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Eirik G. Flekky

1

, Endre Hland

2

, and Knut Jrgen Mly

3

ABSTRACT

Natural electric field variations are measured at the sea

bottom over long periods of time by means of stationary,

vertical, and horizontal galvanic antennas. We compare

the power spectra of the vertical and horizontal field com-

ponents and the extent to which they may be reduced by

standard averaging techniques. Although the raw spectra

of the vertical and horizontal components do not differ

greatly, the difference in the spectra after averaging is sig-

nificantly greater. Most significantly, in the frequency range

between 0.0005 and 0.03 Hz, this averaging scheme sup-

presses the vertical electric field component more strongly

than the horizontal component.

INTRODUCTION

The electromagnetic signal that reaches the bottom of the sea is of

fundamental interest in a range of contexts. Although the field may

have an intrinsic interest, to the extent that it reveals the nature of its

sources, it is perhaps more commonly measured for the purpose of

revealing the geologic structure that affects it. In the case of mag-

netotellurics, the natural electromagnetic field variations are used to

detect resistive or conductive anomalies in the subsurface. This is

also the objective in the case of marine controlled-source electro-

magnetic measurements (CSEM) where a transmitter generates the

controlled field. The subsequent measurements rely on the resolu-

tion of a signal which must be stronger than the natural background

field. To achieve this, various averaging techniques are applied to

reduce the noise and enhance the signal to noise ratio. However, not

all frequencies of the noise may be removed. For this reason, the

noise in some ranges of frequency is efficiently removed, whereas

the noise in other frequency ranges survives. Our purpose in

this paper is to quantify and compare the effect of such averaging

procedures on the vertical and horizontal components of the sea

bottom electric field.

Electromagnetic noise has a wide variety of generating mechan-

isms. Magnetotelluric noise comes from electromagnetic activity in

the ionosphere as well as lightning around the earth. However, the

noise that reaches the sea bottom may be due to a large number of

mechanisms apart from this. E-field variations due to ocean surface

waves have been studied by many authors, including Longuett-

Higgins (1950), Weaver (1965), Sanford (1971), Podney (1975),

Cox et al. (1978), Chave (1984), Davey and Barwes (1985), and

Ochadlik (1989), and their effect typically enters below the fre-

quency of 0.1 Hz. In fact, any frequency component of an electro-

magnetic signal with frequency f that comes from the sea surface,

or sources above it, will be damped as e

z

where z is the depth and

the skin depth

f

0

p

. Here, is the sea water resistivity

and

0

the magnetic permittivity of vacuum. This implies that, at

any given depth, the field with frequencies above a certain threshold

frequency must have its origin in sources below the sea surface, or

in the measurement apparatus itself.

Long-term measurements of the electromagnetic effect of ocean

currents have been carried out by Liley et al. (2004), and the elec-

tromagnetic effect of internal waves have been analyzed by Petersen

and Poehls (1982) among others. A theory for the electromagnetic

effect of microseismics was put forward by Longuett-Higgins

(1950) 60 years ago, and the effect of Rayleigh-Stoneley waves

has been studied by Webb and Cox (1982). Recently, Hland et

al. (2012) demonstrated that ocean surface waves give rise to noise

mainly in the E

z

-component on the sea floor, whereas other sources

appear to dominate in the horizontal field components.

Only recently has it been possible to measure the relatively

weak vertical electric field component with any accuracy, because

even minute deviations from the vertical antenna orientation will

cause contamination of the signal. Our measurements are accurate

in resolving field strengths down to 0.5 nVm, and in terms of

verticality of the receiver antenna, as it is aligned with the direction

Manuscript received by the Editor 3 May 2011; revised manuscript received 29 May 2012; published online 26 September 2012.

1

Petromarker, Stavanger, Norway; and University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo, Norway. E-mail: e.g.flekkoy@fys.uio.no.

2

Petromarker, Stavanger, Norway. E-mail: endre.haland@petromarker.co.

3

University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo, Norway. E-mail: maloy@fys.uio.no.

2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

E391

GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 77, NO. 6 (NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2012); P. E391E396, 11 FIGS.

10.1190/GEO2011-0145.1

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of gravity to within 0.1. This allows for a separation between

horizontal and truly vertical field components, which, to our knowl-

edge, is unprecedented.

Generally, the removal of noise is easier outside the frequency

range of the transmitted signal (e.g., Zhdanov and Keller, 1994).

