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# FEM Dr. T.

N
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD BASIC DEFINITIONS
1. DISCRETIZATION PROCESS:
The various considerations to be taken in the discretization process are as given below:
1.1 Type of Elements or Various Elements Shapes or Element Library: The discretization of the
structure or body into finite elements forms the first step in finite element analysis of a complicated
structural system. These elements coincide with the geometry of the structure and represent the geometry
and mechanical properties in the regions. Therefore, the first decision the engineer must make is to select
the shape of the basic elements to be used in the analysis. The selection of finite element in FEM is
depends on the following factors. They are:
. !imension of the problem.
". #hape of the body or continuum.
\$. %ccuracy of the results re&uired.
'. (ost and time for the analysis.
Fig. . shows some typical elements used to discretize the continuum.
" \$ "
(a) 2-noded ee!en" (#) \$-noded ee!en"
(a) One d%!en&%ona #a' ee!en"

(a) (#) (() (d)
(#) T)o d%!en&%ona ee!en"&
(() T*'ee d%!en&%ona ee!en"&
F%+. 1.1: T,-%(a ee!en"&
1D Elements: )hen the geometry, material properties and field variable of the problem is described in
terms of only one spatial coordinate *for e+ample +, coordinate-, then line elements shown in Fig. *a- can
be used. % one . dimensional element may be represented by a straight line whose ends are nodal points
as shown in Fig. *a-. These nodal points, numbered and " are called external nodes because they
represent connecting points to the ad/acent elements. #ome applications re&uire additional nodal point
such as node,\$ as shown in Fig. a*b-. 0ecause no connection to other elements occurs at this node, it is
called internal node.
2D Elements: )hen the configuration and other parameters of the problems are described in terms of two
spatial coordinates, then two,dimensional elements are used. Triangular or &uadrilateral elements *Fig.b-
are used for two . dimensional problems such as plane stress or plain strain or plate bending problems.
The corner nodes of these elements are called primary external nodes and additional nodes occur on the
sides of the elements, like ', 1 and 2 in 2 . nodded triangular element or 1, 2, 3 and 4 in 4 . nodded
curved element are called secondary external nodes. #ome times internal node such as 3 as shown in
Fig.b *b- is also used for these elements.
3D Elements: )hen the geometry, material properties and other parameters of the problems are
described by three spatial coordinates, then three,dimensional elements shown in Fig. *c- are used. For \$
. dimensional problems, tetrahedron or he+ahedron elements are used. % tetrahedron has ' primary
e+ternal nodes and he+ahedron has 4 primary e+ternal nodes.
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1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
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1.2 Size of Elements: The size of elements influences the convergence of the solution directly and hence
it has to be chosen with care. 5f the size of the elements is small, the final solution is e+pected to be more
accurate. 6owever, the use of elements of smaller size will take more computational time. #ometimes, we
may have to use elements of different sizes in the same body. For e+ample, in the case of stress analysis
of the plate in Figure ."*a-, the size of all the elements can be appro+imately the same, as shown in
Figure ."*b-. 6owever, in the case of stress analysis of a plate with a hole shown in Figure ."*c-,
elements of different sizes have to be used, as shown in Figure ."*d-. The size of elements has to be very
small near the hole *where stress concentration is e+pected- compared to far away places. 5n general,
whenever steep gradients of the field variable are e+pected, we have to use a, finer mesh in those regions.
%nother characteristic related to the size of elements that affects the finite element solution is the aspect
ratio of the elements. The aspect ratio describes the shape of the element in the assemblage of elements.
For two,dimensional elements, the aspect ratio is taken as the ratio of the largest dimension of the element
to the smallest dimension. Elements with an aspect ratio of nearly unity generally yield best results.

F%+. 1.2(() O'%+%na S"'.(".'e F%+. 1.2(d) F%n%"e Ee!en" D%&('e"%/a"%on
1.3 Location of Noes: 5f the body has no abrupt changes in geometry, material properties, and e+ternal
conditions *e.g., load and temperature-, the body can be divided into e&ual subdivisions and hence the
spacing of the nodes can be uniform. 7n the other hand, if there are any discontinuities in the problem,
nodes have to be introduced at these discontinuities, as shown in Fig .\$

(a) D%&(on"%n.%", %n Load%n+

(#) D%&(on"%n.%", %n 0eo!e"',
(() D%&(on"%n.%", %n Ma"e'%a P'o-e'"%e&
66
F%+.1.2(#) F%n%"e Ee!en" D%&('e"%/a"%on
F%+.1.2(a) O'%+%na S"'.(".'e
FEM Dr. T.N
2. DISPLACEMENT OR INTERPOLATION F1NCTION:
The basic principle of FEM is to sub . divide the solution domain into number of finite elements and
representing the solution within each element by relatively simple function. This simple function is called
8displacement function or interpolation function9. The polynomial function is commonly used for this
displacement model in FEM due the following two reasons.
. The polynomials are easier for the mathematical operation i.e. the differentiation and integration of
polynomials are easy as compared to trigonometric functions.
". % polynomial of arbitrary order permits us to have a re&uired appro+imation i.e by selecting the order of
polynomial we can vary the degree of appro+imation.
The degree of appro+imation is mainly depends on the order of the polynomial selected for the
displacement model as shown in Fig. ". 5n this Fig." an e+act solution for the displacement ) (x u for a
simple one . dimensional problem is appro+imated by the following degree of polynomials of the form,
n
n
x x x x u
1
2
3 2 1
) (
+
+ + + + ,,,*a-
#imilarly, for two and three dimensional problems, the polynomial form of interpolation functions can be
e+pressed as
n
m
y y xy x y x y x u + + + + + + +
2
6 5
2
4 3 2 1
) , ( ,,, *b-
n
m
z z y x z y x z y x u + + + + + + +
2
7
2
6
2
5 4 3 2 1
) , , ( ,,, *c-
The greater the number of terms included in the polynomial, the solution is more close to the e+act solution
as shown in Fig. "*a- to "*c-. The coefficient of the polynomial, the 9s in E&n. *a- are called generalized
coordinates.

(a) Con&"an" -o,no!%a (#) L%nea' -o,no!%a
(() 2.ad'a"%( -o,no!%a
F%+. 2: Po,no!%a a--'o3%!a"%on %n one d%!en&%on
5n most of the cases, the order of the polynomial in interpolation function is taken as one, two or three.
Thus, the above e&uations reduce to te following form for various cases.
!or Linear "oel #i.e. n\$1%
For ! problem: x x u
2 1
) ( +
For "! problem:
y x y x u
3 2 1
) , ( + +
For \$! problem:
z y x z y x u
4 3 2 1
) , , ( + + +
!or &uaratic "oel #n\$2%
For ! problem:
2
3 2 1
) ( x x x u + +
For "! problem:
2
6 5
2
4 3 2 1
) , ( y xy x y x y x u + + + + +
For \$! problem: zx yz xy z y x z y x z y x u
10 9 8
2
7
2
6
2
5 4 3 2 1
) , , ( + + + + + + + + +
67
FEM Dr. T.N
\$. NODAL DE0REES OF FREEDOM:
F%+. 4: 5 nodded "'%an+.a' ee!en"
The nodal displacement, rotation and:or strains necessary to specify completely the deformation of the
element are referred as degrees of freedom of the element. The nodal degrees of freedom are the nodal
displacement, rotations and:or strains corresponding to the e+ternal nodes of an element. 7n the other
hand, the internal degrees of freedom are corresponds to the internal node of an element.
For e+ample, in a triangular element shown in Fig. ', the nodes , " and \$ are the primary e+ternal nodes
and nodes ', 1 and 2 are secondary e+ternal nodes. The node 3 is an internal node. The displacements
corresponding to these primary and secondary e+ternal nodes to 2 are called nodal degrees of freedom
and the displacement corresponding to the internal node 3 is called internal degrees of freedom.
4 SELECTION OF THE ORDER OF THE INTERPOLATION POL6NOMIAL: )hile selecting the order of
the polynomial in interpolation function, the following considerations have to be taken into account:
. The interpolation polynomial should satisfy, as far as possible, the convergence re&uirements.
". The pattern of variation of field variable resulting from the polynomial model should be independent of
local coordinate system.
\$. The number of generalized coordinates *9s- should be e&ual to the number of nodal degrees of
freedom of the element.
7. SIMPLE89 COMPLE8 AND M1LTIPLE8 ELEMENTS: Finite elements can be classified into three
categories as simple+, comple+, and multiple+ elements depending on the geometry of the element and
the order of the polynomial used in the interpolation function.
Simple' Elements: The simple+ elements are those for which the appro+imating polynomial consists of
constant and linear terms. Thus, the following polynomials represent the simple+ functions for one,, two,,
and three,dimensional elements.
For ! problem: x x u
2 1
) ( + ,,, *a-
For "! problem: y x y x u
3 2 1
) , ( + + -,, *b-
For "! problem: z y x z y x u
4 3 2 1
) , , ( + + + ,,,*c-
The simple+ element in one dimension is a ",noded bar element and for two dimensions is a triangle with
three nodes *corners-.
(omple' Elements: The comple+ elements are those for which the appro+imating polynomial consists of
&uadratic, cubic, and higher order terms, according to the need, in addition to the constant and linear
terms. Thus, the following polynomials denote comple+ functions.
For ! problem:
2
3 2 1
) ( x x x u + + ,,,*d-
For "! problem:
2
6 5
2
4 3 2 1
) , ( y xy x y x y x u + + + + + ,,,*e-
For \$! problem: zx yz xy z y x z y x z y x u
10 9 8
2
7
2
6
2
5 4 3 2 1
) , , ( + + + + + + + + +
The comple+ elements may have the same shape as the simple+ elements but they have additional
e+ternal and internal nodes. For e+ample, e&. *e- represents the &uadratic interpolation function for a two,
dimensional element. #ince this e&uation has 2 9s, the corresponding element should have si+ nodes and
si+,noded triangular element forms a comple+ element.
(a) Fo' 1 D -'o#e! (#) Fo' 2 D -'o#e!
F%+ (a) Co!-e3 Ee!en"&
"ultiple' Elements: Multiple+ elements are those whose boundaries are parallel to the coordinate a+es to
achieve interelement continuity as shown in Fig. *b- and whose polynomials contain higher order terms.
68
1
2
3
4
5 6
7
1
2
3
4
5 6
1 2
3
y
FEM Dr. T.N

F%+. (#) M."%-e3 Ee!en"
:. H%+*e' O'de' Ee!en"&:
5n certain applications, additional degrees of freedom behind the minimum number may be included for
any element. This can be achieved by adding secondary e+ternal nodes. Then, the elements with these
additional degrees of freedom are called as higher order elements. Fig. 1 shows the higher order elements
used in . ! and " . ! problems.

(a) Fo' 1 D -'o#e! (#) Fo' 2 D -'o#e!
F%+. 7: H%+*e' o'de' ee!en"&
5. CON;ER0ENCE RE21IREMENTS: 5n FEM se&uence of appro+imate solutions are obtained as the
element size is reduced successively. These solutions are converge to the e+act solutions if the
interpolation polynomial satisfies the following convergence re&uirements:
1. The displacement model must be continues within the element and the displacement must be
compatible between adacent elements! The condition can be satisfied by choosing polynomials which are
inherently continues functions for the displacement model. The second condition indicates that when the
elements deforms there should not be any discontinuity between the elements *elements should not
overlap or separate-.
". The displacement model must be capable of representing rigid body displacement of the element! This
condition states that when the nodes are given such displacements corresponding to a rigid body motion,
the element should not e+perience any strains and hence leads zero nodal forces. The constant term
present in the polynomial functions satisfy this condition.
#. The displacement model must be capable of representing constant strain state within the element! )hen
the elements are made smaller and smaller size, the strain in each elements approach constant value. 5n
such case, the assumed displacement model should include the terms to represent the constant strain
state within the element. For one, two and three , dimensional elasticity problems, the linear terms *i.e.
2
- present in the polynomial functions satisfy this re&uirement.
5n order to satisfy the above mentioned three re&uirements, the displacement model must contain at least
constant and linear terms in the polynomials.
<. 0EOMETRIC IN;ARIANCE OR 0EOMETRIC ISOTROP6:
5n addition to the convergence and compatibility re&uirements, one of the important consideration in
choosing proper terms in the polynomial displacement model is that the element have no preferred
direction. That is the displacement shapes should not change with change in local coordinate system. This
property of the displacement model is known as geometric in\$ariance or geometric isotropy.
;eometric isotropy is achieved if the polynomial selected in the displacement model includes all the terms
i.e. if the polynomial is complete one. 6owever, the geometric isotropy can also be achieved if the
polynomial is balanced in case all the terms can9t be included. This balanced representation can be
achieved using %&ascal Triangle' shown in Fig. 3 for the case of two . dimensional polynomials.
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1
2
3
4
5 6
1 2
3
x
FEM Dr. T.N

F%+. 5: Pa&(a "'%an+e =o' 2 D -'o#e!&
For the polynomial functions used in displacement model to be balanced one, it should not
includes any terms from one side of the a+is of the symmetry of the triangle without including its
counter part from the other side. For e+ample, if we wish to construct a cubic model with 4 terms,
the following are the geometrically isotropic.
. %ll the constant, linear and &uadratic terms plus
3
x
and
3
y .
i.e.
3
8
3
7
2
6 5
2
4 3 2 1
) , ( y x y xy x y x y x u + + + + + + +
". %ll the constant, linear and &uadratic terms plus y x
2
and
2
xy .
i.e.
2
8
2
7
2
6 5
2
4 3 2 1
) , ( xy y x y xy x y x y x u + + + + + + +
The displacement model formed by any of the above two balanced polynomials will have the
geometric isotropy.
>. Coo'd%na"e S,&"e!:
The following coordinate systems are used in FEM.
. ;lobal coordinate system
". <ocal coordinate system
\$. =atural coordinate system
0o#a (oo'd%na"e &,&"e!: The coordinate system used to define entire body is called global
coordinate system. Fig. 4*a- shows the cartesian global coordinate system used for some of the
typical elements.
F%+. <(a): 0o#a (oo'd%na"e &,&"e!
Lo(a (oo'd%na"e &,&"e!: % local coordinate system is one that is defined for a particular
element and not for the entire body. This local coordinate system simplifies the derivation of
element formulations. For e+ample, for typical truss elements shown in Fig. 4*a-, the local
coordinates *
y x,
- may be as shown in Fig. 4*b-. 6owever, for this truss problem the final
70
1 2 3
x
1
x
2
x
3
1 2
1
2
3
4
5
x
y
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
FEM Dr. T.N
e&uations derived in terms of local coordinate are to be transformed to the common global
coordinate system.
F%+. <(#): Lo(a (oo'd%na"e &,&"e!
Na".'a Coo'd%na"e S,&"e!&: The natural coordinate system is a local system used to specify
the position of a point within the element by a set of dimensionless numbers. The magnitudes of
these number never e+ceed unity. =atural coordinate systems are so defined that, their values
are zero or one at the nodal points of an element. This coordinate system facilitates the
integration while computing element stiffness matri+.
Fig. 4 shows some of the natural coordinate systems used for one, two and three . dimensional
elements.
(a) Fo' 1 D #a' ee!en"&
(#) Fo' 2 D ee!en"&
(() Fo' \$ D ee!en"
F%+. <: Na".'a (oo'd%na"e &,&"e!&
(d\$antage of natural coordinate system!
. =atural coordinate systems generalize and simplify the element formulations
71
1
l
2
l
e
l
1 2
1
x 2
x
) , (
2 1
L L P
) 0 , 1 ( ) 1 , 0 ( ) , (
2 1
L L
1 2

