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435-HRD

[1]Concepts and Initiatives for Human Resource Development?


[A]
ConceptIdeal Model Person
At Fuji Xerox, the spirit of striving for growth and change is consistently embodied, and for
such purpose, we will seek and educate people who can think and act on their own.
With globalization of business activities and the rapidly changing environment encompassing
business operations in today's world, and for the continued business of companies, we believe it
is important for each employee with various characteristics and background to become more
self-reliant, proactive, willing to constantly improve oneself and repeatedly take on new
challenges.
As much as a company is expected to contribute to society through its economic, social, and
human values, employees that work at Fuji Xerox are expected to display economic, social, and
human qualities. We believe that the importance is in refining these qualities and also in
continued
learning
.
The foundation of Fuji Xerox is its people. We will continue to embody the spirit of striving
for growth and reforms for the future, and continue to development of human resources who
can think and act on ones own for this purpose.



Importance Of Human Resource Development (HRD)
Human resource is needed to be developed as per the change in external environment of the
organization, hence, HRD helps to adapt such changes through the development of existing
human resource in terms of skill and knowledge.
The importance or significance of HRD can be explained as follows:

1. HRD Develops Competent HR
HRD develops the skills and knowledge of individual, hence, it helps to provide competent and
efficient HR as per the jobrequirement. To develop employment's skill and competencies,
different training and development programs are launched.

2. HRD Creates
Opportunity
For Career Development
HRD helps to grasp the career development opportunities through development of human skills
and knowledge. Career development consists of personal development efforts through a proper
match between training and development opportunities with employe's need.

3. Employ Commitment
Trained and efficient employees are committed towards their jobs which is possible through
HRD. If employees are provided with proper training and development opportunities, they will
feel committed to the work and the organization.

4. Job Satisfaction
When people in the organization are well oriented and developed, they show higher degreeof
commitment in actual work place. This inspires them for better performance, which ultimately
leads to job satisfaction.

5. Change Management
HRD facilitates planning, and management of change in an organization. It
also managesconflicts through improved labor management relation. It develops organizational
health, culture and environment which lead to change management.

6. Opportunities For Training And Development
Trainings and development programs are tools of HRD. They provide opportunity foremployee's
development by matching training needs with organizational requirement. Moreover, HRD
facilitates integrated growth of employees through training and development activities.

7. Performance Improvement
HRD develops necessary skills and abilities required to perform organizational activities. As a
result of which, employees can contribute for better performance in an organization. This leads
to greater organizational effectiveness.

What Are the Functions of Human Resource Managers?

Recruitment
The success of recruiters and employment specialists generally is measured by the number of
positions they fill and the time it takes to fill those positions. Recruiters who work in-house -- as
opposed to companies that provide recruiting and staffing services -- play a key role in
developing the employer's workforce. They advertise job postings, source candidates, screen
applicants, conduct preliminary interviews and coordinate hiring efforts with managers
responsible for making the final selection of candidates.
Safety
Workplace safety is an important factor. Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,
employers have an obligation to provide a safe working environment for employees. One of the
main functions of HR is to supportworkplace safety training and maintain federally mandated
logs for workplace injury and fatality reporting. In addition, HR safety and risk specialists often
work closely with HR benefits specialists to manage the company's workers compensation
issues.
Related Reading: Primary Responsibilities of a Human Resource Manager
Employee Relations
In a unionized work environment, the employee and labor relations functions of HR may be
combined and handled by one specialist or be entirely separate functions managed by two HR
specialists with specific expertise in each area. Employee relations is the HR discipline
concerned with strengthening the employer-employee relationship through measuring job
satisfaction, employee engagement and resolving workplace conflict. Labor relations functions
may include developing management response to union organizing campaigns, negotiating
collective bargaining agreements and rendering interpretations of labor union contract issues.
Compensation and Benefits
Like employee and labor relations, the compensation and benefits functions of HR often can be
handled by one HR specialist with dual expertise. On the compensation side, the HR functions
include setting compensation structures and evaluating competitive pay practices. A comp and
benefits specialist also may negotiate grouphealth coverage rates with insurers and coordinate
activities with the retirement savings fund administrator. Payroll can be a component of the
compensation and benefits section of HR; however, in many cases, employers outsource such
administrative functions as payroll.
Compliance
Compliance with labor and employment laws is a critical HR function. Noncompliance can
result in workplace complaints based on unfair employment practices, unsafe working conditions
and general dissatisfaction with working conditions that can affect productivity and ultimately,
profitability. HR staff must be aware of federal and state employment laws such as Title VII of
the Civil Rights Act, the Fair Labor Standards Act, the National Labor Relations Act and many
other rules and regulations.
Training and Development
Employers must provide employees with the tools necessary for their success which, in many
cases, means giving new employees extensive orientation training to help them transition into a
new organizational culture. Many HR departments also provide leadership training and
professional development. Leadership training may be required of newly hired and promoted
supervisors and managers on topics such as performance management and how to handle
employee relations matters at the department level. Professional development opportunities are
for employees looking for promotional opportunities or employees who want to achieve personal
goals such as finishing a college degree. Programs such as


[2]role of human resource development professionals in organization
[A]

Roles of the HR Professional

All HR professionals should be a technical specialist in one or more technical areas. HR
professionals should develop advisor and strategic partner skills in order to become more
effective in providing technical guidance and human capital services to their organization.
Leaders can be found in any of the roles. HR professionals can demonstrate leadership skills at
every organizational level whether or not they are in a formal leadership roles. We recommend
that all HR professionals enhance their leadership skills.


