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LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................

XI
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1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION...........................................................................1
There are four sugar factories on mainland Tanzania: Kilombero Sugar Company, Mtibwa Sugar
Estate, Tanganyika Plantations Moshi and Kagera Sugar Ltd. These companies were privatized
between 1998 and 2001. The sugar factory on Zanzibar is newly leased and is expected to resume
production in 2008. The factories are represented by the Tanzania sugar Producers Association. Both
in Kilombero and Mtibwa outgrowers supply approximately 50% of the cane requirement for these
factories. Kagera has just started an out grower scheme........................................................................1
All out growers are represented by a local association as well as their national apex body, the
Tanzania sugar Cane Growers Association. The regulatory institution for the sugar sector is the sugar
Board of Tanzania which is a specialized department of the government but supervised by a board of
directors which comprises representatives from all stakeholders. The sugar board is an umbrella
organization representing the interests of the sugar sector and manages activities supporting the
sector. The sugar producers, notably out growers are the main beneficiaries. To maximize ownership,
the project will continue to work with the sugar Board. The project will therefore be owned by both
government and all the other key sugar interests represented within the sugar board. All result areas
will have sugar Board involvement and within Result Area 5, there is an ongoing focus to strengthen
the sugar Board.......................................................................................................................................1
.................................................................................................................................................................1

1.1 SUGAR PROCESSING....................................................................................2


The sugar industry processes sugar cane and sugar beet to manufacture edible sugar. More than 60%
of the worlds sugar production is from sugar cane and the balance is from sugar beet. Approximately
10% of the sugar cane can be processed to commercial sugar and uses approximately 20 cubic meters
of water per metric ton (m3/t) of cane processed. Sugar cane contains 70% water; 14% fiber; 13.3%
saccharose ..............................................................................................................................................2
(About 10 to 15% sucrose); and 2.7% soluble impurities. Sugar canes are generally washed and then
juice is extracted from them. This juice is then clarified to remove mud, evaporated to prepare syrup,
crystallized to separate out the liquor, and then centrifuged to separate molasses from the crystals.
Sugar crystals are then dried and may be further refined before bagging for shipment. In some places
(for example, in South frica), extraction of juice is performed by a diffusion process which can give
higher rates of extraction with lower energy consumption and reduced operating and maintenance
costs. .......................................................................................................................................................2
For processing sugar beet (water concentration 75%, sugar concentration 17%), only the washing,
preparation, and extraction processes are different. After washing, the beet is sliced and the slices are
drawn into a slowly rotating diffuser where a countercurrent flow of water is used to remove sugar
from the beet slices. Approximately 15 m3 of water and 28 kilowatt hours (kWh) of energy is
consumed per metric ton of beet. Refining of sugar involves removal of impurities and
decolorization. The steps generally followed include affination (mingling and centrifugation),
melting, clarification, decolonization, evaporation, crystallization, and finishing. Decolonization
methods use granular activated carbon, powdered activated carbon, ion exchange resins, and other
materials. This is a highly seasonal industry, with season lengths of approximately 6 to 18 weeks for
beets and 20 to 32 weeks for cane. .........................................................................................................2
The figure 1.1 bellow shows the whole process of sugar processing from cutting of sugar cane to the
production of raw sugar which goes to refinery machine.......................................................................2
Figure 1.1: Raw sugar milling process.......................................................................3
.................................................................................................................................................................3
Figure 1.2: Refined sugar process...........................................................................................................3

1.2 Sources of wastewater in sugar industries in Tanzania........................................................................4


