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PUBLICATION NO.

ICAR/ED(A)/PUB-21/3-2002
CURRICULA AND SYLLABI FOR
MASTER'S DEGREE PROGRAMS
IN
DAIRY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DAIRY TECHNOLOGY
DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY
DAIRY CHEMISTRY
DAIRY ENGINEERING
ACCREDITATION BOARD SECRETARIAT
EDUCATION DIVISION
INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
KRISHI ANUSANDHAN BHAVAN-II, PUSA,
NEW DELHI-110 012
CURRICULA AND SYLLABI FOR
MASTER'S DEGREE PROGRAMS
IN
DAIRY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Dairy Technology
Dairy Microbiology
Dairy Chemistry
Dairy Engineering
i
ACCREDITATION BOARD SECRETARIAT
EDUCATION DIVISION
INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
KRISHI ANUSANDHAN BHAVAN-II, PUSA,
NEW DELHI-110 012
PUBLICATION NO. ICAR/ED(A)/PUB-21/3-2002
PRINTED : MAY, 2002
Compilation & Editing : DR G.D. DIWAKAR
Director (DIPA) : A. CHAKRAVARTY
Chief Production Officer : VIRENDER KUMAR BHARTI
Technical Officer : KUL BHUSHAN GUPTA
Published by Shri A. Chakravarty, Director (DIPA), Indian Council of Agricultural Research,
New Delhi, lasertypeset by M/s Vee Kay Printers, 37-A, Kundan Nagar, Near Bank Enclave,
Laxmi Nagar, Delhi 110 092 and printed at M/s Shagun Offset Press, 92-B, Street No. 4,
Krishna Nagar, Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi 110 029.
ii
PREFACE
At a juncture when major transformations are anticipated in context with globalization of
trade of dairy commodity, an appreciation of the current trends in the field of dairy education
becomes a necessity. As a result of globalization of world trade, it will become imperative for
the dairy industry in various countries to harmonize their working with reference to good manu-
facturing practices, quality assurance, nutritional labeling and quality parameters with Interna-
tional Standards. Well-structured and updated educational programmes are need of hours. The
key component of a good educational programme is a dynamic and need-based updated course
curriculum, which meets the challenge of new century.
In view of the above facts, the ICAR which is vested with the responsibilities of guiding
and coordinating agricultural education in the country, took several steps to ensure quality
education to meet the ever changing national and global scenario in agriculture and allied sci-
ences. One of these steps was to set up an Accreditation Board, which among other things is
required to periodically assess the curricula of various educational programmes offered by the
National Agricultural Education Systems and suggest modifications.
The second step in this connection was the constitution of Broad Subject Matter Area
(BSMA) committees for revision of Postgraduate (P.G.) curricula and related issues. The BSMA
committee on Dairy Science was constituted through ICAR office Order No.1-3/98-Acdn./Edn.,
dated 30.11. 98 to examine the present Postgraduate course curricula and to modify the same
to meet future challenges. The BSMA committee on Dairy Science was constituted with Dr. S.
Singh, Joint Director, NDRI, Karnal as Coordinator. The members of the committee were Dr.
R. S. Sharma, Dean, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand; Dr. V.B. Singh, Dean, Dairy
Science College, RAU, Udaipur; Dr. S.P. Agrawal, Head, Division of Dairy Engineering, NDRI
Karnal and Dr. D. N. Prasad, Head of Microbiology Division, NDRI, Karnal.
The fist meeting of the BSMA Committee on Dairy Science was held on March 11-12,
1999 at NDRI, Karnal to develop the course-curricula in different disciplines assigned to the
committee. All the members attended the meeting and number of other Scientists invited from
NDRI, Karnal (Annexure-I). The meeting was chaired by Dr. Kiran Singh, Director, NDRI,
Karnal.
It was emphasized that the main objective of this meeting was to bring uniformity and
improvement in course curricula of PG programmes of Dairy Science disciplines, viz., Dairy
Technology, Dairy Chemistry, Dairy Microbiology and Dairy Engineering. The courses pre-
pared for these disciplines along with supporting courses were discussed at macro and micro
levels in detail and suggestions emanating from the members were incorporated. The suggested
common academic regulations for Postgraduate education in Agricultural and Allied disciplines
were also discussed in detail. The finalized course curricula were circulated among Dairy Sci-
ence Colleges in the country for their comments.
The final workshop was held at SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand on July 2-3-1999.
A group of 20 Scientists from 7 academic institutions participated (Annexure-II). The meeting
was chaired by Dr S.L. Mehta, the then DDG (Edn.). Dr. R.S. Sharma, Principal & Dean.,
SMC college of Dairy Science, Anand welcomed the members. Dr. S. Singh, Joint Director,
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NDRI, Karnal and N.L. Maurya, ADG (Acdn.), ICAR gave their opening remarks. Thereafter,
details of the courses, rules and regulations, and infrastructure facilities required for running
the P.G. programmes effectively were discussed in detail. The details of curricula and course
outlines are given in this publication.
In all the disciplines, the courses have been modified to bring uniformity in course con-
tents. Relevant readings materials have been suggested for each course. Usually, only 5 latest
references have been given. It is expected that the teachers will give additional references to
the students to supplement the study materials.
The P.G. courses for above disciplines have been developed after taking into consider-
ation the recent developments in the subject and requirement of dairy and food industry under
the changed scenario due to liberalization and globalization after WTO agreement. The main
features of the revised courses are elimination of duplication and tight compartmentalization,
upgradation of courses by introduction of latest developments and provision of flexibility in
choice of courses by introduction of core, optional and supporting courses. Previously there
were defined courses in each discipline to be taken by all the students. Now students have been
provided option to choose courses according to their background, interest and future
programme.
In case of Dairy Technology discipline, the core courses have been designed to impart
knowledge about advances in processing, preservation and packaging of dairy and food prod-
ucts. The optional courses have been devised to provide information on wide range of related
aspects such as structure and texture of foods, application of biotechnology in food processing,
techniques of product development and alternative processes in dairy and food application,
from which students have choice to select depending upon their requirements.
In the field of Dairy Chemistry, some selected new topics were added viz., physico-
chemical aspects of individual/ different food proteins from animal and plant sources; thera-
peutic and allergic aspects of milk proteins, protein films and coatings; chemistry of recombi-
nant rennet; mechanism of action of specific and non-specific anti microbial factors in milk,
milk derived bioactive peptides, transgenic milk proteins and their significance; advanced tech-
niques such as HPLC, isoelectric focusing, thermal analysis of membrane processes and en-
zyme-linked immunosorbent assay; role of fat replacers vis-a-vis neutral and polar lipids or the
quality of milk products, chemistry and nutritional aspects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA)
and omega fatty acids, encapsulated vitamins; and chemistry of new emerging adulterants in
milk and milk products etc.
Keeping in view the tremendous scientific growth in the past few years in the field of
microbiology, efforts have been made to include modern topics in the academic curricula for
better understanding. It has been our sincere endeavour to give greater emphasis on molecular
biology as tool, biotechnological advances and rapid analytical techniques in order to meet the
future national and international challenges.
In field of Dairy Engineering discipline, the development of new processes with more
emphasis on automation, quality, safety and convenience has brought an extra dimension to the
training in dairy and food engineering. Therefore, these trends have been taken into consider-
ation in the revision of P. G. courses. The coverage of subjects of contemporary interest would
enable the students to connect the relevance of subject matter to their desired career develop-
ment.
We are grateful to Dr. R. S. Paroda, former D.G., ICAR and Chairman of Accreditation
Board, and Dr. S.L. Mehta, & Dr.(Mrs) Tej Verma, former DDG(Edn), ICAR for providing
guidance and encouragement in this endeavour. Our thanks are also due to Dr. Panjab Singh,
the D.G., ICAR and Chairman of the Accreditation Board, and Dr. J. C. Katyal, DDG (Edn.)
for their support in bringing out this publication
We are thankful to all the members of the BSMA committee and invitees who partici-
pated in the meeting and workshop organized for the purpose. We are also thankful to the
senior faculty members and other officers of Dairy Science Colleges who sent their valuable
comments and suggestions, when the document was circulated to them.
We hope that this document will serve as a guide and help in achieving uniformly higher
standards of Postgraduate Education in the concerned disciplines. The Accreditation Board Sec-
retariat will appreciate comments and suggestions for improving and updating this publication
in future.
S. Singh
March,2002 N.L. Maurya
New Delhi G. D. Diwakar
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CONTENTS
Preface i
Dairy Technology 1
Dairy Microbiology 18
Dairy Chemistry 33
Dairy Engineering 49
Annexure
I. List of the participants to the BSMA Committee Meeting. 65
II. List of the participants to the BSMA Workshop. 66
III. Common Acadamic Regulations for Post-Graduate Education 67
in SAUs, DUs and CAU
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1
DAIRY TECHNOLOGY
A. Major courses
A.1 Core Courses 12Credits
1. Dairy Processing - I 2 + 1
2. Dairy Processing - II 2 + 1
3. Food Processing 2 + 1
4. Dairy & Food Packaging 2 + 1
Seminar 0 + 1 1 Credits
A.2 Optional Courses 12 Credits
1. Rheology of Dairy and Food Products 2 + 1
2. Dairy Process Biotechnology 3 + 1
3. Traditional and Value Added Products 2 + 1
4. New Product Development 2 + 0
5. Alternative Processes for Dairy and Food Industry 2 + 0
6. Technology of Functional Foods 2 + 1
7. Technology of Food Emulsions, Foams and Gels 2 + 1
8. Advances in Lipid Technology 3 + 0
9. Advances in Protein Technology 3 + 0
10. Product- Process Monitoring 3 + 0
B. Supporting Courses 10 Credits
1. Research Techniques 3 + 1
2. Dairy Plant Management 2 + 1
3. Nutritional Biochemistry 2 + 0
4. Statistics for Industrial Applications 2 + 1
5. Computer Software Packages for Statistical Analysis 2 + 1
6. Research Documentation 1 + 1
Any other course(s) as suggested by the Student
Advisory Committee
Total 35 Credits
2
A.1 CORE COURSES
1. Dairy Processing -I 2 + 1
Use of bioprotective factors for preservation of raw milk: effects on physico-chemical, micro-
bial and nutritional properties of milk and milk products, present status of preservation of raw
milk by chemical preservatives; thermal processing for preservation; methods of determining
lethality of thermal processing, UHT processed milk products, their properties and prospects,
types of UHT plants, aseptic fillers, heat stability and deposit formation aspects, effect on milk
quality; techno- economic considerations; principles and equipment for bactotherm process and
its applications in dairy industry; retort processing; dehydration: advances in drying of milk
and milk products; freeze dehydration: physico-chemical changes during freeze drying and in-
dustrial developments; water activity; sorption behaviour of foods, energy of binding water,
control of water activity of different milk products in relation to their chemical; microbiologi-
cal and textural properties; hurdle technology and its application in development of shelf-stable
and intermediate-moisture foods; current trends in cleaning and sanitization of dairy equip-
ment: biological; detergents; ultrasonic techniques in cleaning; biodetergents, development of
sanitizers- heat; chemical; radiation. Food contaminants: their incidence and and implications,
corrective measures.
Practical
LP system for extension of keeping quality raw milk, determination of pH; HCT profile of
milk systems, measurement of thiocynate in milk system; determination of water activity and
sorption isotherms of milk products; determination of thermal load during retort processing of
milk and milk products; heat classification of milk powders; functional properties of powders:
porosity, interstitial air content, occluded air content, flowability; determination of degree of
browning-chemical/physical methods; freeze drying of milk/milk products, and heat sensitive
products.
Suggested Readings
Burton, H. 1998 Ultra-high temperature Processing of Milk and Milk Products, Elsevier Ap-
plied Sciences Ltd., England.
Fellow; P. 1988 Food Processing Technology, Elliss Horwood Ltd., Chichester, UK.
Troller, JA. & H.B. Christian. 1978. Water Activity and Food, Food Sci. & Technology, A
series of Monograph Academic Press, London.
Gould, G.W. 1995. New Methods of Food Preservation. Blackie Academic & Professional Pub.
London.
IDF Bulletin, 1981. New Monograph on UHT Milk; Document, 133.
3
2. Dairy Processing -II 2 + 1
Membrane processing and related techniques: classification and characteristics of filtration pro-
cesses, types of membranes commercially available, modelling of ultrafiltration processes, mass
transfer model, resistance model, factors affecting flux, during ultrafiltration and reverse osmo-
sis of milk, sweet and sour whey, ultrafiltration hardware, design of ultrafiltration plants, mem-
brane flouling-problem and treatment, energy requirements for processing of milk and whey,
cleaning and sanitization of different types of membranes, application of ultrafiltration, reverse
osmosis; nanofiltration and microfiltration in the dairy industry; demineralisation process; im-
portance of demineralisation, different processes available for demineralisation; developments
in the manufacture and utilization of food and and pharmaceutical grade lactose from UF per-
meate; preparation of special foods like low lactose powder; dairy whiteners using UF retentate,
whey protein concentrates, casein and coprecipitates; properties of milk proteins: physical, rheo-
logical and functional properties of whey protein casein; co-precipitates; UF retentate and their
modifications; Evaluation of functional properties.
Practical
Study of the effect of types of milk, temperature of milk and trans-membrane pressure on the
permeate flux during ultrafiltration process; determination of rennet coagulation properties of
milk; performance of ultrafiltration membrane with respect to permeate flux and volume con-
centration ratio during processing of acid and sweet whey; study the effect of types of milk,
temperature and applied pressure on the permeate flux during the reverse osmosis process;
nanofiltration of milk, whey and permeate; microfiltration of skim milk and whey; manufacture
of lactose from UF permeate; preparation of whey protein concentrate and its utilization in
dairy products; measurement of different functional properties of casein and whey protein whip-
ping ability; water binding; emulsification properties; gelling; viscosity and solubility.
Suggested Readings
Renner, E. and Abd EL-Salam, M.H. (1991) Application of ultrafiltration in the Dairy Industry,
Elsevier Applied Sciences, London.
Cheryan, Munir (1998) Ultrafiltration and Microbiltration Handbook, Technomic Publishing
House.
Sienkiewizc, T. and RTiedel, C.L. (1990) Whey and Whey Utilization, Verlag Th. Mann
Gelsenkirchen-Buer, Germany.
Zadow, J.G. (1994) Whey and lactose processing, Elsevier Applied Science, London,
IDF (1996). Advances in Membrane Technology for better dairy products, Bull No. 311.
3. Food Processing 2 + 1
Status of food processing industry in India and abroad; biochemical and physical changes in
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fruits and vegetables after harvest; use of low temperature; considerations relating to storage of
food at chilling temperature and freezing of fruits and vegetables; use of heat; application of
heat energy to foods, concept of drying rate of fruits and vegetables, industrial drying pro-
cesses of foods; drying of certain fruits and vegetables; canning: determination of thermal pro-
cesses to ensure commercial sterility of foods in cans, fermentation technology: developments
in fermented and pickled vegetables and manufacturing process for beer and wine; controlled
and modified atmospheric storage of fruits and vegetables; enzymatic and non-enzymatic
browning reactions in food and its control; fresh, cured meat and poultry and utilization of
other ingredients in meat products; bakery products; Manufacturing processes for bakery prod-
ucts such as breads; biscuits; pizza bases, etc; utilization and importance of dairy ingredients in
bakery products; use of egg/egg products in bakery products; advances in milling of cereal
grains; processing of mushrooms and its utilization; nutritional changes during food processing,
technologies of fabricated and formulated foods and their nutritional aspects and extrusion cook-
ing of foods.
Practical
Determination of browning and colour measurement in foods; measurement of Vitamin C con-
tent in fruit juices, preparation pickled vegetables, fruit jams, and bakery products; soups and
gravies; their chemical analysis, experimentation on ripening of fruits with ethylene.
Suggested Readings
Fennema, C.R. (1975) Principles of food science Part-II; Physical principles of food preserva-
tion, Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York.
Potter, N.N. (1987) Food Science; (IV Edition) CBS Publishers and Distributors,
Delhi 110032
Norman, W. and Desrosier, J.N. (1987) The Technology of Food Preservation (IVth Edition)
CBS Publishers & Distributors; Delhi 110 032
Samuel A. Matz (1996) Bakery Technology and Engineering, (1/1 Edition)
4. Dairy and Food Packaging 2 + 1
Status of current packaging; critical review of the existing knowledge in packaging of prod-
ucts; adhesives, graphics and labelling used in food packaging; protective packaging of foods;
packaging of food products sensitive to oxygen, light, moisture; special problems in canned
foods; packaging of convenience foods; fruits and vegetables; packaging requirements of fresh
fruits and vegetables; packaging of fruit juices; fats and oils: criteria for selection of proper
packaging based on the shelf life desired; packaging of spices; packaging of meat and poultry:
packaging and transportation of fish and other sea-foods; new food packaging processes; retort
pouch technology, microwave packages, bio-degradable packages, edible packages; industrial
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packaging: unitizing, palletizing, containerizing, stacking and materials handling; distribution
systems for packaged foods including prevention of shock damage to articles during transpor-
tation; safety aspects of packaging materials; sources of toxic materials and migration of toxins
into food materials.
Practical
Determination of thickness, GSM, grease resistance, bursting strength, tearing resistance,
WVTR, puncture resistance and edge crush resistance of packaging materials; estimation of
shelf life of leafy vegetables and seasonal fresh fruits like apples; litchi; and oranges; packag-
ing of turmeric powder and ground red chilli powder, testing of packaging materials for qual-
ity assurance; vacuum packaging of dairy products; packaging of food products using re-
tort pouch technology; packaging of food products employing microwave technique.
Suggested Readings
Malhlouthi, M. 1994 Food packaging and preservation, Blackie Academic &P r o f e s s i o n a l ,
Glasgow.
Carol, F; Steinhart, M., Ellin Doyle; Barbara A. and Cochrane, 1995 Food Safety, Ma r c e l
Dekker Inc., Madison, Wisconsin.