Technical Specialist: Technical specialists apply intensive knowledge of specific technical areas
to address and resolve immediate needs of business. The thirteen critical general competencies in
this role are: Attention to Detail; Customer Service; Information Management;
Integrity/Honesty; Interpersonal Skills; Legal, Government, and Jurisprudence; Oral
Communication; Reading; Self-Management; Stress Tolerance; Teamwork; Technical
Competence; Writing.


Advisor: As technical consultants, advisors develop innovative HR solutions to address
customer issues and achieve specific business goals (with an eye on those of tomorrow). The
seven critical general competencies in this role are: Creative Thinking, Client
Engagement/Change Management, Decision Making, Flexibility, Influencing/Negotiating,
Project Management, Reasoning.


Strategic Partner: Strategic business partners identify broad HR issues ahead of business
leaders; they are high-level consultants who develop strategies to address long-term business
needs. The ten critical general competencies in this role are: Client Engagement/Change
Management, Decision Making, Flexibility, Influencing/Negotiating, Organizational Awareness,
Planning and Evaluating, Problem Solving, Project Management, Reasoning, Workforce
Planning.


Leader: The leadership/management role can be and often is incorporated into any of the
above roles or stand alone, depending on where in the organization it is found. This role may
involve managing projects, managing people, managing systems and/or leading strategically. To
explore the Leadership Competency Framework for development purposes, click here. For
additional information on OPMs Executive Core Qualification (ECQ) competencies, click here.
To review OPMs Leadership Competency Proficiency Level Illustrations,
HR Needs to Transform
If the HR role in your organization is not transforming itself to align with forward thinking
practices, executive leadership must ask HR leaders some tough questions. Todays
organizations cannot afford to have an HR department that fails to contribute to lead modern
thinking and contribute to enhanced company profitability.
In this environment, much of the HR role is transforming. The role of the HR manager, director,
or executive must parallel the needs of his or her changing organization. Successful
organizations are becoming more adaptive, resilient, quick to change direction and customer-
centered.
Three New HR Roles
Within this environment, the HR professional, who is considered necessary by managers and
executives, is a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate and a change mentor.
These roles were recommended and discussed inHuman Resource Champions, by Dr. Dave
Ulrich, one of the best thinkers and writers in the HR field today, and a professor at the
University of Michigan.
The HR professionals who understand these roles are leading their organizations in areas such as
organization development, strategic utilization of employees to serve business goals, and talent
management and development.
Lets take a look at each of these roles and their impact on HR functions and practices.
Strategic Partner
In todays organizations, to guarantee their viability and ability to contribute, HR managers need
to think of themselves as strategic partners. In this role, the HR person contributes to the
development of and the accomplishment of the organization-wide business plan and objectives.
The HR business objectives are established to support the attainment of the overall strategic
business plan and objectives. The tactical HR representative is deeply knowledgeable about the
design of work systems in which people succeed and contribute.
This strategic partnership impacts HR services such as the design of work positions; hiring;
reward, recognition and strategic pay; performance development and appraisal systems; career
and succession planning; and employee development. When HR professionals are aligned with
the business, the personnel component of the organization is thought about as a strategic
contributor to business success.
To be successful business partners, the HR staff members have to think like business people,
know finance and accounting, and be accountable and responsible for cost reductions and the
measurement of all HR programs and processes. It's not enough to ask for a seat at the executive
table; HR people will have to prove they have the business savvy necessary to sit there.
More Related to the HR Strategic Role
Employee Advocate
As an employee sponsor or advocate, the HR manager plays an integral role in organizational
success via his knowledge about and advocacy of people. This advocacy includes expertise in
how to create a work environment in which people will choose to be motivated, contributing, and
happy.
Fostering effective methods of goal setting, communication and empowerment through
responsibility, builds employee ownership of the organization. The HR professional helps
establish the organizational culture and climate in which people have the competency, concern
and commitment to serve customers well.
In this role, the HR manager provides overall talent management strategies, employee
development opportunities, employee assistance programs, gain sharing and profit-
sharingstrategies, organization development interventions, due process approaches to employee
complaints and problem solving, and regularly scheduled communication opportunities.
Change Champion
The constant evaluation of the effectiveness of the organization results in the need for the HR
professional to frequently champion change. Both knowledge about and the ability to execute
successful change strategies make the HR professional exceptionally valued. Knowing how to
link change to the strategic needs of the organization will minimize employee dissatisfaction and
resistance to change.
Organization development, the overarching discipline for change management strategies, gives
the HR professional additional challenges. Consciously helping to create the right organization
culture, monitoring employee satisfaction, and measuring the results of organization initiatives
fall here as well as in the role of employee advocacy.
The HR professional contributes to the organization by constantly assessing the effectiveness of
the HR function. She also sponsors change in other departments and in work practices. To
promote the overall success of her organization, she champions the identification of the
organizational mission, vision, values, goals and action plans. Finally, she helps determine the
measures that will tell her organization how well it is succeeding in all of this.





