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DOSHION Boiler Feed Water Treatment

Boiler Feed Water Treatment 1
Contents

Page
Contents ................................................................................................................................................................ 1
1.0 Basics for Boiler Operation............................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 Steam Boilers................................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1.1 Boiler Water Quality Requirements for Steam and Large Chamber Boilers .................................................... 4
1.2 Warm Water Boilers......................................................................................................................................... 5
1.2.1 Estimated Values for Low Pressure and High Pressure Warm Water Producers for Boiler Temperatures
above 100 C................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.0 Boiler Feed Water Treatment ........................................................................................................................... 6
2.1 Feed Water Quality Requirements.................................................................................................................... 6
2.2 Softening.......................................................................................................................................................... 7
2.3 Soda Splitting................................................................................................................................................... 7
2.4 Decarbonization ............................................................................................................................................... 8
2.5 Reverse Osmosis............................................................................................................................................. 9
2.6 Demineralization Plants.................................................................................................................................. 11
2.6.1 Cation Exchangers ...................................................................................................................................... 12
2.6.2 CO
2
- Degasifier .......................................................................................................................................... 12
2.6.3 Anion Exchangers ....................................................................................................................................... 12
2.6.4 Mixed Bed Exchangers............................................................................................................................... 13
3.0 Degasifiers..................................................................................................................................................... 14
3.1 Basics ............................................................................................................................................................ 14
3. 2 Thermal Degasifiers ...................................................................................................................................... 14
3. 3 Spray Degasifier ........................................................................................................................................... 15
3.4 Vacuum Degasifiers ...................................................................................................................................... 16
3.5 Removal of Oxygen by Ion Exchange............................................................................................................. 16
4.0 Dosing Systems ............................................................................................................................................. 17
4.1 Basics for Dosing............................................................................................................................................ 17
4.2 Dosing at salt-free Operation.......................................................................................................................... 17
4.3 Dosing in Food Operations ............................................................................................................................. 17












DOSHION - Boiler Feed Water Treatment

Boiler Feed Water Treatment 2
4.4 Oxygen Binding Media....................................................................................................................................17
4.4.1 Sodium Sulphite ..........................................................................................................................................17
4.4.2 Hydrazine ....................................................................................................................................................17
4.4.3 Other Dosing Chemicals ..............................................................................................................................17
5.1 Condensate Filtration......................................................................................................................................17
5.2 Removal of Iron/Residual Hardness................................................................................................................17
5.3 Removal of Silicic Acid...................................................................................................................................17
5.4 Condensate Deoiling.......................................................................................................................................18











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DOSHION Boiler Feed Water Treatment

Boiler Feed Water Treatment 3
1. Basics for Boiler Operation

1.1 Steam Boilers

Why does boiler feed water have to
be treated?

Steam boilers have - as shown in
the diagram - a water chamber with
a heating tube. By heating this tube
the water is heated and evaporates.

The arising steam consists of pure
water, i.e. H2O. Salts practically
cannot dissolve in this steam. (Ex-
ception: SiO2 in high-pressure
boilers).

The water provided from the water
treatment plant is free from undis-
solved matter, like iron, manganese
etc. and is acceptable as drinking
water. But, in naturally available
water different salts are dissolved.
That means they cannot be filtered
mechanically. These salts enrich
concentrate in the boiler water, this
is known as evaporation. Problems
can develop, depending on the type
of salts present in the feed water.

The most common salt types pre-
sent in water are alkaline earths,
also called hardness formers.

In terms of boiler feed water, one
talks about total hardness and car-
bonate hardness, or the alkalinity of
the water. When heating the water,
hardness precipitation and boiler
scaling occur from both hardness
forms. This precipitation leads to
the formation of sediments at the
heating surfaces in the boiler. It
builds up on pipe walls and causes
plugging of the pipes, hinders the
heat transfer from the heating pipes
to the water and finally causes
overheating and destruction.

In order to avoid this, the boiler feed
water must have a hardness of 5
10 ppm.

Sediment
Outlet
Steam Outlet
Feed Water Inlet
STEAM BOILER
Fig. 1 : Steam Boiler Schematic Drawing













DOSHION - Boiler Feed Water Treatment

Boiler Feed Water Treatment 4
Neutral salts in the boiler water
must be at a very low concentra-
tion, since salt content of approx.
5000-10000 S/Cm can lead to
particles being carried away in the
steam. These salt particles can
corrode the steam condensate
system.
The boiler water alkalinity is limited
to a p-value of max. 12 mg /lit. At
higher alkalinity the boiler water
tends to foam.
The salt content and the alkalinity in
the boiler water can be reduced by
increasing blow-down and de-
sludging rates. The exact require-
ment for the boiler water can be
taken from the following table.