Industries have high degree of similarities in producing wastewater of high variation thats why no
one fixed method for treatment of all industries producing the same products......................................4
The main source of wastewater in sugar industries in Tanzania includes the following:-.....................4
1.2.1 Flume water........................................................................................................................................4
The flume and wash waters contribute the largest amount of wastewater and contain considerable
amounts of soil, suspended beet fragments, stems, and leaves and dissolved solids which have
diffused from the beets. The amount of soil depends on the harvesting conditions and generally
averages 5-6% of the beet weight. The BOD of this waste water is about 200mg/l and may be
considerable higher if the beets had decomposed during storage...........................................................4
1.2.2 Cleaning purposes...............................................................................................................................4
In almost all sugar producing industries there are a lot of cleaning activities being taking place.
Cleaning activities at this juncture includes general cleanliness activities at the industries premieres in
which is widely used. Activities such as mopping and the related duties are all water intensive
activities from which a lot of wastewater is produced. Other activities includes cleaning of storage
utilities, laboratory apparati as well as the conveyor pipes all these activities uses water all of which
turns into wastewater .............................................................................................................................4
1.2.3 Wastewater as a result of leakages......................................................................................................4
During the entire production processes in sugar industries there are a lot of leakages of liquids such as
solvents; syrups, oils, lubricants as well as water .Leakages are severe in case when there are poor
house keeping measures. These leakages may occur during the production processes itself or during
the storage phase. In situation when maintenance and repair is poor a lot of leakages occur in
conveyors and storage facilities..............................................................................................................4
1.2.4 Wastewater as a result of production processes..................................................................................5
Sometime, during the production processes of sugar there are wastewater as by products of the
production process. Wastewater at this juncture becomes as a result of softening and dilution
activities whereby most of the wastewater comes out with the molasses as a product..........................5
1.2.5 Barometric condenser water...............................................................................................................5
The barometric condenser and cooling waters have a low BOD content, about 40mg/l, however, The
condenser water picks up ammonia from the evaporating juices and therefore is always alkaline,
having pH ranging between 8-10............................................................................................................5
1.2.6 Lime mud............................................................................................................................................5
The lime mud is the slurried lime cake discharged from the filters. This waste is low in volume but it
has high BOD and the suspended solids content ranges from 4-6% of the beets, which is
approximately the same as the flume sediment ......................................................................................5
1.2.7 Air emissions......................................................................................................................................5
Air emissions from sugar processing and refining industries, results mainly from the combustion of
bagasse (fiber residue of sugar cane) and fuel oil or coal. Other air emission sources include juice
fermentation units, evaporators, and sulfitation units. Approximately 5.5 kilograms (kg) of fly ash per
metric ton of cane processed (or 4,500 mg/m 3 of fly ash) is present in the flue gases from the
combustion of bagasse............................................................................................................................5
1.3 General characteristics of sugar manufacturing effluents....................................................................5
Sugar manufacturing effluents typically have biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) (1,700-6,600
milligrams per liter (mg/L) in untreated effluent from cane processing and 4,000-7,000 mg/L for beet
processing), COD (2,300-8,000 mg/L from cane processing and up to 10,000 mg/L in beet
processing), total suspended solids (up to 5,000 mg/L), and high ammonium content. The wastewater
may contain pathogens from contaminated materials or production processes. A sugar mill often
generates odor and dust, which need to be controlled. Most of the solid wastes can be processed into
other products and by-products. In some cases, pesticides may also be present in the sugar cane rinse
liquids. ....................................................................................................................................................5

