaul 8. Lhrllch, 8lng Þrofessor of ÞopulaLlon SLudles, 8lology uepL., SLanford unlverslLy
ÞeLer Arcese, Þrofessor, l88C Chalr, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Þhlllp P. AusLln, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Þhlllppe Penry, AsslsLanL professor, unlverslLy of norLhern 8rlLlsh Columbla
Þhlllppe Le 8lllon, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
8oberL 8. Clbson, Þrofessor, LnvlronmenL and 8esource SLudles, unlverslLy of WaLerloo
8oberL ueWreede, Þrofessor LmerlLus, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
8oberL PowarLh, uavld 8. ALklnson Þrofessor of Lcology & LnvlronmenLal 8lology, Cornell unlverslLy
8oberLa lulLhorpe, Þrofessor and CraduaLe Chalr, unlverslLy of 1oronLo Scarborough
8obln naldoo, Ad[uncL Þrofessor, l8LS, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
8obyn 8urnham, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of Mlchlgan
8onald Clbson, AssoclaLe Cllnlcal Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
ScoLL A Mandla, AssL. Chalr/Þrofessor Þhyslcal Sclences, Suffolk CounLy CommunlLy College
ScoLL llndlay, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of CLLawa
Sean Cox, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
SLephen, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of norLhern 8rlLlsh Columbla
SLephen 8ader, Þrofessor of ChemlsLry, unlverslLy of norLhern 8rlLlsh Columbla
7
SLeve LasLerbrook, Þrofessor of CompuLer Sclence, unlverslLy of 1oronLo
SLeven vamosl, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of Calgary
SLuarL Murray, Canada 8esearch Chalr, CarleLon unlverslLy
1. L. 8elmchen, Ad[uncL Þrofessor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
1ara lvanochko, ulrecLor, LnvlronmenLal Sclence, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
1homas u Slsk, Þrofessor, norLhern Arlzona unlverslLy
1homas l. Þedersen, LxecuLlve ulrecLor, unlverslLy of vlcLorla, Þaclflc lnsLlLuLe for CllmaLe SoluLlons
1lm SLorr, AsslsLanL Þrofessor, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
1lmoLhy Mcuanlels, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, lnsLlLuLe for 8esources, LnvlronmenL and
SusLalnablllLy, School of CommunlLy and 8eglonal Þlannlng
1ony ÞlLcher, Þrofessor of llsherles, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
1revor Pancock, Þrofessor and Senlor Scholar, unlverslLy of vlcLorla, School of Þubllc PealLh and Soclal
Þollcy
vllly ChrlsLensen, Þrofessor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Wllllam L. nelll, Þrofessor LmerlLus Zoology, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Wllllam 8amey, Þrofessor of 1eachlng, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Wllllam 8ees, Þrofessor LmerlLus, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Zoe MeleLls, AssoclaLe Þrofessor, unlverslLy of norLhern 8rlLlsh Columbla

