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an intelligent agent (IA) is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an

environment using actuators (i.e. it is an agent) and directs its activity towards achieving goals (i.e. it is
rational).[1] Intelligent agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals. They may be very simple
or very comple! a re"le machine such as a thermostat is an intelligent agent#[$] as is a human being# as is a
community o" human beings working together towards a goal.
A multi%agent system (&.A.'.) is a computeri(ed system composed o" multiple interacting intelligent
agents within an environment. &ulti%agent systems can be used to solve problems that are di""icult or
impossible "or an individual agent or a monolithic system to solve. Intelligence may include some methodic#
"unctional# procedural or algorithmic search# "ind and processing approach. Although there is considerable
overlap# a multi%agent system is not always the same as an agent%based model (A)&).
In machine learning# the problem o" unsupervised learning is that o" trying to "ind hidden structure in unlabeled
data. 'ince the eamples given to the learner are unlabeled# there is no error or reward signal to evaluate a
potential solution. This distinguishes unsupervised learning "rom supervised learning and rein"orcement
learning.
*nsupervised learning is closely related to the problem o" density estimation in statistics.[1] +owever
unsupervised learning also encompasses many other techni,ues that seek to summari(e and eplain key
"eatures o" the data. &any methods employed in unsupervised learning are based on data mining methods
used to preprocess[citation needed] data.
Approaches to unsupervised learning include!
-lustering (e.g.# k%means# miture models# hierarchical clustering)#[$]
+idden &arkov models#
)lind signal separation using "eature etraction techni,ues "or dimensionality reduction (e.g.# principal
component analysis# independent component analysis# non%negative matri "actori(ation# singular value
decomposition).[.]
Among neural network models# the sel"%organi(ing map ('/&) and adaptive resonance theory (A0T) are
commonly used unsupervised learning algorithms.
*nsupervised learning techni,ues are widely used to reduce the dimensionality o" high dimensional
genomic data sets that may involve hundreds o" thousands o" variables. 1or eample# weighted correlation
network analysis is o"ten used "or identi"ying clusters (re"erred to as modules)# modeling the relationship
between clusters# calculating "u((y measures o" cluster (module) membership# identi"ying intramedullary hubs#
and "or studying cluster preservation in other data sets.[citation needed]
'upervised learning is the machine learning task o" in"erring a "unction "rom labeled training data.[1] The
training data consist o" a set o" training eamples. In supervised learning# each eample is a pair consisting o"
an input ob2ect (typically a vector) and a desired output value (also called the supervisory signal). A supervised
learning algorithm analy(es the training data and produces an in"erred "unction# which can be used "or mapping
new eamples. An optimal scenario will allow "or the algorithm to correctly determine the class labels "or
unseen instances. This re,uires the learning algorithm to generali(e "rom the training data to unseen situations
in a 3reasonable3 way (see inductive bias).
There are several ways in which the standard supervised learning problem can be generali(ed!
'emi%supervised learning! In this setting# the desired output values are provided only "or a subset o" the training
data. The remaining data is unlabeled.
Active learning! Instead o" assuming that all o" the training eamples are given at the start# active learning
algorithms interactively collect new eamples# typically by making ,ueries to a human user. /"ten# the ,ueries
are based on unlabeled data# which is a scenario that combines semi%supervised learning with active learning.
'tructured prediction! 4hen the desired output value is a comple ob2ect# such as a parse tree or a labeled
graph# then standard methods must be etended.
5earning to rank! 4hen the input is a set o" ob2ects and the desired output is a ranking o" those ob2ects# then
again the standard methods must be etended.
Applications [edit]
)ioin"ormatics
-hemin"ormatics
6uantitative structure7activity relationship
8atabase marketing
+andwriting recognition
In"ormation retrieval
5earning to rank
/b2ect recognition in computer vision
/ptical character recognition
'pam detection
9attern recognition
'peech recognition
&ulti%agent systems (&A') are no longer a pure research ob2ect# they become more and more popular
and success"ul in commercial applications. This area o" Arti"icial Intelligence# the 8istributed Arti"icial
Intelligence (8AI)# where &A' belong to# is highly interdisciplinary and connects ideas "rom sociology# biology
and psychology with computer science.