1.1.1 Boiler Water Quality Requirements for Steam and Large Chamber Boilers


Pressure stage < 1 bar 1-22 bar 22-44 bar <36 bar <44 bar > 44 bar
Operation method salty feed
water >
Low salt salt free
Boiler type combined flue
and smoke-
tube boiler
quick steam
producer
combined flue
and smoke-
tube boiler

General demands colorless,
particle free

pH-value at 25C pH 10.5-12 10.5-12 10.5-11.8 10.5-12 10.5-11.5 9.5-10.5
Acid capacity up to PH 8.2
(p-value)
mg/l 1-8 1-10 1-6 1-8 0.5-3 0.1-1
Conductivity (LF) at 25C
direct measuring
S/cm <5000 <6000 <5000 <5000 <2500 max
100-fold
<50
Silicic acid mg/l - <150 <50 - 30+3xp
max 40
<4
Phosphate mg/l 10-20 10-20 5-15 5-10 10-30 5-10
KMnO4-consumption mg/l <100 <150 <100 - <50 <30
Sodium sulphite mg/l 10-20 10-20 10-20 - 10-20 -
Hydrazine mg/l 0.2-0.5 0.2-0.5 0.2-0.5 - 0.2-0.5 0.2-0.5













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DOSHION Boiler Feed Water Treatment

Boiler Feed Water Treatment 5
1.2 Warm Water Boilers

Unlike a steam boiler there is no
salting of boiler feed water in a
warm water boiler. The water qual-
ity in the warm water boiler and in
the circuit is identical. Water treat-
ment for this application should
produce water that is free of sedi-
ment and corrosion agents.
The water quality requirements for
warm water boilers can be taken
from the following table.


1.2.1 Estimated Values for Low Pressure and High Pressure Warm Water Producers for Boiler Tempera-
tures above 100 C:

Operation Method low salt Saline
Estimated Values for Boil-
ers And Circuit Water

General Demands clear without
sediments


Electr. Conductivity S/cm 0-30 30-100 100-1500
pH-Value at 25C pH 9-10 9-10.5 9-10.5
Oxygen (O2 ) mg/l <0.1 <0.05 <0.02
Bound Carbonic Acid mg/l <25 <25 <50
Alkaline Earths (Ca+Mg) mmol/l <0.02 <0.02 <0.02
Phosphate Contents (PO4) mg/l 1-5 1-10 1 -15
Hydrazine (N2H4) mg/l 0.3-3 0.3-3 0.3-3
Sodium Sulphite mg/l -- -- <10
















DOSHION - Boiler Feed Water Treatment

04/99 Boiler Feed Water Treatment 6
2.0 Boiler Feed Water
Treatment






2.1 Feed Water Quality
Requirements

The boiler feed water quality re-
quirements depend on type of
boiler, pressure stage and intended
use of the steam. The treatment
differs between the saline operation
(softening, decarbonization), less
salt operation (osmosis) and salt-
free operation (demineralization).

The most important requirements
can be taken from the following
table.






Pressure stage < 1 bar 1-22 bar 22-44 bar <36 bar <44 bar > 44 bar
Operation method salty feed
water
less salt salt free
Boiler type combined fuel
and smoke-
tube boiler
quick steam
producer
combined fuel
and smoke-
tube boiler

General Demands colourless and free from
particles

pH-Value at 25C pH >9 <9 <9 9-9.5 <9 <9
Acid Capacity up to PH
8.2 (p-value)
mg/l >0.1 >0.1 >0.1 >0.1 >0.1 -
Alkaline Earths (Total
Hardness)
mmol/l <0.015 <0.015 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.0051
Oxygen O2 mg/l <0.1 <0.02 <0.02 <0.1 <0.02 <0.1
Conductivity (LF) at
25C Direct Measuring
S/cm - - <500 <5000 5-50 <5
Bound Carbonic Acid mg/l <25 <25 <25 <50 <10 <1
Iron, total Fe mg/l - <0.05 <0.03 - <0.03 <0.03
Copper, total Cu mg/l - <0.01 <0.05 - <0.005 <0.005
Oil, Grease mg/l <3 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1
Silicic Acid mg/l only limit
values for
<2 <0.05
Phosphate mg/l 10-20 10-20 5-15 5-10 10-30 5-10
KMnO4-Consumption mg/l <100 <150 <100 - <50 <30
Hydrazine mg/l 0.2-0.5 0.2-0.5 0.2-0.5 - 0.2-0.5 0.2-0.5













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DOSHION Boiler Feed Water Treatment

Boiler Feed Water Treatment 7

2.2 Softening

Softening of the water is often car-
ried out by ion exchange via soften-
ers, as shown in the drawing below.

