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Global Manpower Development

Electronics Troubleshooting ILT Pull-up


voltage
Module 8 -Text reference















SERV1877









Electronics Troubleshooting ILT
Module 8 - Pull-Up Voltage
Text Reference


















2010 Caterpillar Inc.
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SERV1877 - 03/10 -2- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage

ECU

+ 5 Volts + 6.5 Volts

A - Supply Power


C - Signal


Signal


V
Sensing

Device

B - Return Ground

2_1


Pull-up voltage is a voltage supplied from within an ECU through an internal
resistor (typically 22K ohms). This reference voltage is used to monitor the state
(open or shorted) of a signal circuit. Pull-up circuits are used on most sensor and
switch inputs of electronic controls.

To be able to effectively troubleshoot and diagnose switches and sensors, it is
important for the service technician to understand the basic principles of pull-up
voltage in an electronic control system. This illustration shows a typical example of
a sensor input.

The signal sensing circuitry in the control is electrically connected in parallel with
the input device. Basic electrical circuit analysis reveals that the voltage drop
across, or the voltage output of, the input device will be seen by the signal sensing
circuitry inside the control.















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SERV1877 - 03/10 -3- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage
1 2
ECU




+


3


3_1

A series circuit can be compared to the pull-up voltage circuit. One lamp (1)
represents a sensor or switch. The other lamp (2) represents the pull up resistor.
This resistor is internal to the ECU. The battery (3) represents the pull-up voltage
from the ECU. This voltage will vary depending on application, but is typically 6.5
VDC for active analog sensors.


























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SERV1877 - 03/10 -4- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage
















12 Volts
6 V
+















4_1

The series circuit above is constructed with two loads of the same size. The voltage
measured between each load to ground is 6 volts, which is the voltage that will be
detected by the signal sensing circuitry inside the ECU. It is important to remember
that the signal sensing device is always measuring the voltage drop of the load
farthest from the power supply (sensor or switch), so the point at which we
measure voltage in the above series circuit with a voltmeter can be compared to
the point where the signal sensing device is measuring voltage within the ECU.
























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SERV1877 - 03/10 -5- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage











Load 2 Load 1







3 V
Signal Sensing
Circuit








ECU






12 Volts
+











5_1

The above series circuit is constructed with two loads of different sizes. The
resistance of Load 2 can change according to the parameter measured, and the
voltage value read at the signal sensing device will change.





























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SERV1877 - 03/10 -6- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage





2 1









12 Volts
12 V
+















6_1

If Load 2 is not present, or an open occurs in the wires going to Load 2, full voltage
will be seen by the signal sensing device because Load 1 has no path to ground
and therefore has no voltage drop. Since there is an open, there is an infinite
resistance. This infinite resistance will have all circuit voltage dropped across it.
The voltage measured in this example will be 12 volts.

The code for this condition with a sensor will be Voltage High (FMI 03).
























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SERV1877 - 03/10 -7- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage





2 1









12 Volts
0 V
+














7_1

If a short to ground occurs after Load 1 and the signal sensing device, no voltage will
be seen by the signal sensing device because it is now in effect measuring from
ground to ground. The voltage measured will now be 0 volts. Current takes the path of
least resistance. In this case, that path is the short to ground; therefore, no voltage gets
to the second load. All of the voltage is then dropped across the first load.

The code for this condition with a sensor will be Voltage Low (FMI 04).
























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SERV1877 - 03/10 -8- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage











Load 2 Load 1




0 V
Signal Sensing
Circuit








ECU






12 Volts
+











8_1

If a closed switch is inserted in place of Load 2, the signal sensing device will not
measure a voltage (0 volts). This is usually a desirable signal in a switch input
circuit. For example, the switch would close when oil pressure is present.





























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SERV1877 - 03/10 -9- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage

ECU
Load 2 Load 1

12 Volts

12 V
Signal Sensing +
Circuit
9_1

If an open switch is inserted in place of Load 2, the signal sensing device will measure
12 V. This is usually an undesirable signal in a switch input circuit. For example, the
switch would open when oil pressure is not present or an open has occurred.





























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SERV1877 - 03/10 -10- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage

ECU

+ 5 Volts + 6.5 Volts

A - Supply Power


C - Signal


Signal


V
Sensing

Device

B - Return Ground

10_1


The illustration above depicts a pull-up circuit for a three-wire sensor. Looking at
the above ECU circuit, we can see that three-wire sensor circuits are monitored by
the signal sensing device between the B and C terminals in the same manner as a
switch or two-wire sensor circuit.

NOTE: It is important to remember that a pull-up circuit is only monitoring the B
and C portion of a sensor circuit. Supply power for the sensor is independent
of pull-up voltage.






















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SERV1877 - 03/10 -11- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage

ECU

+ 5 Volts + 6.5 Volts

A - Supply Power


C - Signal


Signal


V
Sensing

Device

B - Return Ground

11_1


If an open occurs in the circuit, full voltage will be measured by the signal sensing
device. The ECU is programmed so that this measured voltage, 6.5 volts in this
example, is beyond the acceptable operating range for the signal. Cat ET would
display an active Voltage High diagnostic code (FMI-03).



























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SERV1877 - 03/10 -12- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage

ECU

A - Supply Power
+ 5 Volts + 6.5 Volts



C - Signal


Signal


V
Sensing

B - Return Ground
Device


12_1


If a short occurs in the circuit, no voltage will be measured by the signal sensing
device, as the full voltage drop is across the internal pull-up resistor. The ECU
knows that this measured voltage, 0 volts in this example, is beyond the acceptable
operating range for the signal. Cat ET would display an active Voltage Low
diagnostic code (FMI-04).


























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SERV1877 - 03/10 -13- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage

--Pull-up voltage values are application specific and may
vary between ECUs. Pull-up voltage can be the same
value as the voltage source that powers the sensor,
but does not have to be.





























































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SERV1877 - 03/10 -14- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage

--It is not important to know what the pull-up voltage value
is for a given signal circuit. Measuring voltage on an
open circuit will provide no indication as to the integrity
of the signal circuit in terms of excessive resistance.





























































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SERV1877 - 03/10 -15- Module 8 - Pull-up Voltage

--Measuring voltage on an open circuit will give you an
indication of whether or not a circuit is open or
closed, a function already provided by the ECU. What
is important is understanding how the ECU uses pull-
up voltage to diagnose the signal circuit.


























































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