Frank A., Paine Heather, Y. Paine 1983 A Handbook of Food Packaging, Leonard Hill,
Glasgow
Sacharow, S. and Griffin, R.C. 1970 Food packaging. The AVI Publication, Westport, CT.
USA.
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A.2 OPTIONAL COURSES
1. Rheology of Dairy & Food Products 2 + 1
Introduction to rheology of foods, physical consideration in study of foods; non-Newtonian
fluids; thixotropy; rheological characterization of foods in terms of stress-strain relationship,
creep compliance and stress relaxation; mechanical models for visco-elastic foods: Maxwell,
Kelvin, Burgers and generalised models and their application; comparative assessments of dif-
ferent types of viscometers; dynamic measurement of rheology; large deformations and failure
in foods: instrumental measurement; rheological and textural properties of selected dairy prod-
ucts; effect of processing and additives (stabilisers and emulsifiers) on food product rheology.
Practical
Flow behaviour of fluid dairy products; thixotropy in ice-cream mix; force deformation study
of selected dairy products using an Instron testing machine; effect of test conditions on the
texture profile parameters of cheese; stress relaxation studies in solid foods; Use of cone pen-
etrometer and extruder for measurement of butter texture; butter texture evaluation using an
extrusion viscometer; rheological evaluation of solid products using Hoppler consistometer;
Suggested Readings
Sherman, P. (1970) lndustrial Rheology; Academic Press; London
LectureCompendium, CAS/DT Short Course, Aug. 22- September 13(1996) Sensory Evalua-
tion & Rheology of Milk and milk products, Dairy Technology Division, NDRI, Karnal.
De Mann, J.M., Voisey, P.W., Rasper, V.F., and Stanley, D.W. (1976) Rheology and texture in
food quality, AVI Pub. Co.
2. Dairy Process Biotechnology 3 + 1
Development and impact of biotechnology on food and dairy industry; microbial rennet and
recombinant chymosin, characteristics and application in cheese making; exogenous free and
microencapsulated enzymes, immobilised enzymes-their application in accelerated ripening of
cheese; enzymatically modified cheeses (EMC) their utilization in various food formulations;
technological requirements of modified micro-organisms for production of cheese and fermented
milk products; technological innovations in the development of functional dairy foods with
improved nutritional therapeutic and probiotic attributes; physiologically active bio-peptidfes/
nutraceuticals; protein hydrolysates-their physico-chemical, therapeutic properties, production
and application in food formulations; production of bio-yoghurt, probiotic cheese and fermented
milks; bifidus factors in infant food formulations; microbial polysaccharides their properties
7
and applications in foods, production of alcoholic beverages and industrial products from starch;
whey and other by-products; bio-sweeteners-types properties and their applications in dairy and
food industry; biopreservatives-characteristics and their application in enhancing the shelf life
of dairy and food products.
Practical
Effect of exogenous enzymes on hydrolysis of protein and fat in culture containing milk sys-
tems; to study the various factors affecting the coagulation of milk by microbial rennets. Manu-
facture and evaluation of probiotic cheese and fermented milks; determination of glycolysis,
proteolysis and lipolysis in cheese and fermented milk; enzymatic process for manufacture of
low lactose milk whey products.; preparation of casein hydrolysis; visit to a bioprocessing unit.
Suggested Readings
Alan Wiseman (1988) Principles of Biotechnology, Surrey University Press, New York.
Jack G; Chirikjian (1995) Biotechnology-Theory and Techniques, Jones and Bartlett Publish-
ers; London.
Byong H. Lee (1996) Fundamentals of Food Biotechnology, VCH Publishers, NY.
Israel Goldberg (1994) Functional Foods, Chapman & Hall, New York.
Roger, A. (1989) Food Biotechnology, Elsevier Applied Sci. Pub., UK.
3. Traditional and Value Added Products 2 + 1
Present status of traditional dairy products; globalization of traditional dairy products; plans
and policies of the Government and developmental agencies; process schedule of heat-desic-
cated, coagulated and fermented traditional dairy products; process improvement in production
of milk sweets; and new products based on fruits, vegetables and cereals; application of mem-
brane technology; microwave heating for industrial production of traditional dairy products;
advances in industrial production of ghee, flavour and texture simulation; techno-economic
aspects for establishing commercial units for traditional products: convenience traditional dairy
products; use of natural and permitted synthetic preservatives and new packaging systems
Practical
Microwave heating of traditional milk delicacies shelf life extension; application of membrane
technology for improving the quality of traditional products from cow/buffalo milk; prepara-
tion of feasibility report for establishing commercial units for traditional products,
Suggested Readings
Lecture Compendium (1998) Dairy Technology Division, NDRI, Advances in Traditional Dairy
Products.
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Achaya, K. T. and Rangappa, K.S. (1973) Indian Dairy Products.
Gould, G.W. (1995) New Methods of Food Preservation, Blackie Academic & Professional
Publ. London.
4. New Product Development 2 + 0
World market and new food products; new product development-criteria; fundamental aspects;
role of sensory analysis; various categories and type of new dairy products; food constituents
and functionality; interdependence of dairy and other food ingredients; use of milk components
in formulated foods; processing alteration and use of milk and milk products for food products
development; recent developments in food ingredients/additives flavourings, colourings, emul-
sifiers stabilizer and sweeteners. interactions with food/milk constituents; nutritional implica-
tions; safety aspects; biocatalysts and biopreservatives in formulating a new/better dairy prod-
ucts; Bio-flavours and flavour enhances: food safety; marketing strategy and consumer response;
economic analysis and costing; recent advances in different categories and type of dairy prod-
uct; reduced-additives food and food from supplement-fed animals response surface methodol-
ogy.
Suggested Readings
Baker, R.C., Hahn, P.W. and Robbins, K.R. (1994) Fundamentals of New Food Product Devel-
opment, Elsevier; New York.
Marjorie, P.P. and Campbell, A.M. (1990) Experimental Food Science, Academic Press, New
York.
Khan Riaz Blackie (1993) Low Calories Food and Food Ingredients, Academic and Profes-
sional, New York.
Smit, J. (1993) Technology of Reduced-additive foods, Blackie Academic and Professional,
New York.
Steinhart, C.E., Doyle, M.E., Cochrane, B.A. (1995) Food Safety, Marcel Dekker Inc. New
York.
5. Alternative Processes for Dairy & Food Industry 2 + 0
Irradiation: sources and properties of ionizing radiation; mechanism of interaction with
micorganisms and food components microbial inactivation in dairy and food products, chemi-
cal effects, packaging, industrial irradiation systems, benefits and limitations; safety aspects,
national and international regulation, high frequency heating: principles of dielectric heating
and factors affecting it, design and working of microwave oven, continuous microwave heating
units, applications in dairy and food processing, microwavable packaging safety aspects of
microwaves, merits and demerits of dieletric heating, infra-red heating: interaction of infra-red
9
(IR) radiation with penetration properties, equipment; dairy and food application, advantages
and disadvantages of IR heating; Ohmic heating: principle of electric resistance heating, design
of an ohmic heater, operational variables, power consideration, factors affecting heating effi-
ciency, merits and limitations, food application and future scope; ultrasonic treatment of food:
mechanism of ultrasound induced cell damage, generation of ultrasound equipment, design of
power ultrasonic system, types of ultrasonic reactors, application of power ultrasound in food
processing, effects on food constituents, ultrasound in consideration with other process alterna-
tives-thermosonication, advantages and future prospects; High hydrostatic pressure processing:
principle of microbial inactivation barotolerance of microorganisms, effect on food constitu-
ents, equipment dairy and food application, merit and demerits; pulsed electric field process-
ing: description/ mechanism and factors affecting microbial inactivation effects on food com-
ponents, present status and future scope for food applications.
Suggested Reading
Gould, G.W.(ED} (1995) New Methods of Food Preservation. Blackie, London.
Gaonkar, A.G. (Ed.} (1995) Food processing: Recent Developments, Elsevier Applied Science,
London.
Lecture Compendium Advances in Preservation of Dairy and Food Products (2001) Centre of
Advance Studies in Dairy Technology, Aug. 13- Sept 12, 2001, NDRI, Karnal.
Povey, M.J.W. & Mason, T.J. (Eds) (1998) Ultrasound in Food Processing, Blackie, London.
Thorne, S. (1991) Food Irradiation. Elsevier Applied Science, London
6. Technology of Functional Foods 2 + 1
Food nutrition and health, Nutritional status and dietary requirement of different target groups
and deficiency diseases. Infant nutrition and dietary Formulations for meeting normal and spe-
cial needs. I Special food formulations for the lactose intolerant and diabetics. Therapeutic
diets for patients suffering from acute gastritis, flatulence, peptic ulcers, jaundice, viral hepati-
tis etc. Low fat, low energy and slimming foods for the obese. Low cholesterol and low so-
dium foods. Geriatric and probiotic foods and nutritional management of the elderly. Food
formulations for the sports persons and growing children. Special dietary foods: Infant foods,
Weaning foods, High energy foods, Low residue diets.
Practical
Production of various formulated foods such as low and high energy foods, high fibre content
foods, probiotic foods, etc. Measurement of dietary fibre contents and cholesterol.
Suggested Readings
Arnold, E. Bender. 1973. Nutrition and Dietetic foods. Chemical Publishing Co., Inc, New
York.
10
Marie V. Krause and L. Kathleen Mahan 1979. Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy.. W.B.
Saunders Company.
J.M. Jussawalla,1979. Natural Dietetics, , Vikas Publishing House Pvt.Ltd.,
Virginia Aronson, 1989. The Dietetic Technician. Effective Nutrition Counseling (2nd Edn) V
AN Nostrand Reinhold, New York,
7. Technology of Food Emulsions, Foams and Gels 2 + 1
Food dispersion, their characteristics and factors affecting food dispersion; food emulsions;
emulsifiers and their functions in foods, emulsions formation and stability, polymers and sur-
factants; milk foams and their applications, structure of foams, egg foams and uses, foam for-
mation and their stability; theory of gel formation, pectic substances and jellies, fruit pectin
gels; milk jellies; Structure of dairy foods with reference to emulsions, foams and gels; physi-
cal structure of fat rich, concentrated, fermented, coagulated and dried products;
Practical
Studies on preparative techniques for structural aspects of dairy foods; Light microscopy of
dairy and food products, scanning electron microscopy of dairy foods; demonstration studies of
stability of various food emulsion systems and foams; determination of gel strength.
Suggested Readings
Blanshard, J/M.V. & Lillford; P. 1987 Food Structure and Behavi Academic Press, London.
Haseuhuetti, G.L. 1977 Food Emulsifiers and their Application, Chapman. &Hall, London.
Srinivas, D. and Alain, P. 1977 Food Proteins and their Applications, Marcel Dekker NY.
8. Advances in Lipid Technology 3 + 0
Sources, classification and utilization of commercial edible fats and oils- Current trends. Nutri-
tional aspects of fats and oils in diets.. Innovations in the production and processing of oils and
fats from different sources, e.g. animal, plant, marine and microbial for utilization in the dairy/
food products. Technology of cooking oils, salad oils and oil based dressings. Frying process
and systems, changes in fats and oils during frying, snack food products and processing sys-
tems. Bakery and confectionery fats; production of modified fats and oils for use in bakery and
confectionery products, shortenings and spreads. Fat replacers, technological developments in
low calories spreads and other fat based products. Advances in technologies for production of
plasticisers, emulsifiers and protective coatings.
Suggested Readings
R.J. Hamilton 1995 Developments in oils and fats. Blackie Academic & Professional, Madras.
11
Kamal, B.S. and Y. Kakuda 1994 Technological Advances in improved and alternative sources
of lipids. Blackie Academic & Professional, Madras.
Y.H. HVI. A. 1996 Wiley Bailey's Industrial oil and fat products. Vol.I to 4.. Interscience
Publication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York.
Cambie, R.C. 1989 Fats for the future. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
Pub. by Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester.
Riaz Khan. 1993 Low calories foods and food ingredients.. Blackie Academic and Professional,
Madras
Hoffman, G. 1989 Chemistry & Technology of edible oils and fats and their high fat products.
Food Science & Technology-A series of monographs. Academic Press, London.
Hamilton R.J. and A. Bhati. 1987 Recent Advances in Chemistry and Technology of Fats and
oils Elsevier Applied Science, London.
9. Advances in Protein Technology 3 + 0
Denaturation of proteins. Effect of processing parameters on denaturation. Effect of denatur-
ation on the physico-chemical and biological properties of proteins in food systems. Protein
interations with food consituents. Characteristics of proteins from plant, animal and microbial
origins. Chemcial behaviour of protein in food system: protein-protein interactions. Protein-
lipid interactions, protein-polysaccharide interactions, and protein-ion interactions. Significance
of protein interactions: formation and stabilization of casein micelle, stability of concentrated
milk products, and role of protein in food structure. Protein Nutrition: Recent concepts in pro-
tein nutrition in man: Enzyme development and protein digestion. Effect of processing on nu-
tritive value of proteins. Mass and institutional feeding programmes: evaluation of amino acid
fortification of foods, and concepts in protein supplementation and complementation. Recent
Technologies: Augmentation of world resources for protein foods: protein from plants, protein
from animals, protein from microorganisms and plasteins: synthetic proteins. Textured veg-
etable proteins and spun fibre technology: Extrusion cooking- selection of ingredients and for-
mulation, control of operational parameters, microstructure of extrusion cooked foods. Protein
isolates/concentrates from single cell organisms.
Suggested Readings
Fennema, O.R. 1985 Food Chemistry Developments in Dairy Chemistry Vol IV by P.F .Fox
(1989)
Walstra, P. and R. Jenness 1984 Dairy Chemistry and Physics IDF Bulletin No.238
Macrac R., R.K. Robinson and M.J. Sadler 1993 IDF Special Issue 9303 Encyclopaedia of
Food Sci. Fd. Tech. and Nutrition Vol. 1-7 (1993)
12
10. Product Process Monitoring 3 + 0
The concept of product-process monitoring in dairy and food industry. Food Structure Characteris-
tics: (a) Fat Related Aspects. Application of Thermal Analysis (DTA and DSC vis-a-vis dilatometry)
and Pulse Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (PNMR) spectroscopy in determination of solid-fat content
(SFC) of butter in relation to various processing and storage aspects. (b) Elucidation of crystal char-
acteristics of milk fat in ghee and other fat-rich products by means of X-ray crystallography and
polarising light microscopy with reference to the impact of cooling and storage/handling conditions
on the crystal nature and product texture. Protein Related Aspects: (a) Influence of heat processing
and freezing treatments on protein denaturation and other conformational as well as aggregation-
disaggregation phenomena as monitored through spectropolarimetry, circular dichronism and dif-
ferential scanning calorimetry. (b) Process-induced changes in sub-microscopic particulate proper-
ties of milk products as revealed through electron microscopy with particular emphasis on structure-
texture relationship, protein dehydration and re-hydration (reconstitution) and particle agglomera-
tion (instantization) in milk powders. Flavour Implications of Food Processing: Aroma analysis
employing head-space sampling, extraction, concentration, separation and identification techniques
(GC-MS, random MS and ESR, NMR, IR and Raman Spectroscopy in relation to: Formation of
flavour compounds in milk and milk products during heat processing (including UHT processing,
caramelization and extrusion cooking), fermentation and ripening (cultured. products and cheese
flavour) and storage (Maillard browning). Aroma losses/retention during the drying process (in rela-
tion to milk powder, cheese powder and dry cultured products). Industrial processes for extraction of
desirable and undesirable volatile components from fresh and/or stored products by supercritical
fluid (SCF) technique. Colour Characteristics: Colour and appearance (gloss and translucence)
monitoring through visual colorimeter, tristimulus colorimeters and reflectance spectrophotometer,
CIE, Hunter and Munsel systems for three dimensional expression of colour. Objective Assessment
of Subjective Food Product Characteristics -Pitfalls and Promises Components Quantification: (3)
Microwave moisture analysis and process control. (b) Application of near infra-red (NIR) reflec-
tance analysis for determination of proximate principles of cheese and milk powder. (c) Automated
analysis of milk and milk products.
Suggested Readings
Peleg, M. and Bagley, E.B. 1983. Physical properties of foods. A VI Publ. Co., Inc, Westport, USA.
Mann, C.M.D. & Jones, A.A. (1994) Shelf life evaluation of foods. Blackie Acadeic & Professional
Publ., London.
Acree, T .E. and Teranishi, R. (1993). Flavour Science: Sensible Principles and Techniques. Amer.
Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C., USA.
Barlett, P.N. et al. 1997. Electronic noses and their application in the food industry.
Schartel, B.J. and Firstenberg, Eden, R. (1988) Biosensors in the Food Industry: Present and Future,
J. Food Protect. 51 (10) 811-820.
Davenel, A. 1996. On-line control and problems with sensors in quality control for foods and Agri-
cultural products. J.L. Mutton (Ed.) VCH Publ., London
13
B. SUPPORTING COURSES
1. Research Techniques 3 + 1
Electrophoresis: principle and types, isoelectricfocussing; chromatography: column, TLC, GLC,
HPLC, gel-permeation, ion-exchange, affinity, chromatofocussing; spectrophotometry:UV, vis-
ible, IR and flame photometry; potentiometry: principle, various electrodes; electrometric mea-
surements of pH, buffers; radiotracer technique: nuclear transformation, nuclear decay, mea-
surement of radioactivity and safety precautions for radioactive materials; membrane processes;
enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA); differential thermal analysis (DTA); ultracen-
trifugation.
Practical
Preparation of methyl esters of fatty acids of milk fat followed by their GLC separation and
estimation; TLC separation of amino acids; determination of Kav of a macromolecule using
sephadex; preparation of a buffer and measurement of its pH electro-metrically and using indi-
cators; SDS gel electrophoresis and molecular weight determination; determination of absorp-
tion spectra of BSA and demonstration of Beer's law; determination of sodium and potassium
by flame photometry; ultracentrifugal separation of milk and preparation of micellar casein;
ion-exchange chromatography separation of - lactoglobulin; and lactoglobulin;
Suggested Readings
Cooper, T.G. 1977 The Tools of Biochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, U.S.A.