In frequency domain techniques, where the signal is transmitted at

some fixed frequencies, the frequency range is centered around

the few frequencies that are transmitted. In time domain techniques,

where measurements are done over a certain listening time, typically

28 s, in a silent transient period after the transmitter is shut off,

the troublesome frequency range is around the inverse listening time.

It is therefore of fundamental and technological interest to quantify

the effect of averaging techniques on the background noise.

There are many ways of reducing unwanted noise in an EM sig-

nal (e.g., Zhdanov and Keller, 1994). For instance, the long-range

correlation in the horizontal directions of the magnetotelluric signal

makes it possible to reduce noise by subtracting the signals at dif-

ferent receiver positions. In this paper, however, we focus on one

point measurements of the electromagnetic background field, with

particular emphasis on the relatively weak vertical component,

which, to our knowledge, has not been recorded with comparable

accuracy previously. To illustrate the effect of how noise may be

reduced by targeting certain correlation times, we perform a stack-

ing procedure of the data, and compare the results for the different

field components. The main conclusion of the paper is that, in the

frequency range between 0.0005 and 0.03 Hz, this averaging

scheme suppresses the vertical electric field component more

strongly than the horizontal component.

In the rest of the paper, we first carry out an analysis of only the

vertical component and introduce the averaging schemes. This ana-

lysis shows that binning efficiently removes noise only up to the

point where the binning time approaches the smallest relevant cor-

relation time. Then, a comparison based on power spectra is done

between the vertical and horizontal components. This comparison

demonstrates that, although the ratio of the power spectra is fairly

close to unity at high frequencies f > 0.05 Hz, the variance of the

horizontal component is larger than the corresponding quantities of

the vertical component by more than an order of magnitude.

MEASUREMENTS AND NOISE REMOVAL

The sea bottom measurements are obtained by the recently de-

veloped equipment of PetroMarker. This equipment is designed

mainly for the challenging measurements of the vertical field com-

ponent, which requires antennas that are carefully screened and

vertical to within 0.1.

The present data is acquired by means of 3- and 10-m-high tri-

pods positioned on the sea bottom from a ship at water depths of

d 106 to 122 m and d 313 m (see Holten et al., 2009). The

vertical tripod antenna is suspended like a pendulum with lead-

chloride electrodes at the extreme of this pendulum arm. This is

shown in the leftmost Figure 1. The rightmost Figure 1 shows

the screened pendulum with its fabric coating as it is ready to be

placed in the sea. The screening shields the antenna from hydrody-

namic forces, and is a key factor in ensuring verticality and in re-

ducing hydrodynamic noise. The horizontal antennas are located in

the base of the structure and the three sets of horizontal electrodes

are seen as white cylinders on the base poles. The electrodes as well

as the electronics, such as the analog-digital converter are identical

for the horizontal and vertical measurements. The electrode separa-

tion of the horizontal receivers is 4.9 m, or half the separation of

the vertical receivers. This translates to a factor of two between the

internal noise level of the horizontal and vertical electric field com-

ponents. However, it is observed that only in the high-frequency

range may the internal noise dominate and the contribution to

the signal variance comes from the low-frequency range. The instru-

ment noise in the voltage includes the basic, unavoidable Nyquist

noise, and has a roughly white spectrum with an amplitude of

10 nV

Hz

p

in the frequency range above 10 Hz. Below that,

the instrument noise includes electrode drift at the very low frequen-

cies and the instrument noise has a typical 1f

2

behavior. Under

favorable sea conditions, the low-frequency instrument noise

may be observed in the vertical component measurements. In all

measurements, the data are low-pass filtered to frequencies below

350 Hz. The vertical and horizontal E-field components are mea-

sured over a period of 40 hours and the power spectra are calculated.

Figure 2 shows a characteristic measurement of the vertical field

component taken while there is no transmission;

only the natural background noise. The data sam-

pling rate is a 1000 Hz. The noise has a wide

range of frequencies because there is the rapid

electronic noise, some oscillations with a period

of order 18 s, most likely caused by ocean waves

(see Hland et al., 2012), and an overall drift

in the data of roughly 100 nV, which is usually

associated with electrode drift. The noise causes

the field values to drift over more than

100 nVm in three minutes, but we require ac-

curacies around 1 nVm.