1
1 +
1
2
3
0
1
L
0
2
L
0
3
L
) , , (
3 2 1
L L L P
) 0 , 0 , 1 ( ) 0 , 1 , 0 (
) 1 , 0 , 0 (

1
2
3
4
(-1,-1)
(+1,-1)
(-1,+1)
(+1,+1
)
1
2
3
4
) 0 , 0 , 0 , 1 (
) 0 , 0 , 1 , 0 (
) 0 , 1 , 0 , 0 (
) 1 , 0 , 0 , 0 (
) , , , (
4 3 2 1
L L L L P
FEM Dr. T.N
". They simplify the integration and differentiation, which are re&uired to obtain the element
stiffness matri+ and load vectors.
A'ea (oo'd%na"e: 5f any point >*+,y- divides the total area of the triangular element % into %, %"
and %\$ as shown in Fig. ?, then areas %, %" and %\$ are called area coordinates. These are also
natural coordinates and these can be used to e+press the natural coordinates
3 2 1
& , L L L
as
A
A
L
A
A
L
A
A
L
3
3
2
2
1
1
and ; ; F%+.>
1?. S*a-e F.n("%on o' In"e'-oa"%on F.n("%on:
5n FEM, it is necessary in many cases to deal with functions whose analytical form is totally
unknown. 5n such case, the given function is replaced by another function which can be more
easily handled. This operation of replacing a given function by simple one is known as
)nterpolation or shape function.
#hape function is a function used to interpolate nodal variables to field variables at any point
inside the element. @sing these shape functions, the field variable can be e+pressed in terms of
nodal variables as
n n
u N u N u N u + +
2 2 1 1

where n is the number of nodes in a element.
)roperties of Shape functions:
The shape functions, which are used to interpolate nodal variable to field variable, are having the
following properties
. The shape functions are having unit value at one nodal point and zero value at all other nodal
points For e+ample, in a . ! bar element having nodal points
) , ( j i
, the above mentioned
property of shape functions can be written in mathematical form as
%t node i ,
1
i
N 0
j
N
%t node
j
,
0
i
N 1
j
N
". The sum of the shape functions is e&ual to unity
.i.e
1 +
j i
N N
\$. The derivatives of a shape function is constant
i.e.
dx
dN
dx
dN
j
i
(onstant
11. De'%@a"%on o= E3-'e&&%on& =o' S*a-e F.n("%on&:
(a) Fo' a 2-noded #a' ee!en":
72
i j
i j
1 +
1 +
i
N
j
N
1
2
3
) , , (
3 2 1
L L L P
1
A
2
A
3
A
FEM Dr. T.N
*i+ )n terms of natural coordinate!
Fig. shows a two nodded bar element. The values of natural coordinates corresponding to node
and " are as shown in Fig. <et the displacement at node and " be
1
u and
2
u respectively.
Then the field variable *i.e. displacement- u at any point inside the element can be e+pressed in
natural coordinate as

2 1
+ u ,,,*a-
[ ]

'

2
1
1

u
,,,*b-
#ubstitute the values of

## corresponding to node and " into E&n. *a-, we get nodal

displacements
i.e. at node ,
1
and
1
u u
2 1 1
u ,,,*-
at node ",
1 +
and
2
u u
2 1 2
+ u ,,,*"-
%dd E&n *- and *"-
1 2 1
2 + u u
2 2
2 1
1
u u
+ ,,,*i-
#ubstitute into E&n *- we get
2 2
2 1
2
u u
+ ,,,*ii-
E&ns. *i- and *ii- can be written in matri+ form as

'

1
1
1
]
1

'

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
u
u

## #ubstitute into E&n. *b-

[ ] 1 u

'

1
1
1
]
1

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
u
u

'

1
]
1

+
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
u
u
u
[ ]
2 2 1 1
2
1
2 1
u N u N
u
u
N N u +

'

,,,*c-
where ( ) 1
2
1
1
N and ( ) + 1
2
1
2
N are shape functions for " . nodded bar element and is
interpolate the nodal variables
1
u and
2
u to field variable u as seen from E&n. *c-.
*ii+ )n terms of ,artesian coordinates
73
1
2
1
1 +
1
u
2
u
FEM Dr. T.N
Fig. shows a two nodded bar element. The values of cartesian coordinates corresponding to
node and " are as shown in Fig. <et the displacement at node and " be
1
u and
2
u
respectively. Then the field variable *i.e. displacement-
u
at any point inside the element can be
e+pressed in terms of cartesian coordinate as
x u
2 1
+ ,,,*a-
[ ]

'

2
1
1

x u
,,,*b-
<et us consider a coordinate system as shown in Fig. *i.e. at node, 0 x and at node"
e
l x
-.
Then substitution of the nodal coordinates yields nodal displacements as
i.e. at node , 0 x and
1
u u
1 1
u
or
1 1
u ,,,*i-
at node ",
e
l x
and
2
u u
e e
l u l u
2 1 2 1 2
+ +
1 1
u
e e
l
u
l
u
2 1
2
+
,,,*ii-
E&ns *i- and *ii- can be written in matri+ form as

'

1
1
1
]
1

'

2
1
2
1
1 1
0 1
u
u
l l
e e

,,,*c-
#ubstitute in to E&n.*b-, we get
[ ]

'

1
1
1
]
1

2
1
1 1
0 1
1
u
u
l l
x u
e e
[ ]
2 2 1 1
2
1
2 1
2
1
1 u N u N
u
u
N N
u
u
l
x
l
x
u
e e
+

'

'

1
]
1

where,
e
l
x
N 1
1 and
e
l
x
N
2 are shape functions for ".noded bar element and is interpolate
the nodal variables
1
u and
2
u to field variable
u
as seen from the above e&uation. The
variation of shape functions along the length of element is as shown in Fig. below.
74
1
2
0 x e
l x
1
u
2
u
) (x P
e
l
1
2
FEM Dr. T.N
No"e: -tudents are ad\$ised to practice the deri\$ation of shape functions either in terms of
cartesian or natural coordinate system and to remember the expressions for shape functions in
terms of both coordinates.
(#) Fo' a \$noded #a' ee!en" (2.ad'a"%( #a' ee!en"):
Fig. shows a . ! three nodded bar element. The values of natural coordinates corresponding
to node , " and \$ are as shown in Fig. <et the displacement at node , " and \$ be
1
u ,
2
u and
3
u
respectively. Then the field variable *i.e. displacement- u at any point inside the element
can be e+pressed in natural coordinate as
2
3 2 1
+ + u ,,,*a-
[ ]

'

3
2
1
2
1

u
,,,*b-
#ubstitute the values of

## corresponding to node , " and \$ into E&n. *a-, we get nodal

displacement
i.e. at node ,
1
and
1
u u
3 2 1 1
+ u
,,,*-
at node ",
1 +
and
2
u u
3 2 1 2
+ + u
,,,*"-
at node \$,
0
and
3
u u
1 3
u
,,,*\$-
3 1
u
,,,*i-
#ubtract E&n *- from *"-
2 1 2
2 u u
2 2
2 1
2
u u
+ ,,,*ii-
#ubstitute
2 1
& into E&n *- we get
3
2 1
3 1
2 2
+
,
_

+
u u
u u
3
2 1
3
2 2
u
u u
+ ,,,*iii-
E&ns. *i- to *iii- can be written in matri+ form as

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

3
2
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
1 0 0
u
u
u

## #ubstituting into E&n. *b-, we get

75
1
2

1
1 +
1
u
2
u
3
0
3
u
FEM Dr. T.N
[ ]

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

3
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
1 0 0
1
u
u
u
u
( )

'

1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
3
2
1
2 2 2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
u
u
u
u
[ ]

'

3
2
1
3 2 1
u
u
u
N N N u
where,
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1

,
_

+ N
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
+
,
_

+ N
( )
2
3
1 N
are the shape functions for the three nodded bar element and are varies over the length of
element as shown below.
(() Fo' a \$noded "'%an+.a' ee!en" (CST ee!en"):
*i+ )n terms of natural coordinates!
Fig. shows a \$,noded triangular element. The values of natural coordinates corresponding to
node , " and \$ are as shown in Fig. <et the displacement at node , " and \$ in +,direction be
76
) 1 (
2
1
1
N
) 1 (
2
1
2
+ N
) 1 (
2
3
N
1
2
3
) 0 , 1 (
) 1 , 0 (
) 0 , 0 (

On side 1-3,
On side 2-3,
FEM Dr. T.N
1
u ,
2
u and
3
u
respectively. Then the field variable *i.e. displacement-
u
at any point inside
the element can be e+pressed in natural coordinate as

3 2 1
+ + u
,,,*a-
[ ]

'

3
2
1
1

u ,,,*b-
#ubstitute the values of

and

## corresponding to node , " and \$ into E&n. *a-, we get the

nodal displacements
i.e. at node ,
0 ; 1
and
1
u u
2 1 1
+ u ,,,*-
at node ",
1 ; 0
and
2
u u
3 1 2
+ u
,,,*"-
at node \$,
0 ; 0
and
3
u u
1 3
u
3 1
u
,,,*i-
#ubstitute into E&n. *-, we get
2 3 1
+ u u
3 1 2
u u
,,,*ii-
#imilarly, substitute into E&n. *"-, we get
3 2 3
u u
,,,*iii-
E&ns. *i- to *iii- can be written in matri+ form as

'

1
1
1
]
1

'

3
2
1
3
2
1
1 1 0
1 0 1
1 0 0
u
u
u

## #ubstitute into E&n. *b-, we get

[ ]

'

1
1
1
]
1

3
2
1
1 1 0
1 0 1
1 0 0
1
u
u
u
u A
[ ]

'

3
2
1
) 1 (
u
u
u

[ ]

'

3
2
1
3 2 1
u
u
u
N N N u
where,
2 1
; N N and
1
3
N
are the shape functions for a three nodded triangular
*(#T- element.
*ii+ )n terms of cartesian coordinate!
77
) , ( y x P
) , (
1 1
y x
2
3
) , (
2 2
y x
) , (
3 3
y x
x
y
FEM Dr. T.N
Fig. shows a \$,noded triangular element. The values of natural coordinates corresponding to
node , " and \$ are as shown in Fig. <et the displacement at node , " and \$ in +,direction be
1
u ,
2
u and
3
u
respectively. Then the field variable *i.e. displacement-
u
at any point inside
the element can be e+pressed in terms of cartesian coordinate as
y x u
3 2 1
+ +
,,,*a-
[ ]

'

3
2
1
1

y x u ,,,*b-
#ubstitute the values of
x
and
y
correspond to node , " and \$ into E&n. *a-, we get the nodal
displacements
i.e. at node ,
1 1
; y y x x and
1
u u
1 3 1 2 1 1
y x u + +
,,,*-
at node ",
2 2
; y y x x and
2
u u
2 3 2 2 1 2
y x u + +
,,,*"-
at node \$,
3 3
; y y x x
and
3
u u
3 3 3 2 1 3
y x u + +
,,,*\$-
E&ns. *- . *\$- can be written in matri+ form as

'

1
1
1
]
1

'

3
2
1
3 3
2 2
1 1
3
2
1
1
1
1

y x
y x
y x
u
u
u

or
{ } [ ]{ } A q
{ } [ ] { } q A
1
,,,*c-
The inversion of matri+ ( is given by
1
1
1
]
1

3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
1
2
1
c c c
b b b
a a a
A
A
e
,,,*d-
where,
3 3
2 2
1 1
1
1
1
2
1
y x
y x
y x
A
e

where, ,",\$ are in cyclic order.
Note!
) ( 1 ) 1 (
2 3 3 2
3 3
2 2 1 1
11 1
y x y x
y x
y x
M a +
+
3 3
2 2
1 1
1
1
1
1
y x
y x
y x
a
3 2 2 3
3
2 2 1
12 1
) ( 1
1
1
) 1 ( y y y y
y
y
M b
+
3 3
2 2
1 1
1
1
1
1
y x
y x
y x
b
2 3
3
2 3 1
13 1
1
1
) 1 ( x x
x
x
M c
+
3 3
2 2
1 1
1
1
1
1
y x
y x
y x
c
#ubstitute E&n. *d- into *c-, we get
78
1 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 2 1 2
3 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 1 3 2
2 3 1 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 1
c b
c b
c b
x x y y y x y x a
x x y y y x y x a
x x y y y x y x a

FEM Dr. T.N

'

1
1
1
]
1

'

3
2
1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3
2
1
2
1
u
u
u
c c c
b b b
a a a
A
e

,,,*e-
substitute E&n. *e- into E&n. *b-, we get
[ ]

'

1
1
1
]
1

3
2
1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
2
1
1
u
u
u
c c c
b b b
a a a
A
y x u
e

'

1
]
1

+ + + + + +
3
2
1
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
u
u
u
y c x b a
A
y c x b a
A
y c x b a
A
u
e e e
[ ]
3 3 2 2 1 1
3
2
1
3 2 1
u N u N u N
u
u
u
N N N u + +

'

## where shape functions

) (
2
1
y c x b a
A
N
i i i
e
i
+ + 3 , 2 , 1 ( i
-
(d) Fo' 4-noded Te"'a*ed'on Ee!en":
Fig. shows a ',noded tetrahedron element. The values of natural coordinates corresponding to
node , ",\$ and ' are as shown in Fig. <et the displacement at node , ",\$ and ' in +,direction
be
1
u ,
2
u ,
3
u
and
4
u respectively. Then the field variable *i.e. displacement-
u
at any point
inside the element can be e+pressed in terms of cartesian coordinate as
z y x u
4 3 2 1
+ + +
,,,*a-
[ ]

'

4
3
2
1
1

z y x u ,,,*b-
#ubstitute the values of x and
y
correspond to node , " and \$ into E&n. *a-, we get the nodal
displacements
1 4 1 3 1 2 1 1
z y x u + + +
,,,*-
2 4 2 3 2 2 1 2
z y x u + + +
,,,*"-
3 4 3 3 3 2 1 3
z y x u + + +
,,,*\$-
4 4 4 3 4 2 1 4
z y x u + + +
,,,*'-
E&ns. *- . *'- can be written in matri+ form as
79
) , , ( z y x P
) , , (
1 1 1
z y x
1
2
3
) , , (
2 2 2
z y x
) , , (
3 3 3
z y x
x
y 4 ) , , (
4 4 4
z y x
z
FEM Dr. T.N