Clark, J.M. and Switzer, R.L 1977 Experimental Biochemistry; W.H.Freeman & Co, U.S.A.
Stock, R. and C.B.F. Chromatographic methods; Rice, Chapman and Hall. U.K.
Thouchstone, J.C. and Dobbins, M.F. 1978 Practice of Thin Layer Chromatography, John Wiley
& Sons, USA
Weir, D.M. 1978 Handbook of Experimental Immunology, Vol. I Blackwell Scientific Publica-
tion, U.K.
2. Dairy Plant Management 2 + 1
Dairy organisation and need of management; general management concept, qualities and role
of dairy managers; decision making; planning and implementation; organisation design and
structure; human resource management; work authority relationship; motivation and co-ordina-
tion; production planning and inventory control; plant operation efficiency; productivity; finan-
cial management; organisation communication (MIS, database and role of computers); social
and business economics; industrial relations and human values; labour laws; trade unionism;
14
co-operatives; worker's participation in management; Concept of Quality Circles; marketing
concepts; label laws, advertising and exports, forecasting and future planning; industrial R&D;
new product development; new concepts in quality assurance (HACCP; ISO certification);
patent laws, pollution control laws in relation to dairy plants.
Practical
Case studies (HACCP and ISO certification); Quality circles;Effective communication (Text;
verbal and electronic); Project Planning and Implementation;Quantitative Decision making;
Operation research problems; Milk procurement survey; Market survey; Response of consum-
ers on new products and marketing survey; International export; market and problems; PERT
and CPM problems; Production control software; Financial control systems/ software; Market-
ing; multimedia and advertising;Marketing; presentations and advertising; Project planning and
presentations.
Suggested Readings
Singh, M.K. and Mahadevan, A. 1990. Project Evaluation and Management. Ed. Discovery
Pub. House, New Delhi.
Monappa, A. and Saiyadain, Mirza S. 1995.Personnel Management. Teta McGraw-Hill
Pub.Co.Ltd., New Delhi.
Gowda, J.M. 2001.Management Accounting HimalayaPublishing House, Delhi.
Pierson ,M.D. and Corlett, D.A.Jr. 1992. HACCP Principles and Application. Van
Nostrand Reinbold, New York.
3. Nutritional Biochemistry 2 + 0
Nutritive value of foods with special reference to milk and milk products, nutritional require-
ments, bioavailability of nutrients. Vitamins and their role in growth health and disease, clini-
cal and biochemical features of other disorders (protein-calorie malnutrition, diabetes and car-
diovascular disease), their prevention and correction through diet therapy. Diet and tissue
enzymes. Assessment of protein quality, food toxins, nutrition and drug metabolism, functional
evaluation of nutritional status with respect to certain nutrients.
Suggested Readings
Renner, E. Milk and dairy products in human nutrition. W, Gmbh, Velkswirthschafslicher
Verlag, Munchen, ISBN.
Goodhart, R.S. and Shils, M.E. Modern nutrition in health and diseases. Verghese Bros.,
Bombay.
Davidson, S.S., Passmore, R., Brock, J.F.and Truswell, A.S. Human nutrition and dietetics.
15
Churchill Living Sten, Edinburgh.
Swaminathan, M. Essentials of Foods and nutritions, Vol. 1 & 2. Ganesh & Co., Madras.
Tannenbaum, S.R. Nutritional and safety aspects of food processing. Marcel Dekker Inc., New
York.
4. Statistics for Industrial applications 2 + 1
Statistical methods in industrial applications; analysis of variance; transformations; partial and
multiple correlation and regression; Ranking techniques; introduction to discriminant analysis;
statistical basis for drawing scientific inferences from experimental data; principles of experi-
mental design-industrial experimentation; basic designs-CRD; RBD & LSD; missing plot tech-
nique; factorial experiments-main effects and interactions; 2n series and mixed factorial experi-
ments; experimental designs in sensory evaluation; introduction to statistical quality control;
control charts for variables; mean and range charts; statistical basis; rational sub-group; control
charts for attributes 'np'; 'p' and 'c' charts; fundamental concepts of acceptance sampling plans;
single; double and sequential sampling plans; use of sampling inspection tables for selection of
single and double sampling plans; introduction to sampling techniques and their application to
consumer preference studies.
Practical
Analysis of variance-one way and two way classification; partial and multiple correlation and
regression; rank correlation and coefficient of concordance; analysis of industrial experiments -
Use of CRD; RBD and LSD; missing plot technique; factorial experiments - 22 and 23; mixed
factorial experiments; control charts for variables; control charts for attributes; single sampling
plan- OC and AOQ curves; sequential sampling plan; use of sampling inspection tables; and
different methods of selecting samples;
Suggested Readings
Snedecor; G. W. and Cochran, W.G. 1968 Statistical Methods Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.,
New Delhi
Cochran, W. G. 1972 Sampling Techniques. Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd., New York
Cochran, W. G. and G.M. Cox 1962 Experimental Designs Asia Publishing House, Bombay
Grant and Leavenworth 1972 Statistical Quality Control, McGraw Hill, New Delhi
Indian Standards Institute 1986 New Delhi Handbook on Statistical Quality Control.
5. Computer Software Pckages for Statistical Analysis 2 + 1
General data analysis requirements in dairy research; introduction to statistical and other stan-
16
dard software packages (SYSTAT; SPSS; MS-Excel); data preparation and job control com-
mands for statistical analysis of data pertaining to t-test; Chi-square test; analysis of variance
(ANOVA); basic experimental designs - CRD; RBD & LSD; factorial designs; partial and
multiple correlation and regression; discriminant analysis; linear programming; (using LINDO/
LINGO) software packages; least-squares analysis.
Practical
Statistical software packages and their operations; data preparation and data generation; import
and export of data from spreadsheet and database packages; application of software packages
to the problems related to : tests of significance (t; Chi-square and F-test); analysis of variance
(ANOVA); partial and multiple correlation and regression; discriminant analysis; linear pro-
gramming problem; and least-squares analysis.
Suggested Readings
Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W.G. 1967. Statistical Methods; Oxford and IBH Publishing
Co., New Delhi
Levin, Richard I. and Rubin David, S. 1994. Statistics for Management, Prentice Hall of India,
New Delhi.
Amble, V.N. 1975 Statistical Methods in Animal Science, Indian Society of Agricultural Statis-
tics, ICAR, New Delhi.
Singh, R.K. and Chaudhary, B.D. 1979. Biometrical methods in quantitative genetic analysis.
Genetic Analysis, Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana.
Swarup, Kanti, Gupta., P.K. and Man Mohan 1997. Operations Research. Sultan Chand and
Sons, New Delhi.
6. Research Documentation 1 + 1
Library as information centre; information technology; CD ROM data search; abstracts and
abstracting techniques; the concept of documentation; international network/Indian scene; in-
formation retrieval systems; MIS; science citation; web internet search; presentation of results
of research; different kinds of scientific writings: writing of scientific reports, thesis, research
papers etc; oral and poster presentation of a paper in conferences/symposia; standard abbrevia-
tions used in proof reading; printing technology and corrections of manuscripts.
Practical
Different schemes of classification & various cataloguing codes for arranging documents; use
of catalogues & classification; types of libraries & standard sources of information; familiarity
in use of standard sources of information; exercise in abstracting of research articles; demon-
17
stration of photography; photocopying; printing; preparation and handling of audio-visual aids;
preparation of multimedia; exercise in proof corrections; research paper writing & interpreta-
tion; CD-ROM search; and Internet search.
Suggested Readings
Balaguru, T. 1996. Management Information Systems for Agricultural Research, NAARM,
Hyderabad.
Chhotey Lal 1998. Agricultural Libraries & Information Systems: A Handbook for Users. R.K.
Techno Science Agency, New Delhi.
Guha, B. 1987. Documentation & Information. World Press Pvt. Ltd., Kolkatta
Kaula, P.N. etc. 1996. International & Comparative Librarianship and Information Systems.
B.R. Publishing Corpn., Delhi.
Venkatasubramanian, V. 1999. Introduction to Research Methodology in Agricultural &
Biologial Sciences. New Century Book House, Chennai.
Sharma, P.S.k. 1987 Library & Society. Ess Ess Publication, New Delhi.
CBF Style Manual Published by Council of Biology, Maryland.
18
DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY
A. Major Courses
A.1. Core Courses 12 Credits
1. Microbial Morphology and Taxonomy 2 + 1
2. Starter Culture and Genetic Improvement 2 + 1
3. Microbial Genetics 2 + 1
4. Microbial Physiology 2 + 1
Seminar 0 + 1 1 Credits
A.2. Optional Courses 12 Credits
1. Analytical Techniques in Microbiology 2 + 1
2. Microbial Quality Assurance for Dairy Industry 2 + 1
3. Environmental Microbiology and Pollution Control 2 + 1
4. Microbiology of Fodder, Feed and Dairy Waste Utilization 2 + 1
5. Microbial Spoilage and Safety of Dairy Products 2 + 1
6. Microbiology of Processed Foods 2 + 1
7. Microbial Pathogens and Toxins 2 + 1
B. Supporting Courses 10 Credits
1. Research Techniques 3 + 1
2. Statistics for Industrial Applications 2 + 1
3. Computer Software Packages for Statistical Analysis 2 + 1
4. Research Documentation 1 + 1
Any other course(s) as suggested by student Advisory committee
Total 35 Credits
19
A.1 CORE COURSES
1. Microbial Morphology and Taxonomy 2 + 1
Principles of classification and taxonomy of microorganisms: immunological and genetic at-
tributes, phylogenetic relationship, role of 16s rRNA, development of dendrograms; application
of computer software programmes in bacterial classification; microbial morphology and ultra-
structure (prokaryotes and eukaryotes): cell wall: structure, chemical composition, synthesis
and inhibition, cell membrane, cytoplasmic inclusions, cell appendages, capsule, flagella, pili,
sporulation structure of endospore, composition and function of spore constituents, induction
and germination, classification and morphology of viruses, bacteriophages, life cycle of lambda
phage.
Practical
Differential staining; gram, spore, acid-fast staining, cell wall, flagella, nucleoids, capsule, and
inclusion/storage bodies, preparation of bacterial protoplasts and spheroplasts; SEM/TEM of
bacterial cells/viral particles (demonstration); application of computer software in bacterial iden-
tification
Suggested Readings
Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K. and Walter, P. 1998, Essentials of
Cell Biology. Garland Publishing Inc., New York, USA.
Black J.G. 1999. Microbiology: Principles and Explorations. 4th ed. John Wiley and Sons,
New York, USA.
Holt, J.G., Krieg, N.R., Sneath, P.H.A., Staley, J.T. and Williams, S.T. 1997. Bergey's Manual
of Determinative Bacteriology (9th edition). Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland,
USA.
Madigan, M. T., Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J. 1999. Brock Biology of Microorganisms.
Prentice Hall, London
Salyers, A.A. and Whitt, D,D. 2001. Microbiology - Diversity, Disease and the Environment.
Fitzgerald Science Press. Inc, USA.
2. Starter Cultures and Genetic Improvement 2 + 1
History and taxonomy of starter cultures; biochemical and genetic characterization of lactic
acid bacteria; carbohydrate, citrate and protein metabolism of starter cultures; starter types:
single, mixed and multiple strain starter cultures; propagation and preservation of starter cul-
tures; commercial starter preparations: concentrated and superconcentrated starters; genetics of
20
starter cultures: plasmids and plasmid instability; industrially significant genes and systems;
genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through transduction; conjugation; protoplast trans-
formation; electroporation and chromosomal integration, transposons and insertion sequences;
growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria by antibiotics, bacteriocins; immunoglobulins and bac-
teriophage: sources, types and characteristics of phages associated with starters, phage control
during starter handling and growth, mechanisms of phage resistance in LAB; probiotic cul-
tures, health and nutritional benefits, requirements for ability to survive and grow in the intes-
tine, control of intestinal infections, role of starter cultures in cheese making and ripening of
different cheese varieties; associated starters; microbiology of Cheddar cheese, Cottage cheese,
Blue cheese, Swiss cheese and Mozzarella; microbiological defects in cheese; role of starter
cultures in preparation of fermented milks like yoghurt, dahi, kefir and kumiss.
Practical
Isolation of lactococcal cultures from fermented milks; examination of purity and activity of
starter cultures; preservation of starter cultures by freeze drying, microdrying and other meth-
ods; preparation of concentrated starters and quality evaluation; Inhibition of starters by antibi-
otic residues and other inhibitors; plasmid profiles of some lactococcal cultures; identification
of lactic starters by molecular biology techniques (demonstration); conjugal transfer of plas-
mids in lactococci; production of bacteriocins by LAB.
Suggested Readings
Cogan, T.M. and Accolas, J.P. 1995 Dairy Starter Cultures, VCH Publishing Inc., New
York, USA.
Law, B.A. 1997. Microbiology and Biochemistry of Cheese and Fermented Milks, 2nd ed.,
Blackie Academic and Professional, London, UK.
Marth, E.M. and Steele, J.L.1998. Applied Dairy Microbiology, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York,
USA.
Robinson, R.K. 1998. Developments in Food Microbiology Vol.4, Elsevier Applied Science,
New York, USA.
Salminen. S. and Wright, A.V., 1998. Lactic acid Bacteria, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York,
USA.
3. Microbial Genetics 2 + 1
Macromolecules and maintenance of genetic information; genetic code, DNA replication, mu-
tagenesis, mutations and mutants; gene expression and its regulation, 'lac' and 'trp' operon mod-
els; plasmids in bacteria, transfer of plasmid DNA, F, R and Col plasmids; transposable ele-
ments; bacterial recombination - transformation, conjugation and transduction; fundamental as-
pects of genetic engineering, vectors, restriction enzymes, gene cloning and application of ge-
netic engineering.
21
Practical
Isolation and molecular sizing of plasmid DNA from E. coli by miniprep; calcium chloride
induced transformation of E. coli hosts with plasmids; induction of random mutation in E. coli
by UV irradiation and NTG; conjugation in bacteria and genetic mapping by interrupted mat-
ing, induction of b-galactosidase in E. coli; generalized transduction in bacteria.
Suggested Readings
Bery and Singer, 1993. Dealing with Genes: The Language of Heredity. University Science
Books, Milk Valley, CA, USA.
Brock, T.D. 1990. The Emergence of Bacterial Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press,
New York, USA.
Gardner, E.J., Simmons, M.J. and Snustad, D.P. 1991. Principles of Genetics. 8th ed. John
Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA.
Lewin, B. 2000. Gene VII. Oxford University Press. USA.
Maloy, S.R., J.E. Cronan Jr.J.E. and Jones, D. 1994. Freifelder Microbial Genetics, 2nd ed.
Jones and Bartlett Publ, USA
4. Microbial Physiology 2 + 1
Bacterial growth: growth phases and kinetics, synchronous, continuous, and associative growth;
factors affecting bacterial growth; growth measurement, growth inhibition; mechanism of ac-
tion of antimicrobials; grouping of bacteria on the basis of temperature requirements, osmotic
pressure (salt, sugar concentration) active and passive transport; bacterial nutrition; nutritional
groups of bacteria; role of growth factors; electron transport chain: components of respiratory
chain; mechanism of electron transport; bacterial photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photo-
phosphorylation; inhibition of electron transport chain.
Practical
Measurement of bacterial growth by direct methods (cell number, SPC, DMC) and indirect
methods (turbidometric methods, MPN, cell mass; total nitrogen, etc.); preparation of growth
curve; determination of generation time; determination of cell activity at different growth
phases; carbohydrate fermentation; acid production/pH alteration; starch, lipid, casein and gela-
tin hydrolysis; effect of different factors viz., physical (temperature, pH, osmotic pressure, sur-
face tension), chemical (dyes, antibiotics, phenol) and nutritional (amino acid supplements, vi-
tamin supplements, protein hydrolysates, cas-amino acids) on bacterial growth.
Suggested Readings
Bruijn Frans J. de 1998. Bacterial Genomes; Physical Structure and Analysis. Chapman and
Hall, London, UK.
22
Caldwell, D.R. 1995. Microbial Physiology and Metabolism. WMC Brown Publishers, USA.
Koch, L. 1995. Bacterial Growth and Form. Chapman and Hall, New York, USA.
Moat A.G. and Foster, J.W. 1995. Microbial Physiology, 3rd ed. John Wiley and Sons. New
York, USA.
Nicoloi S. Panikov. 1995. Microbial Growth Kinetics. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.
23
A.2 OPTIONAL COURSES
1. Analytical Techniques in Microbiology 2 + 1
Microscopy: principles, design and functions of bright field, dark field, phase contrast and
fluorescence microscope; study of various accessories for instructional purposes; care and main-
tenance of microscopes; measurement of microscopic objects: principle, design and application
of transmission and scanning electron microscopes for the study of sub-cellular organisation
and microstructure of dairy foods; principles and use of ultrasonic disintegrater and other cell
disruption techniques; anaerobic culturing techniques for isolation of obligate/facultative anaero-
bic organisms; use of animal models in toxicity studies; design and application of biofermenters;
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for identification of microorganism.
Practical
Familiarization with the construction and design of a compound microscope; use of light mi-
croscope accessories; microscopic analysis of different types of bacteria by bright field and
dark field; phase contrast and fluorescence microscopes; working demonstration of SEM:TEM
and critical point dryer, sputter coater and ultra microtome sample preparation for the study of
microstructure of dairy products; disruption of bacterial cells by ultrasonification; demonstra-
tion of anaerobic culturing techniques, demonstration of use of animal models in toxicity stud-
ies, working demonstration of biofermenters; demonstration of PCR technique as a tool for
identification and characterization of microorganism.
Suggested Readings
Bozzola, J.J. and Russell, L.D. 1992. Electron Microscopy: Principles and Techniques for
Biology. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, USA.
