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Micro-hydro power development technologies in Indonesia mainly consist of those
relating to electrical and mechanical equipment, which were originally transferred by
the GTZ. A small number of technologies are firmly rooted in local NGOs, constituting
a unique feature which is not observed in other Southeast Asian countries.
Many of the micro-hydro power plants so far constructed in Indonesia utilize the
technologies transferred by the GTZ and their current conditions are described in
Chapter 7. However, these technologies are not yet rooted in government organizations
or rural regions where many unelectrified areas are located, making the extension of a
comprehensive range of micro-hydro power development technologies, including those
for the exploration of promising sites and the management of power plants, essential.
Under the this Study, a manual featuring a comprehensive technological system relating
to micro-hydro power development has been prepared to solve the problems described
above. In addition, OJT and Wrap-up-workshops were organized through the
construction of the pilot plant project for the purpose of extending these technologies.
12.2.1 Overview
The extraction of promising micro-hydro power generation sites in Indonesia has
traditionally been conducted by a kabupaten-related body (mainly the kabupaten office
of the Ministry of Cooperatives which has an office in every kabupaten) based on
information provided by local residents in unelectrified areas. However, a full-scale
survey of these sites has often found the construction of a hydropower plant to be
difficult because such information, the nature of which is listed below, sometimes fails
to appreciate the negative factors described in brackets.
Ease of securing the necessary head because of the presence of a waterfall (steep
topography makes it difficult to set up a settling basin and headrace, etc.)
Sufficient water volume (there is no quantitative data on the droughty water
Existence of a micro-hydro power plant with an output of kW in the past (the
output figure simply indicates the installed capacity of the past hydropower plant
and is not based on the available hydraulic energy and discharge)
Existence of many unelectrified households (households are scattered over a large
Others (there is a lack of information on the local socioeconomic situation,
particularly on a possible body to be in charge of power plant management in the
future and other vital aspects)
As described above, the information provided by local residents tends to be qualitative
and government bodies at the kabupaten level do not appear to have sufficient
knowledge to check the validity of such information.
For the present Study, it was recognized that there is a need for technology transfer with
emphasis on the following points to enable government offices to accurately extract
promising sites instead of depending solely on information provided by local residents.
Topographical and functional conditions relating to the introduction of various
power plant structures
Estimation of the discharge based on the rainfall level and size of the catchment
area and an on-site discharge observation method
Measurement method of the available head
Method of setting the scope of a study
Study method for the socioeconomic conditions and importance of the balance
between supply and demand
12.2.2 Civil Engineering Aspect
(1) Indigenous Technologies Effective for Micro-hydro Power Development
Paddy rice cultivation is very popular throughout Indonesia and the irrigation
technologies which have been nurtured by such farming can be effective for
micro-hydro power development. The technologies listed below are particularly
effective from the technical viewpoint to ensure the durability and stability of
hydropower generation equipment and these technologies are incorporated in the
manual in one way or another.
a. Intake Weir Using Gabions
Gabions are made up of a metal net and boulders and are frequently used for intake
weirs for irrigation because of their flexibility, easy procurement of materials and low
cost, etc. The surface of many weirs is reinforced by mortar concrete to prevent their
destruction by metal net corrosion, one of the weak points of gabions.
b. Intake Using Orifice
In general, an intake is accompanied by a sluice gate to prevent an excessive water flow.
In regard to the irrigation channels constructed by Indonesian farmers, a popular type of
intake structure is that using natural stones to prevent an excessive water flow. Even
though such a structure is empirically adopted, it uses the orifice effect from the
technical viewpoint which is an extremely useful and simple way of preventing loss of
the headrace due to an excessive water inflow through the intake.
c. Manually Dug Water Channel
Most small-scale irrigation channels in Indonesia are manually dug channels. A large
proportion of the cost of a headrace is incurred by the lining and the use of a dug
channel can make a major contribution towards cost reduction. Although a dug channel
is rather prone to destruction by seepage water or scouring of its inner face, it can be
effectively used for micro-hydro power generation provided that the cross-sectional
slope of the passing area is gentle and/or the flow speed inside the water channel is
(2) Technical Problems
As described above, the use of traditional irrigation technologies is possible in
Indonesia. There is a single decisive difference between the irrigation technologies and
micro-hydro power generation technologies in regard to the prevention of sediment
inflow and sediment disposal.
At some micro-hydro power development sites, the prevention of sediment inflow and
sediment disposal have not been taken into proper consideration and many power plants
at these sites have been destroyed by sediment inflow.
Under the present Study, the prevention of sediment discharge and sediment disposal
are the subject of intensive guidance and are described in detail in the manual.
12.2.3 Electrical and Mechanical Aspects
(1) Current Situation of Technologies
As already described in Chapter 11 Pilot Plant, it is practically impossible for
villagers in remote areas in Indonesia to operate and maintain imported electrical and
mechanical equipment if such equipment breaks down because of the difficulty of
communicating the nature of the problem to the foreign manufacturer or even its
domestic agent and also because of the extremely costly as well as time-consuming
process of investigating the cause of a problem and repairing the equipment. Even
though long-term problem-free operation is desirable for all equipment, all equipment is
inevitably liable to wear and tear and possible breakdown. Accordingly, one absolute
condition for equipment procurement is the selection of products which are made by
Indonesian manufacturers in Indonesia which are capable of conducting repair or
products which are readily available in the Indonesian market.
Based on this condition, the following assessment was made for the equipment to be
used for the project after examining the design and manufacturing capabilities
(including actual performance) in Indonesia from the purely technical viewpoint.
Water Turbine
Although a domestic manufacturer in Indonesia claims that it is capable of
manufacturing various types of water turbines, only the cross-flow type or reverse
pump type (small output) is recommended from the technical point of view because of
the current situation in Indonesia where no reliable technical backing in the form of
model tests, etc. exists. The water turbines which can be designed and manufactured in
Indonesia for micro-hydro power generation are as follows.
- Cross-flow type: turbine output (10 250 kW); effective head (4 50 m); flow rate
(100 820 litters/sec)
This turbine is designed by SKAT (T13 or T14 model) and its technical base is well
established with design data being fully available. It can be commended in the sense
that the design of a water turbine which is compatible with the actual on-site civil
engineering design conditions can be produced with relative ease. Some are already in
actual use.
- Reversible pump type: turbine output (2 7 kW); effective head (4 20 m); flow rate
(4 130 litters/sec)
In the case of this type, the pump used for pumping water is reversed as a
generating turbine. Readily available pumps of this type in Indonesia are small with a
generating capacity of up to around 7 kW. This type of pump turbine can be applied at
site where the flow rate does not vary but cannot be used at sites where the flow rate
considerably varies If this type is opted for, the generator will be a direct-coupled
induction motor.
As explained in clause 11.5.5.,the speed of water turbine with dummy load type speed
governor hardly increases and does not reach to run-away speed even in case the full
load is cut off suddenly during operation due to the reason that the actual load is
transferred fully to dummy load. Therefore, the generator for diesel engine can be used.
Diesel generators (synchronous generators with AVR) are currently manufactured in
Indonesia under license from European manufacturers and can be used for micro-hydro
power generation. These synchronous generators mounted with an automatic voltage
regulator (AVR) and a brushless exciter are extremely effective for a cross-flow type
water turbine and are capable of supplying high quality electricity. As there are many
models with various outputs, a product which is suitable for a specific design output can
be easily selected. In the case of a reverse pump type water turbine characterized by a
small output, the use of a small induction motor which is readily available in Indonesia
is recommended as an integral type incorporating an induction generator and a pump.
- Synchronous generator (for Cross flow type water turbine: 380/220 V, 1,500 rpm, 12
250 kVA, with a brushless exciter and automatic voltage regulator under license from
European manufacturer)
As this is manufactured in Indonesia, the selection of a standard type of this
generator makes procurement quick and easy.
- Induction generator (for reverse pump: using an induction motor incorporated with a
small pump, speed 1500rpm as standard or speed of pump, output 2 7 kW). The
induction motor is strong and cheaper in cost due to squirrel-cage type. For using as
generator, it is required for excitation to add capacitors (condensers) separately. It is
afraid that additional cost for replacement may be required due to the quality
(particularly regarding its lifetime) of the capacitor and some power-cut may occur in

