You are on page 1of 6

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Vol ume 4, Issue 1, January-2013 1

ISSN 2229-5518

IJ SER 2013
http://www.ijser.org

Analysis of the Techniques for Reducing PAPR in
the OFDM System.
Medha Vijayvargia ,Mamta Sood, Varsha Rajoria


Abstract Ort hogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is an eff icient method of dat a transmi ssion for high speed communi cat ion.
It is a wireless appl ication. PAPR reduces the system eff ici ency and hence increases the cost of the radio frequency (RF) power ampl ifi er. In
this paper, we analysi s PAPR reduci ng method that include STM, PTS,clipping and diff erenti al by using si mul ati on and result compari sons i n
a tabl e.

Key Words - OFDM, PAPR, Sel ect ive Mapping (SLM), Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS), Cumul ative Di stribution Functi on (CCDF), Clipping
and Diff erential Method.


I . I NTRODUCTI ON
Orthogonal Frequency Di vi si on Mul ti pl exi ng
(OFDM) i s a mul ti carri er modul ati on (MCM) technique whi ch
seems to be an attracti ve candi date for Fourth Generati on
(4G) wirel ess communi cati on System. Orthogonal Frequency
Di vi si on Mul ti pl exi ng (OFDM) posses several desi rabl e
attri butes, such as i mmuni ty to the i nter-symbol I nterface(I SI ),
robustness wi th respect to mul ti -path fadi ng, and abi li ty for
hi gh data rates. Thus OFDM has been proposed i n vari ous
wi rel ess communi cati on standard such as I EEE 802-11a
standard for wi rel ess Local Area Network (WLAN), I EEE-16a
Standard for wi rel ess Metro pol i ti ci an Area Network
(WMAN), di gi tal audi o/vi deo broadcasti ng, Terrestri al
Di gi tal Vi deo Broadcasti ng, Terrestri al Di gi tal Vi deo
Broadcasti ng HI PERLAN/2 Standard and hi gh speed cel lul ar
data[1].
However OFDM System suffers from seri ous
probl em of hi gh PAPR which ari ses as a consequence of the
coherent addi ti on of Mul ti pl e Sub-carri er Ampl i tudes &
Phases from the System. A l arge PAPR li mi ts the range of
Li near[1].Operati on of power ampl i fi er i n transmi tter; thi s
reduces the effi ci ency of the system. I t al so i ncreases the
compl exi ty of Anal ogue-to-di gi tal and di gi tal -to-analogue
convertors i n wi rel ess system [1], [2].
Several researchers have proposed schemes for
reduci ng Peak ampl i tude such as cl i ppi ng, compandi ng,
i nterl eavi ng, Acti ve constel l ati on Extensi on (ACE), Parti al

Medha Vijyavrgia, currently pursuing masters degreeprogram in digital
communicationv( MTECH-DC) from Tit college, RGPV university,
india,medhavargiya@gmail.com
Mamta Sood and Varsha Rajoria hod of E& C depart. And prof. in tit college.

Transmi t Sequence Turbo Coded OFDM etc. The transmi tted
si gnal i s the combi nati on of a number of si nusoi ds whi ch can
add coherentl y and resul t i n a hi gh peak magni tude but the
average val ue of the si gnal mi ght be l ow due to destructi ve
i nterference and therefore the PAPR rati on i s hi gh[3]
PAPR resul ts i n hi gh power consumpti on and l ower
effici ency and i s hence undesi rabl e.
The scheme of mi ti gati ng PAPR that have been expl ai n i n thi s
paper i s -
A. Sel ecti ve Mappi ng (SLM)
B. Parti al Transmi t Sequence (PTS)
C. Cl i ppi ng and di fferenti al
The paper i s organi zed as fol l ows-
I n secti on (II ) we di scuss the basi c OFDM System and PAPR.
I n secti on (I II ), we expl ai n the Techniques for Reduci ng
PAPR. Secti on (A) el aborated sel ecti ve Mappi ng (SLM),
Secti on (B) expl ai ns Parti al Transmi t Sequence (PTS) and
cl i ppi ng wi th Differenti al Method i s di scuss i n Secti on (C).
Secti on (I V) i ncludes the si mul ati on resul ts and compari son of
these techni ques. I n secti on (V) the conclusi on i s drawn.