'

1
1
1
1
]
1

'

4
3
2
1
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
4
3
2
1
1
1
1
1

z y x
z y x
z y x
z y x
u
u
u
u

or
{ } [ ]{ } A q
{ } [ ] { } q A
1
,,,*c-
The inversion of matri+ ( is given by
1
1
1
1
]
1

4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
1
6
1
d d d d
c c c c
b b b b
a a a a
V
A
e
,,,*d-
where,
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
1
1
1
1
6
1
z y x
z y x
z y x
z y x
V
e

B Colume of element
5n general,
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2
11 1
1
z y x
z y x
z y x
M a +
B
4 4
3 3
2 2
12 1
1
1
1
1
z y
z y
z y
M b
B
4 4
3 3
2 2
13 1
1
1
1
1
z x
z x
z x
M c +
B
4 4
3 3
2 2
14 1
1
1
1
1
y x
y x
y x
M d
where,
4 , 3 , 2 , 1
are in cyclic order.
#ubstitute E&n. *d- into *c-, we get

'

1
1
1
1
]
1

'

4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4
3
2
1
6
1
u
u
u
u
d d d d
c c c c
b b b b
a a a a
V
e

,,,*e-
#ubstitute E&n. *e- into E&n. *b-, we get
[ ]

'

1
1
1
1
]
1

4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
6
1
1
u
u
u
u
d d d d
c c c c
b b b b
a a a a
V
z y x u
e
[ ]
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
u N u N u N u N
u
u
u
u
N N N N u + + +

'

## where shape functions

) (
6
1
z d y c x b a
V
N
i i i i
e
i
+ + + 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 ( i
-
(e) Fo' a 4-noded A.ad'%a"e'a ee!en":
80
FEM Dr. T.N

Fig. shows a " . !, ' . noded &uadrilateral element. The values of natural coordinates
corresponding to node , ", \$ and ' are as shown in Fig. <et the displacement at node , ", \$
and ' in +,direction be
1
u ,
2
u ,
3
u
and
4
u respectively. Then the field variable *i.e.
displacement-
u
at any point inside the element can be e+pressed in natural coordinate as

4 3 2 1
+ + + u
,,,*a-
[ ]

'

4
3
2
1
1

u
,,,*b-
#ubstitute the values of

and

corresponding to node , ", \$ and ' into E&n. *a-, we get the
nodal displacements
i.e. at node ,
1 ; 1
and
1
u u
4 3 2 1 1
+ u
,,,*-
at node ",
1 ; 1 +
and
2
u u
4 3 2 1 2
+ u
,,,*"-
at node \$,
1 ; 1 + +
and
3
u u
4 3 2 1 3
+ + + u
,,,*\$-
at node ',
1 ; 1 +
and
4
u u
4 3 2 1 3
+ u
,,,*'-
%dd E&ns. *- and *"-
3 1 2 1
2 2 +u u
,,,*1-
2 1 1 3
2 2 u u
,,,*2-
%dd E&ns. *\$- and *'-
3 1 4 3
2 2 + + u u
#ubstituting for
3
2
, we get
2 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 3
4 2 2 u u u u u u + +
( )
4 3 2 1 1
4
1
u u u u + + + ,,,*i-
#ubstitute
1
into E&n. *2-, we get
( )
4
4 4 2 2 2 2
4
1
* 2 2
2 1 4 3 2 1
2 1 4 3 2 1 3
u u u u u u
u u u u u u
+ + +
+ + +
( )
4 3 2 1 3
4
1
u u u u + + ,,,*iii-
#ubtract E&n. *- from E&n. *"-
4 2 1 2
2 2 u u
2 1 2 4
2 2 u u + ,,,*3-
#ubtract E&n. *\$- from E&n. *'-
4 2 3 4
2 2 u u
81

1
2
3
4
(-1,-1)
(+1,-1)
(-1,+1)
(+1,+1
)
FEM Dr. T.N
#ubstitute for
4
2 from E&n. *3-, we get
( )
2 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 4
4 2 2 u u u u u u + +
( )
4 3 2 1 2
4
1
u u u u + + ,,,*ii-
#ubstitute into E&n. *3-, we get
( )
2 1 4 3 2 1 4
4
1
* 2 2 u u u u u u + + +
( )
4 3 2 1 4
4
1
u u u u + ,,,*iv-
E&ns. *i- to *iv- can be written in matri+ form as

'

1
1
1
1
]
1

'

4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
4
1
u
u
u
u

## #ubstitute into E&n. *b-, we get

[ ]

'

1
1
1
1
]
1

4
3
2
1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
4
1
1
u
u
u
u
u
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

'

1
]
1

+ + + + + +
4
3
2
1
1
4
1
1
4
1
1
4
1
1
4
1
u
u
u
u
u
[ ]

'

4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
u
u
u
u
N N N N u
where, ( ) ( )( ) + 1 1
4
1
1
4
1
1
N
( )( ) + 1 1
4
1
2
N
( )( ) + + 1 1
4
1
3
N
( )( ) + 1 1
4
1
4
N
Note!
5n general, the above shape functions for a ',noded &uadrilateral element can be written as
( )( )
i i i
N + + 1 1
4
1
B
4 , 3 , 2 , 1 i
where,
i

and
i

## are the values of natural coordinates corresponding to node *

4 , 3 , 2 , 1 i
-.
For example. at node1*i.e. 1 i +. 1 , 1
1 1
then shape function
82
FEM Dr. T.N
( )( ) ( )( ) + + 1 1
4
1
) 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( 1
4
1
1
N
-imilarly. at node " *i.e. 2 i +. 1 , 1
2 2
+ then shape function
( )( ) + 1 1
4
1
2
N so on.
For a "/noded bar element. the general expression for shape functions can also be written as
( )
i i
N + 1
2
1
0
2 , 1 i
at node 1. 1
1
. therefore ( ) 1
2
1
1
N and at node ". 1
2
+ . therefore ( ) + 1
2
1
2
N
as we obtained in section *a+.

#f% !or a 2*noe beam element:
(onsider a typical ",noded beam element as shown in Fig. %t each node, the unknowns are
displacement
w
and slop and hence there are " d.o.f:node and ' d.o.f:element. Therefore,
the deformation of beam element at any point can be e+pressed as
3
4
2
3 2 1
x x x w + + + ,,,*a-
and slop is given by differentiating w w.r.t x
2
4 3 2
3 2 x x
dx
dw
+ + ,,,*b-
E&n. *a- can also be written in matri+ form as
[ ]

'

4
3
2
1
3 2
1

x x x w ,,,*c-
<et us consider the local coordinate system as shown in Fig. *i.e. at node , 0 x and at node
",
e
l x
-. Then, substitution of nodal coordinates yields nodal deformations and slops as
1 4 3 2 1 1
0 0 0 + + + w
,,,*i-
2 4 3 2 1
0 3 0 2 + +
,,,*ii-
3
4
2
3 2 1 2 e e e
l l l w + + + ,,,*iii-
2
4 3 2 2
3 2
e e
l l + + ,,,*iv-
or in matri+ form

'

1
1
1
1
]
1

'

4
3
2
1
2
3 2
2
2
1
1
3 2 1 0
1
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1

e e
e e e
l l
l l l w
w
{ } [ ]{ } A d
{ } [ ] { } d A
1
,,,*d-
where
1
A
is given by *see note-
83
1 2
0 x
e
l x
1
2
w
e
l
1
w
1

## FEM Dr. T.N

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

2 3 2 3
2 2
1
1 2 1 2
1 3 2 3
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
e e e e
e
e
e
e
l l l l
l
l
l
l
A
#ubstitution of
1
A
into E&n.*d- yields

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

2
2
1
1
2 3 2 3
2 2
4
3
2
1
1 2 1 2
1 3 2 3
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1

w
w
l l l l
l
l
l
l
e e e e
e
e
e
e
#ubstitute above E&n. into E&n. *c-, we get
[ ]

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

2
2
1
1
2 3 2 3
2 2
3 2
1 2 1 2
1 3 2 3
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
1

w
w
l l l l
l
l
l
l
x x x w
e e e e
e
e
e
e
[ ]
2 4 2 3 1 2 1 1
2
2
1
1
4 3 2 1

N w N N w N
w
w
N N N N w + + +

'

where,
3
3
2
2
1
2 3
1
e e
l
x
l
x
N +
B
2
3 2
2
2
e e
l
x
l
x
x N +
3
3
2
2
3
2 3
e e
l
x
l
x
N
B
2
3 2
4
e e
l
x
l
x
N +
No"e: The
1
A
matrix can be written from the shape function expression 1nowing that elements
in 1
st
. "
nd
. #
rd
and 2
th
row are respecti\$ely the coefficients of
2 1 0
, , x x x and
3
x
terms of shape
functions.
i.e.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

2 3 2 3
2 2
1
1 2 1 2
1 3 2 3
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
e e e e
e
e
e
e
l l l l
l
l
l
l
A
84
Ce!!icien"s ! "e#\$ ! s%a&e !'nc"ins
Ce!!icien"s ! "e#\$ ! s%a&e !'nc"ins
Ce!!icien"s ! "e#\$ ! s%a&e !'nc"ins
Ce!!icien"s ! "e#\$ ! s%a&e !'nc"ins
FEM Dr. T.N
12. La+'an+e In"e'-oa"%on F.n("%on o' La+'an+e -o,no!%a&:
<agrange interpolation function is used to derive shape functions for any line elements and the
concept of line element can be easily e+tended to higher order elements such as ?,noded
rectangular element. For a line having n nodes, the <agrange interpolation function associated
with node 8 i 9 is defined as
) ( ) )( (
) ( ) )( (
) (
2 1
2 1
1
n i i i
n
n
i m
m
m i
m
i
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x x
x x
x L

## The <agrange function satisfy the following property

'

j i
j i
x L
j i
i! 0
i! 1
) (
where j
x
denotes x coordinate of
th
j node. The shape function of a line element is defined
as
) (x L N
i i

.
The <agrange interpolation function of a line element can be e+tended to two dimensional
rectangular elements by taking the tensor product of the x/ direction one . dimensional
interpolation functions,
) (x L
i
with the y/ direction one dimensional interpolation functions,
) ( y L
i
.
i.e.
) ( ) ( ) , ( y L x L y x N
i i i

12.1 De'%@a"%on o= &*a-e =.n("%on& .&%n+ La+'an+e %n"e'-oa"%on =.n("%on:
*a+ "/noded bar element!
Fig. shows a two nodded bar element. The values of natural coordinates corresponding to node
and " are as shown in Fig. The shape functions
1
N and
2
N for a ",noded bar element can
be derived using <agrange interpolation function as follows.
The <agrange interpolation function at node *i.e. 1 i - can be written in terms of natural
coordinate

as
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
1 1
) 1 (
) (
2 1
2
1

L
#imilarly for node " *i.e. 2 i -, it can be written as
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
) 1 ( 1
) 1 (
) (
1 2
1
2

+
+

L
Then, shape function
i
N
is related with
i
L
as
) 1 (
2
1
) (
1 1
L N and ) 1 (
2
1
) (
2 2
+ L N
*b+ For a #/noded bar element!
85
1
2
1
1 +
1
u
2
u
1
2

1
1

1
2
+
3
0
3

FEM Dr. T.N
Fig. shows a \$,noded bar element. The values of natural coordinates corresponding to node , "
and \$ are as shown in Fig. The shape functions
1
N ,
2
N and
3
N
for a \$,node bar element
can be derived using <agrange interpolation function as follows.
The <agrange interpolation function at node *i.e. 1 i - can be written in terms of natural
coordinate

as
( ) ( )
) 1 (
2
1
) 0 1 )( 1 1 (
) 0 ))( 1 ( ( ) )( (
) (
3 1 2 1
3 2
1

+

L
#imilarly for node " and \$ *i.e. 2 i and \$-, it can be written as
( ) ( )
) 1 (
2
1
) 0 1 ))( 1 ( 1 (
) 0 )( 1 ( ) )( (
) (
3 2 1 2
3 1
2
+

+

L
( ) ( )
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 0 )( 1 0 (
) 1 )( 1 ( ) )( (
) (
2 2
2 3 1 3
2 1
3

+
+

L
Then, shape function
i
N
is related with
i
L
as
) 1 (
2
1
) (
1 1
L N B ) 1 (
2
1
) (
2 2
+ L N B
2
3
1 N
*c+ For a 2/noded 3uadrilateral element!

F%+. (a)
F%+. (#)
Fig. *a- shows a ' . noded &uadrilateral element. The values of natural coordinates
corresponding to node , ", \$ and ' are as shown in Fig. The shape functions for a two
dimensional ',noded &uadrilateral element can be derived by taking the tensor product of the

## / direction one . dimensional interpolation functions,

) (
i
L
with the

/ direction one
dimensional interpolation functions,
) (
i
L
. For any
th
i
node it is written as
) ( ) (
i i i
L L N
,,,*a-
where
) (
i
L
and
) (
i
L
are obtained as follows.
The <agrange interpolation function for node and " in

direction is obtained by considering
side ," of &uadrilateral element *Fig. *b-- as ,! ",noded bar element and is obtained as *Defer
case *a--
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
1 1
) 1 (
) (
2 1
2
1

L
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
) 1 ( 1
) 1 (
) (
1 2
1
2

+
+

L
From Fig. *a- it can be seen that, the value of

## at node,' is same as node, and that at node,\$

is same as node,". 6ence, we can write
) 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
1 4
L L ) 1 (
1 4

86

1
2
3
4
(-1,-1)
(+1,-1)
(-1,+1)
(+1,+1
)
1
1
1
1
2
1
+

) 1 4(
4
+
) 1 ( 1
1

FEM Dr. T.N
) 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
2 3
+ L L ) 1 (
2 3
+
For node and ', the <agrange interpolation function can be obtained in

direction as
) 1 (
2
1
) (
4 1
4
1

L
) 1 (
2
1
) (
1 4
1
4

+

L
) 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
1 2
L L ) 1 (
1 2

) 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
4 3
+ L L ) 1 (
4 3
+
Then, shape functions are given by
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
1 1 1
L L N
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
2 2 2
+ + L L N
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
3 3 3
+ + + + L L N
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
3 3 4
+ + L L N
*d+ For a 4/noded 3uadrilateral element!
F%+. (#)
The <agrange interpolation functions for nodes ," and 1 in

direction *Fig. b- can be
obtained by considering side ," as \$,noded bar element and are given by *Defer case *b--.
) 1 (
2
1
) (
1
L
) 1 (
2
1
) (
2
+ L
) 1 ( ) (
2
5
L
#imilarly, <agrange interpolation functions for nodes ,4 and ' in

direction *Fig. b- can be
obtained by considering side ,' as \$,noded bar element and are given by
) 1 (
2
1
) (
1
L
) 1 (
2
1
) (
4
+ L
) 1 ( ) (
2
8
L
6ere,
) ( ) ( ) (
1 8 4
L L L
1 8 4