In the CSEM context, noise processing is done

by averaging. Although these averaging techni-

ques are motivated by time-domain, or transient,

pulsing systems, like those employed in the

Petromarker system, they are also well-suited

to remove high- and low-frequency components

in any measurements carried out over time at a

stationary position. The high-frequency noise

is reduced by binning, i.e., averaging in specified

time-windows. The low-frequency noise is

Figure 1. (a) Sketch of the 3-m tripod antenna structure and (b) the 10-m tripod. Both

antennas are covered by screening fabric.

E392 Flekky et al.

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reduced by stacking, which is a process that averages measurements

that are separated by longer times. Each such stack will eventually

be averaged itself, thus reducing the low-frequency noise further.

This averaging procedure is a direct average of identical and sub-

sequent pulse sequences carried out at the same location.

The stacking procedure is created to remove systematic drift in

the data. For this purpose, the transmitter signal changes sign so that

different signals may be subtracted, rather than added, during aver-

aging. Figure 3 shows the sampling functions used in this proce-

dure. This sampling function is just a graphical representation of

the so-called Thue-Morse sequence. The p

2

t sampling function,

for instance, defines a P2 sequence. It samples for a period T

1

, and

this corresponds to the listening time after the first transmitter sig-

nal. Then, after a larger time T

2

, the response to the inverted signal

is recorded and subtracted from the first. If ft is an arbitrary sig-

nal, then the P2 measurement is defined as

f

2

t p

2

0ft p

2

t T

2

ft T

2

1

2

ft ft T

2

: (1)

Likewise, the result of a P4 sequence is

f

4

t

1

2

f

2

t f

2

t T

4

; (2)

and so on. Now, if f

i

t is written as a Taylor series

f

i

t

X

n0

a

n

i

t t

0

n

(3)

it is easily seen that the Taylor series of f

i1

t is

f

i1

t

X

n0

1

2

a

n

i

t

n

a

n

i

t T

i1

n

; (4)

where the a

0

i

-term cancels, and the constant term is proportional to

a

1

i

. This means that every time i is increased by one, the constant

coefficient goes away and the coefficient of the linear term becomes

the constant coefficient. This means that if the signal has the form

ft a

0

a

1

t a

2

t

2

gt; (5)

with gt ot

3

, the constant term will be eliminated in f

2

t, the

linear term in f

4

t, and the quadratic term will be eliminated in

f

8

t. In other words, if gt is a rapidly varying function for which

the stacking is essentially just an averaging procedure, the stacking

eliminates the drift terms up to increasing order in time as the stack-

ing order increases. Correspondingly, when we replace the above

ft Et, then E

8

t will not carry the linear drift in the elec-

trode signals, or even the quadratic in time drift that would come

from a linear change in the drift rate. Figure 4 shows how P8 stack-

ing reduces the drift in the data. The black dots show the result of

stacking alone, and now the typical spread in the data is reduced to

10 nV. This spread is reduced further by averaging the data into

bins. When the bin size is increased from 100 to 1000, the spread

is not significantly decreased because now some slower oscillations

dominate the rms-spread in the signal. The black line shows the P8

stacking and binning of the signal from a 10-m tripod, and it is seen

that the variations are somewhat smaller in this case. The 3- and

10-m tripods are very close, and the interesting observation in

the figure is that the low-frequency oscillations appear to be in

phase, indicating that the oscillations are not linked to the tripods

themselves but the external fields. The frequency is consistent with

that of surface sea waves with a wavelength of roughly 500 m

(Hland et al., 2012). The binning and the P8 averaging are carried

out as so-called running averages. More specifically, the binning

around a time t is defined as

E

B

t

1

N

B

X

N

B

21

iN

B

2

Et it; (6)

where N

B

is the number of measurements per bin and t is the

time-step, which is normally 1 ms. Similarly, the P8 stacking

may be done for every t so that there is no loss in the number

of t-values in these averaging steps. Note, additionally, that the

binning and stacking procedures are linear, so that the order in

Figure 2. Raw data: The vertical electric field component E

z

mea-

sured by a 3-m tripod at 300-m water depth during a routine test.

The red line shows a linear fit to the data.

2

t

p (t)

2

t

p (t)

t

p (t)

4

8

T

T

8

T

4

Figure 3. The sampling functions defining the different P2, P4, and

P8 sequences.

Low-frequency E-field variations E393

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which they are applied is immaterial. The shift times T

8

2T

4

4T

2

8T

1

where T

1

3 s, so that the entire P8 sequence is over in

48 s. When the running average is applied, one must make sure that

there are at least 48 seconds of additional data beyond the last point

of averaging.