Speed Increase
In case of synchronous generator, speed increaser is required to coordinate the speed
of the water turbine and speed of the generator. Given the small output associated with
micro-hydro power generation, belt type ncreaser using apulleys is appropriate. This
increaser is manufactured in Indonesia (the material for the belt is imported and is kept
in stock) and the price is not high. Belt type increaser which is commonly used and of
which the technological base is well established can be safely opted for.
Spped Governor (Dummy Load Type)
The use of an ordinary hydraulic governor which regulates the rate of water flow by
automatically moving the guide vane is impossible for a small water turbine because of
its prohibitive high price. Accordingly, a dummy load type governor which is cheap and
already used in Indonesia should be opted for. The control part, which is equipped in
one substrate, is furnished in ELC type panel for synchronous generator or IGC panel
for induction generator. It is strongly requested for proper operation to select either type
carefully because the excitation system of both kind of generator is completely
different Because of the use of a thyrister, for ELC and trasister for IGC, the reaction
performance of this type is excellent for interchanging between consumer and dummy
load. This type of governor is the best choice for micro-hydro power generation despite
its shortcoming of the some energy consumption from generator output by the dummy
load. The performance of a dummy load type governor is judged to be good enough for
micro-hydro power generation. as it is of static type without mechanical moving part
Control Panel
The recommended control panels are the ELC type and the IGC type (both of which are
equipped with a dummy load type governor) manufactured in Indonesia. Many of these
have already been used for micro-hydro power generation and no immediate problems
regarding their use are foreseen. The ELC type is used for a synchronous generator
while the IGC type is used for an induction generator. Each type is equipped with the
minimum range of devices and instruments (meters) required for a micro-hydro power
Dummy Load Heater
The dummy load heater used for above speed governor is a simple air-cooled electric
heater which can be cut to achieve a suitable length corresponding to the capacity of the
dummy load. The dummy load is same in its construction but it is used as AC load for
ELC type and DC load for IGC type. The installation location of the dummy load
should be determined to ensure its efficient cooling. To be more precise, a separate
room with louvred window should be set up as described in Chapter 11.
Inlet Valve
The inlet valve is to control the water inlet to the turbine and such manual operation
butterfly valve with international standard of the sizes required for micro-hydro power
plant (MHP) can be procured in Indonesia and its simple manual operation ensures its
long life. The relevance of an inlet valve for micro-hydro power generation is debatable
because of its extra cost. However, it is judged that the use of an inlet valve is
preferable in view of better equipment maintenance, easy starting up and stoppage of
operation and better safety for operators, etc.
(2) Technical Problems
One Indonesian manufacturer advertises that it is capable of manufacturing various
types of turbines, including the Pelton type, propeller type and Francis type. It appears
that this manufacturer can simply copy the form of such turbines and does not have the
technical capability to design a turbine which meets the specific conditions at a
generation site. Accordingly, technical guarantee is currently only available for a
cross-flow type turbine (manufactured by SKAT under license) for which there is
suitable design data based on the model test or a small output reverse pump turbine
integrating a pump and an induction motor as described earlier. In the case of other
types of water turbines (particularly low head and high flow rate propeller turbines
using irrigation water for micro-hydro power generation), it is necessary to wait for
further technological improvement.
In the case of generators, small generators for diesel generation are manufactured under
licence in Indonesia and these can be used for micro-hydro power generation without
any problems subject to application of dummy load type speed governor.
The technological base for control panels incorporating a dummy load type governor
has been largely established in Indonesia and the available control panels of ELC type
or IGC type in the market can be used for independent network without alteration.
However,some revision is required for control system in future in case the independent
network is to be connected to other network (such as PLN network).
12.2.4 Transmission and Distribution Aspects
The PLN has well-established technical capability to handle 20 kV as well as 380/220
V distribution lines related to micro-hydro power generation as already described in
Chapter 11 and it is judged that no problems exist in regard to transmission and
distribution, including indoor wiring at user premises. All of the necessary materials can
be procured in the domestic market and the installation of a distribution/service line in
accordance with the set procedure is sufficient. However, it is recommended to
consult these procedures of design and construction to the specialists of NGO or PLN
because the full understanding of these procedures is difficult by the persons concerned
except some specialist.
12.2.5 Management of Organization
Many of the existing micro-hydro power plants in Indonesia are managed by local
village or hamlet communities and the management situation considerably varies from
one micro-hydro power plant to another. Some plants are managed relatively well with
the cooperation of the KUD, etc. while others, particularly those developed at the
initiative of local people, fail to collect the electrical tariff after collecting the initial
charge to cover the construction cost.
Management of the organization is a very important issue for micro-hydro power
development in Indonesia. It can be said that the potential capability of local people,
who are the very people affected by development, to manage a power plant in an
organized manner is quite high.
Nevertheless, past examples of failure suggest that equipment breakdowns at a power
plant and/or insufficient maintenance, including repair, are often caused by a lack of a
proper understanding as the management organization composed of local people was
not properly taught how to manage a micro-hydro power plant. The problems do not
relate to the skills of local people but instead appear to originate from a lack of
know-how of power plant operation and management on the part of upstream
organizations and also from insufficient education and guidance for local people.
Strengthening of the kabupaten level organization is essential to improve the skills of
local people as such organization as in-depth knowledge of the level of peoples
awareness and local problems because of its hierarchical proximity to the frontline of
hydropower development.
12.3.1 Members of Working Group
A working group, i.e. the subject for technology transfer, was formed with the
following members in view of the facts that it would play a leading role in (i) the
development of the pilot plant and technology transfer and (ii) the extension of rural
electrification by micro-hydro power in the three target provinces (the working group
was formed during the fourth field survey period).
Representatives of the central government (MEMR, SMOC and SMEs)
Representatives of provincial governments (three target provinces: Minerals and
Energy Division and Cooperatives Division)
Representatives of the kabupaten government (Tana-Toraja: Minerals and Energy
Division and Cooperatives Division)
Representatives of NGOs (those operating in Tana-Toraja: Yayasan, NTT: EDEN)
o Yayasan Turbine Desa: This NGO is based in South Sulawesi Province and is
engaged in rural electrification based on technologies transferred by the GTZ
in the early 1990s (particularly technologies relating to the manufacture of
SKAT-T3 turbines).
o EDEN: This NGO is based in Kupan in East Nusa Tenggara Province and the
teaching staff of an industrial college play a leading role in forest conservation
and rural development. It plans to assist rural electrification using micro-hydro
power as a new field of activity and participated in the OJT in collaboration
with the provincial government.
Representatives of the local community: Head of Lembang (new administrative unit
replacing Desa) Berau (who also acts as the representative of the Masanda Power
Plant management body) where the pilot project was implemented and two local
residents (to be trained as power plant operators)
12.3.2 On-the-Job Training
The OJT as a technology transfer exercise consisted of the following items.
(1) Preliminary Survey (conducted during the fifth field survey period)
Selection of candidate development sites
Several candidate sites were selected on the topographical map (scale: 1 to 50,000)
and the potential of each site was calculated based on the estimated river flow and
head to finalize the candidate development site.
Site conditions survey
After identifying the development site, a topographical survey and hydrological
survey were conducted together with the gathering and analysis of hydrological and
meteorological data.
Demand survey
A survey and analysis were conducted on the number and distribution of users and
the socioeconomic conditions together with forecasting of the future demand.
(2) Project Planning (conducted during the fifth field survey period)