Alan Slnclalr, llsherles SclenLlsL, llsherles and Cceans Canada 8eLlred
Alec 8lalr, Þh.u. CandldaLe, McClll unlverslLy
Ale[andra Lcheverrl, M.Sc. CandldaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, lnsLlLuLe for 8esources,
LnvlronmenL and SusLalnablllLy
Alexandra MuhameLsaflna, CraduaLe SLudenL, Wllfrld Laurler unlverslLy
Allna llsher, 8esearch Manager, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
Allsha Packlnen, M.Sc. CandldaLe ln Soll Sclence, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Alllson 1hompson, MasLer's SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Alys Cranados, Þh.u. CandldaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Alysson vrlellnk, LlecLrlcal Lnglneer Þh.u. SLudenL, SLanford unlverslLy
Amanda MaLhys, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Andrew Puang, M.Sc. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Anna Shoemaker, Þh.u., uppsala unlverslLy
Anne ualzlel, Þh.u., unlverslLe Laval
AnLony Þorclno, Þro[ecL ulrecLor (CAMLC/8esearch), unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Aylln ulman, 8esearcher, M.Sc. SLudenL Aylln ulman, 8esearcher, M.Sc. SLudenL, Sea Around us,
unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
8ernardo 8anlerl, ConservaLlon 8lologlsL. Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, lnsLlLuLe for
8esources, LnvlronmenL and SusLalnablllLy
8reLL lavaro, 8esearch SclenLlsL, Memorlal unlverslLy
8reLL Poward, Þhu sLudenL, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
8rlanna WrlghL, M.Sc. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
8rock 8amshaw, M.Sc., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
8runa Amaral, M.Sc. SLudenL, unlverslLy of Cueensland
Cameron Lgan, Þh.u. CandldaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Cameron WebsLer, 8esearch AsslsLanL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Carllng Cerllnsky, 8esearch AsslsLanL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, llsherles CenLre
CaLhryn Murray, ÞosLdocLoral lellow, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
CharloLLe WhlLney, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
8
Chlco 8lrrell, M.Sc., unlverslLy of Cueensland
Chrls Alkman, AssoclaLe 8esearch Cfflcer, 8eLlred n8C sclenLlsL
Chrls !oseph, 8esearcher, SusLalnable Þlannlng 8esearch Croup, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
ChrlsLlan 8eaudrle, Þh.u. CandldaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
ChrlsLopher 8aymond, Senlor 8esearch lellow, 8arbara Pardy lnsLlLuLe, unlverslLy of SouLh AusLralla
ClnLla Camlla Sllva Angellerl, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of Sao Þaulo, 8razll
Crlspln !ordan, Þh.u., unlverslLy of Ldlnburgh
ualal Al-Abdulrazzak, Þh.u. CandldaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
uanlca ÞaLLon, Þh.u., SLanford unlverslLy
uavld ng, ulrecLor, AM8L, Mlchael SmlLh LaboraLorles, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
uavld 8oberLs, ÞosLdocLoral lellow, unlverslLy of AlberLa
uavld W Mayhood, ÞresldenL, Lead ConsulLanL, lW8 lreshwaLer 8esearch LlmlLed
ueb Chen, Þh.u. CandldaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
uomlnlque 8oche, Þh.u., AusLrallan naLlonal unlverslLy
Lduardo MarLlns, Þh.u., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Llalne Pslao, Þh.u. SLudenL, Llu Scholar, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
LllzabeLh kleynhans, Þh.u. CandldaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
LllzabeLh Law, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of Cueensland
LllzabeLh Þendray, 8esearch AsslsLanL, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
LlysabeLh 1heberge, M.Sc. candldaLe, unlverslLy of CLLawa
Lmlly Anderson, Þh.u. CandldaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Lmlly 8raulL, CraduaLe SLudenL, unlverslLy of Callfornla SanLa Cruz
Lmlly uarllng, ÞosLdocLoral lellow, unlverslLy of norLh Carollna
Lmlly 8ubldge, vlslLlng SclenLlsL, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
Lrlc 1reml, 8esearch lellow, unlverslLy of Melbourne
Lrln CrockeLL, M.Sc. SLudenL, unlverslLy of Cxford
Lva SLredullnsky, M.Sc. candldaLe, unlverslLy of vlcLorla
Lvan Morlen, CompuLaLlonal 8lologlsL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Cllles Wendllng, ÞresldenL, Þh.u, Þ.Lng, CW SoluLlons
Cwyllm 8lackburn, Þh.u., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Parald ?urk, 8esearch AssoclaLe, 8ehavloral LcologlsL ln 8loacousLlcs, vancouver Aquarlum
Pelen klng, Þh.u., Cranfleld unlverslLy
lan Colquhoun, Chalr, M.Sc. LnvlronmenL and SusLalnablllLy, WesLern unlverslLy
! Shlller, M.Sc. sLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
!amle LeaLhem, M.Sc., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
!ean-SebasLlen Moore, Þh.u., unlverslLe Laval
!effrey C. Po, Þh.u. SLudenL, SLanford unlverslLy
!effrey CharLers, M.Sc., 1echnlclan, unlverslLy of Cuelph
!enn 8urL, Þh.u. SLudenL, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
!ennlfer n Pardlng, Þh.u. CandldaLe, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
!enny L. McCune, ÞosLdocLoral lellow, unlverslLy of Cuelph
!esslca 8eeves, Þh.u., laculLy Member, CuesL unlverslLy, Canada
!esslca SchulLz, M.Sc. SLudenL, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
!esslca Walsh, Þh.u. SLudenL ConservaLlon Lcology, unlverslLy of Cambrldge
!oan kleypas, SclenLlsL, naLlonal CenLer for ALmospherlc 8esearch
!ocelyn nelson, M.Sc., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