UNIT-2
[3].Learning-process& theories, strategies& styles?
[A]
1. Aligning business and HR needs
The business goals that is its strategic imperatives sit at the heart
of any HR strategy and in order to align business and HR needs one key question
must to be answered, "Can your organisations internal capability deliver
its business goals?"
This is where HR receives most criticism. The function is frequently accused
of failing to fully understand its business, goals and strategy for achieving
these goals, and its business model and how it delivers to its customers. For
those who already understand the demands of their business, it is easy to
identify where the business has strong core competencies and where the business
is weakest.
Sometimes these weaknesses are related to essential systems or processes,
but more often and significantly for HR these weaknesses relate to the
quality of the workforce, its motivation and ability to deliver organisation
performance. Taking steps to understand your business and where it has
competitive advantage is an essential first step towards determining the key HR
interventions that form the basis of an HR strategy.
2. Developing your HR strategy
Deeper knowledge and understanding of your business goals and business model
can identify potential threats and opportunities in the quantity and quality of
human resource required by your organisation. This in turn identifies the key
components of your HR strategy and the virtuous circle of providing whatever
your organisation needs for success
It is also critical that the HR team has a high level of expertise in
aligning major HR interventions and their relevance to business performance.
This calls for expert HR thinking and identifies the requisite interventions
and, equally important, how they fit together to leverage organisation
performance.
If there is a strong need for the organisation to develop its management
capability, for instance, should you align your compensation strategy to
reinforce this objective? If the organisational structure defines the
accountabilities clearly at every level of the organisation, is your HR team
selecting and developing against them? This is joined-up HR at work.
Another concern for HR is when it should make strategic interventions. Easy,
it either follows your business cycle, or is triggered by other key events such
as a merger, an acquisition or a change in business direction.
3. Organisational performance
Organisational performance is the process by which business goals and
objectives are cascaded and managed across and down an organisation. It
provides a link and rationale for all other HR activity and, in addition, the
greatest opportunity to directly impact business success, enhancing HRs
reputation and contribution.
HR needs to create and install a robust performance management process that
sets out performance objectives for all levels of staff within a business. This
is an opportunity to develop line managers skills in being able to disseminate
and set stretch targets for their business.
A critical part of this process is a robust performance review process,
which gives people feedback about what has been achieved what people have
done well and not so well.
The third element is a personal development review process where individual
strengths and weaknesses are identified for the purposes of assessing and
meeting organisational development needs.
4. Organisational design and structure
Organisational design is the shape, size and structure of the organisation
required to meet customers needs. It reflects the management processes that
drive the business model and determines organisational agility and flexibility.
These processes can be a source of competitive advantage or sources of
frustration, unnecessarily absorbing time, cost and resources.
Decisions affecting the shape, size and cost of the organisation will be
aligned with the business strategy. It should be relatively easy to see whether
an organisation invests in marketing, sales or manufacturing, for instance, and
whether the organisation is maximising its work flow capability.
As people experts, the role of HR is to add value to the structure and
operation of the business. Structural weaknesses offer an opportunity to revamp
any part of the organisation by identifying and making appropriate changes,
reductions in size or cost; or improvements to the quality of the operation.
Conversely, structural strengths are a signal to the HR team to reinforce
organisational competence.
5. Strategic resourcing
Achieving clarity throughout the organisations structure is critical in
order for resourcing strategies to work well. If the organisation is transparent
about its key roles and accountabilities, this will define the skills and
knowledge required to undertake the work and determine strategic resourcing
requirements.
Deciding on your resourcing strategy means identifying a number of critical
components. These range from the processes needed to determine resourcing
needs, the processes to attract the right people and the processes for
assessing and selecting the right people. HR has a strong traditional
involvement in all of the above. In addition, it is essential to ensure each
stage of the resourcing activity is aligned and in direct response to the
strategic imperatives.
Another important component determining the effectiveness of any resourcing
strategy is the need to create a recruitment brand how the image (or brand)
of the organisation appears to the recruitment market can either support or
undermine the success of a resourcing strategy.
6. Organisation development
If strategic resourcing is about providing a pipeline for importing external
talent, then an organisations development strategy is the way in which the HR
team decides what changes and improvements need to be made to the current
workforce.
Usually these responses work at three levels the individual, team and
organisation and all are geared to achieve high levels of organisational
performance. It requires a close examination of the strategic imperatives and
clarity about the capabilities to execute it.
Development responses will aim to increase business skills, the application
of business skills (sometimes called competencies) and the behavioural elements
- all of which contribute to an organisations effective performance. It is
important at an individual level, particularly for senior people, that they
feel their development needs are agreed and that they are provided with the
skills to do their jobs.
At a team level, it defines individuals ability to work with others
flexibly and align individual and team skills and activity to business goals -
all of which ensure that the organisation is equipped to deliver its goals.
7. Compensation and benefits
Often called reward strategy, the purpose of compensation and benefits
systems is to align the performance of the organisation with the way it rewards
its people, providing the necessary incentives and motivation required for an
organisation to deliver its goals.
Its components are a combination of base pay, bonuses, profit sharing, share
options, and a range of appropriate benefits, usually based on market or
competitor norms and the organisations ability to pay. Typically, the
components of an organisations reward strategy will reflect the particular
performance culture of a business.
There is evidence that organisations see compensation as a strategic
management lever and are increasingly experimenting with new practices team
bonuses, for example, aimed at improving team performance or skills/behaviour
payments to upskill the workforce or reinforce culture or behaviour change. A
companys reward policy in particular benefits from clarity about which other
elements of the HR strategy it aims to support.
8. Organisation culture
Culture is usually described as the "way we do things round here"
- the way the organisation acts, reacts and interacts. The trend in the last 10
to 15 years has been to align organisational behaviour more strongly with
customers needs, creating customer-facing units and customer-sensitive
behaviours. This has been as a direct result of the increased competition
around product, quality, prices and packaging. In re-aligning an organisations
culture there can be real benefit and competitive advantage through improved
service.