Gerhardt, P., Murray, R.G.E., Wood, W.A. and Kreig, N.R. 1994. Methods for General and
Molecular Biology. ASM Press, Washington DC, USA.
Hartley, W.G. 1993. The Light Microscope; It's Use and Development Science Publishing Co.,
Oxford, U.K.
Herman, B. 1998. Fluorescence Microscopy, Bios Scientific Publishers Oxford, U.K.
Singer, S. 2001. Experiments in Applied Microbiology, Academic Press, New York, USA.
2. Microbiological Quality Assurance for Dairy Industry 2 + 1
Microbiological hazards and their control in dairy industry; relative importance of traditional
inspection, HACCP, SAFE and SCAP in quality control; specific HACCP application for pas-
teurized milk; establishment of microbiological specifications; two and three class attribute plans
24
for sampling; rapid detection methods including commercial detection kits; automated detection
techniques for dairy industry; principles of personnel hygiene and food handling; method of
disease transmission; sanitary handling of dairy foods; trends in food borne diseases and impli-
cations; principles of safety in a food microbiology lab.
Practical
Detection of microbial contamination in milk and milk products through on line testing; Iden-
tification of CCPs for hazard analysis; identification of prominent genera for personnel hy-
giene; fluorescence microscopy for rapid detection of microflora; detection of recently emerged
dairy pathogens like, Yersinia and Listeria.
Suggested Readings
Marshall, R.T. 1992. Standard Methods for the examination of Dairy Products. APHA, Wash-
ington D C, USA.
Morgan, MRA, Smith, C.J. and William, P.A. 1992. Food Safety and Quality Assurance.
Elsevier Applied Science, London, UK.
Mortimore S. and Wallace. C. 1994. HACCP: A Practical Approach. Chapman and Hall, Lon-
don, UK.
Patel, P. 1994. Rapid Analysis techniques in Food Microbiology. Blackie Academic and Pro-
fessionals, London, UK.
Vanderzant, C. and Spiltstoesser. D.F. 1992. Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological
Examination of Foods. APHA, Washington DC, USA.
3. Environmental Microbiology and Pollution Control 2 + 1
Microorganisms as components of the environment and their role in nutrient cycling; extreme
environments and microbial ecology; microbes in aquatic and terrestrial environment; microor-
ganisms as indicators of environmental pollution; bioorganic pollution; greenhouse effect and
global warming; microbial toxicants and pollutants, and their bio-degradation; biodegradation
of plastics and oil pollution and role of microorganisms in oil spill degradation; biofouling and
biofilms; bioremediation and metabolic engineering; water pollution and control with the help
of microbes; biological treatment of food industry wastes; issues concerning release of geneti-
cally engineered microorganisms in the environment; environmental laws.
Practical
Determination of BOD in industrial wastes; determination of composite microflora of selected
environmental samples; detection of low levels of xenobiotics, microbial toxins and residual
antibiotics in environmental samples; isolation of bacteria capable of degrading organic and
microbial pollutants from environmental samples, isolation of bio-indicators by membrane fil-
25
tration; a visit to sewage and sludge treatment plant.
Suggested Readings
Akkeraus, Antoon, D.L., Elsas, J.D.V., Bruijn, F.J. 1998. Molecular Microbial Ecology Manual;
Kluywer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
Alexander, M. 1992. Microbial Ecology; John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
Atlas, R.M. 1993. Microbiology - Fundamentals and Applications. (3rd ed), Macmillan Pub-
lishing Co., New York, USA.
Bitton, G. 1994. Waste Water Microbiology; John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
Mitchell, R. 1995. Introduction to Environmental Microbiology. (8th ed.); Prentice-Hall of In-
dia (P) Ltd. New Delhi, India.
4. Microbiology of Fodder, Feed and Dairy Waste Utilization 2 + 1
Role of microorganisms in soil fertility improvement and organic matter decomposition; carbon
and nitrogen cycles; biological nitrogen fixation; microbial inoculants for fodder crops; silage
fermentation: microbial chemical and biochemical changes, use of additives and inoculants,
losses during ensiling; rumen microorganisms: types and characteristics; role in rumen metabo-
lism; bioconversion of crop residues by solid state fermentation. single cell protein production;
mycotoxins in feed and their control; anaerobic digestion of animal excreta and plant wastes
for biogas production; solid and liquid waste management for resource recovery and pollution
control.
Practical
Quantitative estimation of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms; measurement of soil microbial
activity with organic matter supplement through CO2 evolution, ammonification and nitrifica-
tion in soil; isolation of Rhizobium inoculant from fodder legume nodules; preparation of
Rhizobium inoculant for fodder legume; silage sampling technique and estimation of moisture
and pH in silage; enumeration of silage microorganisms; estimation of lactic, acetic and butyric
acids in silage; sampling technique of rumen liquor and direct microscopic count of protozoa;
anaerobic cultivation techniques for bacterial and fungal counts in rumen liquor; SCP produc-
tion from cellulose in submerged fermentation; bioconversion of straw by solid state fermenta-
tion; study of anaerobic digestor and biogas production; estimation of BOD and COD in dairy
farm effluent.
Suggested Readings
Hobson P.N. and Stewart C.S. 1997. The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem, 2nd ed. Chapman and
Hall, London, UK.
26
Pandey, A. 1994. Solid State Fermentation. Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi, India.
Tate, R.L. 2000 Soil Microbiology. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
Wallace, R.J. and A. Chesson, 1995. Biotechnology in Animal Feeds and Animal Feeding,
VCH Publ, Weinheim, Germany.
Woolford, M.K. 1984. The Silage Fermentation. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA.
5. Microbial Spoilage and Safety of Dairy Products 2 + 1
Influence of processing on microbial flora of milk: bactofugation, homogenization and thermal
treatments; role of thermophilic and thermoduric microorganisms in milk spoilage, significance
of spore formers; effect of low temperature storage: role of psychrotrophs and their enzymes
(lipases and proteases); other types of microbiological spoilage and defects, and control mea-
sures;public health concerns associated with residual antibiotics, sanitizers and pesticides, and
their biodegradation, health concerns regarding development of antibiotic resistance in micro-
organisms as associated with milk, effect of milk processing, and their rapid detection, preven-
tion and control; safety aspects of high risk dried milk formulations including probiotics for
infants and immunocompromised individuals; effect of reconstitution on microbiological qual-
ity of infant foods: role of water, feeding bottles and nipples in their safety; development of
flavour in cream and butter, undesirable microbial changes in these products during storage
and their control; diseases transmitted through milk and milk products; current concerns in-
cluding aflatoxins; emerging pathogens; dairy product safety systems including HACCP con-
cept and GMP; longitudinally integrated processing for safety and quality; microbiological
analytical techniques for quality monitoring, guidelines, specifications and standards for foods;
microbiological criteria; sampling programmes, accreditation bodies, regulatory bodies (national
and international); 1S0-9000 as quality specification; trends in food consumption.
Practical
Microbiological quality evaluation of raw and pasteurized milk: SPC, DMC, dye reduction
(MBRT, RRT), MPN and their correlation; tests for abnormal milks - mastitis, brucellosis,
antibiotic and pesticide residues in milk and milk products; evaluation of dairy detergents and
sanitizers; sample preparation and quality evaluation of dairy products: SPC, coliforms, aerobic
spore counts, yeasts and moulds etc.; detection of common dairy pathogens from milk and
milk products: E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella sp. Clostridium
perfringens; shelf life studies of dairy products; effect of storage conditions and packaging
material; role of preservatives.
Suggested Readings
Robinson R.K.1990. Dairy Microbiology Vol.1 & 2, Applied Sciences Publ., London, UK.
Yadav, J.S., Batish, V .K. and Grover, S. 1993. Comprehensive Dairy Microbiology Metropoli-
tan Publ., Delhi, India.
27
Marth, E.H. and Steele. J.L. 1998. Applied Dairy Microbiology, Marcel and Dekker Inc., New
York, USA.
Marshall, R.T. 1992. Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. 16th ed., APHA,
Washington DC, USA.
Frazier, W.C. Wessthoff, D.C., 1988. Food Microbiology, Tata McGraw Publ. N. Del
6. Microbiology of Processed Foods 2 + 1
Microbial ecology of foods: main concerns, ecology of prepared foods; mechanisms of stress
induced injury to microorganisms in processed milk; repair of injured organisms, enumeration
of stressed cells; predictive modeling for food spoilage and safety; low temperature food pres-
ervation; thermal processes for shelf stable products; recent concepts in irradiation technology;
safety aspects and social acceptance; new methods for controlling spoilage of foods; modified
atmosphere packaging and shelf life of processed foods; microbiological safety considerations;
intermediate moisture foods and hurdle concept; new prospects and problems in fermented
foods; potential applications of fermentation processes; genetically engineered products and
ecosystem; effects of technological changes.
Practical
Production of antimicrobial substances; application of bacterial consortia in fermented foods;
application of hurdle concepts for enhanced shelf stability of processed foods; induction of
bacterial cell injury and recovery of injured cells; effect of modified atmosphere packaging on
quality and shelf life of processed foods; production of beverage by whey fermentation; ex-
tending shelf life of foods by food grade bio-preservatives; development of predictive equation
and its validation for food safety; assessment of pollution in food processing environment and
biodegradation of xenobiotics in foods.
Suggested Readings
Doyle, M.P., Benchat, L.R., Montville, T.J. 1997. Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Fron-
tiers. ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Hui, Y.H. and George G. Khachatourians, 1995. Food Biotechnology: Microorganisms, VCH
Publishers Inc., New York, USA.
Marwaha, S.S. and Arora, J.K. 2000. Food Processing Biotechnological application,Asia-Tech.
Publ. New Delhi, India.
Robinson, R.K. (1998). Developments in Food Microbiology Vol.1, 2 and 3, Elsevier Applied
Sciences, New York, USA.
Susan, K.H. and Theodore P.L., 1986. Biotechnology in Food Processing. Noyes Publications,
New Jersey, USA.
28
7. Microbial Pathogenesis and Toxins 2 + 1
Host defense mechanism against pathogens: paradigms, immunological response, and phagocy-
tosis; precautions for working with pathogenic microorganisms; serogroups and serotype classi-
fication; rapid detection techniques for food borne pathogens and their toxins; cell cultures and
cytopathogenesis; host receptors, invasion and intracellular survival; median lethal and infec-
tious doses in animal model system; development of vaccines; chemical structure and mode of
action of bacterial toxins, Vibrio cholerae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Listeria
monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica; chemical structure and biological activity of fungal
toxins; aflatoxins, citrinin, ochratoxins, trichothecenes,viral haemolysins; mechanisms of cell
damage, hepatitis, poliomyelitis, other enteroviruses.
Practical
In-vitro evaluation of bacterial toxins by immunological techniques like slide agglutination,
tube agglutination, gel diffusion assay; In-vivo evaluation of bacterial toxins using animal mod-
els like rabbit ideal loop technique, dermal necrosis, infant mice, purification of staphylococcal
toxins by chromatographic techniques.
Suggested Readings
Aktories Klaus 1997. Bacterial Toxins: Laboratory Manual (Tools in Cell Biology and Pharma-
cology) Chapman and Hall, London, UK.
Clark, V.L. and Baroil, P.M. 1997. Bacterial Pathogens. Academic press, New York, USA.
Morgan, MRA, Smith C.J. and William, P.A. 1992. Food Safety and Quality Assurance Elsevier
Applied Science, London, UK.
Salyers, A.A. and Whitt, D.D. 1994. Bacterial Pathogensis; A Molecular Approach. ASM Press,
Washington DC, USA.
Steinhart, C.E., Doryle, M.E., Cochgranes, B.A. 1995. Food Safety. Marcel Dekker, New York,
USA.
29
B. SUPPORTING COURSES
1. Research Techniques 3 + 1
Electrophoresis: principle and types, isoelectricfocussing; chromatography: column, TLC, GLC,
HPLC, gel-permeation, ion-exchange, affinity, chromatofocussing; spectrophotometry:UV, vis-
ible, IR and flame photometry; potentiometry: principle, various electrodes; electrometric mea-
surements of pH, buffers; radiotracer technique: nuclear transformation, nuclear decay, mea-
surement of radioactivity and safety precautions for radioactive materials; membrane processes;
enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA); differential thermal analysis (DTA); ultracen-
trifugation.
Practical
Preparation of methyl esters of fatty acids of milk fat followed by their GLC separation and
estimation; TLC separation of amino acids; determination of Kav of a macromolecule using
sephadex; preparation of a buffer and measurement of its pH electro-metrically and using indi-
cators; SDS gel electrophoresis and molecular weight determination; determination of absorp-
tion spectra of BSA and demonstration of Beer's law; determination of sodium and potassium
by flame photometry; ultracentrifugal separation of milk and preparation of micellar casein;
ion-exchange chromatography separation of a- lactoglobulin; and b lactoglobulin;
Suggested Readings
Cooper, T.G. 1977 The Tools of Biochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, U.S.A.
Clark, J.M. and Switzer, R.L 1977 Experimental Biochemistry; W.H.Freeman & Co, U.S.A.
Stock, R. and C.B.F. Chromatographic methods; Rice, Chapman and Hall. U.K.
Thouchstone, J.C. and Dobbins, M.F. 1978 Practice of Thin Layer Chromatography, John Wiley
& Sons, USA
Weir, D.M. 1978 Handbook of Experimental Immunology, Vol. I Blackwell Scientific Publica-
tion, U.K.
2. Statistics for Industrial Applications 2 + 1
Statistical methods in industrial applications; analysis of variance; transformations; partial and
multiple correlation and regression; Ranking techniques; introduction to discriminant analysis;
statistical basis for drawing scientific inferences from experimental data; principles of experi-
mental design-industrial experimentation; basic designs-CRD; RBD & LSD; missing plot tech-
nique; factorial experiments-main effects and interactions; 2n series and mixed factorial experi-
ments; experimental designs in sensory evaluation; introduction to statistical quality control;
30
control charts for variables; mean and range charts; statistical basis; rational sub-group; control
charts for attributes 'np'; 'p' and 'c' charts; fundamental concepts of acceptance sampling plans;
single; double and sequential sampling plans; use of sampling inspection tables for selection of
single and double sampling plans; introduction to sampling techniques and their application to
consumer preference studies.
Practical
Analysis of variance-one way and two way classification; partial and multiple correlation and
regression; rank correlation and coefficient of concordance; analysis of industrial experiments -
Use of CRD; RBD and LSD; missing plot technique; factorial experiments - 22 and 23; mixed
factorial experiments; control charts for variables; control charts for attributes; single sampling
plan- OC and AOQ curves; sequential sampling plan; use of sampling inspection tables; and
different methods of selecting samples;
Suggested Readings
Snedecor; G. W. and Cochran, W.G. 1968 Statistical Methods Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.,
New Delhi
Cochran, W. G. 1972 Sampling Techniques. Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd., New York
Cochran, W. G. and G.M. Cox 1962 Experimental Designs Asia Publishing House, Bombay
Grant and Leavenworth 1972 Statistical Quality Control, McGraw Hill, New Delhi
Indian Standards Institute 1986 New Delhi Handbook on Statistical Quality Control.
3. Computer Software Packages for Statistical Analysis 2 + 1
General data analysis requirements in dairy research; introduction to statistical and other stan-
dard software packages (SYSTAT; SPSS; MS-Excel); data preparation and job control com-
mands for statistical analysis of data pertaining to t-test; Chi-square test; analysis of variance
(ANOVA); basic experimental designs - CRD; RBD & LSD; factorial designs; partial and
multiple correlation and regression; discriminant analysis; linear programming; (using LINDO/
LINGO) software packages; least-squares analysis.
Practical
Statistical software packages and their operations; data preparation and data generation; import
and export of data from spreadsheet and database packages; application of software packages
to the problems related to : tests of significance (t; Chi-square and F-test); analysis of variance
(ANOVA); partial and multiple correlation and regression; discriminant analysis; linear pro-
gramming problem; and least-squares analysis.
31
Suggested Readings
Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W.G. 1967. Statistical Methods; Oxford and IBH Publishing
Co., New Delhi
Levin, Richard I. and Rubin David, S. 1994. Statistics for Management, Prentice Hall of India,
New Delhi.
Amble, V.N. 1975 Statistical Methods in Animal Science, Indian Society of Agricultural Statis-
tics, ICAR, New Delhi.
Singh, R.K. and Chaudhary, B.D. 1979. Biometrical methods in quantitative genetic analysis.
Genetic Analysis, Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana.
Swarup, Kanti, Gupta., P.K. and Man Mohan 1997. Operations Research. Sultan Chand and
Sons, New Delhi.
4 . Research Documentation 2 + 1
Library as information centre; information technology; CD ROM data search; abstracts and
abstracting techniques; the concept of documentation; international network/Indian scene; in-
formation retrieval systems; MIS; science citation; web internet search; presentation of results
of research; different kinds of scientific writings: writing of scientific reports, thesis, research
papers etc; oral and poster presentation of a paper in conferences/symposia; standard abbrevia-
tions used in proof reading; printing technology and corrections of manuscripts.
Practical
Different schemes of classification & various cataloguing codes for arranging documents; use
of catalogues & classification; types of libraries & standard sources of information; familiarity
in use of standard sources of information; exercise in abstracting of research articles; demon-
stration of photography; photocopying; printing; preparation and handling of audio-visual aids;
preparation of multimedia; exercise in proof corrections; research paper writing & interpreta-
tion; CD-ROM search; and Internet search.
Suggested Readings
Balaguru, T. 1996. Management Information Systems for Agricultural Research, NAARM,
Hyderabad.
Chhotey Lal 1998. Agricultural Libraries & Information Systems: A Handbook for Users. R.K.
Techno Science Agency, New Delhi.
Guha, B. 1987. Documentation & Information. World Press Pvt. Ltd., Kolkatta
Kaula, P.N. etc. 1996. International & Comparative Librarianship and Information Systems.
B.R. Publishing Corpn., Delhi.
32
Venkatasubramanian, V. 1999. Introduction to Research Methodology in Agricultural &
Biologial Sciences. New Century Book House, Chennai.