!ody 8elmer, M.Sc., unlverslLy of AlberLa
!oshua Sllberg, M8M CandldaLe, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
9
!ulla CusLavsen, Þh.u. SLudenL, 8lologlcal Cceanography, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
karen Cooke, M.A., 8esearch manager, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla School of nurslng
karen Collnskl, Ponourary 8esearch AssoclaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
kaLe klrby, Þh.u., unlverslLy of 1oronLo
kaLle Cale, M.Sc., Memorlal unlverslLy of newfoundland
klely Mclarlane, CraduaLe SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Laura 8enesLan, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLe Laval
Laura ledoruk, M.Sc., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Leah Ponka, M.Sc. SLudenL, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
Llnda !ennlngs, AsslsLanL CuraLor, 8eaLy 8lodlverslLy Museum
Llndsay uer, Þh.u. CandldaLe, SLanford unlverslLy
Llsa Mcuonnell, ÞosLdocLoral lellow, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, laculLy of Sclence
Llsa WesLerhoff, Þh.u. candldaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Loulse Chavarle, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of AlberLa
Lucy 8odlna, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, lnsLlLuLe for 8esources, LnvlronmenL and
SusLalnablllLy
Luke A. 8ogers, M.Sc. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 1oronLo
Maayan krelLzman, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, lnsLlLuLe for 8esources LnvlronmenL
and SusLalnablllLy
Marleke 8eaulleu, M.Sc., unlverslLe de Sherbrooke
Marlna WlnLerboLLom, M.Sc. ualhousle unlverslLy
Marlsa 8rook, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 1oronLo
Mary Pufford, Senlor 8esearch SclenLlsL, vlrglnla 1ech
MaLL uolf, CraduaLe SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
MaLLhew Ladd, Þh.u. CandldaLe, unlverslLy of CLLawa
MaLLhew MlLchell, Þh.u., McClll unlverslLy & unlverslLy of Cueensland
MaLLhew 1accogna, MA sLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
MaLLhew WagsLaff, 8esearch AsslsLanL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Maxwell Sykes, M.Sc. SLudenL 8esource ManagemenL, Slmon lraser unlverslLy, Lnergy and MaLerlals
8esearch Croup
Meaghan Lablne, Þh.u., unlverslLy of ManlLoba
Megan Csmond-!ones, 8esearch AsslsLanL, 1hompson 8lvers unlverslLy
Mlchelle nelson, Þh.u. CandldaLe, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
naLhan 1oh, 8esearch AsslsLanL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
nlcole Shumway, 8esearch LcologlsL, unlverslLy of Cueensland
nlgel Paggan, Þh.u., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Cllvla lesLy, Þh.u., Cueen Mary unlverslLy
Þalge ClmsLed, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Þamela ZevlL, 8eglsLered Þrofesslonal. 8lologlsL, Þrlnclpal Adamah ConsulLanLs
Þascale Clbeau, Þh.u. SLudenL and 8lologlsL, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
Þaul 8eckwlLh, ÞarL-Llme Þrofessor/lull-Llme Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of CLLawa
8ebecca C. MarLone, Þrogram Lead, SLanford unlverslLy, CenLer for Ccean SoluLlons
8ebecca SelferL, MasLer's SLudenL, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
8ebecca WlLLer, ÞosLdocLoral lellow, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
8ebekah !ones, CoasLal 8esources SclenLlsL, Loulslana SLaLe unlverslLy
8eglna 8esLbler, M.Sc., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
8ene 8eyers, 8esearch AssoclaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
8lchard SchusLer, Þh.u. CandldaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
10
Sameer Shah, CraduaLe SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Sandra 8lnnlng, ÞosLdocLoral lellow, unlverslLy of neuchaLel
Sara Parrls, Senlor lnsLrucLor, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Sarah klaln, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Sarah Maclnnes, ÞosLdocLoral lellow, SLanford unlverslLy
Sean Codwln, M.Sc. SLudenL, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
Sean naman, Þh.u. SLudenL, uepL. of Zoology, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
SebasLlan Þardo, Þh.u. SLudenL, Slmon lraser unlverslLy
SebasLlan Scheer, Þh.u., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
SebasLlen 8enauL, ÞosLdocLoral lellow, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Sll[a Pund, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Slobhan Chandler, Þh.u., unlverslLy of WaLerloo
Son[a Wllson, M.Sc., Þ. Lng., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
SLephanle Crand, 8esearch AssoclaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
Susan Shlrley, 8esearch AssoclaLe, Cregon SLaLe unlverslLy
Susanne C. Moser, ulrecLor, Susanne Moser 8esearch & ConsulLlng
1ara MarLln, Þh.u., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
1ara Mc8ryan, M.Sc. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
1ara Moran, 8esearch AssoclaLe, SLanford unlverslLy
1erry Pughes, 8eLlred n8C Senlor 8esearch Cfflcer
1lm vlnes, Þh.u., unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla
1oby Sprlbllle, ÞosLdocLoral lellow, unlverslLy of MonLana
vlcLorla lrancls, MA SLudenL, Memorlal unlverslLy
Wendy WaLklns, uaLa Llbrarlan, CarleLon unlverslLy
Wllllam ALlas, M.Sc., Slmon lraser unlverslLy
Wllllam Parrower, Þh.u. CandldaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla, uepL. of 8oLany
Zheng (!ackle) ?lp, Þh.u. SLudenL, unlverslLy of 8rlLlsh Columbla