[4]
[A]
Assessment
Part of development includes realizing the skills and abilities that employees already
have. Even the most well trained employees will perform poorly if they are not assessed
properly. Reinforcing previously covered information, teaching new concepts, and introducing
new ideas are development aspects that must be measured and assessed. Employees need to
know what is expected of them. Acceptable performance can only be known if the employees are
assessed and if the assessment information is communicated to them. Then, the measurement of
what people have1eamed after training will be more accurate. Feedback from managers to
subordinates and vice versa is essential to the development function.
Research conducted over the past 70 years indicates tests to evaluate intellectual ability,
the ability to draw conclusions from verbal or numerical information, and an individual's
interests can help in selecting successful managers [Cascio]. An employee needs to be assessed-
for readiness to accept management responsibilities. Assessment centers can focus on business
simulations as well as formal assessments. These programs allow the employee to develop
his/her skills in a structured and focused process. This kind of development encourages
promotion and increases job satisfaction. Weaknesses are identified and the employee is
empowered to tailor development to fit his or her future career plans.
These centers use multiple assessment techniques, such as situational tests, tests of
mental abilities, and interest inventories. They also use
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standardized methods to make inferences from these techniques as well as pooled
judgments from multiple assessors to rate each candidate's behaviour. The assessment center
prediction doesn't help very much if you are only trying to predict performance in management
such as the clarification and evaluation of the promotion system in an organization. They are,
however, helpful in capturing the promotion policy of the organization.
Both job and person analyses need to be included in assessment of the trainee
[Cavanaugh].
Personality, motivation and the actual task can affect self-efficacy. This trait plays a big
part in eventual performance on the job [Gist and Mitchell]. Development aimed at improving
skills should increase self-efficacy.
It is important to remember that no one predictor of performance is perfectly valid and
some mistakes in selection are inevitable. Conscious selection of managers and lower level
employees based on their fit with demonstrated job requirements, the strategic direction of a
business, and organizational culture will minimize mistakes and enable you to make optimum
choices.
Post development evaluation criteria and processes are essential. People-management and
management of change issues are the key future training and development needs for both
multinational and indigenous organizations [Tregaskis]. Garavan, Heraty, and Morley discuss the
differing interest groups' perceptions on evaluation of HRD programs. Senior and line managers
use quantitative measures such as optimal utilization of human resources, increased productivity
and enhanced employee flexibility to evaluate HRD success. HRD specialists and individual
learners place more emphasis on qualitative criteria such as the number of training days, how
many and who participated, and improved performance and career options. Individual learners
were primarily concerned about their enhanced
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employability resulting from certification, the range of competencies developed and the financial
investment in their training.
Return on investment
By retaining employees, the value of their development increases. They will increase
productivity and contribute to the over-all success of the organization. Their expanded
knowledge makes them valuable assets for the company. Overtime, this added value will more
than cover the costs of their development.
This reflects a payback model with an emphasis on quantitative and tangible results.
However, senior managers, education providers, and HR and HRD specialists believe in the pay-
forward model, i.e., results should accrue in the longer term primarily as cultural change and
increased incorporation of corporate goals by individual employees. The pay- forward model ...
is more in tune with the contribution ... HRD specialists believe they can make [Garavan,
Heraty, and Morley].
Technology
The responsibility for managing new technological advances has fallen on the human
resource manager. Proper development of technical skills from understanding how to use a
computer to interfacing with networks is increasingly difficult. If technical goals and strategies
are expanded, the job of developing employees will be more focused.
Technological changes will alter the face of communication and also the way in which
employees learn. People should be encouraged to develop their abilities individually especially
with the ease of delivery of information through the Internet. Sharing knowledge, exchanging
resources and learning can be improved within an organization. Interactive forums and tutorials
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allow learning to be done from even the most remote area. Real-time conferencing allows
employees to be students in virtual classrooms.
All levels of business functions need technological development. HRD should focus on
competent trainers. These will be the people with initial responsibility for working on technical
skills. Then, as programs are further developed, people will welcome the' technological change
as it works its way into the organizational culture. For example, if the accounting department is
up and running with new systems, why isn't the administrative level? Employees will welcome
chances to develop their technical skills to keep the internal competitive climate more equal.
Changes in organizational structure will enable management to develop technical skills.
They should allow an organization to restructure by enabling employees to learn, make contacts,
and develop more efficiently. This can be done with effective strategic goals that allow
development to take place. An example would be to have development designed internally, but
the actual training would be out-sourced.
Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) are the latest wave in the training and
development arena [Marquardt]. These systems use computers to gain access to information,
save it, and distribute it throughout an organization. This helps development because employees
can gain a lot of information in a short period of time on an individual and basis staff support
[5]process involved factors influencing designing hrd?