2.0 WASTE GENERATION AND WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT IN


SELECTED SUGAR INDUSTRIES IN TANZANIA...............................................6

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Sugar industry is one of the most important industries in Tanzania. There are currently four major
sugar estates in Tanzania namely Kilombero, Mtibwa, TPC and Kagera Sugar Estates. Mtibwa and
Kagera sugar estates are owned by the same company. Compared with other manufacturing
industries, the sugar industry sector is a minor contributor to environmental loads, as most of its
outputs are not hazardous. However, sugar industries produce high amounts of biodegradable waste,
and the high organic loads of liquid effluents (wastewater) also represent a major problem. ...............6
The known treatment method for effluents emanating from sugar industries is biological treatment
whereby waste stabilization ponds or lagoons are very common. In Tanzania, the methods used are
waste stabilization ponds. Bellow are some industries and the effluent treatment method....................6
2.1 Mtibwa Sugar Industry............................................................................................................................6
2.1.1 Sources of waste water .......................................................................................................................6
Wastewater from the factory is mainly generated from washing operation (wash water) including
wash water from factory laboratory, boiler blow down and cooling water. The wastewater is collected
and disposed to the cane fields without any treatment. Currently no water quality parameters are
monitored. Wastewater from laboratories is disposed to the wastewater chamber without
environmental impact consideration.......................................................................................................6
2.1.1.1 Wastewater Management ...........................................................................................................6
Factory wastewater is collected into an open channel that drains into the wastewater treatment ponds.
The construction of the line from the caustic soda washing is in such a way that in normal operation
there is a sluice valve that is shut to direct the water into the wastewater channel. Otherwise the waste
water channel is bypassed into a storm water drain................................................................................6
.................................................................................................................................................................7
Figure 2.1 Waste water treatment plant at Mtibwa sugar estate.............................................7
2.1.1.2 Waste Water Treatment Ponds....................................................................................................7
The treatment ponds were constructed in year 2000 and have a capacity of 15,000 m3 following a
series of complaints from nearby communities about the wastewater that was dumped and allowed to
flow in their areas. The treatment ponds have however, been constructed in an adhoc manner and
without following proper engineering design procedures. There are a total of six ponds, which are
operating in a series manner. During our visit, it was noted that the inlet-outlets of the different stages
of the ponds are poorly located and serious channeling is experienced. Because of this the ponds are
not fully utilized. Redesigning of the units is necessary for their optimal utilization. Moreover, these
ponds act as water storage facility. The treated water can be reused in the cane ..................................7
.................................................................................................................................................................7
Figure 2.2 One of the Mtibwa sugar treatment pond................................................7
2.2 Tanganyika Planting Company (TPC) ..................................................................................................8
2.2.1 Wastes water Management.................................................................................................................8
2.3 Kilombero sugar industry .......................................................................................................................8
2.4 Waste treatment at Kilombero sugar industry.......................................................................................8
Waste water originates from washing, raw sugar processing, cooling and other processes as stated in
the previous industries. .........................................................................................................................8
The sewerage of the Kilombero Sugar Company (K2 side) consists of a network which gravitate to
the pumping station thereafter gravitate to the wastewater stabilization ponds (treatment plant). The
plant consists of a very basic, single series of ponds, one large pond connected to a much smaller
pond. Earlier studies by different consultants have referred the first pond as anaerobic pond and the
second one as facultative pond. However, according to the layout and depth requirements the first
pond can be regarded as facultative pond and the smaller one to be maturation pond thus a need for
the anaerobic pond, (Magayane M et all,2006)......................................................................................8
.................................................................................................................................................................9
Figure 2.3: Existing layout of the K2 pond.........................................................9
2.5 Research results on the performance of kilombero (WSP)....................................................................9
(As conducted by Magayane Machibya and Fredrick Mwanuzi from the University of Dar es Salaam)
.................................................................................................................................................................9

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Kilombero Sugar Company recently launched a study to review their sewage system in terms of
design, configuration, effectiveness and the quality of influent and effluent discharged into the Ruaha
River (receiving body).The concern was that the population at the company is increasing and the
water in the river, after effluent from oxidation pond has joined the river, is used as raw drinking
water by villages located further downstream........................................................................................9
2.5.1 Methods and Materials...................................................................................................................9
Review of Existing Pond Layout............................................................................................................9
Generally there exist two types of waste stabilization pond systems. The Facultative Maturation
System (FM system) and the Anaerobic-Facultative Maturation System (AFM-System) in the
absence of the grit chambers and screen. The two systems require different area and configuration
for proper functioning, (K2 side) consists of a network which gravitate to the pumping station
thereafter gravitate to the wastewater stabilization ponds (treatment plant). .........................................9
Discharge Data......................................................................................................................................10
Three types of data were collected in order to be able to review the sewage system of the Kilombero
sugar company (K2 side). The first key data collected was the waste water discharge from the whole
system. The two approaches which were used included the use of the social and quantitative approach
where by a population and an estimated waste water discharge of 80 liters per day per capita were
used to calculate the discharge..............................................................................................................10
The second approach where special equipment called Ultrasonic meter was used to estimate the
flows in the main pipe. The results from the two methods did not differ significantly as P = 0.61
which is greater than 0.05. ...................................................................................................................10
When the results from the two approaches were compared, the result from the social method showed
higher daily discharges (600.56m3/day) compared to the ultrasonic meter results which showed
598.46m3/day. As it is usual with all designs, the higher parameter was considered during the design
stage. (Magayane M et all, 2006) .........................................................................................................10
Water Quality Data...............................................................................................................................10
Water samples were taken at the inlet and outlet of the water stabilization ponds in a repetitive ways
three times a day (morning, afternoon and evening). In addition water samples were taken from the
receiving body (Ruaha River) before and after the effluent joined the river. The sampling locations
were as illustrated by Figure 3. The collected samples were then analyzed in the laboratory using
standard procedures as illustrated in Table 2. The results from the analysis in the laboratory, for each
of the sample, are presented in Tables 3 and 4.....................................................................................10
...............................................................................................................................................................11
Figure 2.4 Sampling points...................................................................................................................11
Table 2.1:Water quality from oxidation ponds.....................................................................................11
...............................................................................................................................................................11
Table 2.2 Water quality from Ruaha River.......................................................................................11
...............................................................................................................................................................12
Discussion of the Results......................................................................................................................12
Before the design options was made for the waste water treatment, the water quality samples were
analyzed first. The main parameters looked at were the bacterial quality, BOD loads and residual
chlorine status. These could give pollution levels in the environment [7-9]. The Ruaha River was
found to be polluted even before the ponds effluents thus there are more polluters upstream. The
existing pond system was not functioning properly as the effluents were of poor quality when
compared with the standards [10-12, 14], requiring the need for new system design. The BOD load
variation was quite remarkable for morning hours and evening hours. During evening most of the
workers are at home and thus produce more pollution during this time of the day. This paper provides
five points which are supposed to discuss the results as fully as possible. These are given below:.....12
i.The Ruaha River is not safe bacteriologically even before the influence of the effluent from the
Sugar Company as some levels of bacteria are observed. For drinking water without disinfection or
boiling, the recommended standard is ZERO/100ml............................................................................12
ii.Though there is a reduction in the number of E.Coli between influent and effluent still the levels at
the ponds outlets are quite high indicating that the ponds are not adequately removing the bacteria.
For immediate raw re-use by the villagers located just downstream, after the effluent has joined the
river, the number should not exceed 200/100ml. .................................................................................13