l
Conslder, for example, Lhe vlews of Lhe panel on Lhe consequences and slgnlflcance of spllls, 8eporL of Lhe !olnL
8evlew Þanel for Lhe Lnbrldge norLhern CaLeway Þro[ecL, volume 2, SecLlon 7.2.3, beglnnlng on page 128. Cn
page 129 we read º1he Þanel flnds LhaL Lhere ls poLenLlal for some oll Lo slnk lf lL lnLeracLs wlLh sedlmenL or
suspended parLlculaLe maLLer, or over Lhe long Lerm, due Lo naLural weaLherlng processes." 1he Þanel has
dlscounLed Lhe posslblllLy LhaL blLumen resldue could submerge ln Lhe shorL Lerm ln Lhe absence of parLlculaLes. lL
ls lmposslble Lo know how Lhey reached Lhls concluslon, whlch Lurns ouL Lo be wrong.

ii
uunsmulr v new 8runswlck, 2008 SCC 9: A courL conducLlng a revlew for reasonableness lnqulres lnLo Lhe
quallLles LhaL make a declslon reasonable, referrlng boLh Lo Lhe process of arLlculaLlng Lhe reasons and Lo
ouLcomes. ln [udlclal revlew, reasonableness ls concerned mosLly wlLh Lhe exlsLence of [usLlflcaLlon, Lransparency
and lnLelllglblllLy wlLhln Lhe declslon-maklng process. 8uL lL ls also concerned wlLh wheLher Lhe declslon falls wlLhln
a range of posslble, accepLable ouLcomes whlch are defenslble ln respecL of Lhe facLs and law. (aL para 47)

lll
1he Þanel [udged LhaL some rlsks were slgnlflcanL, buL wlLh sLaLed llmlLaLlons. lor example, for Lhe Þro[ecL's
conLrlbuLlon Lo cumulaLlve effecLs on carlbou and grlzzly bears, Lhe Þanel [udged Lhe effecLs slgnlflcanL (ºaL Lhe low
end", norLhern CaLeway !8Þ 8eporL, vol 2, p.10). lor Lhe ºunllkely evenL of a large oll splll", Lhe Þanel found LhaL lL
ºwould noL cause permanenL, wldespread damage" (norLhern CaLeway !8Þ 8eporL, vol 2, p.12). 8uL see Lhls
leLLer's polnLs 2-3 regardlng Lhe Þanel's mlscharacLerlzaLlons of rlsks.

lv
8eporL of Lhe !olnL 8evlew Þanel for Lhe Lnbrldge norLhern CaLeway Þro[ecL volume 1, page 17 and Þanel
Sesslon 8esulLs and ueclslon lssued !anuary 19, 2011, pages 12-14: hLLps://docs.neb-one.gc.ca/ll-
11

eng/lllsapl.dll/feLch/2000/90464/90332/384192/620327/624909/662323/A22-3_-
_Þanel_Sesslon_8esulLs_and_ueclslon_A1x2L8.pdf?nodeld=662117&vernum=-2
lor Lhe general excluslon of cllmaLe change, see hLLp://gaLewaypanel.revlew-examen.gc.ca/clf-nsl/fq/rcmmndLn-
eng.hLml#s14

v
Canada agreed Lo reduce lLs greenhouse gas emlsslons, ln order Lo llmlL global warmlng Lo less Lhan 2ºC, Lo 17°
below 2003 levels by Lhe year 2020. Canada's recenL reporL Lo Lhe un, however, pro[ecLed LhaL our emlsslons wlll
be 24° above our lnLernaLlonal LargeL ln 2020 and 78° percenL of Lhe growLh ln emlsslons by 2020 ls pro[ecLed Lo
come from oll sands producLlon. Canada's Lmlsslons 1rends - 2013. LnvlronmenL Canada 8eporL CcLober 2013.
Þ24: ºSpeclflcally, emlsslons from oll sands mlnlng are pro[ecLed Lo more Lhan double over Lhe 2003 Lo 2020 Llme
perlod. Lmlsslons from ln slLu producLlon are expecLed Lo lncrease from 11 ML ln 2003 Lo 33 ML ln 2020."
hLLp://www.ec.gc.ca/ges-ghg/983l03l8-4744-4269-8C1A-u443l8A86814/1001-
Canada's°20Lmlsslons°201rends°202013_e.pdf