Attention -The modern workplace can 'overload' human attention with enormous amounts of
information, far in excess of that encountered in the natural world. The way in which we learn
information can help reduce demands on our attention, but can sometimes create further
problems

Perception -In order to interact safely with the world, we must correctly perceive it and the
dangers it holds. Work environments often challenge human perception systems and information
can be misinterpreted.

Memory -Our capacity for remembering things and the methods we impose upon ourselves to
access information often put undue pressure on us. Increasing knowledge about a subject or
process allows us to retain more information relating to it.

Logical reasoning -Failures in reasoning and decision making can have severe implications for
complex systems such as chemical plants, and for tasks like maintenance and planning.

Environmental, organisational and job factors, in brief, influence the behaviour at work in a way
which can affect health and safety. A simple way to view human factors is to think about three
aspects: the individual, the job and the organisation and their impact on people's health and
safety-related behaviour.
Following figures shows that all three are interlinked and have mutual influence




The typical examples of immediate causes and contributing factors for human failures are given
below:
Individual factors
low skill and competence level
tired staff
bored or disheartened staff
individual medical problems
Job factors
illogical design of equipment and instruments
constant disturbances and interruptions
missing or unclear instructions
poorly maintained equipment
high workload
noisy and unpleasant working conditions
Organisation and management factors
poor work planning, leading to high work pressure
poor SOPs
lack of safety systems and barriers
inadequate responses to previous incident
management based on one-way communications
deficient co-ordination and responsibilities
poor management of health and safety
poor health and safety culture.
It is concluded that the performance of human is being strongly influenced by organizational,
regulatory, cultural and environmental factors affecting the workplace.
For example, organizational processes constitute the breeding grounds for many predictable
human errors, including inadequate communication facilities, ambiguous procedures,
unsatisfactory scheduling, insufficient resources, and unrealistic budgeting in fact, all processes
that the organization can control.
Following figure summarizes some of the factors contributing to human errors and to accidents





[6].steps involved in implementing hrd programs
[a]

Strategy implementation is the translation of chosen strategy into organizational action so
as to achieve strategic goals and objectives. Strategy implementation is also defined as the
manner in which an organization should develop, utilize, and amalgamate organizational
structure, control systems, and culture to follow strategies that lead to competitive advantage and
a better performance. Organizational structure allocates special value developing tasks and roles
to the employees and states how these tasks and roles can be correlated so as maximize
efficiency, quality, and customer satisfaction-the pillars of competitive advantage. But,
organizational structure is not sufficient in itself to motivate the employees.
An organizational control system is also required. This control system equips managers with
motivational incentives for employees as well as feedback on employees and organizational
performance. Organizational culture refers to the specialized collection of values, attitudes,
norms and beliefs shared by organizational members and groups.
Follwoing are the main steps in implementing a strategy:

Developing an organization having potential of carrying out strategy successfully.

Disbursement of abundant resources to strategy-essential activities.

Creating strategy-encouraging policies.

Employing best policies and programs for constant improvement.

Linking reward structure to accomplishment of results.

Making use of strategic leadership.
Excellently formulated strategies will fail if they are not properly implemented. Also, it is
essential to note that strategy implementation is not possible unless there is stability between
strategy and each organizational dimension such as organizational structure, reward structure,
resource-allocation process, etc.
Strategy implementation poses a threat to many managers and employees in an organization.
New power relationships are predicted and achieved. New groups (formal as well as informal)
are formed whose values, attitudes, beliefs and concerns may not be known. With the change in
power and status roles, the managers and employees may employ confrontation behaviour.





Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment is the process by which organizations locate and attract individuals to fill job
vacancies. Most organizations have a continuing need to recruit new employees to replace those
who leave or those who are promoted, to acquire new skills and to permit organizational growth.
Recruitment goes hand in hand with the selection process by which organizations decide the
suitability of candidates for various jobs.