A special topic o" &ultiagentsystems is the 'warm Intelligence! A huge number o" agents with very limited
abilities# the so called particles# can be seen as a problem solving system "or comple numerical and ,ualitative
optimi(ation problems.
'warm Intelligence is motivated by natural species (i.e. ant colonies). These systems try to shi"t
intelligence "rom single particles to the whole group using a network o" interactions to produce emergent
behavior. In this area we concentrate onto di""erent aspects# i.e. coordinated generation o" structures and
automatically creation o" hierarchies.
Definition
Intelligent behaviors "rom a large number (i.e.# a
'warm) o" simple individuals
-ollectively doing something seemingly :intelligent;
/r :use"ul;
4here no one o" the individual can claim
Intelligence
'o the intelligence is not in the composition o"
'imple intelligences
0ather# intelligence :emerges; as a conse,uences o"
The interactions
Is a property o" the system# not o" its components
It is the system in its whole that does something
Intelligence
Actually# there are a number o" systems which seems
To ehibit swarm intelligence
Animal colonies and speci"ically
Insect colonies like ants# termites# and bees
Bacteria (e.g.# the 8ictostelyum)# which appear able to
Act in a "inali(ed way
The Brain! intelligence and mind arises "rom the
Interaction o" simple neurons
The Cell! homeostasis and the capability o" adapting and
0eproducing arise "orm protein interactions
There"ore
'warm intelligence seems not to be an :accident; but
0ather a property o" a variety o" systems
8e"initely# evolution has played an important role in this
'warm 'ystems vs. &ultiagent
'ystems
Actually# swarms are ensembles o" simple agents# i.e.# multisampling<
Agent systems
-omponents are autonomous# i.e.# they act based on local
8ecisions
-omponents are situated in an environment
they interact with each other (via the mediation o" the
=nvironment 7 stigmergy)
+owever# the basic philosophy is somewhat di""erent "rom
That o" multiagent systems
the accent is more on the ensemble than on the rationality o" Agents
Agents may be irrational or probabilistic
There is much more emphasis on the role o" the environment
>ot simply a way to get in"ormation but a way to coordinate with each other
And the environmental processes counts
'o# given that most modern distributed systems can be
Assimilated# modeled# as agents# swarm intelligence may have
'ome relevance to them
'warm vs. Individual Intelligence
>ot only :stupid; animals ehibit swarm intelligence
'ometimes# even mammals or humans do it
o -astori does water walls on river
o )u""alos :"lock; in the wild
4olves surround a prey
+umans "orms global sel"%organi(ed patterns when walking
This implies that sometimes
o The power o" interactions overcomes the power o"
o Individuals
o 4hatever the reason an individual act in a speci"ic way
o 4hat matter is its interactive behavior# i.e.# the way it act
And interact in the system
There is also a role "or stochastic variables
'ince swarm intelligence in :stupid; animals is sub2ect to
9robabilistic choices by animals
The capability "or :intelligent; animals to do rational
Actions di""erent "rom those o" the group may be perceived
As a sort o" probabilistic behavior
Fundamentals of Context-aware systems:
Context-aware models
Context-aware control
Context-aware algorithms
Context-aware networks
Context-aware computing
Context-awareness calculi
Context-awareness representation
Context-awareness-based systems
Logic in context-awareness
Context-awareness reasoning
Formal methods of context-awareness
Context-awareness-based optimization and swarm Intelligence
Knowledge-based awareness
Context-aware Systems:
Routing transport and reliability issues of context-aware systems
!echni"ues for data dissemination and replication in context-aware systems
#pplications and middleware support mobile social networking applications
$obility models and statistical analysis of mobility traces
Context and social awareness mechanisms and algorithms
Co-existence of opportunistic networks with infrastructure mobile wireless networks
%er&ice composition in autonomic and opportunistic networks
Cognition-dri&en information processing and decision making
'erformance modeling scaling laws and fundamental limits for autonomic and opportunistic communications
'articipatory and urban sensing in autonomic and opportunistic networks
!rust security and reputation