Sharma, P.S.k. 1987 Library & Society. Ess Ess Publication, New Delhi.
CBF Style Manual Published by Council of Biology, Maryland.
33
DAIRY CHEMISTRY
A Major Courses
A.1 Core Courses 12 Credits
1. Physico-chemical Aspects of Milk Constituents and 2 + 1
Milk Products
2. Milk Carbohydrates, Minerals and Water Soluble Vitamins 2 + 1
3. Chemistry of Milk Lipids 2 + 1
4. Chemistry of Milk Proteins 3 + 1
Seminar 0 + 1 1 Credits
A.2 Optional Courses 12 Credits
1. Chemistry of Milk Products 3 + 1
2. Food Chemistry 3 + 1
3. Research Techniques 3 + 1
4. Chemical Quality Assurance 2 + 1
5. Advances in Chemistry of Milk Lipids 3 + 0
6. Advances in Chemistry of milk Proteins 3 + 0
B. Supporting Courses 10 Credits
1. Bio-Organic Chemistry and Enzymology 3 + 1
2. Intermediary Metabolism 3 + 0
3. Dairy and Food Packaging 2 + 1
4. Microbiology of Processed Foods 2 + 1
5. Statistics for Industrial Applications 2 + 1
6. Computer Software Packages for Statistical Analysis 2 + 1
7. Research Documentation 1 + 1
Any other course(s) suggested by Student Advisory Committee
Total 35 Credits
34
A.1 CORE COURSES
1. Physico-chemical Aspects of Milk Constituents and Milk Products 2 + 1
Kinetics: Order and molecularity of a reaction; reactions obeying the kinetics of zero, Ist, 2nd
and 3rd order; kinetics of denaturation of whey proteins; the role of enzymes as a biological
catalyst; factors affecting the rate of enzyme action- (i) concentration of substrate, (ii) concen-
tration of enzyme, (iii) concentration of reaction products, (iv) pH, (v) temperature, (vi) time,
(vii) activators, and (viii) inhibitors; concept of activation energy; electrochemistry: electrolytic
dissociation; activity; ionic strength and salt equilibrium in milk; dissociation constant of acids
and bases; effect of ionic strength on dissociation constant; buffers; buffer capacity and buffer
index of milk; limitation of buffers; good's buffer; electrode potential; concentration cells; elec-
trodes reversible with respect to various cations and anions; surface and colloid chemistry:
adsorption at solid-vapour (gas) inter-phase; monolayer and multilayer adsorption; capillary
condensation; adsorption isotherms; hysteresis; water activity: sorption of water on milk con-
stituents and milk products; its relation to stability of dairy products; adsorption at solid-liquid
and liquid-liquid interphase; Gibb's equations; Interfacial tension; micelles: definition, critical
micelle concentration formation and stability; emulsions; foams and gels-their formation, struc-
ture and stability; importance of these phenomena in milk and milk products; properties of
colloidal systems with special reference to electrical; optical; hydrodynamics (shape and hydra-
tion) and rheological aspects; colloidal stability of casein micelles; membrane phenomenon and
Donnan membrane effect.
Practical
Determination of the order of hydrolysis of an ester/carbohydrate and measurement of activa-
tion energy; determination of the progress curve obtained during the hydrolysis of P-nitrophenyl
phosphate by milk alkaline phosphatase; determination of the Michaelis constant for the diges-
tion of casein by trypsin; preparation of a Tris/phosphate/citrate buffer of a given molarity/
ionic strength and pH; determination of pH of the buffer; estimation of calcium ions of milk
using an electrode reversible with respect to calcium ions; determination of viscosity of con-
densed milk using falling ball viscometer; measuring the stability of an oil-in-water emulsion
stabilised by milk proteins; foam capacity and stability of caseins/whey proteins; drawing of an
adsorption isotherm of water on casein.
Suggested Readings
Moore, W. J. 1983 Basic Physical Chemistry Prentice Hall, New Delhi.
Ronald Jowitt 1987 Physical Properties of Foods Elsevier Appl. Sci., London
Mitchell, J. R. and. Ledward, D. A 1986 Functional Properties of Food Macromolecules
Elsevier Applied Sciences, London.
35
Damodran, S. &. Paraf, A. 1997 Food Proteins & their Applications Marcel Dekkar Inc., N.Y.
Wong, N.P.; Jenness, R.; Keeney, M. and Elmer, H.M. 1988 Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry,
3rd Edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. N. Y.
Walstra, P. and Jenness, R. 1984 Dairy Chemistry and Physics John Wiley & Sons, New
York
Fox, P. F. & McSweeney, PLH 1998 Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry Blackie A&P., Lon-
don
2. Milk Carbohydrates, Minerals and Water Soluble Vitamins 2 + 1
Lactose: occurance, isomers; molecular structure; physical properties:- crystaline habits; hy-
drate; lactose glass; equilibrium of different isomers in solution; solubility; density sweetness;
chemicalproperties:- hydrolysis; pyrolysis; oxidation; reduction; degradation with strong bases;
derivatives; dehydration and fragmentation browning reaction; oligosaccharides in milk; miner-
als: major and minor minerals; factors associated with variation in salt composition; physical
equilibrium amongst milk salts; partitioning of salt constituents and factors affecting it; effect
of various treatments on salt equilibrium; salt balance and its importance in the processing of
milk ; protein mineral interactions; distribution and importance of trace elements in milk; water
soluble vitamins: thiamin; riboflavin; niacin; pantothenic acid; pyridoxine; biotin; folacin and
cynocobalamin; molecular structure; levels in milk and milk products; biological significance;
factors affecting their levels; ascorbic acid structure; relation to Eh;
Practical
Estimation of lactose in milk by volumetric; gravimetric; polarimetric and colorimetric meth-
ods; estimation of sodium and potassium by (flame photometry); calcium and magnesium by
(EDTA method); phosphorus by colorimetric (Fiske and Subba Rao) method; citric acid and
iron by colorimetric methods; vitamin C in milk (volumetric method) and brown colouring
matter;
Suggested Readings
Jenness, R. and Patton, S. 1969 Principles of Dairy Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, New York
Wong, N.P.; Jenness, R.; Keeney, M. and Elmer, H.M. 1988 Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, U.S.A.
Fox, P.F. 1985 Developments in Dairy Chemistry Vol. 3 Applied Science, U.K.
Walstra, Pieter and Jenness, Robert 1984. Dairy Chemistry and Physics. John & Wiley and
Sons, New York.
Jenness, Robert, G. 1995. Hnadbook of Milk Composition. Academic Press, New York, U.S.A.
36
3. Chemistry of Milk Lipids 2 + 1
Milk lipids: classification, gross composition and physical properties; neutral and polar lipids
and their role in milk and milk products; fatty acids profile: composition, properties and factors
affecting them; unsaponifiable matter: composition with special reference to sterols and fat
soluble vitamins and caretenoids, chemistry, physiological functions and levels in milk; chemi-
cal properties: hydrolysis by alkali, water and enzymes; hydrogenation and halogenation;
transesterification and interesterification; oxidation by chemical reagents; auto oxidation: defi-
nition, theories, induction period, secondary products of auto oxidation, factors affecting, pre-
vention and measurement; antioxidants-definition, types, reaction, mechanism and estimation.
Practical
Determination of melting point/slip point, peroxide value, TBA value, carbonyl value,
unsaponifiable matter; estimation of total cholesterol by direct and indirect method; vitamin A,
total phospholipids and free fatty acids in ghee; preparation of fatty acid esters and their GLC
analysis; estimation of antioxidants (BHA); determination of CLA content in deshi ghee.
Suggested Readings
Fox, P. F. 1983 Development in Dairy Chemistry, Vol. 2, Applied Science Publishers, U. K.
Wong, N.P.; Jenness, R.; Keeney, M. and Elmer, H.M. 1988 Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, U.S.A
Walstra, P. and Jenness, R. 1984. Dairy Cemistry and Physics, John Wiley and Sons, New
York,. U.S.A.
Mathur,. M.P., Datta, Roy, D. and Dinakar, P. 1999. Text Book of Dairy Chemistry, ICAR
New Delhi.
Akoh, Casimir, C. and Min, D.B. 1997. Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology,
Marcel Dekker, New York, U.S.A.
4. Chemistry of Milk Proteins 2 + 1
Distribution and fractionation of different nitrogen fractions; nomenclature of milk proteins;
major milk proteins: caseins (acids and micellar), methods of isolation and heterogeneity; frac-
tionation of casein; physicochemical properties, glycosylation phosphorylation, amino acid com-
position; primary and secondary structure of different fractions; casein models; alpha-lactalbu-
min and beta-lactoglobulin-distribution, methods of isolation; whey protein concentrates and
their functional properties; denaturation of caseins and whey proteins as affected by change of
temperature, pH and additives; casein-whey protein interactions; genetic polymorphism and
biosynthesis of milk proteins; minor milk proteins: proteose-peptone, non-protein nitrogen con-
stituents, immunoglobulins, lactotransferrin (lactoferrin), lipoprotein and fat globule membrane
proteins; milk enzymes: properties and their significance with particular reference to lipases;
37
phosphatases, catalase, peroxidase, xanthine oxidase, lysozyme, lactoperoxidase and galactosyl
transferase.
Practical
Estimation of different nitrogen fractions of milk by Kjeldahl and Folin methodss; isolation o
acid and micellar casein; isolation of casein fractions by urea fractionation techniques; separa-
tion of amino acids using thin layer/paper chromatography; isolation of alpha-lactalbumin and
beta-lactoglobulin by ammonium sulphate precipitation; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of
milk proteins; estimation of milk enzymes like catalase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase and xan-
thine oxidase; fractionation of milk proteins by molecular sieving; estimation of hexoses, and
free and bound sialic acid in casein.
Suggested Readings
Fox, P. F. and. MC Sweeney, P.L.H. 1998 Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry, Blackie Aca-
demic Professional Champman and Hall, London
Fox, P.F. 1992. Advanced Dairy Chemistry - I Proteins. Elsevier Applied Science, London.
Walstra, P. and. Jenness, R 1984. Dairy Chemistry and Physics, John Wiley & Sons, New
York.
Mathur,. M.P., Datta, Roy, D. and Dinakar, P. 1999. Text Book of Dairy Chemistry, ICAR,
New Delhi.
Fox, P. F. 1982. Development in Dairy Chemistry, Vol. 2, Applied Science Publishers, U. K.
Robert, G. Jensen, 1991. Handbook of Milk Composition. Academic Press, New York
38
A2. OPTIONAL COURSES
1. Chemistry of Milk Products 3 + 1
Heat stability of concentrated milk as affected by different process variables; milk constituents
and additives; physico-chemical changes taking place during manufacturing and storage of con-
centrated milk; structure and physico-chemical properties of dried milk as affected by different
process treatments; stability of milk powder; physical properties of instant milk powder; role
and mechanism of action of stabilizers and emulsifiers in ice cream; ize distribution of fat
globules and factors affecting it; creaming phenomena; mechanism of churning; theory and
metabolic pathways of fermentation; physico-chemical characterstics; grading and standards of
butter; genesis of flavour; aroma and texture in ghee; adulteration of ghee and its detection;
milk clotting enzymes from different sources (animal and plant); their isolation; purification
and action; changes taking place during manufacturing and ripening of cheese; chemical de-
fects in cheese.
Practical
Determination of lactose and sucrose in condensed milk and ice-cream; determination of heat
stability of milk and its concentrate; determination of moisture in skim milk powder/infant
food by vacuum oven; determination of fat in cream by Gerber and Rose-Gottlieb methods;
determination of moisture, fat (Gerber method), curd and salt in butter; determination of diacetyl
and acetyl methyl carbinol in butter/cultured products; determination of RM, Polenske value,
iodine value, saponification value and vitamin E in ghee; determination of nitrite, nitrate free
amino acids and free fatty acids in cheese; determination of rennet clotting time of milk.
Suggested Readings
Wong, N.P., Jeness, R., Keeney, M. and Elmer, H.M. 1988. Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry,
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.,. New York, U.S.A.
Walstra, P. and Jenness, R. 1984. Dairy Chemistry and Physics. John Wiley and Sons, New
York, U.S.A.
Fox, P.F. 1985. Developments in Dairy Chemistry-3. Applied Science Publisher, U.K.
Law, B.A. 1997. Microbiology and Biochemistry of Cheese and fermented milks. Blackie Aca-
demic and Professional, Chapman and Hall, 2nd edn.
Gurr, M.I. 1981. Comparative aspects of Feeding Human and Artificial milk for infant feeding.
J. Dairy Res., 48, 519.
39
2. Food Chemistry 3 + 1
Forms of water in foods, water solute interactions, and food stability, solute mobility and food
stability; role of ice in the stability of food at sub-freezing temperatures, forms, swelling, gela-
tinization; food applications and role of starch in bread making; modification of starches for
industrial applications, physico-chemical changes taking place during malting; functional prop-
erties of food proteins and their modifications, denaturation of food proteins; enzymes & their
application in food industry; physico-chemical properties of food lipids and their modifica-
tions; mutual interactions of hydrocolloids and interactions with proteins and lipids; role of
hydrocolloids in different food preparations; indigenous and synthetic food pigments; legal re-
quirements for food colourants; flavour compounds of different foods and flavour enhancers;
changes taking place during fermentation; drying and roasting of chocolate and cocoa; chemis-
try of tea manufacture; composition of coffee beans; physico-chemical changes during roasting
of coffee beans.
Practical
Determination of level of artificial sweeteners and crude fiber in food products; starch in flour
by polarization method; total amino acids and polyphenols in lemon juice; fat in grains; pro-
teins in flour; tannins in coffee/tea, caffeine content in coffee; HMF in honey, and visit to a
food industry.
Suggested Readings
Fennema, O.R. 1985. Food Chemistry, Marcer Dekker Inc., New York
Belitz, H.D. and Grosch, W. 1987. Food Chemistry
Srinivas, D. and Alan Praf, 1997. Food Proteins and their Applications. Marcel Dekker Inc.,
New York.
Turker, G.A. and Woods, LFJ, 1995. Enzymes in Food Processing. Blackie Academic Profes-
sionals.
Williams, P.A. and Phillips, G.O. 2000. Gums and Stabilizers for the Food Industry. Royal
Society of Chemistry.
3. Research Techniques 3 + 1
Electrophoresis: principle and types, isoelectricfocussing; chromatography: column, TLC, GLC,
HPLC, gel-permeation, ion-exchange, affinity, spectrophotometry: UV, visible, IR and flame
photometry; potentiometry: principle, various electrodes; electrometric measurements of pH,
buffers; radiotracer technique: nuclear transformation, nuclear decay, measurement of radioac-
tivity and safety precautions for radioactive materials; membrane processes; ultracentrifugation.
40
Practical
Preparation of methyl esters of fatty acids of milk fat followed by their GLC separation and
estimation; TLC separation of amino acids; determination of Kav of a macromolecule using
sephadex; preparation of a buffer and measurement of its pH electro-metrically and using indi-
cators; SDS gel electrophoresis and molecular weight determination; determination of absorp-
tion spectra of BSA and demonstration of Beer's law; determination of sodium and potassium
by flame photometry; ultracentrifugal separation of milk and preparation of micellar casein;
ion-exchange chromatography separation of milk proteins.
Suggested Readings
Cooper, T.G. 1977 The Tools of Biochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, U.S.A.
Clark, J.M. and Switzer, R.L 1977 Experimental Biochemistry; W.H.Freeman & Co, U.S.A.
Stock, R. and C.B.F. 1974. Chromatographic methods; Rice, Chapman and Hall. U.K.
Frank, A. Settle 1997. Handbook of Instrumental Techniques for Analytical Chemistry. Prentice
Hall, PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Nielsen, S. Suzanne 1994. Introduction to the Chemical Analysis of Foods, Jones and Barlett
Publishers, Boston, London.
4. Chemical Quality Assurance 2 + 1
Concept of quality assurance and quality control in relation to dairy industry; quality manage-
ment systems - ISO 9000; total quality management (TQM); hazard analysis of critical control
points (HACCP); good manufacturing practices (GMP); role of international organisations such
as ISO; IDF; CAC; AOAC; WTO and national organisations like BIS; CCFS; PFA and Agmark;
significance of milk and milk products order (MMPO) and APEDA (Agricultural and Pro-
cessed Foods Export Development Authority) in dairy industry; guidelines for setting up qual-
ity control laboratory; sampling of milk and milk products; instrumentation in analysis of milk
and milk products; chemical residues : pesticides; antibiotics; heavy metals; radionuclides etc;
in dairy products; dairy detergents and sanitizers; detection of adulterants in milk and milk
products; to check the calibration of milk testing glassware; preparation of standard reagents;
packaging materials in relation to quality assurance of dairy products.
Practical
Preparation of standard solutions and buffers; testing of available chlorine content in hypochlo-
rites/bleaching powder; determination of purity of common salt for butter and cheese making;
detection of common adulterants in milk and foreign fat/oil in ghee; checking the calibration of
lactometers; hydrometers; butyrometers; milk pipette and thermometer; qualitative colour tests
to distinguish between azo dyes and natural dyes in butter; detection of pesticide residues and
antibiotics in milk;
41
Suggested Readings
IDF - Special Issue No. 9302. Quality Assurance (QA) and Good Lab. Practices (GLP) in
Dairy Laboratories.