Supply and demand plan
Analysis of the electricity supply and demand prospects
Evaluation of development potential
Analysis and examination of the optimal scale of development, economic relevance,
benefits and secondary effects
Electrification plan
Planning of the development schedule, estimation of the construction cost and
planning of the actual funding
Rough specifications, basic design and cost estimation for the required equipment
(3) Establishment of Maintenance System and Charge Collection System (conducted
during the first half of the sixth field survey period)
Establishment of maintenance system and charge collection system
The organization responsible for operation and maintenance was established by
incorporating additional local people in the working group and a role was assigned to
each member. Moreover, the charge collection system was established by setting the
charge and collection system, etc. and the necessary ledgers for book-keeping, etc. were
arranged. The work involved required guidance by a person with in-depth knowledge of
the local customs and situation in addition to that by the counterpart organization. The
involvement of a person to assist the promotion of the pilot project was, therefore,
sought in the form of subcontracting.
Funding plan to sustain operation
The fund and income management method to ensure continuous operation was
examined and the ledgers and other necessary items were arranged.
(4) Detailed Design (conducted during the first half of the sixth field survey period)
Detailed design
The detailed design was conducted based on the concept of the maximum use of locally
procured equipment and materials. In addition, the working group members and
personnel of the counterpart organization were taught the basic knowledge required to
conduct a detailed design.
Cost estimation
The cost was estimated based on the detailed design results.
Preparation of tender documents
The tender documents regarding the procurement of equipment and construction of the
power plant were prepared.
(5) Supervision Regarding Construction Work Under Pilot Project (conducted during the
second half of the sixth field survey period)
The construction work under the pilot project (micro-hydro power plant) by a local
contractor was supervised. As it was difficult for the Study Team to be stationed at the
site throughout the work period, the technical know-how required for the smooth
progress of the work was transferred.
(6) Operation and Maintenance (conducted during the second half of the sixth field
survey period)
The operation of the pilot plant, the test operation and inspection of which was
completed, commenced. Guidance was provided to ensure an appropriate operation
system based on the already established maintenance system and charge collection
system. The system to continue monitoring by local people without reliance on
outsiders was established by clarifying the check items for monitoring and actually
commencing monitoring work.
(7) Monitoring (conducted during the seventh field survey period)
The progress of operation control at the pilot plant was checked and any necessary
improvements were made following consultations with the working group.
(8) System Evaluation (conducted during the eighth field survey period)
The entire system of the pilot plant was evaluated from various angles, including
technology, maintenance and financial management. The actual evaluation items were
decided through consultations with the working group. In the case of any improvement
being required as a result of evaluation, efforts were made to make such improvement
following consultations with the working group.
12.3.3 Workshops
Various workshops were organized to extend the achievements of the OJT to a wide
range of people related to the pilot project. As the counterparts in Indonesia were
primarily responsible for organizing these workshops, arrangements were made to make
the working group members present reports. Meanwhile, the JICA Study Team
provided technical as well as financial support. The timing of the workshops which
corresponded to the progress of the OJT is given below.
First workshop : during the fifth field survey period (preliminary study and project
Second workshop : during the second half of the sixth field survey period (detailed
design, work supervision and operation and maintenance)
Third workshop : during the second half of the seventh field survey period (monitoring)
Fourth workshop : during the eighth field survey period (system evaluation)
During the various field study periods, OJT was conducted as described below.
OJT was conducted on the following matters through a combination of various training
techniques, including lectures by the Study Team members, demonstration at the
Masanda site and existing micro-hydro power plant sites, practical exercises by the
participants and test exercises.
Kabupaten Tana-Toraja, South Sulawesi Province (Masanda, Makare and Rantepao)
- OJT during fifth field survey: 13 days between 24
June and 10
July, 2002
- OJT during sixth field survey (first half): from 30
August to 4
September, 2002
- OJT during sixth field survey (second half): from 24
to 28
October, 2002
- OJT during seventh field survey (first half): from 16
to 20
January, 2003
- OJT during seventh field survey (second half): from 20
to 23
February, 2003
- OJT during eighth field survey: 5
and 6
June, 2003
Table 12-4-1 List of OJT Participants
Name Affiliation Remarks
1 Teta Baturante Dinas Keperasi Tator Cooperatives and SMEs Division,
2 Ilham - ditto - - ditto -
3 Markus Molloli Pinas Pertambangan Tator Energy and Mineral Resources
4 Purwanto Kamurullah - ditto - - ditto -
5 Andarias T.P. Masanda Resident in the Project Area
6 Welem Sambolangi - ditto - - ditto -
7 Paulus Pappang Dats - ditto - - ditto -
8 Helmi P. Nainggolan MEMR MEMR counterpart
9 Rusdi Taher SMOC and SMEs SMOC and SMEs counterpart
10 Abdullah - ditto - - ditto -
11 Habel P. Yayasan Turbin Desa NGO active in Tana-Toraja
12 Yunus Tandi - ditto - - ditto -
13 Luther Pongrekun - ditto - - ditto -
14 Haris Yasi Dera - ditto - - ditto -
15 Simon Boroh LPA-SDA Eden (Institute NGO active in NTT, voluntary
16 Okitavianus Dharma - ditto - - ditto -
17 Silas Kase - ditto - - ditto -
Outline of OJT Subjects
- OJT during fifth field survey: preliminary study; project planning
- OJT during sixth field survey (first half): establishment of maintenance and electrical
tariff (collection) systems; detailed design
- OJT during sixth field survey (second half): operation and maintenance; distribution
equipment; work supervision
- OJT during seventh field survey (first half): monitoring
- OJT during seventh field survey (second half): monitoring
- OJT during eighth field survey: system evaluation