These softeners exchange the
hardness formers of the water, i.e.
calcium and magnesium against
sodium from the exchanger mate-
rial.

After a calculated throughput, de-
pending largely on the raw water
hardness, the ion exchanger resins
must be regenerated. This is carried
out with sodium chloride, NaCl. The
regeneration media demand is
approximately 200 - 300% of the
theoretical salt quantity.

This regeneration should be carried
out based on total throughput.

In order to guarantee a continuous
water supply, softeners may be
designed as 1 working and 1 SB.
One softener is in service while the
second is in regeneration or stand-
by.

2.3 Soda Splitting

By simple softening, boiler feed
water can be treated for high con-
densate backflow or if the inlet
water is of exceptionally good qual-
ity.

For carbonate hardness greater
than 35 ppm this type of softening
is no longer sufficient. By simple
softening the carbonate hardness of
the water is converted into sodium
bicarbonate.

By the influence of pressure, tem-
perature and time, free carbonic
acid, caustic soda and sodium
carbonate (soda) are created from
sodium bicarbonate.

The free carbonic acid in the boiler
feed water becomes vapor and
goes with the steam into the con-
densate system. The unbuffered
condensate becomes acidic and
corrosion occurs. This corrosion is
visible by brown condensate or
discoloured boiler water.

In order to avoid corrosion in the
boiler and condensate, a maximum
concentration of bound carbonic
acid of 25 mg/l is acceptable, ac-
cording to regulations. This corre-
sponds to a carbonate hardness of
approximately 35 ppm.

1 mg/l of CO2 in the condensate
results in a pH of 5.5, which in turn
will result in corrosion of the con-
densate system. Unless the con-
densate system is fabricated com-
pletely of stainless steel a decar-
bonization or demineralization plant
will have to be provided for treat-
ment.




Fig. 2














DOSHION - Boiler Feed Water Treatment

04/99 Boiler Feed Water Treatment 8
By forming caustic soda in the
boiler water alkalinity is greatly
increased. At an alkalinity of ap-
proximately 12-15 ppm (p-value)
the boiler water tends to foam. Only
by performing blow-downs or de-
foaming can the acceptable value
be maintained.

The required blow-down capacity is
directly proportional to the carbon-
ate hardness in the raw water. The
blow-down capacity is, for example,
at 90 ppm carbonate hardness
approximately 14% and increases
to 23 % of steam capacity at 180
ppm.

Dilution of the feed water by return
condensate has a favourable effect
on the blow-down rate. The steam
condensate is practically salt-free
water.

In the case of low condensate re-
turn and high carbonate hardness,
the boiler feed water cannot be
treated by simple softening. The
decarbonization or demineralization
of the water becomes necessary.

2.4. Decarbonization

Another common treatment process
is decarbonization followed by sof-
tening. If correctly used this treat-
ment process is an excellent alter-
native to demineralization.

By decarbonization of the water,
through the use of a weak acid
cation unit, only the hardness form-
ers bound to the carbonate are
removed from the water. (carbonate
hardness). Exchange of carbonate
hardness against H
+
ions of the
exchanger media is carried out. The
pure water still contains the hard-
ness components of the non-
carbonate hardness.

The decarbonized water, however,
becomes acidic because of the free
carbonic acid created. Therefore,
all pipes downstream of the weak
acid cation unit must be designed to
resist corrosion. This also applies to
the decarbonization equipment.

Regeneration of the weak acid
cation exchangers is carried out
with dilute hydrochloric acid. It is
absolutely necessary to avoid over-
regeneration of the resin, as other-
wise the aggressive mineral acids
can arise in the product water. The
regeneration of the weak acid cation
units is depenent on total through-
put.

The regeneration media demand is
approximately 103-105% of the
theory. The wastewater occuring
during regeneration has a pH of
approximately 3 - 5 and may re-
quire neutralization.




Fig. 3











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DOSHION Boiler Feed Water Treatment

Boiler Feed Water Treatment 9
As already mentioned, the hardness
formers of non-carbonate hardness
are still available after the decar-
bonization. These are removed by
installing a downstream softener.