In the last averaging step, however, there is a reduction of the

number of data points by a factor of N

S

, where N

S

is the number

of P8 sequences needed to cover the data set. This is seen in

Figure 5, where time only runs over slightly less than a minute,

and where a P4-averaged signal is added. In the P8 case, the average

is over three sequences, whereas the P4 averaging correspondingly

allows for an average over six sequences. There is no striking qua-

litative difference between the P8 and P4 graphs. Apart from the

somewhat more erratic nature of the P4 curve, the variance, which

we eventually shall use as an estimate of the error bar, is almost the

same for the two curves. The error bar in measured E

z

-signals may

be estimated as the rms deviations in the signal after all the aver-

aging steps are carried out. This may be computed from the signals

shown in Figure 5. In Figure 6, the rms-variations in the stacked/

binned/stack-averaged data of Figure 5 and the stacked/binned data

of Figure 4 are shown. The reduction in noise due to the averaging

over the three subsequent stack sequences is consistent with the

1

3

p

-factor that would result from independent, random measure-

ments. On the other hand, the decay of the error bar with N

B

is

slower than what would result from uncorrelated noise. In the case

of uncorrelated (white) noise, the decay would go as 1

N

B

p

. How-

ever, it is clear from Figure 4 that there is a correlation time given by

the quasiperiodic oscillations. As a result, little improvement of the

error bar is achieved by increasing N

B

beyond 100.

POWER SPECTRUM IN THE

LOW-FREQUENCY DOMAIN

Magnetotelluric noise appears largely in the horizontal E-field

components. This follows directly from Maxwells equations and

the large scale-separation between the thickness and the horizontal

dimensions of the atmosphere. This may be deduced from the fol-

lowing well-known argument. Neglecting displacement currents be-

low the sea surface, where they only contribute in the very high-

frequency part of the signal, the combination of Ohms law and

Maxwells equations imply that E H, where is the resis-

tivity and E and H are the electric and magnetic field. This means

that the vertical field component E

z

H

y

x H

x

y and a

horizontal component takes the form E

x

H

z

y H

y

z.

Because, on the scale of the earth, the ionosphere is essentially a

very thin layer, the derivatives are larger in the vertical than in

the horizontal directions and H

y

z H

x

y or H

y

x. For

this reason, E

z

E

x

or E

y

. Figure 7 shows the power spectra of

the vertical and horizontal field components. Although both spectra

may be fitted by a 1f

2

function, the vertical spectrum comes much

Figure 4. The vertical electric field component E

z

after P8 stacking

(black dots) and stacking and binning (colored graphs). The size of

the binning windows are 10 (red), 100 (green), and 1000 (blue)

measurement points. The data are the same as in Figure 2 (3-m

tripod) except for the black line which shows data from a nearby

10-m tripod, stacked and binned in bins of 1000 points.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time (s)

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

E

z

(

t

)

(

n

V

/

m

)

Figure 5. The black line shows the same 10-m tripod data as in

Figure 4, but averaged over three consecutive P8 stacks. The red

line shows the result of averaging the same data in six consecutive

P4 stacks.

0 1 2 3 4

log

10

(N

B

)

9

8.5

8

l

o

g

1

0

(

z

/

(

n

V

/

m

)

)

Figure 6. The E

z

-error bars for the 3-m tripod (red) and a 10-m

tripod (black) as a function of the size of the binning window

N

B

. Open symbols showthe P8-stacked and binned results, whereas

filled symbols show the results of binning, stacking, and averaging

over three stacks. The line shows a slope of 12.

E394 Flekky et al.

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closer to such a fit than the horizontal spectrum. Figure 8 shows that

the magnitude of the ratio j

^

E

z

f

^

E

x

fj

2

of the two spectra is not

very far from unity. However, after P8 averaging, the separation

becomes much larger. When it is employed together with binning,

it leaves only the noise in the intermediate frequencies. In other

words, only the correlation times that are of the order of the duration

of the whole P8 sequence are removed.

To understand Figure 9 we need to identify the Fourier filter func-

tion that corresponds to the stacking procedure given in equation 1.