Thema Date Location Contents
Meeting room at the office of
the Cooperatives Division,
Tana-Toraja Government
Basic Lecture on Micro-hydro Power Development and Formation of Training Groups
A lecture was given on the following subjects as an introduction to the training on micro-hydro power development. The
participants were divided into three groups to ensure the efficient progress of the training
- Purposes of the manual for micro-hydro power development - Components of micro-hydro power generation
- Hydropower generation - Where does water come from? - Processes of micro-hydro power development
existing Taba MHP
existing Tendan DuaMHP
existing Bokin MHP
Practical Exercises on Simple Surveying, Measuring and Village Survey
In addition to explanation of the functions of various civil engineering structures to the participants, practical exercises were
conducted by the participants at existing micro-hydro power plant sites. These exercises included simple surveying of the
topography, surveying of a headrace, measuring of the river flow rate and a village survey.
Jun Meeting room at the office of
the Cooperatives Division,
Tana-Toraja Government
Lecture on Preliminary Field Survey and Selection of Candidate Micro-hydro Power Plant Sites
A lecture was given on the following subjects. In connection with the selection of candidate micro-hydro power development
sites, a lecture was given on the techniques to extract candidate sites using a topographical map and to estimate the generation
potential at each site based on the estimated river flow and head.
i. Purposes of a preliminary field survey ii. Preparations for a preliminary field survey
iii. Survey on and around the project site iv. Clarification of the geological conditions affecting the main civil engineering
v. Survey on sites for civil engineering structures vi. Measuring of the river flow
vii. Measuring of the head viii. Survey on prospective users
Jul. Meeting room at the office of
the Cooperatives Division,
Tana-Toraja Government
Practical Exercise on Selection of Candidate Micro-hydro Power Plant Sites
A topographical map featuring the area around the pilot project site was distributed to the participants so that the participants
could extract candidate micro-hydro power development sites and estimate the generation potential at each site based on the
estimated river flow and head.
Jul Masanda (pilot project site)