I I . OFDM System and PAPR Reducti on

Orthogonal Frequency di vi si on mul ti pl exi ng i s a
form of mul ti carri er modul ati on technique wi th hi gh data
rate effi ci ency, robustness to channel fadi ng, i mmuni ty to
i mpul se i nterference. Owi ng to these features i t i s bei ng
wi del y used i n wi rel ess communi cati on and bei ng consi dered
for upcomi ng 4G [2].
I n OFDM system, the data stream i s broken i nto a
number of sets, each bei ng modul ated onto a separate
orthogonal carri er. The si gnal s are then converted to ti me
domai n by sui ng I nverse Fouri er Transform [I FFT]. I FFT al so
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Vol ume 4, Issue 1, January-2013 2
ISSN 2229-5518

IJ SER 2013
http://www.ijser.org

ensures orthogonal i ty of the carri ers. A cycli c prefix i s added
i n order to reduce i nter-symbol i nterference.[2]
A basi c OFDM transmi tter i s shown i s shown i n
fi g.1. The baseband modul ated symbol s are passed through
S/p converter whi ch generates compl ex vector of si ze N & Let
use defi ne N symbol s i n OFDM as
{xn, n=0,1,.............,N-1}[10]


OFDM Di agram


The compl ex baseband representati on of a mul ti carri er si gnal
consi sti ng of N subcarri ers i s gi ven by :


where j i s the subcarri er spaci ng and NT denotes the useful
data bl ock peri od. I n OFDM system the subcarri ers are
assumed to be mutual l y orthogonal
The PAPR i s defi ned by :



where E[.] denotes expectati on. The compl ementary
cumul ati ve di stri buti on functi on (CCDF) of the PAPR i s one
of the most frequentl y used performance measurers for PAPR
a reducti on techni ques. The CCDF of the PAPR denotes the
Probabi li ty that the PAPR of a data bl ock exceeds a gi ven
threshol d. The CCDF of the PAPR denotes the probabi l ity
that the PAPR of a data bl ock exceeds a gi ven threshol d. The
cumul ati ve di stri buti on functi on(CCDF) of the Ampl i tude of
a si gnal sampl e i s gi ven by [1]:



The CCDF of the PAPR of a data bl ock wi th Nyqui st rate
sampl i ng i s desi red as:

I II . TECHNI QUES FOR REDUCI NG PAPR

A. Sel ecti ve Mappi ng (SLM)

The sel ecti ve Mappi ng[SLM] scheme i s one of the
most effecti ve PAPR reducti on scheme i n OFDM system. SLM
scheme can achi eve several deci bel of PAPR reducti on and
hence si gnifi cantl y i mproves the transmi ssi on power
effici ency [7].
SLM technique i s a probabi l i sti c technique for PAPR
reducti on wi th the ai m of reduci ng the occurrence of peaks i n
a si gnal [2]. I n thi s techni que a set of candi date si gnal s i s
generated. Before transmi tti ng the si gnal , i ts PAPR i s
calcul ated and the one wi th l east val ue of PAPR i s
transmi tted. Thi s techni que can handl e any number of
carri ers but the onl y di sadvantage i s i ncreased computati onal
compl exi ty and i ncreased over heads si de i nformati on [2]

A bl ock di agram of SLM technique i s shown i n fi g 2.

.fi g.2
The transmi tted data vector represented by
D=[D(0),D(1).........................D(N-1)]where N i s the number of
subcarri ers, are generated by mul ti pl exi ng a phase codes
represented by.
P=[P(0), P(1)].................................P(N-1)]el ement wi se i n
frequency domai n to the ori gi nal i nput data modul ated
vector.
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Vol ume 4, Issue 1, January-2013 3
ISSN 2229-5518

IJ SER 2013
http://www.ijser.org

d=[d(0), d(1)..............................d(N-1)]. Fi nal l y the OFDM
si gnal wi th l east PAPR i s transmi tted[2].
As shown i n the fi g.2
Stephane and samer [8] have proposed a
SLM techni que wi thout si de i nformati on. Thi s method takes
i nto account the i ncrease i n average energy wi th PAPR
reducti on whi ch i s i denti cal to that of cl assi cal SLM. A
recursi ve sel ected Mappi ng (RSLN) for PAPR reducti on has
been proposed by Li ngyi ng and Yewen[8],where the PAPR
reducti on has been a Li ttl e better than that of SLM wi th hi gh
reducti on i n computati onal compl exi ty. Xiaowen and
Si ungmi n[8] have proposed a l ook-up tabl e method (LUT) by
maki ng use of the feature that the PAPR performance i s
i ndependent of modul ati on Schemes i n normal OFDM. Thi s
method shows the regul ati ons of sel ecti ve effi ci ent phase
rotati on Factors. I t proves a way of achi evi ng the most
effici ent PAPR performance for SHM-OFDM, but li mi ted to
FFT si ze 8.