First, when Fourier transformed equation 1 gives

^

f

2

1

2

Z

dte

it

f

2

t

1

2

1 e

iT

^

f: (7)

Because 1 e

iT

2 e

iT2

sinT2, we can make the same

calculations for the Fourier transforms of equation 2 to get f

4

and

f

8

, and this eventually gives the power spectrum

j

^

f

8

j

2

sin

2

T

8

2sin

2

T

4

2sin

2

T

2

2j

^

fj

2

;

(8)

or, if we set T

2

T, T

4

2T and T

8

4T, as is done in the actual

transmitter pulses, we get

j

^

f

8

j

2

sin

2

2Tsin

2

Tsin

2

T2j

^

fj

2

: (9)

If this formula is applied to the electric field, we immediately get

jE

8

j

2

sin

2

2Tsin

2

Tsin

2

T2jEj

2

; (10)

where jEj

2

is the spectrum of the measured vertical or horizontal

field components shown in Figure 7. Some care is needed in

obtaining the theoretical curve in Figure 9, most notably the re-

moval of the linear drift in the data. If the data ft is sampled over

a time window from t 0 to t , then this drift removal amounts

to the transformation ft ft f f0t before the

Fourier transform is taken. This procedure ensures we may ignore

the boundary terms that come from the fact that in equation 7 the

time integration is actually only over a finite domain. In Figure 9,

we see a general agreement between this theory and measurements.

The red and blue power spectra in Figure 9 are calculated by taking

the Fourier transforms after the P8 averaging. Figure 10 shows how

the standard deviation varies with the length T of the individual (P1)

parts of the P8 sequence. The index 1 on

1

refers to the fact that

only one P8 sequence is involved and that no averages over sub-

sequent sequences are taken.

For a random walk signal (which has a 1f

2

spectrum), one

would expect

1

T

12

behavior, which is indeed what the z-com-

ponent

1

shows. The x-component

1

, on the other hand, shows a

behavior with a more complex kind of correlation. Figure 11 shows

the variance

2

as a function of the number N of P8 sequences used

to compute it for the vertical (Figure 11, left figure) and horizontal

(Figure 11, right figure) field components. The 1N behavior would

Figure 7. The power spectrum of the vertical (green) and horizontal

(blue) field components.

Figure 8. The ratio j

^

E

z

f

^

E

x

fj of the two spectra as a function

of frequency.

Figure 9. The power spectra of the vertical and horizontal field

components after P8 stacking/averaging.The black full curve shows

the theoretical result based on equation 10 and the data in Figure 7.

Low-frequency E-field variations E395

Downloaded 09 Oct 2012 to 193.157.137.66. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://segdl.org/

result if the electric field values were entirely independent from one

P8 sequence to the next.

CONCLUSION

We have analyzed the sea bottom electric background field and

compared the horizontal and vertical field components, in terms of

their power spectra, and in terms of their variance. The variance,

which we take to be the error bar in our measurements, is about

an order of magnitude smaller for the vertical field component than

the horizontal one, in spite of the fact that it is the vertical compo-

nent that mainly shows an effect of ocean surface waves.

The removal of high-frequency noise is done by standard bin-

ning, i.e., a running average carried out over N

B

subsequent

data-points. As expected, the variance behaves as that of an uncor-

related signal up to the point where the averaging times approach

the shortest correlation times. We found that the effect of the P8

averaging procedure on the power spectrum may be represented

by a simple multiplicative function as long as the signal is prepro-

cessed by removing the linear drift in it. Although this filter function

is just a direct consequence of the Fourier transform procedure, it

may be useful in optimizing the noise removal.

As a general conclusion of our measurements, we have observed

that the electromagnetic noise is significantly larger in the horizon-

tal, than in the vertical E-field components. Moreover, the type of

correlations that exist in the vertical and horizontal spectra causes

the P8 averaging procedure, which is designed to remove low-fre-

quency noise, to be more effective for the vertical, than the horizon-

tal components. The vertical field component has a cleaner 1f

2

spectrum at low frequencies, which is a signature of the same (lack

of) correlations that one finds in a classical random walk, or in nor-

mal, diffusive Brownian motion.

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Zhdanov, M., and G. Keller, 1994, The geoelectric methods in geophysical

exploration: Elsevier.

Figure 11. The variance

2

as a function of the number N of P8 sequences used to

compute it for the (a) vertical and (b) horizontal field components. The 1N behavior

is shown by the stapled line.

Figure 10. The standard deviation

1

for the vertical (blue curve)

and horizontal (green curve) field components, measured as a func-

tion of the period T of the P8 sequence.

E396 Flekky et al.

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