Preliminary Survey Exercise (Field Survey)
The participants conducted a practical exercise regarding possible installation sites for the following main civil engineering
structures, surveying and measuring of the river flow.
- Intake; headrace; head (forebay) tank; penstock; power plant; tailrace
Fifth Field
Preliminary Study;
Project Planning
Jul. Meeting room at the office of
the Cooperatives Division,
Tana-Toraja Government
Lecture on Planning
A lecture was given on the following aspects of the planning of civil engineering structures.
i. System layout ii. Materials and key planning factors iii.Supply and demand plan
iv. Intake weir v. Intake vi. Settling basin
vii. Headrace viii. Forebay tank (head tank) ix. Penstock
Jul. Meeting room at the office of
the Cooperatives Division,
Tana-Toraja Government
A lecture was given on the following subjects.
i. Participation by and human resources development in the local community
ii. Management by the local community and operation plan
iii. Community council
iv. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
v. Electricity supply business management body
vi. Management of technical and maintenance aspects
vii. Community education program
viii. Technical education
ix. Management education
x. Failure of business management
xi. Income sources and budget
xii. Awareness and education of the local community
xiii. Benefits of using electricity
xiv. Demand management
xv. Financial management

Meeting room of a hotel
Exercises on Project Planning and Overall Evaluation
Exercise themes on project planning and the design of civil engineering structures featuring the pilot project were given to the
participants for the purpose of improving their understanding of these matters.