B. Parti al Transmi t Sequences (PTS)

Parti al Transmi t Sequence (PTS) al gori thm i s a
technique for i mprovi ng the stacti cs of a mul ti carri er si gnal .
The basi c i dea of Parti al transmi t sequences al gori thm is to
di vi de the ori gi nal OFDM sequence[6] i nto several sub-
sequences and for each sub-sequences mul ti pl i ed by different
wei ghts unti l an opti mum val ue i s chosen[6].


Fi g.3 Bl ock Di agram of PTS Techniques.

The data stream i s parti ti oned i nto non-
overl appi ng sub bl ocks of equal si ze. each sub bl ock i s
mul ti pl i ed by a wei ght. The wei ght i s chosen as per convi nce
and a hi t and tri al method i s used to obtai n the wei ghts to
opti mi ze the al gori thm. The si de i nformati on must be
provi ded at the recei ver [2].it i s descri bed i n [2] as:
Let {Xn:n=0,1,2.....................N-1} be a vector, then
X=[x0,x1..........................M], such that x i s the uni on of al l these
sets[]. A bl ock di agram i s shown i n fi g.

The objecti ve of thi s approach i s to form a wei ghted
combi nati on of the M cl usters.

Where {bm, m=1,2.........................M} are wei ghti ng factors. The
ti me domai n transform I FFT of X i s x:

Xm i s cal l ed the parti al transmi t sequence. The phase factors
are then chosen to mi ni mi ze the PAPR [3].
Parti al Transmi t Sequence (PTS) method i s a
wel l known method whi ch can reduce the OFDM PAPR
val ue. A major drawback of PTS method i s i ts hi gh
computati onal compl exi ty due to the necessi ty of Large
number of i nverse Fast Fouri er Transform (I FFT) [7].
HSA Harmony Search Approach: The researchers
i ntroduce HSA approach to PAPR reducti on based on the
PTS. The HSA i s i nspi red from musi cal process of searchi ng
for a perfect state of harmony [6]. Thi s search al gori thm had
been very successful i n a wi de vari ety of opti mi zati on
probl ems, presenti ng several advantages wi th respect to
tradi ti onal opti mi zati on techni que [6]. The pri vi l ege of HSA i s
i ts few mathemati cal requi rements and not requi ri ng i ni ti al
val ue setti ngs of the deci si on vari abl es.
An i mproved harmony Anneal i ng (HAS-PTS)
method i s proposed to search the sub opti mal combi nati on of
phase factors, thus achi eve the si gnal wi th Low PAPR. I ts
si mul ati ons resul ts shows that HAS-PTS techni que coul d
achi eve perfect bal ance between PAPR reducti on
Performance and computati onal compl exi ty compared wi th
the conventi onal PTS techni ques [6]

D. Cl i ppi ng and differential (C & D)
Cli ppi ng: I n cl i ppi ng, we can perform
ti me-domai n based cl i ppi ng or frequency-domai n based
codi ng. The Si mpl est approach for PAPR reducti on is to
del i beratel y cli p the ampl i tude of the si gnal to a predefi ned
val ued for ampl i ficati on. However, there are several
drawbacks of thi s approach, such as si gnal di storti on and
spectral re-growth. Hence si mpl e cl i ppi ng i s not enough, we
have to use codi ng techni ques that are appl i ed to OFDM
si gnal s i s order to fi nd the opti mum threshol d for every
speci fi c si gnal [12] However, thi s technique works wel l onl y
when the number of sub carri ers i s smal l , because at higher
sub carri ers the cli ppi ng rati o i s to be very l ow whi ch wi l l
l ead to more di storti on and deterred the BER[9][12]
Cli ppi ng & diffrenti al scali ng i s
proposed i n [ 13] whi ch author[ ] proposed that i nstead of
cl i ppi ng the si gnal further to reduce the PAPR, we consi der a
reversi bl e process- Di fferenti al scal i ng which woul d reduce
the PAPR but not deteri orate the BER, Si nce different ranges
of ampl i tudes of the si gnal are scal ed i n a different ranges of
ampl i tudes of the si gnal are scal ed i n a different ranges of
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Vol ume 4, Issue 1, January-2013 4
ISSN 2229-5518