By decarbonization and softening,
one achieves a soft, hardness-free
water, the concentration of bound
carbonic acid is well below 25 mg/l.
This treated water reacts aggres-
sively because of the high concen-
tration of free carbonic acid. The
free carbonic acid can be stripped
from the water by a using down-
stream thermal degasifier or a CO2
decarbonator.

The salt concentration of the water
is reduced using this type of treat-
ment by the amount of carbonate
hardness present in the feed water.
This is called partial demineraliza-
tion.
Unfortunately, it is not possible to
retrofit existing water treatment
plants that consist only of soften-
ers. It is almost always necessary
to replace the softeners as well,
since these units are usually not
designed for acidic conditions.
Furthermore, the addition of degasi-
fier is likely required.

2.5 Reverse Osmosis

Over the years, the use of reverse
osmosis systems for boiler feed
water applications has become
more widespread.

Due to smaller boiler types with
high steam chamber loads the
water quality requirements for boiler
feed water are becoming increas-
ingly stringent.

For certain boiler types, e.g. quick
steam producers and sterile steam
producers, a salt concentration of
only 250 S/cm is acceptable. The
acceptable salt concentration in a
normal three pass boiler can be in
the range of 3000 - 5000 S/cm.
This value depends on the manu-
facturer. In many regions, a salt
concentration of 500 S/cm in the
raw water is common.

This means that if the salt concen-
tration in the boiler water is ap-
proximately 3000 S/cm then 14%
of the boiler water must be blown-
down. For all of these purposes,
utilizing reverse osmosis is an ideal
treatment process.

The operation method of reverse
osmosis is shown on the following
drawing.








Fig. 4:





















DOSHION - Boiler Feed Water Treatment

04/99 Boiler Feed Water Treatment 10
Feed Water
Permeate
Concentra
Rinse Water Tank
Dosing Systems

Fig. 5

Raw water which is free from un-
dissolved solids and which should
be softened, first flows via a fine
filter to the booster pump.

The water is passed, under pres-
sure, through a semi-permeable
membrane and the treated water
flows into the permeate line.

Modern plants usually operate at a
feed pressure of approximately 12-
16 bar. The residual salt in the pure
water, or the permeate, is between
2 and 5 % of the original value.
Usually a reverse osmosis plant is
operated with at a recovery rate of
75%, i.e. 75 l/h permeate and 25 l/h
saline concentrate from 100 I/h feed
water. The salt concentration in the
concentrate line is approximately 4
times higher than in the feed water.

The permeate quality is monitored
by a conductivity meter. If quality is
not acceptable the permeate may
be sent to drain until quality im-
proves. If quality does not improve
after a predetermined period, rins-
ing or cleaning of the membrane
system may be required. Since a
reverse osmosis system does not
require regeneration, it can be op-
erated on a continuous basis. Main-
tenance requirement are very low
and rinsing or cleaning are only
required on a periodic basis. But
long shutdown periods should be
avoided, if possible.

Reverse osmosis systems are well
suited for expansion of available
boiler feed water treatment plants.
Available softeners can also be
utilized.

Softeners Reverse Osmosis
Concentrate
Permeate
Raw Water
Filter
Softened Water
Membrane

Fig. 6











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DOSHION Boiler Feed Water Treatment

Boiler Feed Water Treatment 11
Residual hardness in the RO feed
water is acceptable, the softener
installed preceding the reverse
osmosis plant can be regenerated
with brine, as opposed to hydro-
chloric acid for the weak acid
cations. The softened boiler feed
water is hardness free, has a lower
salt concentration and is not as
aggressive as the product water
from a weak acid cation unit.

The steam boiler blowdowns will be
less frequent and corrosion in the
condensate and boiler systems is
greatly reduced.

One can work without additional
thermal degassing at smaller boiler
capacities (up to max. 1 t/h). With
the alkaline operation method used
by DOSHION, the free carbonic
acid contained in the raw water can
also be removed by the reverse
osmosis system.

Utilizing custom engineered sys-
tems, residual hardness of less
than 1.0 S/cm is possible. The
oxygen still present in the water is
bound chemically when using a
treatment system that does not
involve degasification, e.g. by dos-
ing of sodium sulfite.












2.6 Demineralization Plants

Normally, the feed water for steam
boilers is treated by partial demin-
eralization.

At a boiler pressure above 30 bar,
or for steam turbine operation,
demineralization of the feed water
becomes necessary.

Of primary concern is the residual
silicic acid. This acid is a very
slightly dissociated acid. In order to
avoid silicic acid scaling, the maxi-
mum allowable SiO2 concentration
in the boiler feed water is 0.02 mg/l.
This results in a maximum SiO2
concentration of 0.02 mg/l in the
boiler steam.