) ( ) ( ) (
2 6 3
L L L
2 6 3

87
1
2

1
1

1
2
+
5
0
5

1
4

1
1

8 0
8

1
4
+

1
2
3
4
5
6
8
7
9
FEM Dr. T.N
) ( ) ( ) (
5 9 7
L L L
5 9 7

and
) ( ) ( ) (
1 5 2
L L L
1 5 2

) ( ) ( ) (
8 9 6
L L L
8 9 6

) ( ) ( ) (
4 7 3
L L L
4 7 3

Then shape functions are obtained as
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) ( ) (
1 1 1
L L N B ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) ( ) (
2 2 2
+ L L N
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) ( ) (
3 3 3
+ + L L N B ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) ( ) (
4 4 4
+ L L N
) 1 )( 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
2
5 5 5
L L N B ) 1 )( 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
2
6 6 6
+ L L N
) 1 )( 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
2
7 7 7
+ L L N B ) 1 )( 1 (
2
1
) ( ) (
2
8 8 8
L L N
) 1 )( 1 ( ) ( ) (
2 2
9 9 9
L L N
1\$. La+'an+e and Se'end%-%", ee!en"&:
La+ran+e elements:
The shape functions of a ,! bar element can be easily derived using <agrange interpolation
functions. This approach can be e+tended to two,dimensional elements *such as ',noded and ?,
noded rectangular elements- by taking tensor product of the x/ direction one,dimensional
interpolation functions,
) (x L
i
with the y/direction one,dimensional interpolation function,
) ( y L
i
. The above,mentioned procedure can also be e+tended to derive shape functions for 4,noded
and "3,noded three,dimensional elements.
Then, the elements whose shape functions are derived from the tensor product of one,
dimensional <agrange interpolation functions are called <agrange elements or <agrange family of
elements. E+amples of <agrange elements are two,dimensional ',noded, ?,noded and 2,noded
rectangular elements and three,dimensional 4,noded and "3,noded elements. Fig. ?*a- shows
some of typical two,dimensional <agrange elements.
F%+. >(a): La+'an+e ee!en"&
Serenipity elements:
The higher order elements, for e+ample ?,noded rectangular element, are having internal node.
These nodes do not connect with ad/oining elements and hence these nodes can be eliminated
at the element level. %lternatively, we can develop elements with nodes present only on the
boundaries *i.e. with no internal nodes- and these elements are called serendipity elements. %
typical e+ample is the 4,noded or ",noded rectangular elements as shown in Fig. ?*b-.
F%+. >(#): &e'end%-%", ee!en"&
88
FEM Dr. T.N
14. De'%@a"%on o= S"'a%n-d%&-a(e!en" !a"'%3 and S"'e&& !a"'%3
*a+ For a "/noded bar element!
Fig. shows a two nodded bar element. The values of cartesian coordinates corresponding to
node and " are as shown in Fig. <et the displacement at node and " be
1
u and
2
u
respectively. The strain,displacement, strain and stress matrices can be derived using the
following steps.
*1+ -hape functions! The shape functions for a ",noded bar element can be e+pressed as
e
l
x
N 1
1 and
e
l
x
N
2 ,,,*a-
*"+ Displacement function or field \$ariable! the field variable at any point p inside the element can
be e+pressed as
2 2 1 1
u N u N u + ,,,*b-
[ ]

'

2
1
2 1
u
u
N N u
*#+ -train/displacement relation! for ,! bar element, the strain,displacement relation can be
e+pressed as
x
u
x

5t may be noted that,
1
u and
2
u in E&n. *b- are nodal displacement and are constants.
Therefore differentiation of E&n. *b- w.r.t
x
yields

'

1
]
1

2
1
2 1
2
2
1
1
u
u
x
N
x
N
u
x
N
u
x
N
x
u
#ubstitute into the above e&uation, we get strain as

'

1
]
1

2
1
2 1
u
u
x
N
x
N
x

[ ] { }
e e e
x
q B ,,,*c-
E&n. *c- is known as -train matrix.
5here.
{ } { }
T e
u u q
2 1

## is element nodal displacement vector

%nd
[ ]
1
]
1

x
N
x
N
B
e 2 1
is strain/displacement matrix for a ",noded element.
=ow, differentiate E&n. *a- w.r.t +, we get
e
l x
N 1
1

and
e
l x
N 1
2

. #ubstitute into [ ]
e
B matri+ we get the e+pression for strain,
displacement matri+ for a ",noded element as
89
1
2
0 x
e
l x
1
u
2
u
) (x P
e
l
e
FEM Dr. T.N
[ ]
1
]
1

e e
e
l l
B
1 1
5t may be noted that, the strain,displacement matri+ 6 is depends only on length of element
which is constant. 6ence, strain,displacement matri+ 6 for a ",noded bar element is constant.
*2+ -tress/strain relation! For a ,! element, the stress,strain relation can be e+pressed as
e
x e
e
x
E .
#ubstitute for
e
x
from E&n. *c-, we get
[ ] { }
e e
e
e
x
q B E is the stress matri+.
*b+ For a #/noded triangular *,.-.T+ element!
Fig. shows a \$,noded triangular element. The values of cartesian coordinates corresponding to
node , " and \$ are as shown in Fig. <et the displacement at node , " and \$ in +,direction be
1
u ,
2
u and
3
u
respectively. The strain,displacement, strain and stress matrices can be
derived using the following steps.
*1+ -hape functions! The shape functions for a \$,noded triangular element can be e+pressed as
) (
2
1
1 1 1 1
y c x b a
A
N
e
+ +
) (
2
1
2 2 2 2
y c x b a
A
N
e
+ +
,,,*a-
) (
2
1
3 3 3 3
y c x b a
A
N
e
+ +
where,
2 3 1 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 1
c ; b ; x x y y y x y x a
*suffi+ ,",\$ are in cyclic order-.
*"+ Field \$ariable! The field variables *i.e. displacements- in +, and y,directions are e+pressed as
3 3 2 2 1 1
u N u N u N u + +
3 3 2 2 1 1
v N v N v N v + +
,,,*b-

'

1
]
1

'

3
3
2
2
1
1
3 2 1
3 2 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
v
u
v
u
v
u
N N N
N N N
v
u
u
90
) , ( y x P
) , (
1 1
y x
2
3
) , (
2 2
y x
) , (
3 3
y x
x
y
FEM Dr. T.N
*#+ -train/displacement relations! for a ",! problem, the strain,displacement relation is
e+pressed as
x
u
x

B
x
v
y

and
x
v
y
u
xy

!ifferentiate E&ns. *b- w.r.t + and y and substitute into the above e&uation, we get
3
3
2
2
1
1
u
x
N
u
x
N
u
x
N
x
u
x

3
3
2
2
1
1
v
y
N
v
y
N
v
y
N
y
v
y

and
3
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
v
x
N
v
x
N
v
x
N
u
y
N
u
y
N
u
y
N
x
v
y
u
xy

The above e&uation can be written in matri+ form as
{ }

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

3
3
2
2
1
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
v
u
v
u
v
u
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
x
N
xy
y
x

{ } [ ] { }
e e e
q B is the strain matri+. ,,,*c-
)here, [ ]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
x
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
x
N
B
e
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
is strain,displacement matri+.
5n general differentiation of shape functions
) 3 , 2 , 1 ( i N
i
w.r.t + and y yields
i
e
i
b
A x
N
2
1

and
i
e
i
c
A y
N
2
1

## . 6ence, substitution of the above derivatives into the above

e+pression yields
[ ]
1
1
1
]
1

3 3 2 2 1 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
2
1
b c b c b c
c c c
b b b
A
B
e
e
is the strain,displacement matri+ for \$,noded triangular
element.
5t may be noted that strain,displacement matri+ for a \$,noded triangular element is only depends
on nodal coordinates which are constant for the given element and hence it is constant.
Therefore, \$,noded triangular element is called as ,onstant strain Triangular *,.-.T+ element.
*2+ -tress/strain relation! for ",! problem, the stress,strain relation is e+pressed as
{ } [ ] { }
e e e
D , where, [ ]
e
D constitutive relation which relate the strain with stress.
#ubstitute for { }
e
from e&n. *c-, we get
{ } [ ] [ ] { }
e e e e
q B D is the stress matri+
Note! For "/D plain stress and plain strain problems the constituti\$e matrix
[ ] D
in the abo\$e
e3uation is gi\$en by
91
FEM Dr. T.N
[ ]
1
1
1
1
]
1

2
1
0 0
0 1
0 1
) 1 (
2

E
D
for plain stress problems
[ ]
1
1
1
1
]
1

2
2 1
0 0
0 1
0 1
) 2 1 )( 1 (

E
D
for plain strain problems
*c+ For a #/noded bar element or 1/D 7uadratic element!
Fig. shows a \$,noded bar element. The values of natural coordinates corresponding to node , "
and \$ are as shown in Fig. The strain,displacement, strain and stress matrices can be derived
using the following steps.
*1+ -hape functions! The shape functions for a \$,noded bar *,! &uadratic- element can be
e+pressed in natural coordinate system as
) 1 (
2
1
1
N , ) 1 (
2
1
2
+ N and ) 1 (
2
1
N ,,,*a-
where,
e
l
x x ) ( 2
3

,,,*b-
*"+ Field \$ariable! 5s e+pressed as
[ ]

'

+ +
3
2
1
3 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
u
u
u
N N N u N u N u N u ,,,*c-
*#+ -train/displacement relation! 5s e+pressed as
x
u
x

## . !ifferentiate E&n. *c- w.r.t + , we get

3
3
2
2
1
1
u
x
N
u
x
N
u
x
N
x
u
x

[ ] { }
e e e
x
q B
u
u
u
x
N
x
N
x
N

'

1
]
1

3
2
1
3 2 1

where,
[ ]
1
]
1

x
N
x
N
x
N
B
e 3 2 1
,,,*d-
is strain,displacement matri+.
%s the shape functions
) 3 , 2 , 1 ( i N
i
are functions of

## , their derivatives w.r.t + can be written

as
x
N
x
N
i i

.
6ence, diff. E&n. *b- w.r.t + we get
92
1
2

1
1

1
2
+
3
0
3

1
u
3
u
2
u
e
l
FEM Dr. T.N
e e
l l x
2 ) 0 1 ( 2

## . Therefore, above e&uation becomes as

i
e
i
N
l x
N 2
) 3 , 2 , 1 ( i
!ifferentiate E&n.*a- w.r.t

## and substitute we get

,
_

) 1 2 (
2
1 2 2
1 1

e e
l
N
l x
N

,
_

) 1 2 (
2
1 2 2
2 2

e e
l
N
l x
N
( )

2
2 2
3 3

e e
l
N
l x
N
substitute into e&n. *d-, we get
[ ]
1
]
1

+ 2 ) 1 2 (
2
1
) 1 2 (
2
1 2
e
e
l
B
17. De'%@a"%on o= S"%==ne&& !a"'%3 and Load ;e("o'&
#a% !or a 2*noe bar element:
(onsider a ",noded bar element as shown in Fig. The elemental stiffness matri+ and load
vectors can be derived from strain energy and work potential of total potential energy functional.
For an
th
e
element, the total potential energy can be written as

s
T
V
T
V
T
ds T u dV f u dV
2
1

,,,*a-
where, first part of the above e&uation gives strain energy and second and third parts gives work
potential. @sing strain energy and work potential, the elemental stiffness and load vectors can be
derived for the given element as follows:
#a% Stiffness "atri':
(onsider strain energy functional of total potential energy and is e+pressed as
e
V
T
e
dV
e

2
1
,,,*b-
0ut, the stress strain relation yields
D ,,,*i-
where, matri+ D is called constitutive matri+. The strain,displacement relation yields
Bq
,,,*ii-
#ubstitution of into the above e&uation yields
DBq
D B q
T T T
*
D D
T

as D matri+ is symmetric-
#ubstitution of
T

## and into E&n. *b- yields

( ) q ! q q DBdV B q dV DBq B q
e T
V
e
T T
V
e
T T
e
e e
2
1
2
1
2
1

,
_

where,
e
!
is elemental stiffness matrix and is e+pressed as
93
1
2
1
x x
2
x x
1
u
2
u
) (x P
e
l
e
FEM Dr. T.N

e
V
e
T e
DBdV B !
,,,*c-
For ,! bar element,
e
E D
and
dx A dV
e e

. #ubstitute into E&n.*c-, we get

e e
l
T
e e e
l
e
T e
dx B B E A dx A B E B !
0 0
matri+ B is constant matri+
where, B is strain,displacement matri+ and for ",noded bar element it is e+pressed as
1
]
1

e e
l l
B
1 1
1
1
1
1
]
1

e
e
T
l
l
B
1
1
6ence,
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

2 2
2 2
1 1
1 1
1
1
1 1
e e
e e
e
e
e e
T
l l
l l
l
l
l l
B B
#ubstitute into
e
!
and integrate we get
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
2 2
2 2
e
e e
e
e e
e e
e e
e
l
E A
l
l l
l l
E A ! is the elemental stiffness matri+ for a ",noded bar
element.
#b% Loa ,ectors: <oad vectors due to body force and surface force can be derived from work
potential of total potential energy. The work potential for an
th
e
element can be e+pressed as

e
V s
T
e
T
Tds u fdV u "P
,,,*d-
where,
u
is field variable *displacement- at any point inside the element. For ",noded bar
element it is e+pressed as
[ ] Nq
u
u
N N u N u N u

'

+
2
1
2 1 2 2 1 1
T T T
N q u ,,,*e-
#ubstitute E&n. *e- into E&n. *d- we get

e
V s
T T
e
T T
Tds N q fdV N q "P
6ere
{ }
z y x
f f f f
is body force vector and
{ }
z y x
T T T T
is surface force vector.
For an e
th
,! bar element
e
x
f f and
e
x
T T *i.e. simply component of body force and
surface force along +,direction and
dx A dV
e e

and dx ds . Therefore, the above e&uation
becomes as

e e
l l
e
x
T T
e
e
x
T T
dx T N q dx A f N q "P
0 0
,,,*f-
*i+ 8oad \$ector due to body force! From e&n. *f-, the work potential due to body force is
e+pressed as
e T
l
e
x
T
e
T
f b
f q dx f N A q "P
e

,
_

0
(
where,
e
f is elemental load vector due to body force and is e+pressed as
94
FEM Dr. T.N
dx
N
N
f A dx f N A f
e e
l
e
x e
l
e
x
T
e
e

'

0
2
1
0
@sing the following integration rule for ",noded bar element, the above e&uation can be
integrated.
e
l
q #
l
q #
q #
dx N N
e

+ +

0
2 1
)) 1 (
) )

'

'

e
e
e
x e
l
e
x e
e
l
l
f A dx
N
N
f A f
e
2
1
2
1
0
2
1

'