Meeting room of a hotel
Preparation of Wrap-Up Workshop

Jul Meeting room of a hotel
Wrap-Up Workshop
After an opening address by the Deputy Governor of Kabupaten Tana-Toraja and others, each group of OJT participants reported
on their experience of the OJT on a different theme, followed by an active Q & A session (and the exchange of opinions).
Aug. Meeting room of a hotel
Cost Evaluation
- Cost evaluation at the rough planning stage (exercise conducted)
- Cost evaluation at the detailed design stage
Sixth Field
(First Half)
Establishment of
Maintenance and
Electrical tariff
Systems; Detailed
31th Aug. Masanda Village (target
village of the pilot project)
- How to prepare a work plan
- Outline of civil engineering work and transmission/distribution work
Sep Meeting room of a hotel
Design of Electrical Equipment
- Electrical equipment at a power plant
- Design of electrical equipment (continued at the next workshop)
- Design of mechanical equipment (continued at the next workshop)


Meeting room of a hotel
Maintenance System
- Basic ideas of maintenance - Management system and electrical tariff system
Oct. Existing Tendan Dua
Micro-hydro Power Plant
Operation and Maintenance
Basics of operation and maintenance

Meeting room of a hotel
Distribution Equipment
Outline and important points of distribution equipment
Oct. Masanda Village (target
village of the pilot project)
Work Management
Outline of work management

Meeting room of a hotel
Preparation of Wrap-Up Workshop
Sixth Field
(Second Half)
Operation and
Equipment; Work
Oct. Meeting room of a hotel
Wrap-Up Workshop
As in the case of the previous wrap-up workshop, each group of OJT participants reported on their experience of the OJT on a
different theme, followed by an active Q & A session (and the exchange of opinions).

Meeting room of a hotel
- Explanation of the draft manual and confirmation of the schedule
- Preparation of a checklist, etc.
Jan. Masanda Village (target
village of the pilot project)
Monitoring was actually conducted at the pilot project site.
Seventh Field
(First Half):
Jan. Meeting room of a hotel
A review exercise was conducted led by the counterparts based on the check results at the pilot project site
Seventh Field
(Second Half)
Monitoring 20

Meeting room of a hotel
- Continued OJT on monitoring from the previous OJT session
- Compilation of the OJT results, i.e. preparation of materials to be used at the workshop

Masanda Village (target
village of the pilot project)
The entire participants of the workshop, including the OJT participants, moved to the pilot project site in Masanda and the OJT
participants made presentations in front of the actual facilities/structures by taking the workshop participants to the actual sites
of the intake weir, power plant and other main facilities/structures.
Feb. Masanda Village (target
village of the pilot project)
The main members of the committee organized by local residents to operate the pilot plant were invited to the workshop for a Q
& A session (and the exchange of opinions) on the operation and maintenance methods. The discussion themes included the
necessary for and feasibility of the application of day-time power supply for small-scale local industries.

Feb. Meeting room of a hotel
- The draft manual (written in the Indonesian language) so far prepared was distributed to the OJT participants for their opinions
with a view to modifying the contents of the said draft manual.
- A Q & A session (and the exchange of opinions) was held on the contents of the OJT and workshop during the second half of
the seventh field survey period
Eighth Field
System Evaluation 5

Masanda Village (target
village of the pilot project)