Fig. 7













DOSHION - Boiler Feed Water Treatment

04/99 Boiler Feed Water Treatment 12
The demineralization system serves
to demineralize the raw water and
provide boiler feed water. The sys-
tem consists of a cation ex-
changer(s), a CO2 degasifier(s), an
anion exchanger(s) and a mixed
bed exchanger(s) as the final pol-
ishing step.

Cation and anion exchangers are
designed for an operation period of
approximately 8-12 hours at full
load. Regeneration is carried out
automatically and is quality de-
pendent. Use of duplex plants guar-
antee that demineralized boiler feed
water is continuously available.

For chemical saving a CO2 degasi-
fier is installed between the cation
and anion exchangers. The degasi-
fier physically removes most of the
free carbonic acid.

A mixed bed exchanger is installed
for final polishing of the demineral-
ized water.

This water is then collected in a
demineralized water storage tank,
from which the thermal degasifier is
supplied with feed water.

The wastewater generated during
one regeneration is collected in the
neutralization tank and is neutral-
ized there before being discharged
to drain.

2.6.1 Cation Exchanger:

The cation exchanger serves to
remove positive ions from the iron
and manganese-free raw water.

It is the first part of the deminerali-
zation process and is supplemented
by a downstream degasifier and an
anion exchanger.

For decationization the water enters
the cation exchanger from the bot-
tom and is equally distributed over
the complete tank cross-section.
First, the water flows through the
resin chamber of the weak acid
cation exchanger from bottom to
top. Here, the cations associated
with the carbonate hardness are
removed (decarbonized).

Now the decarbonized water flows
into the resin chamber of the strong
acid cation exchanger. The cations
still contained in the decarbonized
water like Ca
+
, Mg
+
, and Na
+
are
exchanged against H
+
ions from the
resin media. The corresponding
acids are created from the cation
parts of the salts in the raw water.

After a calculated throughput the
resin material is exhausted and has
to be regenerated with a dilute acid
solution.

Regeneration is carried out in the
counterflow according to the packed
bed process in flow direction from
top to bottom.

As with all packed bed systems,
the regeneration has to be carried
out with a mininum velocity of 10
m/h in order to maintain a packed
bed and to avoid rearrangement of
the resin.

The hydrochloric acid demand for
regeneration is between 50 and 65
g HCl 100% per liter of resin.

The cation exchanger is continu-
ously circulated via the degasifier
pumps, so that the product water
outlet can be stopped at any time,
without causing the resin bed to fall,
resulting in high sodium leakage.


2.6.2 CO
2
- Degasifier:

The degasifier serves to remove
free carbonic acid from the deca-
tionized water.

By decationizing the raw water, free
carbonic acid is created from the
bound carbonic acid.

Per mval CO2 (m-value) of the raw
water, 44 mg/ltr free carbonic acid
is created by decarbonization. The
CO2 present in the water reacts
aggressive at a pH of approximately
4 to 5.

Furthermore, in the following strong
base anion exchanger, CO2 com-
petes with other negative ions for
bonding sites on the anion resin.
This CO2 will load up the resin
bonding sites and will lead to
quicker exhaustion of the anion
resin bed.

For removal of carbonic acid the
feed water enters the CO2 degasi-
fier from the top via a distribution
nozzle, is then atomized and flows
then downwards through the tower
packing layers.

In the counterflow to the water, air
is force up through the tower via a
fan. The air enriches with carbonic
acid and escapes the degasifier
through the top of the degasifier
vessel.

The water free from carbonic acid
collects in the degasifier clearwell
and is supplied from there to the
anion exchangers via booster
pumps..

The level in the degasifier clearwell
is controlled via an level control
valve. The degasifier pumps are
protected by a separate level con-
tact in the degasifier clearwell.


2.6.3 Anion Exchanger:

The anion exchanger serves to
deacidify the decationized water. It
is the second part of the deminer-
alization process.

Regeneration of the anion ex-
changer is carried out with a down-
flow dilute caustic solution.

For deacidification the water enters
the anion exchanger from the bot-
tom and is equally distributed by
the distributor plate. the water then
flows up through the resin material.

At a linear water velocity of ap-
proximately 10 m/h the resin bed is
lifted up against the upper distribu-
tor plate, forming a packed bed.

In order to avoid resin mixing at
lower flow rates, the demineraliza-
tion system is re-circulated via the
degasified water forwarding pumps.