1
1
2
e
x e e e
f l A
f is the load vector due to body force for the case of ",noded bar element.
*i+ 8oad \$ector due to surface force! From E&n. *f-, the work potential due to surface force is
e+pressed as
e T
l
e
x
T T
f s
T q dx T N q "P
e

,
_

0
(
where,
e
T
is elemental load vector due to surface force and is e+pressed as
dx
N
N
T dx T N T
e e
l
e
x
l
e
x
T e

'

0
2
1
0
@sing the above mentioned integration rule for ",noded bar element, the above e&uation can be
integrated as

'

'

e
e
e
x
l
e
x
e
l
l
T dx
N
N
T T
e
2
1
2
1
0
2
1

'

1
1
2
e
x e e
T l
T
is the load vector due to surface force for the case of ",noded bar element.
#b% !or a 3*noe trian+ular #(.S.T% element:

s
T
V
T
V
T
ds T u dV f u dV
2
1

,,,*a-
95
e e e
l
e e e
l
l l l dx N
l l l dx N
e
e
2
1
2 1
1
)) 1 1 (
) 1
2
1
2 1
1
)) 1 1 (
) 1
0
2
0
1

) , ( y x P
) , (
1 1
y x
2
3
) , (
3 3
y x
x
y
Fig. shows a \$,noded triangular element.
The values of cartesian coordinates
corresponding to node , " and \$ are as
shown in Fig. The elemental stiffness matri+
and load vectors can be derived from strain
energy and work potential of total potential
energy functional. For an
th
e
element, the
total potential energy can be written as
FEM Dr. T.N
where, first part of the above e&uation gives strain energy and second and third parts gives work
potential. @sing strain energy and work potential, the elemental stiffness and load vectors can be
derived for the given element as follows:
#a% Stiffness "atri': >roceed same as case *a- upto E&n. *c- and show that

e
V
e
T e
DBdV B !
,,,*c-
For ",! element,
e e e
dA t dV
, where
e
t
is thickness of element. #ubstitute into E&n.*c-, we get

e
e
A
e
T
e e e
l
T e
dA DB B t dA t DB B !
0
DB B t A !
T
e e
e
is elemental stiffness matri+.
6ere, D is constitutive relation for two,dimensional problem and is e+pressed as
1
1
1
1
]
1

2
1
0 0
0 1
0 1
) 1 (
2

E
D
for plain stress problems
1
1
1
1
]
1

2
2 1
0 0
0 1
0 1
) 2 1 )( 1 (

E
D
for plain strain problems
#b% Loa ,ector: <oad vectors due to body force and surface force can be derived from work
potential of total potential energy. The work potential for an
th
e
element can be e+pressed as

e
V s
T
e
T
Tds u fdV u "P
,,,*d-
where,
u
is field variable *displacement- at any point inside the element.
*i+ 8oad \$ector due to body force! From E&n. *d-, the work potential due to body force is
e+pressed as

e
V
e
T
f b
fdV u "P
(
,,,*e-
where, { }
T
v u u are field variables in +, and y,directions. For \$,noded triangular element,
they are e+pressed as
3 3 2 2 1 1
u N u N u N u + +
3 3 2 2 1 1
v N v N v N v + +
or in matri+ form
[ ]{ } q N
v
u
v
u
v
u
N N N
N N N
v
u
u

'

1
]
1

'

3
3
2
2
1
1
3 2 1
3 2 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
where,
{ }
T
v u v u v u
v
u
u
3 3 2 2 1 1

'

and
[ ]
1
]
1

3 2 1
3 2 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
N N N
N N N
N
T T T
N q u
#ubstitute into E&n. *e- we get
96
FEM Dr. T.N

e
V
e
T T
f b
fdV N q "P
(
,,,*f-
6ere
{ }
z y x
f f f f
is body force vector and for a ",! element { }
T
y x
f f f and *i.e.
the components of body force along +, and y, directions-. Then, the above e&uation becomes as
e T
V
e
y
x
T
f b
f q dV
f
f
N
N
N
N
N
N
q "P

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

3
3
2
2
1
1
(
0
0
0
0
0
0
,,,*g-
where,
e
f is elemental load vector due to body force and is e+pressed as
e
A
y
x
y
x
y
x
e
A
e
y
x
e
V
e
y
x
e
dA
f N
f N
f N
f N
f N
f N
t dA
f
f
N
N
N
N
N
N
t dV
f
f
N
N
N
N
N
N
f
e e e

'

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

3
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
For ",! element,
e e e
dA t dV
where,
e
t
is thickness of element.
@sing the following integration rule for \$,noded triangular element, the above e&uation can be
integrated.
e
A
\$ q #
A
\$ q #
\$ q #
dA N N N
e
2
)) 2 (
) ) )
3 2 1
+ + +

i.e
3
2
3 2 1
1
2
)) 2 1 (
) 1
1
3
1
2
1
1
e
e e
A
e
A
e
A
e
A
A A dA N dA N dA N
e e e

'

y
x
y
x
y
x
e e e
f
f
f
f
f
f
t A
f
3
is the load vector due to body force for the case of \$,noded triangular element.
*ii+ 8oad \$ector due to surface force! The surface force *traction- is a distributed load acts on the
edge of an element connecting the boundary nodes.
97
x- and y- c\$&nen"s a" nde-1
x- and y- c\$&nen"s a" nde-2
x- and y- c\$&nen"s a" nde-3
3
x
y
FEM Dr. T.N
(onsider a triangular element sub/ected to uniformly varying load *i.e. traction force, force per
unit surface area- on side ," as shown in Fig. The component of this traction force in +, and y,
directions are
x
T
and y
T
respectively. <et
x
T
varies from
1 x
T
at node, to
2 x
T
at node,"
and that y
T
from 1 y
T
to 2 y
T
. From E&n. *d-, the work potential due to body force is e+pressed
as

%
e
T
f %
Td% u "P
(
,,,*e-
where, { }
T
v u u is a field variable in +, and y,directions. 5t may be noted that
0
3
N
along
side ," and hence side ," can be consider as line element. Then. Field variable between node
and " is e+pressed as
2 2 1 1
u N u N u +
2 2 1 1
v N v N v +
Nq
v
u
v
u
N N
N N
v
u
u

'

1
]
1

'

2
2
1
1
2 1
2 1
0 0
0 0
T T T
N q u
where,
{ }
T
v u v u q
2 2 1 1

and
1
]
1

2 1
2 1
0 0
0 0
N N
N N
N

%
e
T T
f %
Td% N q "P
(
,,,*f-
Further, the traction force at any point on side ," can be e+pressed in terms of nodal forces as
2
2
1
1 x x x
T N T N T +
2
2
1
1 y y y
T N T N T +

'

1
]
1

'

2
2
1
1
2 1
2 1
0 0
0 0
y
x
y
x
y
x
T
T
T
T
N N
N N
T
T
T
98
e
t
2
2 1
dl t d%
e
FEM Dr. T.N
#ubstituting
T
N
and T into E&n.*f-, we get
e T
y
x
y
x
l
e
T
f %
T q dl
T
T
T
T
N N
N N
N
N
N
N
t q "P

'

1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

2
2
1
1
2 1
2 1
2
2
1
1
(
2 1
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
where,
e
T
is elemental load vector due to surface force and is e+pressed as
dl
T
T
T
T
N N
N N
N
N
N
N
t T
y
x
y
x
l
e
e

'

1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

2
2
1
1
2 1
2 1
2
2
1
1
2 1
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
dl
T
T
T
T
N
N
N N
N N
N N
N N
N
N
t T
y
x
y
x
l
e
e

'

1
1
1
1
1
]
1

2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
1
2
1
2 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
@sing the following integration rule for line element *because side ," is considered as line-, the
above e&uation can be integrated.
2 1 2 1
2 1
)) 1 (
) )

+ +
l
q #
q #
dl N N
l
q #
i.e
3 )) 1 2 (
) 2
2 1
2 1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1

+

l
l dl N dl N
l l
and
6 )) 1 1 1 (
) 1 ) 1
2 1
2 1
1
2
1
1
2 1

+ +

l
l dl N N
l
99
FEM Dr. T.N

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

2
2
1
1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
3
0
0
3
6
0
0
6
6
0
0
6
3
0
0
3
y
x
y
x
e
e
T
T
T
T
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
t T

'

+
+
+
+

2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
2
6
y y
x x
y y
x x
e e
T T
T T
T T
T T
l t
T ,,,*g-
is the load vector due to surface force for the case of \$,noded triangular element.
Note!
1. )f traction force is u.d.l.
2 1 x x
T T
and 2 1 y y
T T
. then E3n. *g+ reduces to

'

2
2
1
1
2 1
2
y
x
y
x
e e
T
T
T
T
l t
T
". 5f side ",\$ of triangular element is sub/ected to traction force, then
2 1
l is replaced by
3 2
l

and suffices E " of
x
T
and y
T
are replaced by " E\$ respectively in E&n. *g-.
*c+ For a #/noded bar or 1/D 7uadratic element!
(onsider a &uadratic element having \$ nodes as shown in Fig. The values of natural coordinates
at nodal points are as shown in Fig. The elemental stiffness matri+ and load vectors can be
100
1
2

1
1

1
2
+
3
0
3

1
u
3
u
2
u
e
l
FEM Dr. T.N
derived from strain energy and work potential of total potential energy functional. For an
th
e

element, the total potential energy can be written as

s
T
V
T
V
T
ds T u dV f u dV
2
1

,,,*a-
@sing strain energy and work potential, the elemental stiffness and load vectors can be derived
for the given element as follows:
#a% Stiffness "atri': >roceed same as case *a- and show that
q Bdx B E A q
e
l
T
e e
T
e

,
_

0
2
1
q ! q
e T
e
2
1

where

e
l
T
e e
e
Bdx B E A !
0
is a stiffness matri+
Note: -train/displacement matrix 6 for a #/noded bar element is not constant and hence it
cannot ta1e out side the integration. Further. matrix 6 is a function of

## and hence the abo\$e

integration w.r.t
x
should be modified to integrate w.r.t

.
)e have,
e
l
x x ) ( 2
3

e
l dx
d 2

or d
l
dx
e
2

#ubstitute into
e
!
, we get
d B B
l
E A !
T e
e e
e

1
1
2
,,,*b-
*limits
e
l 0
in the above E&n. changes to . to F-
6ere,
1
]
1

+ 2 ) 1 2 (
2
1
) 1 2 (
2
1 2
e
l
B
1
]
1

+
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

2 ) 1 2 (
2
1
) 1 2 (
2
1
2
) 1 2 (
2
1
) 1 2 (
2
1
4
2
e
T
l
B B
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

+
+ + +
+

2
2
2
2
4 ) 1 2 (
2
1
2 ) 1 2 (
2
1
2
2 ) 1 2 (
2
1
) 1 2 (
4
1
) 1 2 )( 1 2 (
4
1
2 ) 1 2 (
2
1
) 1 2 )( 1 2 (
4
1
) 1 2 (
4
1
4

e
T
l
B B

d %ymm
l
d B B
e
T

+

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

+ + +
+

1
1
2
2 2
2 2 2
2
1
1
4
) 2 ( ) 4 1 4 (
4
1
) 2 ( ) 1 4 (
4
1
) 4 1 4 (
4
1
4
,,,*c-
101
FEM Dr. T.N
5ntegration of the following terms yields,

+
1
1
1
1
3
2
3
2
) 1 1 (
3
1
3

d B

+

1
1
1
1
2
0 ) 1 1 (
2
1
2

d and

+
1
1
1
1
2 ) 1 1 ( d
#ubstitute into E&n. *c-, we get
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

+ +
+

+

3
2
4
)
3
2
2 ( ) 0 4 2
3
2
4 (
4
1
) 0
3
2
2 ( ) 2
3
2
4 (
4
1
) 0 4 2
3
2
4 (
4
1
4
2
1
1
%ymm
l
d B B
e
T

1
1
1
]
1

32
16 14
16 2 14
3
1
1
1
2
%ymm
l
Bd B
e
T

#ubstitute into E&n. *b-, we get
1
1
1
]
1

32
16 14
16 2 14
3
1
2
2
%ymm
l
l E A
!
e
e e e e
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

16 8 8
8 7 1
8 1 7
3
16
8 7
8 1 7
3
e
e e
e
e e e
l
E A
%ymm
l
E A
!
(#) Load ;e("o': <oad vectors due to body force and surface force can be derived from work
potential of total potential energy. The work potential for an
th
e
element can be e+pressed as

e
V s
T
e
T
Tds u fdV u "P
,,,*d-
where,
u
is field variable *displacement- at any point inside the element and is e+pressed as
[ ] Nq
u
u
u
N N N u N u N u N u

'

+ +
3
2
1
3 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
T T T
N q u
For a bar element,
e
x
f f ,
e
x
T T ,
dx A dV
e e

and dx ds ,
#ubstitute into E&n. *d-, we get
dx T N q dx A f N q "P
e e
l
e
x
T T
e
l
e
x
T T

0 0

d
l
T N q d
l
A f N q "P
e
l
e
x
T T e
e
l
e
x
T T
e e
2 2
0 0

2
e
l
dx ,,,*e-
*i+ 8oad \$ector due to body force! From E&n. *e-, the work potential due to body force is
e+pressed as
e T
l
T
e
x e e T
f b
f q d N
f l A
q "P
e

0
(
2
where
e
f is elemental load vector due to body force and is e+pressed as
102
FEM Dr. T.N
d
N
N
N
f l A
d N
f l A
f
e
x e e T
e
x e e e

+

'

1
1
3
2
1
1
1
2 2
For a \$,node bar element, ) (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
+ N B ) (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
2
2
+ + N and
2
3
1 N . #ubstitute into above e&uation we get

d
f Ael
f
e
x e e

'

1
1
2
2
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
2
,,,*f-
5ntegration of following terms yields

+
1
1
1
1
3
2
3
2
) 1 1 (
3
1
3

d B

+

1
1
1
1
2
0 ) 1 1 (
2
1
2

d and

+
1
1
1
1
2 ) 1 1 ( d
#ubstitute into E&n. *f-, we get

'

3
2
2
) 0
3
2
(
2
1
) 0
3
2
(
2
1
2
e
x e e
f Ael
f . Finally, the load vector due to body force is e+pressed as

'

3
2
6
1
6
1
e
x e
e
f Ael f
*ii+ 8oad \$ector due to surface force! From E&n. *e-, the work potential due to surface force is
e+pressed as
e T
l
T
e
x e T
f s
T q d N
T l
q "P
e

0
(
2
where
e
T
is elemental load vector due to surface force and is e+pressed as

d
T l
d
N
N
N
T l
d N
T l
T
e
x e
e
x e T
e
x e e

+

'

'

1
1
2
2
2
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
2 2 2
#ubstitution of integration terms discussed above yields
103
*ad a" nde-1
*ad a" nde-2
*ad a" nde-3
FEM Dr. T.N

'

3
2
2
3
2
2
1
3
2
2
1
2
e
x e e
T l
T . Finally, the load vector due to surface force is e+pressed as

'

3
2
6
1
6
1
e
x e
e
T l T

1:. A&&e!#, o= "*e 0o#a &"%==ne&& !a"'%3 and Load @e("o'
The potential energy for an e
th
element can be e+pressed as

e
V
e
%
e
T
e
T
e
V
e
T e
Td% u fdV u dV
where, the
st
term in D6# of the above e&uation represents strain energy due to internal
stresses and "
nd
and \$
rd
terms represent the work potential due to body force, and surface force
respectively. %lso,
Bq
B D B q
T T T
and
T T T
N q u .
#ubstitution of the above terms into the above e&uation yields

,
_

,
_

,
_

e e e
%
e
T T
V
e
T T
V
e
T T e
Td% N q fdV N q q DBdV B q
2
1

e T e T e T e
T q f q q ! q
2
1

where,
e
!
A element stiffness matri+

q
element nodal displacement vector
e
f and
e
T
A element load vectors due to body force and surface force
The total potential energy of the entire body, which is divided into
e
n
number of elements, is
obtained by the summation of the potential energy of each element.