Orientation
To develop an effective workforce, an organization should firstly express a positive view to the
new employees through the orientation. New hires should not get a negative view of joining a
company. This can result in negatively motivated and less productive workforce. Many Indian
firms have devised elaborate and detailed programs for new employee selection. Steel Authority
of India (SAIL), National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) and Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.
use a combination of class room sessions, on-the-job experiences, visits to various locations and
self learning as a part of the orientation of trainee employees.

Training and Development
Immediately after orientation, training should begin. Training basically means giving new or
existing employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. This might mean showing a new
web designer the intricacies of the companys website, a new sales person how to sell the firms
product, etc. Organizations also provide employees ways to enhance their qualifications
academically. Companies such as Ernst and Young, together with the University of Notre Dame
and the University of Virginia, has developed a unique Master's program primarily for non-
accounting business majors.
Training is a hallmark of good management. Having high-potential employees does not
guarantee theyll succeed. Instead they must know what to do and how to do it. Research shows
that an organizations revenues and overall profitability are positively correlated to the amount of
training provided. According to Training Magazine industry report, U.S. companies spend nearly
$50 billion annually to provide each of their employees with 26 hours on average of formal
training. The top 100 companies provide nearly double that amount of training.

An Easy, 5 step Training and Development Process
Step 1: Identifying the skills required for the job, assessing the prospective trainees skills
through the development of a measurable knowledge and performance analysis.
Step 2: Decide, compile and produce the training program which includes workbook, exercises
and activities.
Step 3: Refining the training process and testing its validity.
Step 4: Implement the program on the targeted group.
Step 5: Evaluate the success or failure of the training program and make necessary changes or
provide additional training if applicable.

Implementing HRD in Schools

Human Resource Development should be practiced right at the grassroots level, i.e. Schools. The
implementation of accurate training to budding minds is essential to build future managers and
responsible adults.

HRD can be implemented in schools by the school administration and teaching staff to students
in a similar way it is implemented by employers to their employees. It can begin by student
profiling and assessment of their strengths and weaknesses and noting the field of interest of the
student. Accordingly the school can devise appropriate training programs for individual students
or groups of students through field trips, outdoor activities which build interest towards the
subject or related field, project work to promote self-learning, use of audio-visual aids and
computer graphics to promote interest, video conferencing of other schools to enable students to
have a wider perspective and learning environment and grouping of students with similar traits
and working out difficulties faced by them through introduction of interactive learning sessions
based on their weaknesses.
[7]career management and development?

Implementation of such programs in schools as it is practiced in the corporate world can greatly
enhance the quality of both theoretical and practical knowledge of students and successfully
make a set of motivated individuals, capable of solving practical issues at work in the future.

Career development planning benefits the individual employee as well as the organization by
aligning employee training and development efforts with the organization's mission, goals, and
objectives. An individual development plan (IDP) is a tool to assist employees in achieving their
personal and professional development goals. IDPs help employees and supervisors set
expectations for specific learning objectives and competencies. While an IDP is not a
performance evaluation tool or a one-time activity, IDPs allow supervisors to clarify
performance expectations. IDPs should be viewed as a partnership between an employee and
their supervisor, and involves preparation and continuous feedback. Many agencies require IDPs
for new and current employees, and encourage employees to update them annually.
When using an IDP, supervisors develop a better understanding of their employees' professional
goals, strengths, and development needs. Employees take personal responsibility and
accountability for their career development, acquiring or enhancing the skills they need to stay
current in their roles. Some of the benefits of an IDP are:
Provide an administrative mechanism for identifying and tracking development needs and
plans
Assist in planning for the agency's training and development requirements
Align employee training and development efforts with its mission, goals, and objectives
There are no regulatory requirements mandating employees complete IDPs within the Federal
Government, although many employee and leadership development programs require IDPs (e.g.
PMF Program). Completing IDPs is considered good management practice, and many agencies
have developed their own IDP planning process and forms. While there is no one "correct" form
for recording an employee's development plan, an effective plan should include, at minimum, the
following key elements:
Employee profile - name, position title, office, grade/pay band
Career goals - short-term and long-term goals with estimated and actual competion dates
Development objectives - linked to work unit mission/goals/objectives and employee's
development needs and objectives
Training and development opportunities - activities in which the employee will pursue
with estimated and actual completion dates. These activities may include formal
classroom training, web-based training, rotational assignments, shadowing assignments,
on-the-job training, self-study programs, and professional conferences/seminars
Signatures - supervisor and employee signature and date
For more information on IDPs and to view IDP templates, please visit the OPM Training and
Development Wiki.
Executive Development Plans
While there are no regulatory requirements for IDPs, Senior Executive Service (SES) members
are required to have a plan for their continued training and development. Under 5 CFR 412.401,
all Senior Executives must complete and regularly update an Executive Development Plan
(EDP).
Facing constant challenges, changing technologies, and a dynamic environment, executives must
pursue ongoing professional executive development to succeed and grow. It is crucial that
executives continue to strengthen and enhance their Executive Core Qualifications (ECQs),
broaden their perspectives, and strengthen their performance.
Federal agencies are required by law (Title 5, U.S. Code, Section 3396) to establish programs for
the continuing development of senior executives.
SES members are required to prepare, implement, and regularly update an EDP as specified by 5
CFR 412.401. The Executive Development Plan (EDP) is a key tool in assisting executives in
their continued development. EDPs should outline a senior executive's short-term and long-term
developmental activities which will enhance the executive's performance. These activities should
meet organizational needs for leadership, managerial improvement, and results.