IJ SER 2013
http://www.ijser.org

ampl i tudes of the si gnal are scal ed i n a different manner, i t i s
call ed differential scali ng[13] They have consi der three types
of scal i ng
1. Scal e up
2. Scal e down
3. Scal e up and down

1. Scal e up : I n thi s method, we scal e up the l ower ampl i tudes
of the si gnal by a factor of B. Thi s l eads to i ncrease the
average val ue wi thout affecti ng the peak val ues. Therefore,
the resul ti ng PAPR reduces [13].The PAPR reducti on functi on
can be defi ned as



where as i s the ampl i tude peak val ue, a i s the factor
deci di ng the cli ppi ng threshol d i s the scal i ng factor for the
range[o, a] whose val ue i s greater than one.

2. Scal e Down: I n thi s method, we scal e down the hi gher
ampl i tudes of the si gnal by a factor of Y. Thi s l eads to
decrease the peak val ue. Al though the average val ue woul d
al so fall down, the resul ti ng PAPR reduces [10] Because the
reducti on i n peak power i s greater than the reducti on i n the
average power [12][13] The PAPR reducti on functi on can be
defi ned as




where xp i s the ampl i tude peak val ue occurri ng i n an OFDM
symbol bl ock, x i s the factor deci di ng the cl i ppi ng threshol d
i n terms of percentage of the peak val ue and Y i s the scal i ng
factor whose val ue i s l ess than one.

3. Scal e up and Down : I n thi s method, we combi ne both the
above menti oned approach i .e. up-scal i ng and down -scal i ng.
Thi s method expl oi ts the advantages of both the methods
[13][12]Hence, a PAPR can be reduced consi derabl y. The
PAPR reducti on functi on can be defi ned as



where i s the ampl i tude peak val ue occurri ng i n an OFDM
symbol bl ock, x i s the factor deci di ng the cl i ppi ng threshol d
i n terms of percentage of the peak val ue, bi ta i s the scal i ng
factor for the range[O,A] [12] [13].
I t has been studi ed that the BER of cl i ppi ng technique
i s 7 ti mes hi gher than that of the proposed techni que at 10dB
SNR[12]. Thus the cl i ppi ng & Differenti al scal i ng i s better as
compare to the other cl i ppi ng or compandi ng techni que i n
terms of the PAPR reducti on achi eved at the correspondi ng
BER performance.

!V. SI MULATI ON AND COMPARI SI ON

I n our MATLAB Si mul ati ons we have consi dered a
system wi th a bi t stream of 16384 bi ts and the modul ati on
technique used i s BPSK. I n case of PAPR si mul ati on for
normal OFDM, the bi t stream i s di vi ded i nto 64 carri ers wi th
256 bi ts per carri er. The CCDF (Compl ementary Cumul ati ve
Di stri buti on Functi on) pl ot for thi s i s shown i n fi g.4

Fi g.4. CCDF Pl ot for OFDM
I n case of SLM, the bit stream i s di vi ded i nto 64
carri ers wi th 256 bi ts per carri er. Each carri er i s further
di vi ded i nto 4 sub carri ers wi th 64 bi ts each
The CCDF pl ot of thi s techni que i s shown i n fi g.5

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Vol ume 4, Issue 1, January-2013 5
ISSN 2229-5518

IJ SER 2013
http://www.ijser.org

Fi g.5. CCDF pl ot for SLM
PTS i s al so si mi l ar to OFDM i n terms of the number of
carri ers and bi t per carri er. The CCDF pl ot to thi s technique i s
shown i n fi g.6.

Fi g.6.CCDF pl ot for PTS

Fi g.7. Compari son of PAPR performance (CCDF) of cl i ppi ng
and Differenti al Scal i ng wi th the CCDF of ori gi nal OFDM
Si gnal

Tabl e:1. Compari son of SLM, PTS, CLI PPI NG, CLI PPI NG
AND DI FFERENCI AL techniques of PAPR reducti on.
Techni que Di storti on Data
l oss
Compl exi ty Prob. of
PA
PR>
7DB
OFDM No No Low 0.4688
SLM No Yes Medi um 0.0937
PTS No Yes Medi um 0.1406
Cl i ppi ng Yes
Cl i ppi ng &
Differential
Scali ng
up down medi um 8.5 db
from
12db
PAPR