Meeting room of a hotel
System Evaluation
-On-site interviews were conducted on such aspects as mechanical operation, maintenance, charge collection and accounting five
months after the commencement of commercial operation.
- The maintenance conditions of the equipment were good.
- In regard to payment of the electrical tariff, only one household failed to pay the first months charge. This was caused by a
lack of cash income in January as the harvesting of coffee beans, which is the main source of cash income for villagers, ended in
December. According to the rules, any delayed payment after the 11
of each month incurs a penalty and this household duly
paid a penalty of Rp 10,000.
- The accounting (book-keeping) has been conducted by the person in charge of accounting and the monthly reports have been
approved by the Steering Committee. While the income, expenditure and savings are currently recorded, some expenditure is not
accompanied by the relevant receipts. Improvement of this point was requested. At the workshop, it was confirmed that the
monthly operation and management results, including an accounting report, will be submitted to the kabupaten government and
that the kabupaten government will report to the central government every three months.
12.5.1 Important Points for Preparation of the Manual (Knowledge Obtained Through
OJT, etc.)
The following knowledge obtained through the OJT was incorporated in the preparation
of the manual.
Table 12.5-1 Knowledge Obtained Through OJT and Its Incorporation in the Manual
Knowledge Obtained Through OJT Incorporation in the Manual
The concept of catchment area is not
The definition of catchment area,
calculation method and relationship between
rainfall and discharge are described in detail.
There is no previous experience of extracting
candidate sites based on an existing
topographical map.
The method to extract candidate sites from a
topographical map is described together with
important issues relating to site selection.
It is difficult to establish understanding of the
relationship between a measured flow value and
correction factor for calculation of the average
flow velocity.
The meaning of the correction factor for
each type of flow velocity measuring method
and river conditions is explained together
with illustrations.
There is insufficient understanding of how to
measure the head and flow when a measuring
instrument is not available (inability to conduct
measurement without advanced equipment).
A measuring method using locally available
simple measuring tools (such as a hose and
float, etc.) and a recording method are
There is no previous experience of conducting a
rural social conditions survey.
The necessary survey items in connection
with electrification using micro-hydro power
are listed in the form of a survey sheet.
Knowledge of the functions of each civil
engineering structure and of the selection of a
desirable location is insufficient.
The functions of each structure and
important issues relating to the selection of a
location are described.
Knowledge of the selection of generating
equipment is insufficient.
Procurable equipment in Indonesia and the
selection method are introduced.
Theoretical understanding of the basic
structures of various civil engineering structures
and the method to determine their dimensions is
occasionally found to be difficult to achieve.
Only basic theoretical issues are described
and basic dimensions are described in a
manner which they can be determined with
the use of diagrams and tables.
Basic knowledge of detailed electrical and
mechanical design is insufficient.
Only the minimum descriptions necessary to
determine the specifications to be ordered
are given and the details of design are
described in the Annex.
Understanding of such detailed issues as the
selection of economical cables and the
suitability of transformer installation for power
distribution purposes is insufficient.
Basic issues for distribution planning are
simply described. As the details are
determined on a case by case basis, it is
recommended that the cooperation of the
local PLN, etc. is obtained.
Knowledge of items to be considered when
deciding the charge level, etc. is insufficient.
The items to be considered when deciding
the charge level and the calculation method
are described using examples.
Kabupaten officials have no special difficulty in
organizing people and preparing rules of
Management, etc. because of their experience
of village-based cooperatives but their
knowledge of the importance of accounting
reports and need for accounting transparency is
slightly insufficient.
Concrete descriptions are given using
examples of actual pages of an accounts
book to ensure transparent accounting

12.5.2 Roles and Scope of Application of the Manual
The manual in question compiles technical knowledge relating to the community-based
development of micro-hydro power in unelectrified areas, targeting kabupaten officials
and members of cooperatives and NGOs that are anticipated to play a central role in
electrification efforts.
The manual also intends to achieve the active use of locally procurable resources in
Indonesia (human resources, local materials and equipment made in Indonesia, etc.) and
its target scale of development is outlined below.
Scale of generation : up to 200 kW
Applicable water flow : 5 800 litters/sec
Effective head : 4 50 m

12.5.3 Composition and Outline of the Manual
The manual consists of eleven (11) chapters and the contents of each chapter are
outlined below.
Table 12.5-2 Composition of the Manual
Chapter 1 Introduction
Purposes of micro-hydro power development; outline of basic components; mechanism of power
generation; concepts of catchment area, etc.
Chapter 2 Finding of the Potential Sites
Site extraction method using a topographical map; important points; flow estimation method
based on rainfall
Chapter 3 Site Reconnaissance
Outline survey of the site; measuring of water flow and head; demand survey method and
important points
Chapter 4 Planning
Generation method; scale of generation; selection of installation locations of various structures;
supply and demand balancing method and important points
Chapter 5 Design for Civil Engineering
Methods to determine the basic structure and main dimensions of each civil engineering
structure; important points for design
Chapter 6 Design for Mechanical and Electrical Structures
Selection of generating equipment, mainly cross-flow water turbine or reversible pump turbine,
both of which are procurable in Indonesia; method to decide the items necessary to place an order
for equipment
Chapter 7 Design for Distribution Facilities
Basic issues regarding transmission/distribution; design concept
Chapter 8 Cost Estimation
For rough planning: simplified estimation using diagram and table
For detailed planning: estimation items; quantity surveying; unit price; others
Chapter 9 Construction Management
Key points for work management; schedule management; quality management
Chapter 10 Operation and Maintenance
Items to be included in the operation manual; maintenance guidelines
Chapter 11 Management
Composition and roles of the management body; tariff system; accounting system; others