6 Steps to Successful Career Management
In some respects building a successf
ul career is no different from any other project. Clear
goal setting, thorough planning and effective execution are key ingredients in the recipe
for success. Though expert advice can help you with the process, in the end it is up to you
to formulate objec
tives, develop a plan, and follow through to realize your career goals.
While you may enjoy your share of luck, success seldom falls in your lap. Furthermore, if
you ignore the basic principles of career management, an unexpected setback could badly
damage
your long
-
term prospects.
Here are six steps towards success in your career:
1.
Take a good look at yourself.
Understand your needs. What is important to
you? What are you passionate about? A career spans many years. It can be
hard to maintain enthusiasm, e
xcitement and energy unless you believe in
what you are doing. Look for the right balance in of career, earnings and
fulfillment. Are you aiming for the top or is family more important? What
are your unique talents and abilities? It makes sense to play to
your
strengths.
2.
Research career options
and prioritize. Discover what skills and experience
various careers require ahead of time. What is a good fit for you with your
skill set?
3.
Map a path
from where you are to where you want to be. Think
strategically
and long
-
term about your career. Don't place too much
emphasis on compensation early on. It may be more important to develop
the skills and experience to "set you up." Your action plan should build
upon your strengths and improve your weaknesses. Establish
firm bases for
the future. If the platform is secure, you can usually survive a mistake or
setback.
4.
Don't ignore ongoing training.
Acquiring the additional skills, knowledge
and education needed for your new career is fundamental. Also consider
getting s
ome unique experience which will help differentiate you in the
market place.
5.
Market yourself.
Don't take an overly conservative or narrow view.
Consider start
-
ups and smaller organizations where you will get more
responsibility. But always target companie
s that are excellent at what they
do, and that place importance on developing staff, particularly at the
beginning of your career. Don't forget to network! A well
-
developed list of
professional contacts can open doors for you.
6.
Seek ongoing career manageme
nt.
Continue to examine, evaluate and
refine. The marketplace can change quickly. Be prepared for unexpected
opportunities as well as setbacks. Don't ignore the value of mentors.
Establish at least one quality mentor in the field you hope to pursue. Also,
use advisors and experts often. Their experience, advice and influence may

UNIT-5
[8]Coaching & performance management
[A]




Module 1: Employee Development and Workplace Learning

Introduces you to the concept of learning and explores key theoretical debates in the field. It
moves on to examine the implications of different approaches to learning for employee
development and HRD practice by analysing, through specific examples, their impact at
individual and organisational levels.

On completion you will be able to:

* understand and critique theories of learning and the ways in which they can be applied to
employee development
* analyse and critique theories of workplace and work-related learning

Module 2: Performance in Organisations

Gives you an understanding of the impact of the ever intensifying competition amongst
organisations for new markets, greater performance and productivity. In particular, the module
examines how this impact led to changes in HR practices and the role of HR professionals within
organisations.

On completion you will be able to:

* identify the changes that have occurred in organisations and critically evaluate the theories
explaining these changes
* discuss the effect of these changes on the training function and those responsible for managing
performance

Module 3: The Global Context of HRD and HRMProvides an overview of changes in the world
economy brought about by globalisation. It considers the ways in which these changes have
impacted on the organisation of production and employment in different societies and identifies
the issues for HRM and HRD.

On completion you will be able to:

* understand the changes in the world economy associated with globalisation
* understand the role of HRM within multinational corporations
* examine the impact of globalisation on national systems of HRD and identify the ways in
which different countries are responding to the pressures brought about by globalisation

Module 4: Research Methods

Introduces the process of social science research and the fundamental debates pertaining to the
philosophy of social science. The module also provides research methods training in a range of
techniques.