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iii.BOD5 from K2 effluents which has a maximum of 63.1mg/l experienced in the evenings might be
the results of the attendants who was harvesting water hyacinths in the evening and this might have
affected the results) but generally effluents from the K2 ponds are of the order 27.7 and 33.2 mg/l
which is a bit high to be discharged into the receiving water body (Tables 3 & 6). ............................13
iv.The general trend has shown that there are more BODs during the evenings compared to the rest of
time. This is an indication that the peak hour is in the evening............................................................13
v.Highest recorded residual chlorine is 0.47 mg/l in the evening but in other cases the residual
chloride is quite low indicating a proper disinfectants management.
.....................13
Table 2.3: Key water Quality parameters levels...................................................................................13
...............................................................................................................................................................13
..............................................................................................................................................................13
Conclusion............................................................................................................................................14
The design of the waste water stabilization pond in K2 is not in accordance with specification
standards defined in different design books and manuals and that is why it does not produce effluent
of acceptable standards in receiving bodies. A review and its proposed re-design for proper
functioning of the existing stabilization ponds have been conducted and design options suggested in
this paper. In most developing countries like Tanzania, the low effluent which is discharged into
receiving bodies and their effect to the downstream communities will need more investigation
particularly on ways in which the effect can be minimized. There exists a number of water quality
models that can trace the fate and transport of pollutants once discharged into the receiving water
bodies. The impact of pollution can then be established to know the distance down stream to which
pollution is still experienced. Application of models such as these will allow the governing authorities
to advise the communities of where they should collect water. Also this can even optimize the pond
design in terms of size, which can save cost. In addition, studies of relation between water levels in
receiving bodies and their relative level of pollutant can help in decision making by governing
authorities to advise the communities living in the downstream to treat the water before using them at
critical levels of pollution. Alternatively, the water collection point can be defined according to the
seasonal calendar and or flow levels in receiving bodies.....................................................................14
Configuration and Sizes Required for Proper Function of the Pond....................................................14
The result of the calculations in revealing the existing configuration, layout and design of the
oxidation ponds in K2 shows that the ponds are neither Facultative Maturation system (FMS) nor
Anaerobic Facultative Maturation system (AFMS). This has been illustrated by a review design
calculations. The review design calculation shows configuration indicated in Table 3.4 for the proper
functioning of the ponds. The layout would be as shown in Figures 3.5 and 3.6.................................14
............................................................................................................................14
Table 2.4: Supposed sizes of oxidation pond........................................................................................15
...............................................................................................................................................................15
The figures bellows show the proposed layout for Kilombero WSP by Magayane Machibya and
Fredrick Mwanuzi from the University of Dar es Salaam....................................................................15
..............................................................................................................................................................15
................................................................................................................................................15
Figure 2.5 Layout of the K2 pond
Figure 2.5 Layout of the K2 pond ...................15
With FM system
with AFM system4.0 ......................15
3.0 POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL ..........................................................................16
3.1 Re-circulating cooling waters................................................................................................................16
Continuous sampling and measuring of key production parameters allow production losses to be
identified and reduced, thus reducing the waste load. Fermentation processes and juice handling are
the main sources of leakages. Odor problems can usually be prevented with good hygiene and storage
practices................................................................................................................................................16
3.2 Treatment Technologies ........................................................................................................................16
Pretreatment of effluent consists of screening and aeration normally followed by biological treatment.
If space is available, land treatment or pond systems are potential treatment methods. Other possible
biological treatment systems include activated sludge and anaerobic systems which can achieve a
reduction in the BOD level of over 95%. Odor control by ventilation and sanitation may be required