V1. CONCLUSI ON

We anal yzed vari ous techniques for reduci ng PAPR i n OFDM
and compared thei r characteri sti cs. I n case of normal OFDM
the probabi l i ty of PAPR greater than 7db i s 46.88%.whereas i n
case of SLM the probabi l ity of PAPR greater then 7db fal l s
down to 9.37% .
I t has been studi ed that the BER of cl i ppi ng technique i s 7
ti mes hi gher than that of the proposed techni que at 10dB
SNR[2]. Thus the Cl i ppi ng & Di fferenti al scal i ng i s better as
compare to the other cl i ppi ng or compandi ng techni que i n
terms of the PAPR reducti on achi eved at the correspondi ng
BER performance.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Thi s work has been gui ded and supported by TI T Col lege,
Bhopal , I ndi a.

REFERENCES

[1] Rezgui cherif" A PAPR reducti on technique based on
gol ay sequence and fracti onal Fouri er transform for OFDM
system" I EEE Transacti on Broadcasti ng 2012,12,978-1-4577-
1719-2.

[2] Bhatnagar Smri ti "Comparati ve Anal ysi s of the Techniques
for Reduci ng PAPR i n OFDM".

[3] Hari s Gacani n and Fumi yuki Adachi , Sel ecti ve Mappi ng
wi th Symbol Re-Mappi ng For OFDM/TDM Usi ng MMSE-
FDE, 68
th
I EEE Vehicul ar Technol ogy Conference (VTC-
Fal l ),Cal gary, BC, September 2008.

[4] Lenard J. Ci mni ,jr., and Nel son R. Sol l enberger. Peak To
Average Power Rati o Reducti on of an OFDM Si gnal Usi ng
Parti al Transmi t Sequence, I EEE Communi cati on
Letters,Vol .4 no. 3,pp. 86-88, New Jersey,March 2000.

[5] V. Vijayarangan. Dr. (MRS) R. Sukanesh, Overvi ew of the
Techni ques for Reduci ng Peak to average Power and i ts
Sel ecti on Cri teri a for Orthogonal Frequency Di visi on
Mul ti pl exi ng Radi o System, Journal of Theoreti cal and
Appl i ed I nformati on Technol ogy, vol . 5,no. 1, pp. 25-35 2009.

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Vol ume 4, Issue 1, January-2013 6
ISSN 2229-5518

IJ SER 2013
http://www.ijser.org

[6] Kermani Mei rnand Emad, " PAPR Reducti on of OFDM
si gnal s usi ng Harmony search Al gorith" I EEE transacti on
GGBroadcasti ng 2011, 11, 978-1-4577-0024-8

[7] Saad W, " An effecti ve desi gned prototype Techni que for
OFDM PAPR Reducti on usi ng FPGA" I EEE Transacati on
Broadcasti ng, 2012, 12, 978-1-4673-0484-9.
[8] Sharma, P.K. "Performance Anal ysi s of Peak - to- Average
power Rati o-Reducti on Technique for wi rel ess
Communi cati on usi ng OFDM Si gnal s" I EEE Transacti on
Broadcasti ng 2010, 10, 978-0-7965-4201-0.


[9] R.S.Sheratt and O.Cadenas. J, A Doubl e Data Rate
Architecture for OFDM Based Wi rel ess Consumer Devi ces,
I EEE Transacti on on Consumer El ectroni cs,vol .56,
no.1,frequency 2010,pp.23-26.

[10] Y.Wu and W. Y. Zou, Orthogonal Frequency Di visi on
mul ti pl exi ng a mul ti -carri er modul ati on scheme , I EEE
Trancsati on on Consumer El ectron ,Aug.1995.

[11]A. Jha, Md. Tariq Hasan, and S.M., Reducti on of PAPR i n
OFDM: A novel approach based on cl i ppi ng and
ampl i fi cati on, I EEE Computer Soci ety ,2009.

[12]Arasu Vennial C "PAPR Reducti on for I mprovi ng
Performance of OFDM System", I EEE Transacti on Broadcast
2010, 10, 978-1-4244-7770-8

[13] Aggrawal Adi tya," PAPR reducti on i n OFDM Systems :
A si mpl e approach based on cl i ppi ng and Di fferential scali ng"
I EEE transacti on Broadcasti ng 2011, 11, 978-1-4244-9190-2

[14]. J.Ki m and Y.Shi ng " An effecti ve cl i pped compandi ng
scheme for PAPR , Reducti on of OFDM si gnal s"
Communi cati ons, 2008, I CC 08.I EEE i nternati onal conference
i n Beiji ng May 2008.