#utonomic and opportunistic communication testbeds and prototypes measurement data from real experiments
%ocio-economic models for autonomic and opportunistic communications
Context-aware Technologies:
Context-aware information retrie&al
Context-aware profiling clustering and collaborati&e filtering
$achine learning for context-aware information retrie&al and ontology learning
Context-aware e-learning(tutoring
)se of context-aware technologies in )I(*CI
Context-aware ad&ertising
Recommendations for mobile users
Context-awareness in portable de&ices
Context-aware ser&ices
%ocial #gents and #&atars
+motion and 'ersonality
,irtual *umans
#utonomous #ctors
#wareness-based #nimation
%ocial and Con&ersational #gents
Inter-#gent Communication
%ocial -eha&ior
Crowd %imulation
)nderstanding *uman #cti&ity
$emory and Long-term Interaction
Context-awareness .C#/ has attracted increasing attention in computing and communication communities since it allows
automatic adaptation of de&ices systems and applications to user0s context change1 !he context is the information related
to the situation of an entity such as the present status of people places things and de&ices in the en&ironment1 #n entity is
a person de&ice place or ob2ect rele&ant to the interaction between a user and an application such as location time
acti&ities and ser&ices1
Context awareness allows for customization or creation of the application to match the preferences of the indi&idual user
based on current context such as enterprise en&ironment or home network1
Currently context has been considered as part of a process in which users are in&ol&ed hence specifying and de&eloping
context models are needed to support context-aware applications to .a/ adapt interfaces .b/ tailor the set of application-
rele&ant data .c/ increase the precision of information retrie&al .d/ disco&er ser&ices .e/ make the user interaction
implicit or .f/ build smart en&ironments1 Context related to human factors is structured into three categories3 .a/
information on the user .b/ the user4s social en&ironment and .c/ the user4s tasks1 Likewise context related to physical
en&ironment is structured into three categories3 .a/ location .b/ infrastructure and .c/ physical conditions1
Arti"icial >eural >etworks
? -onsists o" interconnected processing elements called nodes or neurons that work together
to produce an output "unction. The output o" a neural network replies on the connection o" the
individual neurons within the network to operate.
0elationship between Arti"icial >eural >etworks @ the +uman )rain
>eural networks are conceptually modeled on the human brain metaphor.
The general structure o" a neural network tries to mimic what we know about the structure and
operation o" the human brain.
In computer science and related "ields# arti"icial neural networks (A>>s) are computational
models inspired by an animalAs central nervous systems (in particular the brain) which are capable o"
machine learning as well as pattern recognition. Arti"icial neural networks are generally presented as
systems o" interconnected 3neurons3 which can compute values "rom inputs.
1or eample# a neural network "or handwriting recognition is de"ined by a set o" input neurons
which may be activated by the piels o" an input image. The activations o" these neurons are then
passed on# weighted and trans"ormed by a "unction determined by the networkAs designer# to other
neurons. This process is repeated until "inally# an output neuron is activated. This determines which
character was read.
5ike other machine learning methods# systems that learn "rom data# neural networks have been
used to solve a wide variety o" tasks that are hard to solve using ordinary rule%based programming#
including computer vision and speech recognition.
>atural language processing (>59) is a "ield o" computer science# arti"icial
intelligence# and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural)
languages. As such# >59 is related to the area o" human7computer interaction. &any challenges in
>59 involve natural language understanding# that is# enabling computers to derive meaning "rom
human or natural language input# and others involve natural language generation.
>59 using machine learning
&odern >59 algorithms are based on machine learning# especially statistical machine learning. The
paradigm o" machine learning is di""erent "rom that o" most prior attempts at language processing.