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DOSHION Boiler Feed Water Treatment

Boiler Feed Water Treatment 13
So, a product flow rate of 0-100%
of the designed capacity is possible.

As water flows through the strongly
alkaline resin bed, the strong anions
contained in the water like Cl, SO
4
,
NO
3,
HCO
3
and SiO
2
are ex-
changed with OH
-
ions from the
resin.

After a calculated water throughput,
the resin becomes loaded with
anions and has to be regenerated
with a dilute caustic solution
(NaOH).

Usually regenerations are carried
out in a downflow direction, accord-
ing to the suspended bed process.

The effluent conductivity down-
stream of a strong base anion ex-
changer is normally below 5 S/cm.
The caustic soda demand per liter
of resin for regeneration is between
35 and 50 g NaOH 100%.

External backwashing is carried out
in a separate backwashing tank
approximately once per year.

The complete regeneration is car-
ried out with demineralized water.

2.6.4 Mixed-Bed Exchanger:

The mixed-bed exchanger acts as a
final polishing step for the deminer-
alized water stream. It is installed
downstream of the cation and anion
exchangers.

By installing a mixed-bed exchanger
downstream of the cation/anion
exchangers, an effluent conductivity
of less than 0.2 S/cm and an ef-
fluent silicic acid concentration of
less than 0.02 mg/l can be
achieved. In case of salt break-
through the preceding exchangers,
the downstream mixed-bed ex-
changer can provide a margin of
safety.

Regeneration of the mixed-bed
exchanger is carried out in a co-
current manner for the anion resin
and in a counter-current manner for
the cation resin.

The water flows into the mixed bed
exchangerer from the top and is
equally distributed through a distri-
bution header. It then flows down-
ward through the resin bed. The
resin bed consists of a mixture of
strong acid cation and strong base
anion resins.

A lot of very small demineralization
units arise from the resin mixing
which demineralizes the water. The
resins are separated from the lower
pure water chamber by a nozzle
distribution plate at the bottom. The
demineralized water leaves the
exchanger vessel via the lower
collector outlet.

After a calculated water through-
put, the resin material becomes
loaded with cations and anions and
has to be regenerated with dilute
caustic (NaOH) and dilute acid
solutions (H2SO4 or HCl).













DOSHION - Boiler Feed Water Treatment

04/99 Boiler Feed Water Treatment 14
3 Degasifier

3.1 Basics

Natural water contains oxygen and
carbonic acid. Although these
gases are required in drinking wa-
ter, for process applications these
constituents are major contributors
to boiler corrosion. To avoid corro-
sion, the maximum allowable dis-
solved oxygen (DO) concentration
for a boiler feed water application is
0.02 mg/l.

Gases found in water, like oxygen,
nitrogen and carbonic acid, are
physically removed by degasifiers.
The water is brought to the tem-
perature of ebullition and the sur-
face area of the feedwater is in-
creased in order to promote the
transfer of the gas from the feed
water to the air.

DOSHION has developed degasifi-
ers and spray nozzles that create
water droplets of optimal size for
effective degasifying. The gases
removed from the feedwater are
transported from the degasifier with
the air vapour forced up through the
tower.

In the case of smaller towers (<20
t/h), the forced air vapour is dis-
charged directly to the outside.
Larger plants are equipped with
vapour condensators for energy and
water recovery.

In order to avoid cavitation of the
boiler feedwater pumps, the degasi-
fier is installed approximately 3.5 m
above the boiler feed pumps.

By dosing dissolved oxygen binding
media like sodium sulfite, hydrazine
and alkalization media like ammo-
nia or trisodiumphosphate atrium-
phosphate, boiler feedwater is
treated to meet all requirements.

3.2 Thermal Degasifiers

DOSHION has standard designs for
flowrates in the range of 3 - 300 t/h,
as low or high pressure degasifiers.
With custom designed degasifier
columns and internals designed for
optimal water droplet formation,
dissolved oxygen values of less
than 0.01 ppm can be expected.


LIS
Feedwater
Steam/Hot Water
Vent
Condensate
Treated Water
Thermal Degasification
Sulfite Phos.

Fig. 8:
Classical thermal degasifier, separate inlets for fresh water and condensate. Reboiling device as well as dosing systems for
sulphite and phosphate.












31.08.0531.08.0531.08.05

DOSHION Boiler Feed Water Treatment

Boiler Feed Water Treatment 15

Fig. 9:
Degasifier with heat recovery and condensate return.