,
_

,
_

,
_

e
%
e
T T
e
V
e
T T
e
V
e
T T
e e e
Td% N q fdV N q q DBdV B q
2
1

%fter performing assembly process over each element, the above e&uation can be e+pressed in
short form as
& ' !' '
T T

2
1

## where, ! A ;lobal stiffness matri+

'
A global nodal displacement vector
& A ;lobal force vector that includes global load vectors due to body force, surface
force and point loads *if any-.
The global stiffness matri+ 9 and load vector F are respectively obtained by the assembly of
element stiffness matrices and element load vectors using nodal connectivity table.
&rob! Fig.*a+ shows a stepped bar. For each element % i ' the cross sectional area and length are
(i and 8i respecti\$ely. Each element is subected to a traction force Ti per unit length and a body
force fi per unit \$olume. :oung's modulus of the material is E and a concentrated load &" is
applied at node ". ;btain the global stiffness matrix and nodal load \$ector.
104
*ad a" nde-1
*ad a" nde-2
*ad a" nde-3
1 1
, L A
2 2
, L A
3 3
, L A
1
T
2
T
3
T
2
P
1
2
3
4
x
1 1
, L A
2 2
, L A
3 3
, L A
1
T
2
T
3
T
2
P
1
2
3
4
x
1
2
3
FEM Dr. T.N
F%+. (a) F%+. (#)
#olution: The given stepped bars are discretized into \$ elements as shown in Fig. *b-.
(a) To o#"a%n 0o#a S"%==ne&& Ma"'%3:
5n general element stiffness matri+ is e+pressed as
1
]
1

1 1
1 1
e
e e e
l
E A
!
.
Then, for elements ," and \$ it is e+pressed as
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
E !
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
]
1

l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
E ! and
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
]
1

l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
E ! ,,,*a-
(onnectivity table:
Element =os. <ocal node =os. ;lobal !.7.F

"
1
2
"

"
2
\$
\$

"
\$
4
)rite the global !.7.F to the element matrices and assemble the stiffness matri+, we get
105
FEM Dr. T.N
4
3
2
1
0 0
0
0
0 0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

+
+

l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
l
A
E ! is the global stiff. Matri+.
(#) To o#"a%n +o#a oad @e("o':
*i- <oad vector due to body force:
The elemental load vector due to body force is e+pressed as,

'

1
1
2
e
x e e e
f l A
f
For element :
1
1
f f
x

2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1

'

'

f l A
f l A
f l A
f
For element ":
2
2
f f
x

3
2
2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2

'

f l A
f l A
f
For element :
3
3
f f
x

4
3
2
2
3 3 3
3 3 3
3

'

f l A
f l A
f
)rite the global d.o.f from connectivity table as shown above and assemble, we get global load
vector due to body force as
106
1 2 3 4
FEM Dr. T.N
4
3
2
1
2
2 2
2 2
2
3 3 3
3 3 3 2 2 2
2 2 2 1 1 1
1 1 1
(

'

+
+

f l A
f l A f l A
f l A f l A
f l A
&
f b
*ii- <oad vector due to surface force:
The elemental load vector due to surface force is e+pressed as,

'

1
1
2
e
x e e
T l
T
For element :
1
1
T T
x

2
1
2
2
1 1
1 1
1

'

T l
T l
T
For element ":
2
2
T T
x

3
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2

'

T l
T l
T
For element :
3
3
T T
x

4
3
2
2
3 3
3 3
3

'

T l
T l
T
)rite the global d.o.f from connectivity table as shown above and assemble, we get global load
vector due to surface force as
107
FEM Dr. T.N
4
3
2
1
2
2 2
2 2
2
3 3
3 3 2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
(

'

+
+

T l
T l T l
T l T l
T l
&
f s
*iii- <oad vector due to point load: The global load vector due to point load is simply obtained by
writing the point loads at the global nodes and is given by
4
3
2
1
0
0
2
1
(

'

P
(
&
L P
; where
1
( is the reaction at the support.
*iv- Total global load vector:
The total global load vector is obtained by summation of global load vectors due to body, surface
and point loads.
4
3
2
1
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
3 3 3 3 3
3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2
2
2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1
1
1 1 1 1 1
( ( (

'

+
+ + +
+ + + +
+ +
+ +
T l f l A
T l T l f l A f l A
P
T l T l f l A f l A
(
T l f l A
& & & &
L P f s f b
1:. A--%(a"%on o= Bo.nda', Cond%"%on&: Defer class notes or 5ntroduction to FE in Engg. 0y
(handrupatla and 0elegundu, pp. 2\$,31
P'o#e!&:
&rob. 1! Fig. shows a thin *steel+ plate of uniform thic1ness of 1mm. :oung<s modulus E =">> ?&a
and weight density =
6
10 6 ( 76

N@mm
#
. )n addition to its self/weight. the plate is subected to a
point load & = 1>> N at its midpoint.
108
)a* M,del the #late with tw, finite elements-
)b* "\$ite d,wn ex#\$essi,ns f,\$ the element stiffness mat\$ices and
element b,dy f,\$ce vect,\$s-
)c* Assemble the st\$uctu\$al stiffness mat\$ix ! and .l,bal l,ad vect,\$
&-
)d* sin. the eliminati,n a##\$,ach/ s,lve f,\$ the .l,bal
dis#lacement vect,\$ '-
)e* Evaluate the st\$esses in each element-
)f* Dete\$mine the \$eacti,n f,\$ce at the su##,\$t-
240
\$\$
120
\$\$
30 \$\$
60 \$\$
FEM Dr. T.N
a) To !ode "*e -a"e %n"o ")o ee!en"&:
The given plate is discretized into two elements as shown in Fig. *b- and modeled as two
stepped bars by taking average width for each elements as shown in Fig. *c-. From Fig. *b-, it
can be written as

P

#b% #c%
240
15
120
"an
a
mm a 5 ( 7
240
15 * 120

Then, width of plate at midpoint is mm a w w 45 5 ( 7 * 2 60 2
1 2

Therefore, average width of element A mm 5 ( 52
5
45 60

+
%verage width of element " A mm 5 ( 37
2
30 45

+
=ow, (:s area of element ,
2
1
5 ( 52 1 * 5 ( 52 mm A
%nd (:s area of element ",
2
2
5 ( 37 1 * 5 ( 37 mm A
#) To )'%"e e3-'e&&%on& =o' ee!en" &"%==ne&& !a"'%(e& and #od, =o'(e @e("o'&:
Element stiffness matrices! 5n general, the element stiffness matri+ for an e
th
element is
e+pressed as
1
]
1

1 1
1 1
e
e e e
l
E A
!
For element :
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

5 5
5 5 3
1
1 1 1
10 * 875 ( 0 10 * 875 ( 0
10 * 875 ( 0 10 * 875 ( 0
1 1
1 1
120
10 * 200 * 5 ( 52
1 1
1 1
l
E A
!
For element ":
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

5 5
5 5 3
2
2 2 2
10 * 625 ( 0 10 * 625 ( 0
10 * 625 ( 0 10 * 625 ( 0
1 1
1 1
120
10 * 200 * 5 ( 37
1 1
1 1
l
E A
!
109
240
\$\$
120
\$\$
30 \$\$
60 \$\$
120
\$\$
120
\$\$
52(5 \$\$
+1
+2
37(5
2 3
2 1
, 10 200 mm N E E
mm l l 120
2 1

3 6 2 1
, 10 6 ( 76 mm N f f
x x

1
2
3
0
FEM Dr. T.N
Element body force \$ectors! is e+pressed as

'

1
1
2
e
x e e e
f l A
f
For element : here
3 6 1
( 10 6 ( 76 mm N f
x

'

'

241 ( 0
241 ( 0
1
1
2
10 * 6 ( 76 * 120 * 5 ( 52
6
1
f
For element ":
3 6 2
( 10 6 ( 76 mm N f
x

'

'

143 ( 0
143 ( 0
1
1
2
10 * 6 ( 76 * 120 * 5 ( 37
6
2
f
() To a&&e!#e &"%==ne&& !a"'%3 and oad @e("o'&:
-tiffness matrix! The assembly of element stiffness matrices can be done by using the following
connectivity table:
Element =os. <ocal node =os. ;lobal !.7.F

"
1
2
"

"
2
\$
)rite the global !.7.F to the element matrices and load vectors and assemble the stiffness
matri+, we get
1
1
1
]
1

5 5
5 5 5 5
5 5
10 * 625 ( 0 10 * 625 ( 0 0
10 * 625 ( 0 ) 10 * 625 ( 0 10 * 875 ( 0 ( 10 * 875 ( 0
0 10 * 875 ( 0 10 * 875 ( 0
!
;lobal load vector due to body force is

'

'

+
172 ( 0
413 ( 0
241 ( 0
172 ( 0
172 ( 0 241 ( 0
241 ( 0
(& B
&
=
)e have global load vector due to point load as

'

+
0
100
0
P =
Then, total global load vector due to body force and point load is
110
FEM Dr. T.N

'

+
172 ( 0
413 ( 100
241 ( 0
(
P & &
& B
=
;lobal system e&uation can be written as

'

'

1
1
1
]
1

172 ( 0
413 ( 100
241 ( 0
10 * 625 ( 0 10 * 625 ( 0 0
10 * 625 ( 0 510 ( 1 10 * 875 ( 0
0 10 * 875 ( 0 10 * 875 ( 0
3
2
1
5 5
5 5 5
5 5

*%-
d) To &o@e "*e &,&"e! eA.a"%on:
(pplication of boundary condition! %s the plate is at node , we have 0
1 1
a . Therefore,
using elimination method E&. *%- can be modified by eliminating
st
row and
st
column. The
modified system e&uation is written as

'

'

'

1
1
]
1

172 ( 0
413 ( 100
172 ( 0
413 ( 100
10 * 625 ( 0 10 * 625 ( 0
10 * 625 ( 0 10 * 5 ( 1
1 31
1 21
3
2
5 5
5 5
a !
a !

*#ince, 0
1
a -
The above e&uation can be written in e+panded form as
413 ( 100 10 * 625 ( 0 10 * 5 ( 1
3
5
2
5
*i-
172 ( 0 10 * 625 ( 0 10 * 625 ( 0
3
5
2
5
+ *ii-
%dd *i- and *ii-, we get 585 ( 100 10 * 875 ( 0
2
5

mm
3
2
10 * 14 ( 1

. #ubstitute A" into E&. *i- or *ii- and solve for A#, we get
mm
3
3
10 * 15 ( 1

## Therefore, displacement vector is

{ } mm '
T
3 3
10 * 15 ( 1 10 * 14 ( 1 0

e) To e@a.a"e ee!en" &"'e&&e&: 5n general element stress is given by
e e
e
e
' B E , where
1
]
1

e e
e
l l
B
1 1
and
e
' is the nodal displacement vector corresponding
to e
th
element.
111
FEM Dr. T.N
For element :

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

3
3
2
1
1 1
1
1
10 * 14 ( 1
0
120
1
120
1
10 * 200
1 1

l l
E
9 ( 1 10 * 14 ( 1 *
120
1
* 10 * 200
3 3

=:mm
"
For element ":

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

3
3
3
3
2
2 2
2
2
10 * 15 ( 1
10 * 14 ( 1
120
1
120
1
10 * 200
1 1

l l
E
AG.G3 =:mm
"
=) To de"e'!%ne &.--o'" 'ea("%on: 5n elimination method, the support reactions at node and \$
are obtained as follows:
%t support :
1 1 3 13 12 1 11
( & ! ! ! + +
7r it is simply obtained by adding
1
( to the D6# of
st
e&uation of E&. *%- and is written as
1 2
5
1
5
241 ( 0 10 * 875 ( 0 10 * 875 ( 0 ( +
7r 100 99 ( 99 241 ( 0 10 * 14 ( 1 * 10 * 875 ( 0
3 5
1

( =
&rob."! For the following figure *bar+. find the nodal displacements. The cross sectional area
decreases linearly from 1>>> mm
"
to B>> mm
"
. Ase two elements. Ta1e E = "x1>
C
Mpa.
*DTA Ean. ">>#+
#olution:
750
250
375
"an
a

2
250
750
375 * 250
mm a
(:s area at midpoint AGGG,"Ha A GGG . "H"1 A 31G mm
"
%verage (:s area of element , (1 A
2
875
2
750 1000
mm
+
112
375 \$\$
FEM Dr. T.N
%verage (:s area of element ", (" A
2
625
2
500 750
mm
+

>roceed similar to the previous problem and determine nodal displacement.
&rob #! ( load & = C> 1N is applied as shown in Fig *a+. Determine the displacement field. stress
and support reactions in the body. Ta1e E = ">x1>
#
N@mm
"
. Ase *a+ Elimination method and *b+
&enalty method to handle the boundary conditions.
#olution: !ivide the given bar into two elements such that the point load lies on a node point as
shown in Fig. *b-.
5n general element stiffness matri+ for an e
th
element is e+pressed as
1
]
1

1 1
1 1
e
e e e
l
E A
!