12.6.1 Achievements of Technology Transfer
(1) Overcoming Traditional Problems Relating to Micro-hydro power
The traditional technical problems referred to in Chapter 12.2 were overcome through
technology transfer and the following activities are now being conducted in Kabupaten
Tana-Toraja and East Nusa Tenggara Province.
1) Activities in Kabupaten Tana-Toraja
Electrification cooperative (KLP-CELEBES) described later has been established and
the work to refine potential sites is continuing as outlined below in Kabupaten
Tana-Toraja and neighboring kabupatens (Kabupaten Luwu, Kabupaten Polewari and
Kabupaten Mamasa). In addition, a database for the preparation of a master plan for
Kabupaten Tana-Toraja is being developed.
Number of refined sites : 100
Number of sites surveyed : 50 of 100(see Appendix-5 for the survey list)
Outline planning completed: 25 of 100
Detailed design completed : 5 of 100(see Appendix-6 for the survey details)

2) Activities in East Nusa Tenggara Province
In East Nusa Tenggara Province, EDEN, a local NGO, is conducting the following
study entrusted by the provincial government.
Target areas : Flores Island and West Timor
Number of extracted sites : 98 (see Appendix-7 for the survey list)
Number of sites surveyed : 12 of 98
Outline planning completed: 8 out of 98 (see Appendix-8 for the five (5) survey
details without following three (3) sites)
Detailed design completed : 3 out of 98 (see Appendix-9 for the survey details)
During the eighth field survey, the JICA Study Team checked the results of the survey
conducted by EDEN at the respective sites. It was confirmed that the accuracy of these
surveys has reached an acceptable level even though the survey results had some minor
Table 12-6-1 Field Verification Results for Achievements of Technology Transfer (Flores Island
in East Nusa Tenggara Province)
Site Name Detupera Jerebuu Uggakakleleng Olakile
Detailed Design Basic Design Basic Design Field Survey
0.12 0.30
0.15 0.21
He (m)
27.0 40.0 30.0 23
Pmax (kW)
19 70
26 28
Number of
138 households
4 facilities
318 households
8 facilities
119 households
4 facilities
(approx. 200 households;
a hamlet with approx.
400 households exists 1
km downstream)
206 households
4 facilities
< Main Products >
Cocoa; copra; cashew
<General Description>
Traditional houses are
relatively concentrated.
Villagers have high
expectations for
< Main Products >
Cocoa; copra; vanilla;
cloves; cashew nuts
<General Description>
A few households have
purchased a PVC or small
generator for personal use.
The economic situation is
better than that of most
villages on the island.
< Main Products >
Rice; coffee
<General Description>
Houses are relatively
scattered. Many houses
are of lower quality.
< Main Products >
Rice; coffee
<General Description>
Some households have
purchased a PVC.
Small irrigation
channels exist.
An intake weir and water
channels for irrigation exist.
The target river is
relatively steep and MHP
is feasible at other sites.
Irrigation facilities
The survey results are
accurate. The
installation of a
transformer has been
instructed in view of
the long distribution
The survey results are
relatively accurate. In view of
the possible widening of the
existing water channel,
however, the Q value in
parenthesis should be more
suitable. The river has a high
level of sediment discharge and
there is a large inflow of
sediment into the existing
irrigation channels. An
instruction was given to
consider sediment disposal.
There is a slight problem
regarding the
introduction of a
headrace at the site
surveyed by EDEN. An
instruction was given to
change the planned
location to the upstream
where a headrace can be
more easily introduced.
Given the capacity of
the existing channel,
the maximum flow will
be approximately 0.15
Overall Evaluation Results
Out of the four surveyed sites, irrigation channels, etc. already exist at three sites. Measuring of the head and the selection of the plant
location, etc. at these sites have been accurately conducted based on knowledge acquired through the OJT. The water flow at a new sites has
been accurately measured but the ability to select the optimal channel route (particularly selection of the headrace route) was found to be
slightly insufficient. In addition, the numerical checking of household income, etc. is also insufficient. (This is due to a lack of experience
and the accumulation of experience under the on-site guidance of an expert is important.)
Note: The figures in parenthesis are the survey results of the JICA Study Team.

(2) Awareness of Importance of Maintenance and Organized Management of Power Plant
The importance of the maintenance and organized management of a power plant was
fully understood through the OJT and the positive effects of such awareness are visible
with the management and maintenance of the pilot plant as described earlier.
(3) Establishment of Kabupaten-Based Electrification Cooperative
Through the process of technology transfer, the necessity for a cross-sectional
organization has been recognized for the execution of all development processes from
site extraction to power plant management and also for the preparation of a
kabupaten-based master plan for electrification. As a result, the KLP-CELEBES has
been established. The main members of the KLP-CELEBES are officials of the
Minerals and Energy Division and Cooperative Division of the Tana-Toraja government
and representatives of Yayasan Turbine Desa, a NGO. The scope of its activities cover a
whole range of work relating to the electrification of off-grid areas, including the
extraction of potential sites, design, operation supervision, establishment of a power
plant management body and creation of demand. (The Rules of Management of the
KLP-CELEBES are included in this report in Appendix 4.)