3.3 Spray Degasser

As a small, economical plant for
sites with limited square footage.
Design flowrates range from 0 - 10
t/h, as a low pressure degasifier
(0.2 bar). With a circulation pump
and internals with special spray
nozzles for optimal degasifying. No
support construction is required for
installation of this design.

Dissolved oxygen concentration
less than 0.02 ppm.




Fig. 10:
Spray Circulation Degasifier
with circulation pump, steam fittings,
inflow device for feedwater.












DOSHION - Boiler Feed Water Treatment

04/99 Boiler Feed Water Treatment 16

3.4 Vacuum Degasifiers

These units are used where there is
no heating medium (steam/heating
water). Designed with a degasifier
column of stainless steel and tower
packing of PPL or PVC. Operating
pressures ranging from 0.05 to 0.99
bar absolute and operating tem-
peratures of 30 to 99C.

This design is especially suitable for
degasifying of warm water in large
systems. The operating pressure is
adjusted to the required value by
liquid ring vacuum pumps.

Depending on the required effluent
dissolved oxygen concentration, the
degasifier sump is equipped with
reboiling devices. By using side-
channel pumps the required inflow
height is reduced to approx. 1000
mm.

3.5 Removal of Oxygen by
Ion Exchanger

This design is more suited to large
flowrates (>30 t/h) and where the
water shall be free from oxygen,
e.g. after a demineralization.

By injecting hydrogen gas, the oxy-
gen contained in the water reacts
with hydrogen to form H2O. By
using DOSHION dosing system
technology the hydrogen gas is
stoichiometrically added to the
water and mixed, bubble-free, with
a specially designed water/gas
mixer.

The reaction of the oxygen with the
hydrogen to form water is carried
out in the ion exchanger vessel. The
water flowrate, oxygen concentra-
tion and hydrogen concentration
downstream of the vessel are con-
tinuously measured and evaluated.
The dissolved oxygen concentration
can be less than 0.005 ppm (5 ppb)

Note:

The removal of oxygen by injecting
hydrogen and ion exchange is not
current economically viable.

New methods of degasification by
utilitzing membrane technology
have been tested for smaller sys-
tems and remains to be seen,
whether the membrane technology
will be more economical in this
application.





Fig. 11:
Vacuum Degasifier with horizontal
feed water tank, vacuum pump,
heating pipe bundle for reboiling and
dosing system.













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DOSHION Boiler Feed Water Treatment

Boiler Feed Water Treatment 17
4.0 Dosing Systems

4.1 Basics for Dosing

In addition to the water treatment
and degasification, treatment
chemicals, like trisodiumphosphate
and sodium sulfite or film formers,
are added to the feedwater.

Dosing to the feedwater tank is
carried out at a mixture intensive
point. Often the dosing pumps are
operated in conjuction with the inlet
solenoid valve or the boiler feedwa-
ter pump. This results in quantity-
proportionate dosing of chemicals.

If possible, residual hardness stabi-
lizers and oxygen binding media
should be added via two separate
dosing pumps. Adapting exact
chemical dosing rates for various
operating conditions is made possi-
ble with this design.

At separate dosing points the alkali-
zation media, like trisodium phos-
phate, and the oxygen binding me-
dia, like sodium sulfite, are added
to the feedwater tank at the boiler
feed pump suction.

4.2 Dosing for Salt-free
Operation

By using the above described dos-
ing of phosphate and sulfite, the
salt concentration in the boiler wa-
ter is increased. This, however, is
not permitted for high pressure
steam boilers. Pretreatment nor-
mally consists of a demineralization
plant.

Residual hardness leakage is not
to be expected here. Slightly higher
dissolved oxygen concentrations
are permitted in the feedwater with
less salt, often an alkalization me-
dia like ammonia is added. Ammo-
nia does not concentrate in the
boiler water. Ammonia can bind
free carbonic acid in the steam
condensate system as ammonium
carbonate, alkaline condensate is
achieved. The quantity of ammonia
to be dosed can be determined via
the residual iron concentration in
the condensate water.

4.3 Dosing in Food Industries

Usually trisodium phosphate for
alkalization and sodium sulphite for
oxygen binding are used in this
application. As mentioned previ-
ously, small quantities of bound
carbonic acid can lead to corrosion
in the condensate system. There-
fore, the boiler feed water is often
pretreated by reverse osmosis. The
pH for boiler feedwater, as required
by the boiler manufacturer, may not
be maintained simply by dosing
phosphate. It is possible to add
caustic soda for alkalization of the
boiler water, in addition to, or as an
alternative to phosphate and sulfite.