IDF - Special Issue No. 9701 1997 Monograph on Residues and Contaminants in milk and
milk products
Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA) 1954 and PFA Rules. 1955 Official methods of
A.O.A.C. (11th and 15th editions)
ISI Handbook of Food Analysis S.P. 18 (Part II) Dairy Products. 1981 ISI Specifications (con-
cerned) (ISI)
Ralph Early, Guide to Quality Management System for Food Industry; Heinz Bullworth, Estab-
lishment and Implementation of HACCP Personal Hygiene Practices
5. Advances in Chemistry of Milk Lipids 3 + 0
Origin, composition; structure and physical chemistry of milk fat globule and membrane - com-
parative aspects of milk lipids from different species such as human, bovine, buffalo, sheep,
goat, pig and camel; lipolytic enzymes from different species including human bile salts; stimu-
lated lipase and esterases; biosynthesis of fatty acids; glycerol; neutral lipids; phospholipids;
sphingolipids; cholesterol; essential fatty acids; prostaglandins and flavour compounds; conju-
gated linoleic acids - different isomers; factors affecting their levels in dairy products and their
signficance; chemistry of oxygen in relation to autoxidation of milk fat including effect of milk
components and enviornmental factors; thermal oxidation; chemical and biological properties
of heated and oxidised fats; significance of milk lipids in human health; role of milk lipids in
consumer acceptance of dairy products; fat replacers in dairy products.
Suggested Readings:
Wong,N.P.; Jenness, R.; Keeney, M. and Elmer H. M. 1988 Fundamental of Dairy Chemistry
3rd Ed. Van Nostrand; Reinhold Company, New York.
Walstra, P. and Jenness, R. 1984 Dairy Chemistry and Physics, John Wiley & Sons, New York
Fox, P. F. and McSwamy, PLH 1997 Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry London: Blackie
Fox, P. F. 1995 Advanced Dairy Chemistry Vol. 2 Lipids 2nd ed. Chapman & Hall, London
Gurr, M. I. 1992 Role of Fats in Food and Nutrition, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, New
York
Bindra, J. S. and Ranjana Bindra 1977 Prestoglandins Synthesis, Academic Press, New York
42
6. Advances in Chemistry of Milk Proteins 3 + 0
Biosynthesis of milk proteins, proteins and lipoproteins of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM);
amino acid sequence of caseins, structure - function relationship of casein and whey protein;
association - dissociation equilibria; physical, chemical and enzymatic modification of milk
proteins and their functional characteristics; mechanism of action and biological role of spe-
cific and non-specific antimicrobial factors in milk - immunoglobulins, lactoferrin,
lactoperoxidase and lysozyme; milk derived bioactive peptides - their properties; significance
and application; bitter peptides in cheese;; growth factors in milk; transgenic milk proteins and
their significance; therapeutic and allergy aspects of milk proteins; protein films and coatings -
their properties and applications.
Suggested Readings
Fox, P. F. 1995 Advanced Dairy Chemistry, Vol. I. (Proteins)
Damodaran, S. & A. Paraf 1997 Food Proteins and their applications
Welch; R;A;S; D. J.W. Burns; S. R. Davis 1997 Milk Composition, production and biotech-
nology
Popay, A. I., C.G. Prosser 1997 Biotech in Agric. Series No. 18, CAB International
Hans Visser; 1992 Protein - Interactions. VCS, New York
Proceedings of IDF Seminar on Indigenous antimicrobial agents of milk - Recent develop-
ments; Uppasala, Sweden, 1993
Cregg, B. Fields 1997 Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis; In : Methods in Enzymology, Volume
289
43
B. SUPPORTING COURSES
1. Bio-organic Chemistry and Enzymology 3 + 1
Chemistry of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, purines and pyrimidines; chemical synthesis
of polypeptides and polynucleotides; structure of proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides in
solution; enzymes: definition, classification, kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions, Michaels-
Menten equation, Km and Vmax, enzyme inhibition; factors affecting enzyme activity; prin-
ciples of isolation and purification of enzymes; enzyme activity unit, substrate specificity; iden-
tification of functional groups essential for enzyme activity; active site; mechanisms of enzyme
action; regulatory enzymes, allosteric regulation, isoenzymes.
Practical
Estimation of glucose content of blood serum by titrimetric method; glucose with glucose oxi-
dase; cholesterol in blood; fructose content in seminal plasma; protein by Biuret method; pro-
tein by Lowry's method; triacylglycerols; determination of the specific activity of alkaline phos-
phates of bovine seminal plasma; effect of enzyme concentration on the activity of alkaline
phosphatase; determination of pH optima of an enzyme; determination of temperature optima
of an enzyme; determination of Km and Vmax of an enzyme.
Suggested Readings
Nelson, D.l. and Cox, M.M. 2000 . Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 3rd ed. Macmillan
Worth Publishers, USA.
Stryer, L. 1988. Biochemistry, 3rd ed. W.H. Freemand and Co., New York.
Zubay, G. 1988. Biochemistry 2nd ed. MacMillan Publishing C., New York, CollierMcMillan
Publishers, London.
Moran, L.A.; Scrimgeour, K.G.; Horton, H.R.; Ochs, R.S. and Rawn, J.D. 1994.
Biochemistry, 2nd ed. Publisher-Neil Patterson , Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
Murray, R.K.; Granner, D.K.; Mayes, P.A. and Rodwell, V.W. 2000. Harper's Biochemistry 25
ed. Publisher-Appleton & Lange/Prentice Hall International, London.
2. Intermediary Metabolism 3 + 0
Survey of intermediary metabolism; principles of bioenergetics, glycolysis; citric acid cycle;
electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation; pentose phosphate pathway, glyoxylate cycle,
glycogenolysis; B-oxidation of fatty acids; oxidative degradation of amino acids; determination
of nucleotides; gluconeogenesis, glyco gen synthesis; biosynthesis of carbohydrates,, lipids,
44
amino acids and nucleotides; photosynthesis; nitrogen and sulphur cycles; urea cycle; transport
across biological membranes,; the energetics of active transport; organization of membrane
transport systems in animals tissues; genetic evidence for transport systems.
Suggested Readings
Moran, L.A.; Scrimgeour, K.G.; Horton, H.R.; Ochs, R.S. and Rawn, J.D. 1994. Biochemistry,
2nd ed. Publisher-Neil Patterson , Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
Murray, R.K.; Granner, D.K.; Mayes, P.A. and Rodwell, V.W. 2000. Harper's Biochemistry 25
ed. Publisher-Appleton & Lange/Prentice Hall International, London.
Nelson, D.L. and Cox, M.M. 2000 . Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 3rd ed. Macmillan
Worth Publishers, USA.
Stryer, L. 1988. Biochemistry, 3rd ed. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York.
Zubay, G. 1988. Biochemistry 2nd ed. MacMillan Publishing Co., New York, Collier McMillan
Publishers, London.
3. Dairy & Food Packaging 2 + 1
Status of current packaging; critical review of the existing knowledge in packaging of prod-
ucts; adhesives, graphics and labeling used in food packaging; protective packaging of foods;
packaging of food products sensitive to oxygen, light, moisture; special problems in canned
foods; packaging of convenience foods; fruits and vegetables; packaging requirements of fresh
fruits and vegetables; packaging of fruit juices; fats and oils: criteria for selection of proper
packaging based on the shelf life desired; packaging of spices; packaging of meat and poultry:
packaging and transportation of fish and other sea-foods; new food packaging processes; retort
pouch technology, microwave packages, bio-degradable packages, edible packages; industrial
packaging: unitizing, palletizing, containerizing, stacking and materials handling; distribution
systems for packaged foods including prevention of shock damage to articles during transpor-
tation; safety aspects of packaging materials; sources of toxic materials and migration of toxins
into food materials.
Practical
Determination of thickness, GSM, grease resistance, bursting strength, tearing resistance,
WVTR, puncture resistance and edge crush resistance of packaging materials; estimation of
shelf life of leafy vegetables and seasonal fresh fruits like apples; litchi; and oranges; packag-
ing of turmeric powder and ground red chilli powder, testing of packaging materials for qual-
ity assurance; vacuum packaging of dairy products; packaging of food products using re-
tort pouch technology; packaging of food products employing microwave technique.
45
Suggested Readings
Malhlouthi, M. 1994 Food packaging and preservation, Blackie Academic & Professional,
Glasgow.
Carol, F; Steinhart, M., Ellin Doyle; Barbara A. and Cochrane, 1995 Food Safety, Marcel
Dekker Inc., Madison, Wisconsin.
Frank A., Paine Heather, Y. Paine 1983 A Handbook of Food Packaging, Leonard Hill,
Glasgow
Sacharow, S. and Griffin, R.C. 1970 Food packaging. The AVI Publication, Westport, CT.
USA.
4. Microbiology of Processed Foods 2 + 1
Microbial ecology of foods; main concerns; ecology of prepared foods; mechanisms of stress
induced injury to microorganisms in processed milk; repair of injured organisms; enumeration
of stressed cells; predictive modeling for food spoilage and safety; low temperature food pres-
ervation; thermal processes for shelf stable products; recent concepts in irradiation technology;
safety aspects and social acceptance; new methods for controlling spoilage of foods; modified
atmosphere packaging and shelf life of processed foods; microbiological safety considerations;
intermediate moisture foods and hurdle concept; new prospects and problems in fermented
foods; potential applictions of fermentation processes, genetically engineered products, and eco-
system: effects of technological changes.
Practical
Production of antimicrobial factors ; application of bacterial consortia in fermented food appli-
cation of hurdle concept for enhanced shelf stability of processed foods; induction of bacterial
cell injury and recovery of injured cells; effect of modified atmosphere packaging on quality
and shelf life of processed foods; production of alcoholic beverage by whey fermentation; ex-
tending shelf life of foods by food grade bio-preservatives; development of predictive equation
and its validation for food safety; assessment of pollution in food processing environment and
biodegradation of xenobiotics in foods.
Suggested Readings
James M. Jay 1987 Modern Food Microbiology, 3rd Edition, CBS Publishers & Distributors,
Shahdra, Delhi.
Susan, K. Harlander and. Lahuza,T. P. 1986 Biotechnology in FoodProcessing, Noyes Publi-
cations, New Jersey, USA
Hui, Y.H. and George G. Khachatourians 1995 Food Biotechnology: Microorganisms, VCH
Publishers Inc, New York
Robinson, R.K.1998 Developments in Food Microbiology Vol. 1, 2 and 3, Elsevier Applied
Sciences, London and New York.
46
5. Statistics for Industrial Applications 2 + 1
Statistical methods in industrial applications; analysis of variance; transformations; partial and
multiple correlation and regression; Ranking techniques; introduction to discriminant analysis;
statistical basis for drawing scientific inferences from experimental data; principles of experi-
mental design-industrial experimentation; basic designs-CRD; RBD & LSD; missing plot tech-
nique; factorial experiments-main effects and interactions; 2n series and mixed factorial experi-
ments; experimental designs in sensory evaluation; introduction to statistical quality control;
control charts for variables; mean and range charts; statistical basis; rational sub-group; control
charts for attributes 'np'; 'p' and 'c' charts; fundamental concepts of acceptance sampling plans;
single; double and sequential sampling plans; use of sampling inspection tables for selection of
single and double sampling plans; introduction to sampling techniques and their application to
consumer preference studies.
Practical
Analysis of variance-one way and two way classification; partial and multiple correlation and
regression; rank correlation and coefficient of concordance; analysis of industrial experiments -
Use of CRD; RBD and LSD; missing plot technique; factorial experiments - 22 and 23; mixed
factorial experiments; control charts for variables; control charts for attributes; single sampling
plan- OC and AOQ curves; sequential sampling plan; use of sampling inspection tables; and
different methods of selecting samples;
Suggested Readings
Snedecor; G. W. and Cochran, W.G. 1968 Statistical Methods Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.,
New Delhi
Cochran, W. G. 1972 Sampling Techniques. Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd., New York
Cochran, W. G. and G.M. Cox 1962 Experimental Designs Asia Publishing House, Bombay
Grant and Leavenworth 1972 Statistical Quality Control, McGraw Hill, New Delhi
Indian Standards Institute 1986 New Delhi Handbook on Statistical Quality Control.
6. Computer Software Packages for Statistical Analysis 2 + 1
General data analysis requirements in dairy research; introduction to statistical and other stan-
dard software packages (SYSTAT; SPSS; MS-Excel); data preparation and job control com-
mands for statistical analysis of data pertaining to t-test; Chi-square test; analysis of variance
(ANOVA); basic experimental designs - CRD; RBD & LSD; factorial designs; partial and
multiple correlation and regression; discriminant analysis; linear programming; (using LINDO/
LINGO) software packages; least-squares analysis.
47
Practical
Statistical software packages and their operations; data preparation and data generation; import
and export of data from spreadsheet and database packages; application of software packages
to the problems related to : tests of significance (t; Chi-square and F-test); analysis of variance
(ANOVA); partial and multiple correlation and regression; discriminant analysis; linear pro-
gramming problem; and least-squares analysis.
Suggested Readings
Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W.G. 1967. Statistical Methods; Oxford and IBH Publishing
Co., New Delhi
Levin, Richard I. and Rubin David, S. 1994. Statistics for Management, Prentice Hall of India,
New Delhi.
Amble, V.N. 1975 Statistical Methods in Animal Science, Indian Society of Agricultural Statis-
tics, ICAR, New Delhi.
Singh, R.K. and Chaudhary, B.D. 1979. Biometrical methods in quantitative genetic analysis.
Genetic Analysis, Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana.
Swarup, Kanti, Gupta., P.K. and Man Mohan 1997. Operations Research. Sultan Chand and
Sons, New Delhi.
7 . Research Documentation 1 + 1
Library as information centre; information technology; CD ROM data search; abstracts and
abstracting techniques; the concept of documentation; international network/Indian scene; in-
formation retrieval systems; MIS; science citation; web internet search; presentation of results
of research; different kinds of scientific writings: writing of scientific reports, thesis, research
papers etc; oral and poster presentation of a paper in conferences/symposia; standard abbrevia-
tions used in proof reading; printing technology and corrections of manuscripts.
Practical
Different schemes of classification & various cataloguing codes for arranging documents; use
of catalogues & classification; types of libraries & standard sources of information; familiarity
in use of standard sources of information; exercise in abstracting of research articles; demon-
stration of photography; photocopying; printing; preparation and handling of audio-visual aids;
preparation of multimedia; exercise in proof corrections; research paper writing & interpreta-
tion; CD-ROM search; and Internet search.
Suggested Readings
Balaguru, T. 1996. Management Information Systems for Agricultural Research, NAARM,
Hyderabad.
48
Chhotey Lal 1998. Agricultural Libraries & Information Systems: A Handbook for Users. R.K.
Techno Science Agency, New Delhi.
Guha, B. 1987. Documentation & Information. World Press Pvt. Ltd., Kolkatta
Kaula, P.N. etc. 1996. International & Comparative Librarianship and Information Systems.
B.R. Publishing Corpn., Delhi.
Venkatasubramanian, V. 1999. Introduction to Research Methodology in Agricultural &
Biologial Sciences. New Century Book House, Chennai.
Sharma, P.S.k. 1987 Library & Society. Ess Ess Publication, New Delhi.
CBF Style Manual Published by Council of Biology, Maryland.
49
DAIRY ENGINEERING
A. Major Courses
A.1 Core Courses 12 Credits
1. Dairy & Food Engineering -I 2 + 1
2. Dairy & Food Engineering -II 2 + 1
3. Heat Transfer 2 + 1
4. Bio-thermal Process Engineering 2 + 1
Seminar 0 + 1 1 Credits
A.2 Optional Courses 12 Credits
1. Transport Phenomena 2 + 0
2. Instrumentation and Process Control 2 + 1
3. Design of Process Equipment 2 + 1
4. Computational Method and Simulation in Dairy & 2 + 0
Food Engineering
5. Environmental Engineering 2 + 0
6. Dairy Process Engineering 2 + 1
7. Industrial Engineering & Management 3 + 0
8. Refrigeration Engineering 2 + 1
B. Supporting Courses 10 Credits
1. Technology of Milk and Milk Products 1 + 1
2. Chemistry and Microbiology of Milk and Milk Products 2 + 1
for Engineers
3. Dairy Business Management 2 + 1
4. Econometrics 2 + 1
5. Statistics for Industrial Applications 2 + 1
6. Research Documentation 1 + 1
Any other course(s) suggested by student Advisory Committee
Total 35 Credits
50
A1. CORE COURSES
1. Dairy and Food Engineering -I 2 + 1
Engineering properties of dairy and food materials and their significance in equipment design;
processing and handling of dairy and food products; concept of rheology; ideal elastic, plastic
and viscous behaviour; visco-elasticity; rheological models and constitutive equations; Maxwell
model; Kelvin model and Burgers model; viscoelastic characterisation of materials; stress-strain
behaviour; creep; stress relaxation; non-Newtonian fluids and viscometry; rheology and texture
of food materials; methods of texture evaluation: subjective and objective measurements, me-
chanical tests, firmness, hardness, dynamic hardness; objective methods of measuring texture:
Kramer shear stress, GFT, OTMS, Instron universal testing machine; rheological properties of
dairy products; strength of food materials; aerodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics; drag
coefficient; terminal velocity and Reynold's number; application of aerodynamic properties to
the separation; pneumatic handling and conveying of food products; material and energy bal-
ance; evaporation and dehydration of foods; design of single and multi - effect evaporators;
design of spray dryer and its components; separation and recovery of dried product; design of
recovery system; selection and design of auxiliary equipments; freezing of foods; freeze con-
centration and drying; freezing point curves; phase diagrams; methods of freeze concentration;
design problems.
Practical
Working of Instron universal testing machine; stress strain behaviour analysis of dairy and
food products using Instron testing machine; rheological studies by stress relaxation methods;
creep behaviour of dairy and food products; determination of thermo-physical properties of
dairy and food products; determination of parameters of Newtonian and non-Newtonian food
products by Capillary tube viscometer; Rotational viscometer and falling ball viscometer; de-
sign problems on evaporators; dryers; freeze drying etc.
Suggested Readings
Heldman, D.R. and Singh, R. P. 1984 Food Process Engineering The AVI Publishing Company
Mohsenin, N. N. 1986 Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials Gorden and Breach
Science Publishers New York
Rao, M.A. and Rizvi, S.S.H. 1986 Engineering Properties of Foods Marcel Dekker Inc., New
York.
Watson, E.L. and Harper, J.C.1989. Elements of food engineering. AVI Publishing Company,
New York.
Charm, S.E. 1971. The Fundamental of Food Engineering. AVI Publishing Company, New
York.