vl
1hls may be Lhe mosL serlous and llkely rlsk. lor example, already Lwo spllls have occurred on Lhe ALhabasca
8lver under lce. ln Lhe flrsL of Lhese, ln 1982, a flre aL Suncor ln !anuary released a moderaLe amounL of olly
subsLances, due Lo Lhe lnablllLy Lo conLaln Lhe splll, Lhese subsLances Lravelled all Lhe way Lo Lake ALhabasca,
closlng Lhe flshery for 2 years. ln CcLober 2013, Lhe Lalllngs pond breached aL Cbed mlne. 1hls splll conLlnued Lo
spread and could noL even be assessed unLll Lhe lce lefL more Lhan slx monLhs laLer.

vll
º1he Þanel flnds LhaL a large splll, due Lo a malfuncLlon or accldenL, from Lhe plpellne faclllLles, Lermlnal, or
Lankers, ls noL llkely. norLhern CaLeway !8Þ 8eporL, vol 2, p 168

vlll
Concerned Þrofesslonal Lnglneers. 2014. llawed analysls, lrresponslble approval. WhlLe Þaper #1.
hLLp://concernedenglneers.org/wp-conLenL/uploads/2014/03/WhlLepaper-1-llawed-analysls-lrresponslble-
approval.pdf

lx
!8Þ 8eporL vol 2, p 129: º1he Þanel flnds LhaL a large LerresLrlal, freshwaLer, or marlne oll or condensaLe splll
would cause slgnlflcanL adverse envlronmenLal effecL and LhaL Lhe adverse effecLs would noL be permanenL or
wldespread."

x
lL ls noL necessary Lo conclude LhaL a consequence would be permanenL Lo esLabllsh LhaL Lhe consequence ls so
long-llved as Lo represenL a slgnlflcanL adverse effecL. 1he effecLs of Lhe Lxxon valdez are apparenL afLer more
Lhan 23 years: hLLp://response.resLoraLlon.noaa.gov/slLes/defaulL/flles/Lxxon_valdez_23?earsAfLer_308_0.pdf

xl
Crosby, S., 8. lay, C. Croark, A. kanl, !.8. SmlLh, and 1. Sulllvan (March 2013) 1ransporLlng AlberLa's Cll Sands
ÞroducLs: ueflnlng Lhe lssues and addresslng Lhe rlsks.
hLLps://docs.google.com/vlewer?a=v&pld=slLes&srcld=ZCvm?xvsdC8vbWlpbnxub2lhb2lsc2luZPnwcm9qZWn0f
Cd4C[c3nmvlMuk3n[czn[lznCu. Accessed May 2, 2014

xll
ManagemenL plans are lnLended Lo prevenL specles llsLed as Speclal Concern from becomlng endangered or
LhreaLened.

xlll
Cregr, L.!., !. Calambokldls, L. Convey, !.k.8. lord, 8.l. Þerry, L. Spaven, M. Zacharlas. 2006. 8ecovery SLraLegy for
8lue, lln, and Sel Whales (!')'/($;-/&' 7%*2%)%*, !: ;."*')%*, and !: 5$&/')+*) ln Þaclflc Canadlan WaLers. ln
Specles aL 8lsk AcL 8ecovery SLraLegy Serles. vancouver: llsherles and Cceans Canada. vll + 33 pp.

xlv
llsherles and Cceans Canada. 2014. ManagemenL Þlan for Lhe Sea CLLer (C(."1&' )%-&+*) ln Canada. Specles aL
8lsk AcL ManagemenL Þlan Serles. llsherles and Cceans Canada, CLLawa. lv + 30 pp.

12

xv
llsherles and Cceans Canada. 2010. ManagemenL Þlan for Lhe SLeller Sea Llon (C%7/-$;+'* 8%5'-%*) ln Canada
[llnal]. Specles aL 8lsk AcL ManagemenL Þlan Serles. llsherles and Cceans Canada, CLLawa. vl + 69 pp.

xv|
ulC, 2013, 8ecovery SLraLegy for Lhe norLh Þaclflc Pumpback Whale (D/4';-/&' ($3'/'(4)+'/) ln Canada,
hLLp://www.sarareglsLry.gc.ca/vlrLual_sara/flles/plans/rs_rb_pac_nord_hbw_1013_e.pdf
xvll
!8Þ 8eporL volume 1, page 11.

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