9rior implementations o" language%processing tasks typically involved the direct hand coding o" large
sets o" rules. The machine%learning paradigm calls instead "or using general learning algorithms B
o"ten# although not always# grounded in statistical in"erence B to automatically learn such rules
through the analysis o" large corpora o" typical real%world eamples. A corpus (plural# 3corpora3) is a
set o" documents (or sometimes# individual sentences) that have been hand%annotated with the
correct values to be learned.
&a2or tasks in >59
Automatic summari(ation
-o re"erence resolution
8iscourse analysis
&achine translation
&orphological segmentation
>amed entity recognition (>=0)
>atural language generation
>atural language understanding
/ptical character recognition (/-0)
9art%o"%speech tagging
9arsing
'peech recognition
-ontemporary Issues and AI
>'A -ollecting &illions o" 1aces 1rom 4eb Images
+ow to &ake 0obots 'eem 5ess -reepy
Team 8evelops a 'o"tware Able to Identi"y and Track an 'peci"ic Individual 4ithin a Croup
'ecurity and 9rivacyD >ow They -an Co +and in +and
Think 1ast# 0obot
+ow &IT and -altechAs -oding )reakthrough -ould Accelerate &obile >etwork 'peeds
Coogle Invests in 'atellites to 'pread Internet Access
A'-1E &arks 'eventh 4in "or C9*s
+ow =)ayAs 0esearch 5aboratories Are Tackling the Tricky Task o" 1ashion
0ecommendations
'e +arassment App +elps 4omen &ap Abuse
Coogle Turns to &achine 5earning to )uild a )etter 8ata -enter
8igital Actors Co )eyond the *ncanny Falley
NSA Collecting Millions of Faces From Web Images
The New York Times (06/01/14) James Risen; Laura Poitras
The U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) is intercepting massive numbers of facial images from communications
tapped from its global surveillance operations for use in facial-recognition programs according to top-secret
documents ac!uired from former NSA contractor "d#ard $. Sno#den. The documents sho# the agency deems
facial images and other physical identifiers to be %ust as valuable in trac&ing do#n intelligence targets as #ritten
and oral communications.
How to Make Robots Seem Less Creepy
The Wall treet Journal (06/01/14) !"am Wa#t$; %i&hael Norton
'ecent research has sho#n the (uncanny valley( hypothesis for human-robot interaction is overstated and #hen
emotional %obs must be (botsourced( people actually prefer robots that seem capable of conveying some degree
of human emotion. The latest human-robot interaction research combines brea&throughs in robotics and
psychology to suggest five important design features. The first idea is giving robots faces help improve human-
robot interaction. )or e*ample the +assachusetts ,nstitute of Technology-s Ne*i robot has more of a (baby face(
and appears more capable of feeling than robots #ith longer chins #hich appear more professorial.
Team e!elops a Software Able to I"entify an" Track an Specific In"i!i"#al Wit$in a %ro#p
'anish National Resear&h (oun&il (()() (06/01/14)
'esearchers from the Spanish National 'esearch .ouncil (.S,.) say they have ta&en a ne# approach to
monitoring animals that move in groups #ith hopes of learning their rules of interaction. A team from the .a%al
,nstitute developed algorithms that enable the identification of each animal in a group and then developed
soft#are called the ,D Trac&er. The soft#are identification system first performs a search of the species #hen they
are separated and can be differentiated then identifies and recogni/es its image in every frame of the video.
%oogle T#rns to Mac$ine Learning to &#il" a &etter ata Center
*+Net (0,/-./14) Ni&k /eath
0oogle is loo&ing to neural net#or&s to improve the efficiency of its data centers. Neural net#or&s are machine-
learning algorithms that imitate the functioning of the human brain specifically the interactions bet#een neurons.
0oogle mechanical engineer and data analyst $im 0ao says a typical large-scale data center generates millions of
data points across thousands of sensors daily but this data is primarily used for monitoring purposes only.
1o#ever 0ao says advances in processing po#er and monitoring capabilities open a large opportunity for machine
learning to improve efficiency.