4.4 Oxygen Binding Media

Primarily, dissolved oxygen in the
feedwater has to be reduced by
physical processes (thermal degasi-
fication) in order to reach the levels
described in chapter 2.1. If, in prac-
tical operation, this is not possible
because of frequent shutdowns, an
oxygen binding media has to be
added.

4.4.1 Sodium Sulfite

Na2SO3 is a non-steam volatile
oxygen binding media. It does not
enter the steam condensate circuit.
Sulfite is the suitable medium, es-
pecially for food industries or any
other industry where steam may
have direct contact with food, drink-
ing water or the air.

4.4.2 Hydrazine

N2H4 is a steam volatile oxygen
binding media that has an alkalizing
effect. Hydrazine enters the steam
circuit and the condensate.

Unfortunately though, hydrazine is
carcinogenic. During handling and
dosing, the corresponding health
and safety regulations have to be
maintained.

4.4.3 Other Dosing Chemicals

A number of alternatives for oxygen
binding are also available.

5.0 Condensate Treatment

Normally it is not necessary to treat
the condensate chemically. A de-
gassing of the condensate is always
useful. Only in the case of contami-
nation of the condensate (e.g. un-
tight heat exchanger) or in the case
of high demands to the feed water
(turbine operation) is a condensate
treatment necessary.

5.1 Condensate Filtration

Condensate filtration removes par-
ticles from the condensate. Com-
monly, anthracite is utilized as a
filter material. One should abstain
from filtration via quartz sand, as
quartz sand can add silicic acid to
the condensate. For space reasons
candle filters, bag filters and mem-
brane filters are also used as alter-
natives for condensate filteration.
The filter fineness should be <5.0
m.

5.2 Removal of Iron/Residual
Hardness

Dissolved substances (hardness,
iron, copper) cannot be removed by
filtration. In the case of low re-
quirements for condensate quality,
softeners are used here. Any hard-
ness present in the condensate is
exchanged with sodium ions. Re-
sidual hardness is continuously
monitored.

Regeneration should be carried out
when effluent quality exceeds a
specified setpoint. In the case of
iron concentration in the conden-
sate, a level above 0.1 mg/l re-
quires that the softener be regener-
ated with hydrochloric acid every
three months.





5.3 Removal of Silicic Acid












DOSHION - Boiler Feed Water Treatment

04/99 Boiler Feed Water Treatment 18

In turbine power plants a cation
exchanger is used as condensate
treatment for removal of ammo-
nium, iron, lime, etc. and a mixed
bed exchanger for demineralization
of condensate. The mixed bed ex-
changer is only loaded with the
sodium leakage from the cation and
with silicic acid and possibly car-
bonic acid. Typical service runs of 1
- 3 months are achieved, before a
regeneration is required.

The cation exchanger can be con-
trolled by an online sodium ana-
lyzer. Often the cation exchanger is
regenerated either on a thoughput
or service time basis.

Regeneration is carried out with a
dilute hydrochloric acid solution. If a
high concentration of NH3 is present
in the condensate, ammonium
chloride (NH4Cl) can form in the
cation exchanger effluent. The
maximum allowable concentration
of ammonium chloride in the efflu-
ent is 10 mg/l .

The mixed bed exchanger is regen-
erated with dilute hydrochloric acid
and dilute caustic soda. No
ammonium chloride is formed.

5.4 Condensate Deoiling

Condensate deoiling is carried out
by simple filtration with an activated
carbon filter. The oil contained in
the condensate is adsorbed by the
activated carbon media by simple
flow through the activated carbon
layer.

Filter material is an activated car-
bon washed with acid and conden-
sate. The hardness and silicic acid
are still present in trace amounts in
the condensate feedwater. With
continuous operation the carbon
gives no hardness or silicic acid to
the condensate. The operation time
of the carbon depends on many
factors (condensate temperature,
flow velocity, type and quantity of
the dissolved oil etc). There-
fore, the operation time cannot be
determined exactly.

The removal of undissolved, emul-
sified oil by activated carbon is
difficult. The oil should be present in
dissolved form, the oil concentra-
tion can amount to a maximum of 5
ppm. For short intervals, 10 ppm
can be tolerated. The activated
carbon should be exchanged after a
service life of approximately 1 year.

Usually carbon loaded with oil is not
thermally reactivated again, but
only disposed of. Whether thermally
reactivated carbon is useful can be
decided only after a test with the oil-
loaded carbon. Reactivation seems
to be useful, if the reactivation costs
do not exceed approximately 80%
of the replacement cost for the new
carbon.