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1.What is I P Address?

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g.,
computer, printer) participating in a computer networkthat uses the Internet Protocol for
communication.
[1]
An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network
interface identification and locationaddressing. Its role has been characterized as follows:
"A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there."
[2]

The designers of the Internet Protocol defined an IP address as a 32-bit number
[1]
and this system, known
as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is still in use today. However, due to the enormous growth of
the Internet and the predicted depletion of available addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits
for the address, was developed in 1995.
[3]
IPv6 was standardized as RFC 2460 in 1998,
[4]
and
its deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s.
IP addresses are binary numbers, but they are usually stored in text files and displayed in human-
readable notations, such as 172.16.254.1 (for IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (for IPv6).

2.Dns
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or
any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain
names assigned to each of the participating entities. Most prominently, it translates easily
memorised domain names to the numerical IP addresses needed for the purpose of locating computer
services and devices worldwide. By providing a worldwide, distributed keyword-based redirection service,
the Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality of theInternet.
An often-used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the phone book for the
Internet by translating human-friendly computerhostnames into IP addresses. For example, the domain
name www.example.com translates to the addresses 192.0.43.10 (IPv4) and 2001:500:88:200::10 (IPv6).
Unlike a phone book, the DNS can be quickly updated, allowing a service's location on the network to
change without affecting the end users, who continue to use the same host name. Users take advantage
of this when they use meaningful Uniform Resource Locators(URLs) and e-mail addresses without having
to know how the computer actually locates the services.
3.Dhcp
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that is used to configure
devices which are connected to anetwork (known as hosts) so that they can communicate on
an IP network. It involves clients and a server operating in a client-server model. In a typical personal
home local area network (LAN), a router is the server
[1]
while clients are personal computers or printers.
The router receives this information through a modem from an internet service provider which also
operate DHCP servers where the modems are clients. The clients request configuration settings using the
DHCP protocol such as an IP address, a default route and one or moreDNS server addresses. Once the
client implements these settings, the host is able to communicate on that internet.
4.SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission
across Internet Protocol (IP) networks. SMTP was first defined by RFC 821 (1982, eventually
declared STD 10),
[1]
and last updated by RFC 5321 (2008)
[2]
which includes the Extended
SMTP (ESMTP) additions, and is the protocol in widespread use today. SMTP uses TCP port 25. The
protocol for new submissions (MSA) is effectively the same as SMTP, but it uses port 587 instead. SMTP
connections secured by SSL are known by the shorthand SMTPS, though SMTPS is not a protocol in its
own right.
While electronic mail servers and other mail transfer agents use SMTP to send and receive mail
messages, user-level client mail applications typically use SMTP only for sending messages to a mail
server for relaying. For receiving messages, client applications usually use either the Post Office
Protocol (POP) or the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) or a proprietary system (such
as Microsoft Exchange or Lotus Notes/Domino) to access their mail box accounts on a mail server.

5.Emil Client
An email client, email reader, or more formally mail user agent (MUA), is a computer program used to
access and manage a user's email.
The term can refer to any system capable of accessing the user's email mailbox, regardless of it being a
mail user agent, a relaying server, or a human typing on a terminal. In addition, a web application that
provides message management, composition, and reception functions is sometimes also considered an
email client, but more commonly referred to as webmail.
Popular locally installed email clients include Microsoft Outlook, IBM Lotus Notes, Pegasus
Mail, Mozilla's Thunderbird, KMail in the Kontact suite, Evolution and Apple Inc.'s Mail.

6.Vpn
A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network and the resources contained in the network
across public networks like the Internet. It enables a host computer to send and receive data across
shared or public networks as if it were a private network with all the functionality, security and
management policies of the private network.
[1]
This is done by establishing a virtual point-to-
pointconnection through the use of dedicated connections, encryption, or a combination of the two.
The VPN connection across the Internet is technically a wide area network (WAN) link between the sites
but appears to the user as a private network linkhence the name "virtual private network".
[2]



7.Safe Mode
Safe mode is a diagnostic mode of a computer operating system (OS). It can also refer to a mode of
operation by application software. Safe mode is intended to fix most, if not all problems within an
operating system. It is also widely used for removing rogue security software. An operating system in safe
mode will have reduced functionality, but the task of isolating problems is easier because many non-core
components are disabled. An installation that will only bootinto its safe mode typically has a major
problem, such as disk corruption or the installation of poorly configured software that prevents the
operating system from successfully booting into its normal operating mode.
8-post (HTTP)

POST is one of many request methods supported by the HTTP protocol used by the World Wide Web.
The POST request method is designed to request that a web server accepts the data enclosed in the
request message's body for storage.
[1]
It is often used when uploading a file or submitting a
completed web form.
In contrast, the HTTP GET request method is designed to retrieve information from the server. As part of
a GET request, some data can be passed within the URI's query string, specifying for example search
terms, date ranges, or other information that defines the query. As part of a POST request, an arbitrary
amount of data of any type can be sent to the server in a request message body. A header field in the
POST request usually indicates the message body's Internet media type.
9-Ping
Ping (networking utility), a computer network tool used to test whether a particular host is
reachable across an IP network

10.Modem
Modem is a device which converts analog signal to digital signal.

11. Router
Router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks, creating an overlay
internetwork.

12.Server
Server is a system that responds to request across a computer network to provide, or help to
provide, a network service.



13.Rj 45
Rj45 is a standard type of connector for network cables. Rj45 connectors are most commonly
seen with Ethernet cables and networks.

14.User Account
User account determines which user rights and access permissions you have on the computer.

15.How to run ping
1. Go to start button
2. Click on start and then click on Run.
3. In run type cmd and then in ms dos screen type ping and then give a space and then following
ip address.

16.How to check the ip address
1. Go to start button
2. Click on start and then click on Run.
3. In run type cmd and then in ms dos screen type ipconfig and then press enter and you will get
the following ip address.

17.How to start windows in safe mode
1. Go to start button
2. Click on start and then click on Run.
3. In run type Msconfig and then you will get the system configuration screen and then click on
the boot tab and select safe boot and press OK.
4. It will give you two options Restart and exit without restart.
5. Click on restart option.