51
2. Dairy and Food Engineering - II 2 + 1
Water activity and states: a thermodynamic quantity, water sorption isotherms, hysteresis, theo-
ries of sorption hysteresis, water activity measurement methods, water binding, control of wa-
ter activity and moisture, principles of IMF and their application; permeability and shelf-life :
theoretical considerations, permeability to gases and vapours, measurement methods, perme-
ability of multilayer materials, permeability in relation to packaging requirements of food prod-
ucts; calculation of shelf life and requirements for packaging; deteriorative reactions; acceler-
ated testing; relationship between transport properties of the package and shelf life of packaged
products; simulation of product-package-environment interaction, shelf life simulation for mois-
ture; oxygen and light sensitive products; theory of ultra filtration and reverse osmosis; selec-
tion and types of membranes and properties; concentration polarization; mathematical descrip-
tion of flow through membrane; application and use in dairy industry; microwave energy ab-
sorption: physical parameters in microwave heating processes, heat transfer phenomena, equip-
ment and application in dairy and food industry.
Practical
Determination of water activity of foods; establishment of moisture sorption isotherm; determi-
nation of gas transmission rates of packaging film; determination of water vapour permeability
of packages; shelf life calculation for moisture sensitive and oxygen sensitive foods; design
problem on packaging systems.
Suggested Readings
Rockland, L.B.and George,F .Stewart. 1991. Water activity: Influence on Food Quality
Romeo,T. Toledo.1997. Fundamentals of Food Proces Engineering
Gordon, L.Robertson. 1992. Food Packaging (Principles and Practices).
Cheryan, M. 1998. Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook.
Duckworth, R. 1975. Water Relations in Foods. Academic Press, Inc., New York
3. Heat Transfer 2 + 1
Conduction: heat transfer through rectangular fin, actual solution, effectiveness, efficiency, ap-
proximate solution, design of profile area, triangular cylindrical and parabolic fins; two-dimen-
sional steady-state heat conduction, analytical and graphical solution, numerical analysis, Un-
steady-state heat conduction; graphical; analytical and numerical methods of solving unsteady
state heat transfer problems, periodic heat flow; hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer:
equation of motion for hydrodynamic boundary layer; energy equation of thermal boundary
layer; velocity distribution; temperature distribution; local heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt num-
ber, velocity distribution in the entrance region of a tube, turbulent flow conventive heat trans-
fer: empirical relations in convection; the Stanton number, general equation for forced convec-
52
tion from dimensional analysis, flow in a tube; parallel to a plate, film-wise condensation on
vertical surface, condensation heat transfer coefficients of a film, equations for condensation on
vertical surfaces; boiling liquids; parallel flow; counter flow; cross flow; plate heat exchangers;
hydro-mechanical design; effectiveness; number of transfer units.
Practical
To prepare and calibrate a thermocouple; to study construction, working of microwave oven
and its heating profiles; to find out thermal conductivity of dairy products/insulating powder;
to study the temperature distribution in water heated in a steam jacketed kettle (under unstirred
conditions); to study the temperature distribution in milk heating in a steam jacketed kettle
(under unstirred conditions); determination of film heat transfer co-efficient during khoa manu-
facturing in a steam jacketed kettle; studies on parallel flow heat exchanger; studies on counter
flow heat exchanger; determination of film heat transfer co-efficient during manufacturing of
ghee from cream; boiling heat transfer co-efficient of water; boiling heat transfer coefficient of
ghee.
Suggested Readings
Kreith, F. 1965 Principles of Heat Transfer International Text book Company, Scranton, Penn-
sylvania.
Eckert, E.R.G. and Drake, R.M. 1959 Heat and Mass Transfer McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.,
New York.
Jacob, M. and Hawkins, G. .A. 1957 Elements of Heat Transfer John Wiley & Sons Inc., New
York.
Bird, R. B. Stewart, W. E. and Lightfoot, E. N. 1994 Transport Phenomena John Wiley and
Sons Inc., New York
Gupta, C. P. and Rajendra Prakash 1986 Heat Transfer Nem Chand & Bros, Roorkee, U.P.
4. Bio-thermal Process Engineering 2 + 1
Introduction to biochemical engineering: kinetics of substrate utilization; product yield and bio-
mass production in cell cultures; gas liquid mass transfer in microbial systems; design and
analysis of fermentation vessels; residence time distribution; introduction to thermal process-
ing; sterilisation classification; UHT systems and recent advances; factors affecting spoilage of
different types of food products and design of thermal process; aseptic packaging systems and
conditions; survivor curve; thermal death curve; arrheneous curve; techniques for determination
of heat resistance of microorganisms; analysis of thermal resistance data; processing in contain-
ers; process time; lethality; general formula for evaluation of heating and cooling process; bro-
ken heating curve; design of batch and continuous sterilisation cycles in vat; inter-relationship
between batch and continuous reactors; design calculations.
53
Practical
Design calculation on sizing of Fermenter, mechanical design of fermenter vessel, Agitation
system design for the fermenter, Design of cell separation equipment, Pressure and temperature
profile in hydrostatic sterilizer, Assessment of UHT-heat treatment methods
Suggested Readings
Stumbo 1965 Thermobacteriology in Food Processing Academic Press, New York
Olson, J. E. Bailey and David F. Ollis 1977 Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals; McGraw-
Hill Book Co. Inc., New York
Blanch, H. W. and Clark, D. S. 1996. Biochemical Engineering. Marcel Dekker Inc., New
York.
Larousse, Jean and Brown, B. E. 1997. Food Canning Technology, Wiley-VCH, USA.
Pauline,M. Doran. Bioprocess Engineering Principles, Academic Press.
54
A2. OPTIONAL COURSES
1. Transport Phenomena 2 + 0
Introduction to transport phenomena-molecular transport mechanism, transport properties and
their proportionality constants in momentum, energy and mass transfer;, steady state equations;
momentum transport equations for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids: continuity equation
in different co-ordinates, equations of motion, Navier-Stokes equations and their application in
viscous fluids flow between parallel plates and through pipes; turbulent transport mechanism
mathematical analysis, eddy viscosity and eddy diffusivity; velocity; temperature and concen-
tration distribution; time smoothing equations; interphase transport in isothermal system - fric-
tion factors for various geometrics; mass transfer:- Fick's law of diffusion; diffusion of gases
and liquids through solids; equimodal diffusion; Isothermal evaporation of water into air; mass
transfer coefficient; dimensional analysis - Buckingham Pi-theorem and matrix method; appli-
cation to transport phenomena; analysis among mass; heat and momentum transfer; Reynolds;
Colburn and Martinelli analogies; boundary layer concept; theory and exact solutions for heat;
mass and momentum transfer.
Suggested Readings
Bird, R.B. 1994 Transport Phenomena John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York
Yuan, S.W. 1969 Foundations of Fluid Mechanics Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
Treybal, R.E. 1968 Mass Transfer Operations McGraw Hill Kigakusha Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Instrumentation and Process Control 2 + 1
Instrument terminology and performance system accuracy; flow sheet symbols; instrument
evaluation: electrical, mechanical, magnetic and optical transducers for measurement of process
variables like temperature, pressure, flow, level, consistency and humidity; indicating and re-
cording devices: direct acting and servo operated systems; digital indicators, strip and circular
chart recorders, electronic data loggers; principles of automatic process control : process char-
acteristics; controller characteristics; closed loop system; pneumatic and electric controllers;
final controlling elements : control valves; valve sizing; electronic actuators; motor drives and
controls; introduction to programmable logic controllers (PLCs) : internal structure; inter facing
with sensors and actuators; binary logic diagrams and ladder diagrams; choosing a PLC sys-
tem.
Practical
Study of various transducers for measurement of pressure, flow, level, humidity; temperature;
study the controller and recorder of pasteurizer; the working of controllers in constant tempera-
55
ture water baths; to make ladder diagrams and flow sheet diagrams for control logics; to
programme a PLC; computer interface of a PLC.
Suggested Readings
Douglas M; Considine 1974 Process Instruments and Controls McGraw Hill Book Co. New
York
Douglas M. Considine 1964 Handbook of Applied Instrumentation McGraw Hill Book Co.
New York
Beta G. Liptak 1995 Process Measurement and Analysis Butterworth- Heinmann Ltd. Oxford,
U.K.
Kempe's Engineers Yearbook 1996 Miller Freeman Information Services, U. K.
Eckman, D.P., 1972. Automatic Process Control, Wiley Eastern Private Ltd., N.D.
3. Design of Process Equipment 2 + 1
Design of vessels: codes and regulations, design for pressure and temperature, loading; allow-
able stresses; minimum thickness after forming; corrosion mechanism; corrosion control; de-
sign for internal and external pressure; cylindrical and spherical shells; formed heads; rein-
forcement openings; fabrication requirements; inspection; tests and non-destructive examination
pressure tests; design and stress evaluation; design of milk storage tank; horizontal and vertical
silos; insulated and un-insulated; process plant piping: codes and regulations; testing; fabrica-
tion requirements; overall economic and safety considerations; heat exchangers: shell and tube
heat exchangers; construction codes; general design considerations; U-tube heat exchangers;
double-pipe exchanger; scraped surface exchanger; spiral tube exchangers; joints; welded tube
joints; baffers and tube bundles; tube sheet bundle; by- passing longitudinal bundles; double
tube sheet construction; clad tube sheets; plate type exchangers; air cooled heat exchangers;
heat exchanger costs; heat transfer coefficients; tank coils; external coils and pipe line tracers;
jacketed vessels.
Practical
Design of short, intermediate length and long cylindrical vessels; design of spherical vessels;
design of shell and tube; double pipe, scraped surface and spiral tube heat exchangers; design
of jacketed vessels - insulation thickness; corrosion allowance
Suggested Readings
Hesse, C. R. and Ruston, J.H. 1964 Process Equipment Design Affiliated East-West Press Pvt.
Ltd., New Delhi
Kern, D.Q. 1965 Process Heat Transfer McGraw-Hill, Kogakusha Ltd., New Delhi
56
Foust, A.S. and others 1960 Principles of Unit Operations John Wiley and Sons Inc; New
York.
Evans, F.L., 1974, Equipment Design Hand-book, Vol. 2, Gulf Publishing Houston, Texas.
McCabe, W.L.; Smith, J.C., Harriott, P., 1993, McGraw Hill Inc., International Edition.
4. Computational Method & Simulation in Dairy and Food Engineering 2 + 0
Taylor's series expansion in development of numerical differentiation; numerical differentiation
procedures: forward difference, backward difference, central difference; numerical integration :
trapezoidal rule, Simpson's rule, improper integrals, Gauss-Legrendre Quadretuse method; nu-
merical methods to solve ordinary differential equations: Euler method, improved Guler method,
Runge-Kutta method, Adam's P-c method, initial value problems; numerical solution of partial
differential equation: explicit method, implicit method, simulation concept, simulation methods
and their limitations, statistical and theoretical models; problem formulation and development
of models; solution and validation of models; data collection; processing and analysis; basic
modeling problems on unit operations involved in dairy and food processing.
Suggested Readings
Krishnamurthy, E. V. and Sen, S.K. 1976 Computer based Numerical Algorithms
Franks, Roger, G. E., 1972 Modeling and Simulation in Chemical Engineering Willey-
Interscience, New York
Reddy, R.N. and Ziegler, C.A. 1992 FORTRAN-77 with Applications for Scientists and En-
gineers
Maisel, Herbert and Gougnoli 1972. Simnulation of Discrete Stochastic Systems., SRA Pub-
lisher
Kobayashi, H. 1978. Modeling and Analysis: An introduction to system performance Evalua-
tion Methodology. Addision-Wesley Publishing Company, Canada.
5. Environmental Engineering 2 + 0
Waste water sources characteristics - standards for disposal of dairy water, physical, chemical
and biological characteristics of waste water; measurement of organic content in waste water;
physical unit operations in waste water treatment - screening; racks, mixing, flocculation, sedi-
mentation, floatation, elutriation, vacuum filtration, incineration; chemical unit operations in
waste water treatment - reaction kinetics; chemical precipitation, aeration and gas transfer pro-
cess, rate of gas transfer, adsorption, disinfection; biological unit operations - aerobic and
anaerobic cycles; kinetics of biological growth, application of kinetics to treatment systems,
aerobic waste treatment; aerobic and anaerobic waste treatment; cooling load estimation; air
duct design and room air distribution; air conditioning systems; clean-room air conditioning;
57
important pollutants of air; properties of particulate matter and air pollution control methods.
A case study - STP/incineration plants.
Suggested Readings
Richard A Conway & Richard D. Ross 1980 Hand Book of Industrial Waste Disposal Van
Nortrand Reinhold Company, New York
Metcalf & Eddy 1984 Waste Water Engineering Treatment Disposal and Rense McGraw Hill
Publication
Lewis & Athony 1976 Industrial Air Pollution Control Equipment for Particulate C.R.C. Press,
Ohio
Threkeld 1970 Thermal Environmental Engineering Prentice-Hall Inc.
6. Dairy Process Engineering 2 + 1
Hygienic design concepts; sanitary pipes and fittings; milk pumps; milking machines; bulk
milk coolers; milk collecting and chilling centres; milk tanks; stirrers and mixers; milk recep-
tion equipment; pasteurizers; sterilizers and treatment by irradiation; CIP system; corrosion pro-
cess and their control; centrifugation; separation; cyclone separators; homogenizers; ultrafiltra-
tion; reverse osmosis and electrodialysis; equipment for cheese, ice-cream, butter manufacture;
special milk products viz, casein, whey and lactose etc; Indigenous milk product processing,
batch and continuous manufacturing systems; packaging and filling machines; milk evapora-
tors; multiple effect evaporators; thermo-compressors and MVR systems; roller dryer and spray
dryer; spray dryer controls; fludization characteristics of gas-solid fluidized systems; fluidized
bed dryers.
Practical
Identification of hygienic characteristics of pipes & fittings; technical specifications of milking
and storage equipments; equipment for chilling & pasteurization; features of centrifuges; ice-
cream freezers & packing machine; cheese vat; milking machine; press & packing machine;
butter manufacturing equipments; different types of evaporators;different types of dryers; de-
sign of dairy plants ; design of milk collecting and chilling unit.
Suggested Readings
Kessler, H.G. 1981 Food Engineering and Dairy Technology; Verlag A; Kessler P.O. Box 1721,
D-8050 Freising (F.R. Germany)
Ahmad Tufail 1997 Dairy Plant Engineering and Management, Kitab Mahal, Allahabad
Newcomer, J.L. 1981 Preventive Maintenance Manual for Dairy Industry
58
7. Industrial Engineering & Management 3 + 0
Industrial evolution in India: evolution of modern industry, development of public enterprises;
Industrial Management: Organisation, organization theories and structures, organization goals,
planning and effectiveness, management as a system in an organization, functions of manage-
ment, scientific management; Production Planning and Control: Introduction, PPC as a man-
agement function; objectives of PPC; product design and development; demand analysis and
forecasting; resource requirement planning ; production planning, production scheduling; dis-
patching and follow up; material control. Material Handling: Definition, main objectives; fac-
tors affecting material handling systems, types of material handling equipments; material pro-
curement and material storage; plant maintenance: Different system of maintenance; elements
of preventive maintenance, economic aspect of maintenance; Quality Control & Inspection:
Benefits of Q.C., Principles, functions and objectives of Q.C., difference between Q.C. and
inspection; inspection procedures; Inventory Control: Necessity and advantages of inventory
control; types of inventory, procurement and consumption cycle; economic order quantity
(EOQ) optimum safety stock, techniques of inventory; Projectology: Project formulation and
implementation strategies; monitoring and control of projects, project evaluation-benefit cost
analysis; Management Information Systems: Significance of information as a corporate resource,
identification, collection, storage and retrieval of information, ferequency of reporting and up-
dating, introduction to decision support systems; Human resource development: Human resource
planning- people, profit and productivity, staffing, recruitment policy, training and develop-
ment programmes, motivation, incentive and promotion protocols, collective decision making,
trade unions, and collective bargaining, wages and salary administration.
Suggested Readings
Ahuja, K.K. (1993) Industrial Management, Khanna Publishers , 3rd Edition.
Chauhan, A.S. & Vaishwanar, R.S. (1999) Management of systems,. Jain brothers. 3rd edition.
Sharma, S.C. 1999. Management of systems, Khanna publishers, 5th edition
Dr. Kumar, S. 1997. Industrial engineering and management of manufacturing systems, Satya
Parkash Ist edition.
Nauhria, R.N. & Parkash, 1998. Management of systems, Dhanpat Rai & Co., 2nd edition.
8. Refrigeration & Engineering 2 + 1
Methods of refrigeration: Ice and dry ice refrigeration, evaporative and steam jet refrigeration,
refrigeration by expansion of air, refrigeration by throttling of gas and by using liquid gases,
vapour refrigeration system, absorption refrigeration systems, heat pump.; Non-conventional
Refrigeration Systems: Thermo-electric refrigeration, vortex-tube, refrigerant-mixtures, cooling
by adiabatic demagnetisation.; Design elements of Refrigeration Equipments: Design elements
of compressor, condenser, evaporator, cooling tower, spray pond; balancing of different com-
ponents of the system; Design of cold storage and air conditioning systems: types of loads in
cold storage and their calculations, design of cold storage for food products, construction of
59
cold storage, equipment selection, insulating materials, vapour barriers, care and maintenance
of cold storage.
Practical
To study the working of absorption refrigeration plant; the working of heat pump; to design
refrigeration equipments for a milk cilling center and to balance the different components;
design a cooling tower and spray pond for a small dairy plant; design problems on cold storage
for different food products; visit to food cold storage and non-conventional refrigeration plants.
Suggested Readings
S. Domkundwar, 1980. A course in refrigeration and air conditioning, Dhanpat Rai & Sons,
Delhi.
Richard C. Jordan and Gayle B Priester, 1965 Refrigeration and air conditioning (2nd edition),
Prentice Hall of India (Private) Ltd., New Delhi.