Therefore,
For element :
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

5 5
5 5 3
1
10 33 ( 0 10 33 ( 0
10 33 ( 0 10 33 ( 0
1 1
1 1
150
250 10 20
!
For element ":
1
1
]
1

5 5
5 5
1 2
10 33 ( 0 10 33 ( 0
10 33 ( 0 10 33 ( 0
! !
since, (1=(". E1=E" and l1=l"
;lobal stiff. Matri+ is
1
1
1
]
1

5 5
5 5 5 5
5 5
10 33 ( 0 10 33 ( 0 0
10 33 ( 0 ) 10 33 ( 0 10 33 ( 0 ( 10 33 ( 0
0 10 33 ( 0 10 33 ( 0
!
=:mm
113
1

(b)
\$31 mm
\$31 mm
431 mm
"
2"1 mm
"

GGG =
2 3
FEM Dr. T.N
%s there are no body and traction forces, the total global load vector is only due to point load and
is given by
N &

'

0
10 * 60
0
3
;lobal system e&uation is

'

'

1
1
1
]
1

0
10 * 60
0
10 33 ( 0 10 33 ( 0 0
10 33 ( 0 10 66 ( 0 10 33 ( 0
0 10 33 ( 0 10 33 ( 0
3
3
2
1
5 5
5 5 5
5 5

*%-
%pplication of boundary conditions:
*a- Elimination method: 6ere 0 ( 0
1 1
a and
mm a 2 ( 1
3 3

6ence, using elimination method, E& *%- is modified by eliminating
st
row and
st
column and \$
rd
row and \$
rd
column and is given by
[ ]{ } { } { } 2 ( 1 * 10 * 33 ( 0 0 * 10 * 33 ( 0 10 * 60 * * 21 10 * 60 10 * 66 ( 0
5 5 3
3 23 1
3
2
5
+ + a ! a !
5
2
5
10 * 996 ( 0 10 * 66 ( 0
mm 5 ( 1
2

Therefore, nodal displacement field is { } { } mm '
T T
2 ( 1 5 ( 1 0
3 2 1

Ee!en"a &"'e&&e&: 5n general, the elemental stress is e+pressed as
e e
e
e
e
e
' B E E
Then,
For element :
5 ( 1 *
150
1
* 10 * 20
5 ( 1
0
150
1
150
1
10 * 20
1 1
3 3
2
1
1 1
1
1

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

l l
E
A "GG =:mm
"
*tensile-
For element ":

,
_

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

2 ( 1 *
150
1
5 ( 1 *
150
1
10 * 20
2 ( 1
5 ( 1
150
1
150
1
10 * 20
1 1
3 3
3
2
2 2
2
2

l l
E

A , 'G =:mm
"
*compressive-
S.--o'" 'ea("%on&: 5n elimination method, the support reactions at node and \$ are obtained as
follows:
%t support :
1 1 3 13 12 1 11
( & ! ! ! + +
7r it is simply obtained by adding
1
( to the D6# of
st
e&uation of E&. *%- and is written as
1 2
5
1
5
0 10 * 33 ( 0 10 * 33 ( 0 ( +
7r 49500 5 ( 1 * 10 * 33 ( 0
5
1
( = * -
%t support ":
3 3 3 313 32 1 31
( & ! ! ! + +
7r it is obtained by adding
3
(
to the D6# of \$
rd
e&uation of E&. *%-
3 3
5
2
5
0 * 10 * 33 ( 0 * 10 * 33 ( 0 ( + +
7r 9900 10 ) 2 ( 1 * 33 ( 0 5 ( 1 * 33 ( 0 (
5
3
+ ( = * -
(#) Pena", a--'oa(*: 6ere 0 ( 0
1 1
a and
mm a 2 ( 1
3 3

4
10
ij
! Max 1
From E&. *%-,
5
10 * 66 ( 0
ij
! Max

9 4 5
10 * 66 ( 0 10 * 10 * 66 ( 0 1
6ence, using penalty approach, E&. *%- is modified as
114
FEM Dr. T.N

'

+
+

'

1
1
1
]
1

+

+
2 ( 1 * 10 * 66 ( 0 0
10 * 60
0 * 10 * 66 ( 0 0
10 * 66 ( 0 10 33 ( 0 10 33 ( 0 0
10 33 ( 0 10 66 ( 0 10 33 ( 0
0 10 33 ( 0 10 * 66 ( 0 10 33 ( 0
9
3
9
3
2
1
9 5 5
5 5 5
5 9 5

## #olve the above e&uation for unknown A9s, we get

mm mm mm 200015 ( 1 and 500045 ( 1 ; 10 * 5 ( 7
3 2
5
1

Ee!en"a &"'e&&e&: 5n general, the elemental stress is e+pressed as
e e
e
e
e
e
' B E E
Then,
For element :

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

500045 ( 1
10 * 5 ( 7
150
1
150
1
10 * 20
1 1
5
3
2
1
1 1
1
1

l l
E
A
016 ( 200 500045 ( 1 *
150
1
10 * 5 ( 7 *
150
1
10 * 20
5 3

,
_

+

=:mm
"
*tensile-
For element ":

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

200015 ( 1
500045 ( 1
150
1
150
1
10 * 20
1 1
3
3
2
2 2
2
2

l l
E
A
,
_

+ 200015 ( 1 *
150
1
500045 ( 1 *
150
1
10 * 20
3
A , 'G.GG' =:mm
"
*compressive-
S.--o'" 'ea("%on&: 5n penalty approach, the support reactions at node and \$ are obtained as
follows:
%t support : 49500 ) 0 10 * 5 ( 7 ( 10 * 66 ( 0 ) (
5 9
1 1 1

a 1 ( =
%t support ": 9900 ) 2 ( 1 200015 ( 1 ( 10 * 66 ( 0 ) (
9
3 3 2
a 1 ( =
>rob. ': !etermine the nodal displacements, element stresses and support reactions of the
a+ially loaded bar shown in Fig. @se elimination method for handling the boundary conditions.
Take E A "GG ;pa and load > A \$GG k=. *CT@ Feb. "GG"-
#olution: !ivide the given system into two elements so such that point load lies on a node point
as shown below.
Elemental stiffness matrices!
115
1
2
3
1
3
2 4
E 2 344x54
6
N7mm
3
P 2 644x54
6
N
FEM Dr. T.N
1
]
1

1 1
1 1
e
e e e
l
E A
!
For element :
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

5 5
5 5 3
1
10 33 ( 3 10 33 ( 3
10 33 ( 3 10 33 ( 3
1 1
1 1
150
250 10 200
!
For element ":
1
1
]
1

5 5
5 5
1 2
10 33 ( 3 10 33 ( 3
10 33 ( 3 10 33 ( 3
! !
since, (1=(". E1=E" and l1=l"
For element \$:
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

5 5
5 5 3
1
10 67 ( 2 10 67 ( 2
10 67 ( 2 10 67 ( 2
1 1
1 1
300
400 10 200
!
;lobal stiff. Matri+ is
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

+
+

5 5
5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5
5 5
10 * 67 ( 2 10 * 67 ( 2 0 0
10 * 67 ( 2 ) 10 * 67 ( 2 10 * 33 ( 3 ( 10 * 33 ( 3 0
0 10 * 33 ( 3 ) 10 * 33 ( 3 10 * 33 ( 3 ( 10 * 33 ( 3
0 0 10 * 33 ( 3 10 * 33 ( 3
!
=:mm
%s there are no body and traction forces, the total global load vector is only due to point load and
is given by
N &

'

0
0
10 * 300
0
3
;lobal system e&uation is

'

'

1
1
1
1
1
]
1

0
0
10 * 300
0
10 * 67 ( 2 10 * 67 ( 2 0 0
10 * 67 ( 2 10 * 6 10 * 33 ( 3 0
0 10 * 33 ( 3 10 * 66 ( 6 10 * 33 ( 3
0 0 10 * 33 ( 3 10 * 33 ( 3
3
4
3
2
1
5 5
5 5 5
5 5 5
5 5

*%-
%pplication of boundary conditions:
*a- Elimination method: 6ere 0 ( 0
1 1
a and 0
4 4
a
6ence, using elimination method, E& *%- is modified by eliminating
st
row and
st
column and '
th
row and '
th
column and is given by

'

'

'

1
1
]
1

0
10 * 300
0
10 * 300
10 * 6 10 * 33 ( 3
10 * 33 ( 3 10 * 66 ( 6
5
4 34 1 31
4 24 1 21
3
3
2
5 5
5 5
a ! a !
a ! a !

since, 0
4 1
a a
3
3
5
2
5
10 * 300 10 * 33 ( 3 10 * 66 ( 6 *i-
116
FEM Dr. T.N
0 10 * 6 10 * 33 ( 3
3
5
2
5
+
7r
3 2
802 ( 1
. #ubstitute into E&. *i-, we get
3
3
5
3
5
10 * 300 10 * 33 ( 3 802 ( 1 * 10 * 66 ( 6
mm 346 ( 0
3

and mm 624 ( 0 346 ( 0 * 802 ( 1
2

Thus, nodal displacements are { } mm '
T
0 346 ( 0 624 ( 0 0
Ee!en" S"'e&&:
e e
e
e
' B E
832
624 ( 0
0
150
1
150
1
10 * 200
1 1
3
2
1
1 1
1
1

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

l l
E
=:mm
"
*tensile-
67 ( 370
346 ( 0
624 ( 0
150
1
150
1
10 * 200
1 1
3
3
2
2 2
2
2

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

l l
E
=:mm
"
*compressive-

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

0
346 ( 0
300
1
300
1
10 * 200
1 1
3
4
3
3 3
3
3

l l
E
"\$G.23 =:mm
"
*compressive-
S.--o'" Rea("%on&:
%t support : %dd F1 to the D6# of
st
e&uation of E&. *%-, we get
207792 624 ( 0 * 10 * 33 ( 3 10 * 33 ( 3 10 * 33 ( 3
5
2
5
1
5
1
( = *here A1AG-
%t support ': %dd F2 to the D6# of '
th
e&uation of E&. *%-, we get
92382 346 ( 0 * 10 * 67 ( 2 10 * 67 ( 2 10 * 67 ( 2
5
4
5
3
5
4
+ ( = *here A2=G-
&rob. B! ( component shown in Fig. is subected to a load of B 1N. Determine the following.
i+ Element stiffness matrices ii+ 6 G Matrices iii+ Displacements and strains
i\$+ -tresses and reactions.
;btain the stiffness matrix and load \$ector assuming two elements. *DTA Euly
">>2+
117
FEM Dr. T.N

%) Ee!en" &"%==ne&& !a"'%(e&:
For element :
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

3 3
3 3 3
1
10 * 50 10 * 50
10 * 50 10 * 50
1 1
1 1
1000
10 * 100 * 500
!
For element ":
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

3 3
3 3 3
1
10 * 67 ( 106 10 * 67 ( 106
10 * 67 ( 106 10 * 67 ( 106
1 1
1 1
750
10 * 200 * 400
!
%%) B Ma"'%(e&: 5n general, the 0 . Matri+ for ",node bar element is e+pressed as
1
]
1

e e
e
l l
B
1 1
For element ,
1
]
1

1000
1
1000
1
1
B
and for element ",
1
]
1

750
1
750
1
2
B
%%%) D%&-a(e!en"& and &"'a%n&: The displacements and strains are obtained by the assembly
process and solution of assembled system e&uation. The assembled or global stiffness matri+ is
obtained as
1
1
1
]
1

3 3
3 3 3 3
3 3
10 * 67 ( 106 10 * 67 ( 106 0
10 * 67 ( 106 ) 10 * 67 ( 106 10 * 50 ( 10 * 50
0 10 * 50 10 * 50
!
<oad vector due to point load only is
{ } N &
T
3
10 * 5 0 0
Therefore, the system e&uation becomes as

'

'

1
1
1
]
1

3
3
2
1
3 3
3 3 3
3 3
10 * 5
0
0
10 * 67 ( 106 10 * 67 ( 106 0
10 * 67 ( 106 10 * 67 ( 156 10 * 50
0 10 * 50 10 * 50

*%-
%pplication of boundary conditions: 0oundary condition is A1 A G. Therefore, using elimination
method E&. *%- can be modified by eliminating
st
row and
st
column and is written as
118
(a)
(b)
1 2 3
FEM Dr. T.N

'

'

1
1
]
1

3
3
2
3 3
3 3
10 * 5
0
10 * 67 ( 106 10 * 67 ( 106
10 * 67 ( 106 10 * 67 ( 156

0 10 * 67 ( 106 10 * 67 ( 156
3
3
2
3
*i-
3
3
3
2
3
10 * 5 10 * 67 ( 106 10 * 67 ( 106 + *ii-
%dd *i- and *ii-, we get
B>H1>
#
A" = BH1>
#
. Therefore, A" A >.1 mm
#ubstitute A" into E&. *i- and solve, we get A# A G.'3 mm.
Therefore, displacements field is { } mm '
T
147 ( 0 1 ( 0 0
To determine strains: we have
e e e
' B
4 1
10 * 1
1 ( 0
0
1000
1
1000
1

'

1
]
1

and
4 2
10 * 627 ( 0
147 ( 0
1 ( 0
750
1
750
1

'

1
]
1

%@) S"'e&&e& and 'ea("%on&:
#tresses are 10 10 * 1 * 10 * 100
4 3 1
1
1

E =:mm
"
and
53 ( 12 10 * 627 ( 0 * 10 * 200
4 3 2
2
2

E =:mm
"
Deaction is obtained by adding F1 to the D6# of
st
e&uation of E&. *%- as
5 1 ( 0 * 10 * 50 * 10 * 50
3
2
3
1
( k=
&rob. C! ;btain the displacement field. stresses and support reactions for the stepped bar shown
in Fig. Ase elimination and penalty approach to handle the boundary conditions. Derify the
answer.