On completion you will have:

* an understanding of the practical, ethical and theoretical processes underpinning social science
research
* the ability to select appropriate research methods
* an understanding of the issues relating to the design, construction, implementation and analysis
of quantitative and qualitative research
Performance Management Performance Management Cycle
Implementing FCAT-M Performance Management Competencies:
Understanding Performance Management Process and Practices
In order for the performance management process to be efficient and effective, supervisors must
master the process and apply it consistently. The Federal Competency Assessment Tool -
Management (FCAT- M) assesses whether, and to what degree, supervisors have specific
competencies. One of these competencies is Understanding Performance Management Process
and Practices. A supervisor equipped with this competency will be able to better focus employee
efforts on achieving organizational and individual goals.
What is performance management? According to A Handbook for Measuring Employee
Performance, performance management is the systematic process of
planning work and setting expectations
continually monitoring performance
developing the capacity to perform
periodically rating performance in a summary fashion
rewarding good performance
Planning. The supervisor should meet with employees to create their performance plans. The
supervisor should establish measurable goals that align to the agency's strategic and operational
plans and consult with his/her employees when creating these goals. It is in this planning stage
that the supervisor has an opportunity to explain to employees how their performance directly
impacts how the agency and work unit will achieve their goals.
Monitoring. The supervisor should monitor employee progress, not only when there is a
progress review due, but on a continuous basis throughout the appraisal period. Monitoring gives
the supervisor an opportunity to make a course correction or adjust a timeline if it is needed so
that employees will produce the desired outcome of successfully achieving the agency's or work
unit's goals. It also provides the opportunity for the supervisor to make employees aware of their
progress, whether favorable or unacceptable. Should the supervisor determine the employee has
unacceptable performance on any critical element, monitoring performance enables the
supervisor to identify the problem early and get an opportunity period in place well before the
rating of record is due.
Developing. The supervisor should be able to determine from continuous monitoring whether
employees need additional development to achieve their assigned responsibilities. It is important
to remember that employee development includes not only remediation but enhancing good
performance as well. Types of development could include
formal training (classroom)
informal training (online)
coaching or mentoring
new work assignments (additional responsibilities)
details (within current agency or to an outside agency)
Rating. The supervisor will use the knowledge gained from monitoring the employee's
performance during the appraisal period to compare that performance against the employee's
elements and standards and assign a rating of record. The final rating should not be a surprise to
the employee, particularly when the supervisor and the employee have had numerous
performance discussions during the rating period.
Rewarding. The supervisor must make meaningful distinctions when granting awards. Award
amounts should be clearly distinguishable between different performance levels that are fully
successful or above. Performance management should support compensation decisions.
Every agency has policies that govern performance management that are unique to the agency.
Supervisors must, in addition to mastering and consistently applying good planning, monitoring,
developing, rating, and rewarding practices, learn and apply those policies as they relate to the
agency-specific practices of performance management. For more guidance on agency-specific
performance management systems, refer to the agency's policy and procedures manual.
To determine whether they have implemented their agency's performance management system
successfully, supervisors need to answer the following questions:
Does my application of the system encourage better performance, and
Has performance improved during the appraisal period?
Positive answers reflect effective application of good performance management policies and
practices.
Implementing FCAT-M Performance Management Competencies:
Performance Coaching and Feedback
Facilitating Performance
Differentiating Performance
Building Performance Culture


[9].Employee socialization & orientation?
[a]
Socialization can be conceptualized as a process made up of three stages.
a. Pre-arrival Stage:
This stage explicitly recognizes that each individual arrives with a set of organizational values,
attitudes, and
expectations. For instance, in many jobs, particularly high skilled and managerial jobs, new
members will
have undergone a considerable degree of prior socialization in training and in school. Pre-arrival
socialization, however, goes beyond the specific job. The selection process is used in most
organizations to
inform perspective employees about the organization as whole. In addition, of course, interviews
in the
selection process also act to ensure the inclusion of the right type determining those who will
fit in.
Indeed, the ability of the individuals to present the appropriate face during the selection process
determines
their ability to move into the organization in the first place. Thus success depends upon the
degree to which
aspiring members have correctly anticipated the expectations and desires of those in the
organization in
charge of selection.
b. Encounter Stage:
Upon entry into the organization, new members enter the encounter stage. Here the individuals
confront
the possible dichotomy between their expectations about their jobs, their coworkers, their
supervisors, and
the organization in general and reality. If expectations prove to have been more or less accurate,
the
encounter state merely provides a reaffirmation of the perceptions generated earlier. However,
this is often
not the case. Where expectation and reality differ; new employees must undergo socialization
that will
detach them from their previous assumption and replace these with the organizations pivotal
standards.
Socialization, however, cannot solve all the expectation differences. At the extreme, some new
members
may become totally disillusioned with the actualities of their jobs and resign. It is hoped that
proper
selection would significantly reduce this latter occurrence.
c. Metamorphosis Stage:
Finally the new member must workout any problems discovered during the encounter stage. This
may mean
going through changes. Hence the last stage is termed as metamorphosis stage. Metamorphosis is
complete
as is the socialization process when new members have become comfortable with the
organization and
their work teams. In this situation they will have internalized the norms of the organization and
their
coworkers; and they understand and accept these norms. New members will feel accepted by
their peers as
trusted and valued individuals. They will have gained an understanding of the organizational
system- not
only their own tasks but the rules, procedures and informally accepted practices as well. Finally
they will
know how they are going to be evaluated. They will know what is expected of them and what
constitutes a
good job. Consequently, successful metamorphosis should have positive effect on a new
employees
productivity and the employees commitment to the organization, and should reduce the
likelihood that the
employee will leave the organization any time soon.