V. Kadambi and F.W. Hutchinson 1968. Refrigeration, air conditioning and environmental con-
trol in India. Ist edition. Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi.
Arora, S.C., 1973. A course in Refrigeration and air conditioning, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, Delhi.
Burgess H. Jenning and Samuel R. Lewis, 1963. Air conditioning and refrigeration. Interna-
tional Text Book Company, Scranton, Pennsylvania.
60
B. SUPPORTING COURSES
1. Technology of Milk and Milk Products 1 + 1
Market milk industry in India and abroad; principles and practices of production of high qual-
ity milk; cleaning and sanitization of dairy equipments; manufacturing process of cream, butter
and ghee; legal standards; basic principles and manufacturing processes for cheese; paneer and
chhana; different types of cheese and their classifications; ingredients and constituents of ice
cream mix preparation, freezing point determination; manufacturing process; basic principles;
manufacturing processes of concentrated and dried milk, defects in milk and their control.
Practical
Market milk reception; pasteurization and filling; preparation of butter, cheese, paneer, ice
cream, concentrated milk and dried milk.
Suggested Readings
Allen, H. Vernon and Southerland, Jane P., 1994. Milk and milk product technology, chemistry
and microbiology. Chapman and Hall.
Walstra, P. and Robertzenis 1994. Dairy Chemistry and Physics. John Wiley and Sons.
De ,Sukumar, 1980. Outlines of Dairy Technology. Oxford University Press.
Walstra, P., Geurts, T. J., Noomen, A., Jellema, A. and Van Boekel, M.A.J.S. 1999 Dairy
Technology: Principles of milk properties & process: Marcel Dekker, New York.
Frandsen, J.H.and Arbuckle, W.S. 1961. Ice cream and related products. The AVI Publishing
Company, Westport, Connecticut
2. Chemistry and Microbiology of Milk and Milk Products for Engineers 2 + 1
Definition, constituents and composition of milk; factors affecting the composition of milk;
physical properties of milk such as density/specific gravity, pH, electrical conductance, specific
heat, thermal conductivity, surface tension, viscosity refractive index, buffering and redox po-
tential; legal standards of milk, effect of processing treatments like cooling, heating, concentra-
tion and homogenization on milk constituents; changes taking place in milk constituents during
manufacture of dairy products; composition and standards of milk products; introduction to
Microbiology; gross morphology of bacteria, yeast, moulds and viruses; some important genera
of microorganisms; nutrition and cultivation of microorganisms; multiplication and growth of
bacteria; effect of some factors on microbial growth-pH, oxygen, water activity;, temp. irradia-
tion and chemicals; microflora of air, water and soil, indicator organisms; BOD of effluents;
microflora of milk; hygienic milk production; sources of microorganisms in milk; milk quality;
61
microflora of dairy equipment; cleaning and sanitization of dairy plant; microbial spoilage and
preservation of milk; lactic starter cultures; their use in fermented milk products - Dahi, Yo-
ghurt, Cheese etc., microbiology of cream, butter, khoa, paneer, milk powder, milk borne dis-
eases and their control; food poisoning, microbial fermentation; alcohol; vinegar production;
Practical
Estimation of fat, SNF, specific gravity, acidity and pH; determination of surface tension and
viscosity of milk and refractive index and butyrorefractometer reading of ghee;Callibration of
butyrometer; pipette and lactometer; determination of hardness of water;determination of avail-
able chlorine in a sanitizer;staining of microorganisms; Gram/Spore starting- E. coli, Lact. lactis,
Staph. aureus, L. acidophilus, B. cereus, S. cerevisiae, Aspergillus, Penicillium, growth and
enumeration of organisms in broth and agar; tests for coliforms-IMViC; MPN; PCT; completed
test; Eijkmann test rapid platform tests f or milk quality;evaluation of detergents and sanitizers
by capacity and suspension tests;sampling techniques for microbiological analysis of dairy prod-
ucts; microbiological instrumentation.
Suggested Readings
Allen H; Vernon & Jane P; Southerland 1994 Milk and milk product technology, chemis-
try and microbiology Chapman and Hall
Walstra, P. and Robertzenis 1984 Dairy Chemistry and Physics John Wiley and Sons
Yadav, J. S. , Sunita Grover, and Batish, V.K. 1993 Comprehensive Dairy Microbiology
Metropolitan Publishers, New Delhi
Lansing, M., Prescott, John P. Harleyand Donald, A. Klein 1993. Microbiology. 2nd Edition
Wm. C. Brown Publishers Dubaque, Lowa Melbourne Australia, Oxford England Baianu,
I.C.1992. Physical Chemistry of Food Process. AVI Publishing Company, New York
3. Dairy Business Management 2 + 1
Concept of dairy business management, managerial decision making, functions of management.
Planning- objectives, classification of plans, planning related to finance, production and per-
sonnel aspects of the dairy. Organising- Fundamentals of organizational design,
departmentation, principles and delegation of authority, responsibility and accountability. Staff-
Personnel management, planning, selection, introduction, orientation and training of unskilled
and skilled personnel in dairy organizations. Control- Purpose and types of control, steps in
control, characteristics of effective controls, control techniques and methods, programme evalu-
ation review technique (PERT), inventory control. Project appraisal and monitoring- Standards
and norms of appraisal, monitoring and its tools, management information systems, net present
value and internal rate of return. Demand analysis- Determinants of demand of dairy products,
responsiveness of demand, estimation of product and factor demand, types and approaches for
62
demand forecasting. Cost analysis- Application of different cost concepts and functions in
managerial decisions. Pricing-Determinants of price of dairy products, pricing under different
objectives and market structures, product differentiation and product-mix decisions. Profit plan-
ning and control- Concept , profit planning and break even analysis in dairy industry.
Practical
Delineation of milk shed area; Case studies for solving problem situations; Demand forecast-
ing; Estimation of cost of milk procurement and processing; Break-even analysis and break-
even charts; Use of PERT in dairy industry; Optimisation of product-mix; Estimation of cost of
inventory; Economic lot size and other quantity standards.
Suggested Readings
James, A.F., Stoner; R. Edward Freeman and Daniel R. Gilbert Jr., 1996 Management Prentice
Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
Megginson, L.F., Donald, C., Mosley Paul and H . Pietri, 1983 Management. Harper Interna-
tional Edition, London.
Arther A. Thompson Jr. and A.J. Strickland, 1995 Strategic Management Concept and Cases.
Richard D. Irwin Inc.
V.L.Mote, Samuel Paul and G.S.Gupta, 1977 Managerial Economics Tata McGraw Hill Pub-
lishing Co.Ltd., New Delhi.
Joel Dean , 1979 Managerial Economics Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi.
Stephen Hill, 1999 Managerial Economics: The analysis of business decisions. Macmillan Edu-
cation Ltd., Hampshire.
4. Econometrics 2 + 1
Concept of econometrics, relationship among economic variables; parameters and estimates,
use and importance of econometrics in economic analysis. Linear Model- specification of vari-
ables, regression coefficient; constant term, least-squares and its assumptions; estimation of
parameters of the model; properties of least-squares estimates; Gauss-Markov Theorem; simple
correlation; fixed and stochastic regressors, method of estimation, error variance, standard error
of regression coefficient. Coefficient of determination. Test of significance and prediction. Non-
linear models. Extension of two variable linear regression model- estimation of parameters,
partial correlation coefficients, coefficient of multiple determination, test of significance of least-
squares estimates. Regression analysis and analysis of variance. Testing the overall significance
of regression, improvement of fit from additional regressors. Chow test. Consequences of left
out variables. Heteroscedasticity- sources, tests, consequences and solutions. Auto-correlation-
sources, consequences, Durbin-Watson test; method of estimation and prediction. Solutions for
the case of auto-correlation. Multicollinearity- tests, consequences and possible remedies.
63
Dummy variables and its applications. Introduction to distributed Lag Models-Koyck's Geo-
metric lag scheme.
Practical
Estimation of parameters of single equation two variable linear model, test of significance of
estimate of parameters, coefficient of determination and economic interpretation, estimation of
non-linear two variable regression model. Estimation of parameters of three variable linear
model; coefficient of multiple determination, regression analysis and analysis of variance.
Suggested Readings
Johnston, J. 1984. Econometric Methods. McGraw Hill.
Gujarati, D.N. 1995. Basic Econometric. McGraw Hill
Kmenta, J. 1971. Elements of Econometrics McMillan, New York.
Theil, H. 1978. Introduction to Econometric. Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi.
Maddala, G.S.1977 Econometrics, International Student Edition. McGraw Hill, Bogalusa Ltd.,
Tokyo.
5. Statistics for Industrial Applications 2 + 1
Statistical methods in industrial applications; analysis of variance; transformations; partial and
multiple correlation and regression; Ranking techniques; introduction to discriminant analysis;
statistical basis for drawing scientific inferences from experimental data; principles of experi-
mental design-industrial experimentation; basic designs-CRD; RBD & LSD; missing plot tech-
nique; factorial experiments-main effects and interactions; 2n series and mixed factorial experi-
ments; experimental designs in sensory evaluation; introduction to statistical quality control;
control charts for variables; mean and range charts; statistical basis; rational sub-group; control
charts for attributes 'np'; 'p' and 'c' charts; fundamental concepts of acceptance sampling plans;
single; double and sequential sampling plans; use of sampling inspection tables for selection of
single and double sampling plans; introduction to sampling techniques and their application to
consumer preference studies.
Practical
Analysis of variance-one way and two way classification; partial and multiple correlation and
regression; rank correlation and coefficient of concordance; analysis of industrial experiments -
Use of CRD; RBD and LSD; missing plot technique; factorial experiments - 22 and 23; mixed
factorial experiments; control charts for variables; control charts for attributes; single sampling
plan- OC and AOQ curves; sequential sampling plan; use of sampling inspection tables; and
different methods of selecting samples;
64
Suggested Readings
Snedecor; G. W. and Cochran, W.G. 1968 Statistical Methods Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.,
New Delhi
Cochran, W. G. 1972 Sampling Techniques. Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd., New York
Cochran, W. G. and G.M. Cox 1962 Experimental Designs Asia Publishing House, Bombay
Grant and Leavenworth 1972 Statistical Quality Control, McGraw Hill, New Delhi
Indian Standards Institute 1986 New Delhi Handbook on Statistical Quality Control.
6 . Research Documentation 1 + 1
Library as information centre; information technology; CD ROM data search; abstracts and
abstracting techniques; the concept of documentation; international network/Indian scene; in-
formation retrieval systems; MIS; science citation; web internet search; presentation of results
of research; different kinds of scientific writings: writing of scientific reports, thesis, research
papers etc; oral and poster presentation of a paper in conferences/symposia; standard abbrevia-
tions used in proof reading; printing technology and corrections of manuscripts.
Practical
Different schemes of classification & various cataloguing codes for arranging documents; use
of catalogues & classification; types of libraries & standard sources of information; familiarity
in use of standard sources of information; exercise in abstracting of research articles; demon-
stration of photography; photocopying; printing; preparation and handling of audio-visual aids;
preparation of multimedia; exercise in proof corrections; research paper writing & interpreta-
tion; CD-ROM search; and Internet search.
Suggested Readings
Balaguru, T. 1996. Management Information Systems for Agricultural Research, NAARM,
Hyderabad.
Chhotey Lal 1998. Agricultural Libraries & Information Systems: A Handbook for Users. R.K.
Techno Science Agency, New Delhi.
Guha, B. 1987. Documentation & Information. World Press Pvt. Ltd., Kolkatta
Kaula, P.N. etc. 1996. International & Comparative Librarianship and Information Systems.
B.R. Publishing Corpn., Delhi.
Venkatasubramanian, V. 1999. Introduction to Research Methodology in Agricultural &
Biologial Sciences. New Century Book House, Chennai.
Sharma, P.S.k. 1987 Library & Society. Ess Ess Publication, New Delhi.
CBF Style Manual Published by Council of Biology, Maryland.
65
Annexure-I
List of participants in the meeting of the BSMA Committee on Dairy Science for restruc-
turing of Post Graduate course curricula and syllabi held on 11-12th March, 1999 at
NDRI, Karnal.
1. Dr. Kiran Singh, Director, NDRI, Karnal Chairman
2. Dr. S. Singh, Jt. Director, NDRI, Karnal Member
3. Dr. R.S. Sharma, Dean, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Member
4. Dr. V.B. Singh, Dean, Dairy Science College, RAU, Bikaner Member
5. Dr. S.P. Agarawala, Head, D.E., NDRI, Karnal Member
6. Dr. D.N. Prasad, Head, D.M., NDRI, Karnal Member
7. Dr. B.N. Mathur, Jt. Director , NDRI, Karnal Invitee
8. Dr. Ajit Singh, Head, D.C. Div.NDRI, Karnal Invitee
9. Dr. S.K. Gupta, Head, D.T. NDRI, Karnal Invitee
10. Dr. Rajvir Singh, Head, DES&M, NDRI, Karnal Invitee
11. Prof. R.D. Verma, Registrar, NDRI, Karnal Invitee
12. Dr.B.D. Tiwari, Sr. Sci., DT, NDRI, Karnal Invitee
13. Dr.D.K. Jain, i/c Computer Centre, NDRI, Karnal Invitee
66
Annexure-II
List of participants in the Workshop of the BSMA Committee on Dairy Science for re-
structuring of Post Graduate course curricula and syllabi held on 2-3rd July, 1999 at
SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand, Gujrat.
1 Dr. S.L. Mehta, DDG9Edn). ICAR, New Delhi Chairman
2. Dr. S. Singh, Jt. Director, NDRI, Karnal Coordinator
3 Dr. N.L. Maurya, ADG(Acdn), ICAR, New Delhi Invitee
4. Dr. R.S.Sharma, Principal & Dean, College of Dairy Sci, Anand Member
5. Dr. V.B. Singh, Dean, College of Dairy Science, Udaipur Member
6 Dr. S.P. Agrawala, Head, Dairy Engineering, NDRI, Karnal Member
7. Dr. D.N. Prasad, Head, Dairy Microbiology, NDRI, Karnal Member
8. Dr. A.K. Bandhopadhyay, Dean, Faculty of Dairy Tech, Invitee
W.B. University, Mohanpur
9 Dr. Ajit Singh, Head, Dairy Chemistry Div., NDRI, Karnal Invitee
10 Dr.S.K. Gupta, Head, Technology Div., NDRI, Karnal Invitee
11 Dr. K.G. Upadhyay, Pro & Head , Dairy Tech.SMC, DSC, Anand Invitee
12. Dr. D.V. Venkateshiah, Pro.& Head, Dairy Tech, DSC, Invitee
UAS, Bangalor
13. Dr.C.R.Reddy, Prof. & Head, Dairy Tech, DSC, Tirupati Invitee
14 Dr. C.Singh, Pro.& Head ,Dept. of A.H. & D. CSA Univ.Kanpur Invitee
15 Dr. B.P. Shah, SMC College of Science, Anand Invitee
16 Dr. S.S. Sannabhadti, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Invitee
17 Dr. S.M. Patel, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Invitee
18 Dr. R.V. Sharma, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Invitee
19 Dr. P.N. Thakar, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Invitee
20 Prof. S.K. Dixit, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Invitee
67
Annexure III
Common Academic Regulations for Post Graduate Education in SAUs, DUs and CAU
S.No. Particulars Master's Degree Doctoral Degree
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1. System of Education Semester Semester
2. Semester duration 110 working days 110 working days
including examination including examination
days days
3. Duration of the program
(1) Minimum 4 Semesters 6 Semesters
(2 Academic Years) (3 Academic Years)
(2) Maximum 8 Semesters 12 Semesters
(4 Academic Years) (6 Academic Years)
4. Eligibility for admission (1) Bachelor's degree in (1) Master's degree in
respective/related respective/related
subjects subjects
(2) 7.0/10 or equivalent (2) 7.0/10 or equivalent
OGPA /equivalent OGPA /equivalent
percentage of marks percentage of marks
at Bachelor's degree at Master's degree
5. Mode of Admission Entrance -cum-Academic Entrance -cum-Academic
performance performance
Weightage (i) Entrance - 60% (i) Entrance - 60%
(ii) Undergraduate - 20% (ii) Masters degree - 30%
(iii) 12th standard - 10% (iii) Bachelor's degree - 10%
(iv) 10 standard - 10%
6. Minimum credit requirement
(1) Course work
Major* 20-25 Credits 10-15 Credits
Supporting 10-15 Credits 10-15 Credits
(outside discipline)
Sub Total 35 Credits 25 Credits
(2) Thesis 15 Credits 45 Credits
Total 50 Credits 70 Credits
* 1. Core courses to the extent of 9-12 credits for Masters and 3-5 credits for Doctoral programs have to be taken
up out of major courses.
68
7. Permissible work load 15 Credits/Semester 15 Credits/Semester
8. Attendance requirement 80% 80%
9. Advisory Committee 3 Members (Minimum) 4 Members (Minimum)
(2 from major area (3 from major area
including Chairman and including Chairman and
one from supporting areas) one from Supporting areas)
10. Examination
(1) Course Work
(i) Core courses External External
Final theory
(ii) Remaining Internal Internal
(2) Comprehensive qualifying Written Written
examination (after
completion of 75% of
Major and Supporting
Courses separately.
(i) Question paper setting External External
(ii) Evaluation Internal Internal
(iii) Viva-voce Internal External
(3) Research and Thesis **
(i) Evaluation External - 1 Examiner External - 2 Examiners
(ii) Viva-voce Internal - Advisory External - Advisory
Committee Committee with one
External Examiner
11. Grading
(1) Scale 10 Points 10 Points
(2) Minimum Passing Grade 6.00 Points 6.00 Points
in a course
(3) Minimum OGPA to obtain 6.50 Points 6.50 Points
degree
S.No. Particulars Master's Degree Doctoral Degree
(1) (2) (3) (4)
** 1. To be graded as Satisfactory (S) or Unsatisfactory (US)
2. Ph.D. students should write and submit two research papers on their research work in reputed journals
before submitting the thesis.