119
-in". Ob"ain "%e /0ba0 sys"e\$ e1'a"in
si\$i0a# " "%e &#e2i's &#b0e\$s and s02e
se&a#a"e0y 'sin/ e0i\$ina"in \$e"%d and
&ena0"y a&&#ac%( 3%e /0ba0 0ad 2ec"# in
"%is case is
{ } N &
T
0 10 * 10 0
3

, ne/a"i2e si/n !#
"%e a&&0ied 0ad is beca'se i" ac"s in ne/a"i2e
x-di#ec"in(
FEM Dr. T.N

1
1
]
1

1
]
1

5 5
5 5 3
1
10 * 3 ( 6 10 * 3 ( 6
10 * 3 ( 6 10 * 3 ( 6
1 1
1 1
200
10 * 70 * 1800
!
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

5 5
5 5 3
2
10 * 45 ( 9 10 * 45 ( 9
10 * 45 ( 9 10 * 45 ( 9
1 1
1 1
200
10 * 105 * 1800
!
(onnectivity table
Element =os. <ocal node =os. ;lobal !.7.F

"
1
2
"

"
\$
2
120
P\$,b- 89 1,nside\$ the c,m#,site st\$uctu\$e ,f axially l,aded
membe\$ sh,wn in &i.- Dete\$mine un:n,wn dis#lacements/
st\$esses and \$eacti,n f,\$ces-
, 105 , 70
2 1
;Pa E ;Pa E
A
5
2A
3
25<44 mm
3
/ P26<= :N-
40'"in. 4ince a00 ba#s in c\$&si"e s"#'c"'#e %a2e sa\$e
dis&0ace\$en" (de!#\$a"in), "%e /i2en s"#'c"'#e can be
disc#e"i5ed 'sin/ sin/0e nde a" "%e "& ! "%e ba#s as s%6n( 7"
\$ay be n"ed "%a", a0"%'/% "%e dis&0ace\$en" ! "6 ba#s a" "%e
s'&&#" a#e sa\$e "6 ndes a#e 'sed " de"e#\$ine s'&&#"
#eac"ins 6%ic% a#e di!!e#en" 'nde# di!!e#en" ba#s(
1 3
2
2
FEM Dr. T.N

'

'

1
1
1
]
1

0
10 * 385
0
10 * 45 ( 9 10 * 45 ( 9 0
10 * 45 ( 9 10 * 75 ( 15 10 * 3 ( 6
0 10 * 3 ( 6 10 * 3 ( 6
3
3
2
1
5 5
5 5 5
5 5

0oundary conditions: 0
1
and
0
3

. Eliminate
st
row and
st
column and \$
rd
row and \$
rd
column, we get
3
2
5
10 * 385 10 * 75 ( 15
mm 244 ( 0
2
*=ode " moves towards . ve +,direction-
#tresses:
2 3
2
1
2 1
1
1
, 4 ( 85
244 ( 0
0
200
1
200
1
10 * 70
1 1
mm N

l l
E

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

2
3
3
* * *
2
3
2 2
2
2
, 2 ( 256
200
244 ( 0 * 10 * 105
244 ( 0
0
200
1
200
1
10 * 105
1 1
mm N

l l
E

'

1
]
1

'

1
]
1

HHH =ote that the nodal displacements corresponding to the local node and " of element " are
A# and A" respectively.
#upport reactions:
:N ( 72 ( 153 244 ( 0 * 10 * 3 ( 6
5
1
+ and :N ( 58 ( 230 244 ( 0 * 10 * 45 ( 9
5
3

&rob. I! ( bar element carries a distributed load of 3 N@m. which \$aries from 31 at one end to 3"
at other end. ,alculate consistent nodal loads. *DTA May ">>J+

121
q N7m
1
q
2
q
e
l
1
2
1
u
2
u
FEM Dr. T.N
(onsider a " . noded bar element sub/ected to an uniformly varying traction force which varies
from
1
q to
2
q at node and " respectively as shown in Fig. Then, load vector due to this
traction force can be obtained from work potential due to surface force.

e
l
T
s
T
& %
qdx u Tds u "
0
(
*for bar element q T T
e
x
and dx ds +

[ ]
u
Nq
u
u
N N u N u N u

'

+
2
1
2 1 2 2 1 1
T T
u
T
N q u
%gain, since traction force varies from one node another node, it can be interpolated as
[ ]

'

+
2
1
2 1 2 2 1 1
q
q
N N q N q N q
#ubstitute
T
u
and
q
into 5s.F, we get
[ ]

'

e
l
e T
u
T T
u & %
f q dx
q
q
N N N q "
0
2
1
2 1 (
where,
e
f is consistent nodal load vector and is e+pressed as
[ ] dx
q
q
N N N
N N N
dx
q
q
N N
N
N
f
e e
l l
e

'

1
1
]
1

'

1
]
1

2
1
0
2
2 2 1
2 1
2
1
2
1
0
2 1
2
1
@sing the integration rule for bar element, it can be shown that
e e e
l l
l l l dx N dx N
e e
3
1
3 * 2 * 1
2 * 1
)) 1 2 (
) 2
0
2
2
0
2
1

+

and

+ +

e
l
e e
l l dx N N
0
2 1
6
1
)) 1 1 1 (
) 1 ) 1
122
FEM Dr. T.N
#ubstitute into above e&uation we get

'

+
+

'

1
1
1
1
1
]
1

2 1
2 1
2
1
2
2
6
3 6
6 3
q q
q q
l
q
q
l l
l l
f
e
e e
e e
e
1:. I&o-a'a!e"'%( Ee!en"&:
For the analysis of elasticity problems which are having comple+ or curved shapes, simple
triangular or rectangular elements are no longer sufficient. This needs to develop an element of
arbitrary shape called )soparametric element.
The concept of isoparametric element is based on the transformation of the parent element in
local or natural coordinate system to an arbitrary shape in cartesian coordinate system as shown
in Fig. G. This can be done by using shape functions and nodal values of cartesian coordinates.
Thus the cartesian coordinate of any point in an element may be e+pressed as
(a) Pa'en" ee!en" %n na".'a (#) I&o-a'a!e"'%( A.ad'%a"e'a
(oo'd%na"e& ee!en"
F%+. 1?: 4-noded I&o-a'a!e"'%( A.ad'%a"e'a ee!en"
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
x N x N x N x N x + + +
[ ]{ }
m
x N x and similarly [ ]{ }
m
y N y ,,,*a-
Further, the variation of displacement at any point within an element can also be e+pressed as
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
u N u N u N u N u + + +
[ ]{ }
u
q N u
and similarly
[ ]{ }
v
q N v
,,,*b-
5f the shape functions [ ] N
in E&n. *a- are same as the shape functions
[ ] N
in E&n. *b-, then
the element is called as )soparametric element.
Thus, the isoparametric element is Ione in which safe functions used to define the geometry of
the element and variation of displacements within the elements are sameJ.
S.-e'--a'a!e"'%( ee!en": 5s one which is having higher order shape functions used to define
geometry than the shape functions used to define the variation of displacement. 5n case of
superparametric element the number of nodes used to define the geometry of the element are
more than the number of nodes used to define the variation of displacement as shown in Fig. .
123

## FEM Dr. T.N

F%+. 11: S.-e'--a'a!e"'%( ee!en"
<et, N A #hape functions used to define variation of geometry of element.
N A #hape functions used to define variation of displacement.
Then, N N >
S.#--a'a!e"'%( ee!en": 5s one, which having lower order shape functions to define geometry
of the element than the shape functions used to define variation of displacement. 5n case of sub,
parametric element the number of nodes used to define the geometry of the element are less
than the number of nodes used to define the variation of displacement as shown in Fig. ".
<et, N A #hape functions used to define variation of geometry of element.
N A #hape functions used to define variation of displacement.
Then, N N <

F%+. 12: S.#--a'a!e"'%( ee!en"
17. Ba(o#%an Ma"'%3:
)hile evaluating the strains, partial derivatives of u and v are to be taken w.r.t x and
y
.
The shape functions used to define the variation of displacement and geometry of the element
are e+pressed in natural coordinates

and

## for the case of ",! elements. 6ence,

v u,
and
y x,
are the functions of

and

## . Therefore, the relationship between the two coordinate

systems can be computed by using chain rule of partial derivatives as given below.

y
y
u x
x
u u
and

y
y
u x
x
u u

'

1
1
1
1
]
1

'

y
u
x
u
y x
y x
u
u

124
y
x
8 9des 'sed " de!ine dis&0ace\$en"s
8 9des 'sed " de!ine /e\$e"#y ! e0e\$en"
y
x
8 9des 'sed " de!ine dis&0ace\$en"s
8 9des 'sed " de!ine /e\$e"#y ! e0e\$en"
FEM Dr. T.N
[ ]

'

'

y
u
x
u
>
u
u

,,,*a-
where, matri+ > is called Eacobian matrix or Eacobian of transformation.
Thus, Kacobian matri+ is a transformation matrix used to transform natural coordinate to
cartesian coordinate.
Note!
1. Asing this matrix the deri\$ati\$es of
u
w.r.t
x
and
y
can be obtained *from E3n. *a+ as
[ ]

'

'

u
u
>
y
u
x
u
1
". -imilar to the abo\$e e3uation. we can also write
[ ]

'

'

v
v
>
y
v
x
v
1
#. )n general the Eacobian matrix for all "/D linear element is gi\$en by

[ ]
1
1
1
1
]
1

y x
y x
>
2. The Eacobian matrix > at any point
) , ( y x P
inside the element can be expressed in terms
of nodal coordinates. For example. consider a triangular element shown in Fig.
The Kacobian matri+ for a ",! element is
[ ]
1
1
1
1
]
1

y x
y x
>
,,,*a-
%lso from 5soparametric formulation we can write
3 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
) 1 ( x x x x N x N x N x + + + +
,,,*b-
where,
) 1 ( and ;
3 2 1
N N N
for a triangular element.
#imilarly,
3 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
) 1 ( y y y y N y N y N x + + + +
,,,*c-
!ifferentiate E&n. *b- w.r.t

and

x x x
13 3 1
x x x
x

and 23 3 2
x x x
x

and

y y y
13 3 1
y y y
y

and 23 3 2
y y y
y

## #ubstitute into Kacobian matri+ E&n. *a-, we get

125
1
2
3
x
y
FEM Dr. T.N
[ ]
1
]
1

23 23
13 13
y x
y x
>
B. (rea of the triangle can be obtained from Eacobian matrix as
( )
13 23 23 13
* *
2
1
de"
2
1
y x y x > A
)roblems:
&rob.1! Deri\$e strain/displacement relation of a ,-T element. *DTA. Feb.">>"+
-olution! Deri\$e
{ } [ ]{ } q B for a triangular element.
&rob."! For a linear 3uadrilateral element. deri\$e an expression for Eacobian matrix.
*DTA. Feb.">>"+
-olution!

(onsider linear &uadrilateral element as in Fig. The field variable at any point within the element
can be e+pressed as
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
u N u N u N u N u + + +
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
v N v N v N v N v + + +
,,,*a-
#imilarly, the coordinates +, and y, of a point can be e+pressed as
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
x N x N x N x N x + + +
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
y N y N y N y N y + + +
,,,*b-
where,
3 2 1
, , N N N
and
4
N are shape functions and are e+pressed as
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
1
N
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
2
+ N
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
3
+ + N
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
4
+ N ,,,*c-
#ince, shape functions are functions of natural coordinates

and

## the displacements u and \$

and coordinates x and y are also functions of these natural coordinates. Therefore, the
relationship between the two coordinate systems can be computed by using chain rule of partial
derivatives as given below.

y
y
u x
x
u u
and

y
y
u x
x
u u
126

1
2
3
4
(-1,-1)
(+1,-1)
(-1,+1)
(+1,+1
)
FEM Dr. T.N

'

1
1
1
1
]
1

'

y
u
x
u
y x
y x
u
u

[ ]

'

'

y
u
x
u
>
u
u

,,,*d-
where, matri+ > is called Eacobian matrix and is given by
[ ]
1
1
1
1
]
1

y x
y x
>
,,,*e-
!ifferentiate E&n.*b- w.r.t

and

, we get
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
x
N
x
N
x
N
x
N x

4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
N y

4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
x
N
x
N
x
N
x
N x

4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
y
N
y
N
y
N
y
N y

## =ow, diff. E&n.*c- w.r.t

and

, we get
4
) 1 (
1

N
B
4
) 1 (
2

N
B
4
) 1 (
3

+ +

N
B
4
) 1 (
4

N
4
) 1 (
1

N
B
4
) 1 (
2

N
B
4
) 1 (
3

+ +

N
B
4
) 1 (
4

N
#ubstitute into the above e&uations, we get
4 3 2 1
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
x x x x
x

+
+

4 3 2 1
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
y y y y
y

+
+

4 3 2 1
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
x x x x
x

+
+
+
+

4 3 2 1
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
y y y y
y

+
+
+
+

## #ubstitution into E&n.*e- yields Kacobian matri+ as

[ ]
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
]
1

+ + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + +

4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
4
1
y y y y x x x x
y y y y x x x x
>

&rob.#! E\$aluate the shape functions
3 2 1
, , N N N
at the interior point P whose coordinates
are
) 8 ( 4 , 85 ( 3 (
for the triangular element shown in Fig. *a+ below.
-olution! The cartesian co,ordinate at point p can be e+pressed in terms of nodal coordinates as
3 3 2 2 1 1
x N x N x N x + +
3 2 1
4 7 5 ( 1 85 ( 3 N N N + +
,,,*i-
3 3 2 2 1 1
y N y N y N y + +
3 2 1
7 5 ( 3 2 8 ( 4 N N N + +
,,,*ii-
127
FEM Dr. T.N
also we have
1
3 2 1
+ + N N N
,,,*iii-
#olving E&ns. *i- . *iii-, we get
5 ( 0 ; 2 ( 0 ; 3 ( 0
3 2 1
N N N
&rob.2! determine the Eacobian matrix and 6 matrix for the triangular element shown in Fig.*a+
below.
*DTA. Euly. ">>2+
#a%
-olution! The Kacobian matri+ is
[ ]
1
1
1
1
]
1

y x
y x
>
The cartesian co,ordinate at point p can be e+pressed in terms of nodal coordinates as
3 3 2 2 1 1
x N x N x N x + +
) 1 ( 4 7 5 ( 1 + + x
3 3 2 2 1 1
y N y N y N y + +
) 1 ( 7 5 ( 3 2 + + y
5 ( 2 4 5 ( 1

x
0 ( 5 7 2

y
0 ( 3 4 7

x
5 ( 3 7 5 ( 3

y
6ence,
[ ]
1
]
1

5 ( 3 0 ( 3
0 ( 5 5 ( 2
>
For a triangular element, the strain,displacement matri+ is
[ ]
1
1
1
]
1

3 3 2 2 1 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
2
1
b c b c b c
c c c
b b b
A
B
e
e
where, j : : j
x x y y
i i
c ; b
*suffi+
: j i , ,
,",\$ are in cyclic order-.
5 ( 3 7 5 ( 3
3 2 1
y y b 3 7 4
2 3 1
x x c
5 2 7
1 3 2
y y b 5 ( 2 4 5 ( 1
3 1 2
x x c
5 ( 1 5 ( 3 2
2 1 3
y y b 5 ( 5 5 ( 1 7
1 2 3
x x c
( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( 1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 2
3 3
2 2
1 1
x x y y y x y x y x
y x
y x
y x
A
e
+
&rob.#! The nodal coordinates of a triangular element are shown in Fig. *b+. (t interior point &
the x/ coordinate is #.# and N1=>.#. Determine N". N# and y/ coordinate at point &.
128
1
2
3
x
y
:
FEM Dr. T.N
!i+. #b% !i+. #c%
&rob.2! For a point & located inside the triangular element shown in Fig.*c+. the shape functions
N1 and N" are >.JB and >."B respecti\$ely. Determine x and y coordinates of point &.
&rob.B! ,alculate the displacements at point & whose coordinates are gi\$en by *".#+. if the nodal
displacements of a triangle are gi\$en by
mm v mm v mm v
mm u mm u mm u
: j i
: j i
4 ; 3 ; 2
2 ; 4 ; 3

Nodes
j i,
and : of the triangle are gi\$en by the coordinates *1.1+. *2.1+ and *1.B+
respecti\$ely.
3 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
2 4 3 N N N u N u N u N u + + + +
---(a)
3 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
4 3 2 N N N v N v N v N v + + + +
///*b+
3 3 2 2 1 1
x N x N x N x + +
3 2 1
1 4 1 2 N N N + +
,,,*i-
3 3 2 2 1 1
y N y N y N y + +
3 2 1
5 1 1 3 N N N + +
///*ii+
1
3 2 1
+ + N N N
///*iii+
-ol\$e E3ns. *i+ G *iii+ to get
3 2 1
, , N N N
and substitute into E3ns. *a+ and *b+ to obtain
v u,

129
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:
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