for fermentation and juice processing areas. Bio filters may be used for controlling odor. Cyclones,
scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitators are used for dust control......................................................16
Effluents should be sampled annually for biocides to ensure that they are not present at significant
levels. ...................................................................................................................................................16
Monitoring data should be analyzed and reviewed at regular intervals and compared with the
operating standards so that any necessary corrective actions can be taken. Records of monitoring
results should be kept in an acceptable format. These should be reported to the responsible authorities
and relevant parties, as required. ..........................................................................................................16
3.3 Proposed treatment scheme for effluent from sugar industry in Tanzania.....................................16
Characteristics of waste water from sugar industry...........................................................................16
Unit for Removal..................................................................................................................................16
High BOD (2,300-8,000 mg/L )............................................................................................................16
WSPs....................................................................................................................................................16
High COD (2,300-8,000 mg/L )............................................................................................................16
WSPs....................................................................................................................................................16
High suspended solids (up to 5,000 mg/L)...........................................................................................16
Screen Chamber....................................................................................................................................16
High ammonium content.......................................................................................................................16
WSPs and constructed wetland............................................................................................................16
Contains soil..........................................................................................................................................17
Grit Chamber........................................................................................................................................17
3.3.1 General layout of waste water treatment scheme for sugar industry...........................................17
...............................................................................................................................................................17
Figure 3.7 General treatment plant for handling wastewater from sugar industry...............................17
Key:.......................................................................................................................................................17
IN=Inflow flow rate..............................................................................................................................17
SC=Screen Chamber.............................................................................................................................17
GC=Grit Chamber.................................................................................................................................17
FM= Flow measurement Unit...............................................................................................................17
AN=Anaerobic pond.............................................................................................................................17
F=Facultative pond...............................................................................................................................17
M=Maturation pond..............................................................................................................................17
CW=Constructed Wetland....................................................................................................................17
FEB=Flow Equalization basin..............................................................................................................17
PST= Primary Sedimentation Tank......................................................................................................17
BU=Biological Unit..............................................................................................................................17
TF=Trickling Filter...............................................................................................................................17
SST=Secondary Sedimentation Tank...................................................................................................17
SD=Sludge Digester..............................................................................................................................17
DB= Drying Bed...................................................................................................................................18
EF=Effluent...........................................................................................................................................18
3.3.2 Wastewater treatment options in the proposed treatment scheme...............................................18
The above treatment scheme shows different options through which wastewater from sugar industry
can be treated. It consists of three biological treatment options:..........................................................18
1. Waste stabilization ponds..................................................................................................................18
2. Activated sludge................................................................................................................................18
3. Trickling filter...................................................................................................................................18
i.Waste stabilization ponds...................................................................................................................18
Wastewater from preliminary treatment units may be treated by waste stabilization ponds. Waste
water from the pond may be further treated using Constructed wetland to remove the remaining
ammonia, the effluent can be reused for some industrial activities like cleanliness or discharged to the
receiving stream since it has been treated to the level at which can not pause environmental problems.
If the effluent has to be used for irrigating sugar cane farms, there is no need for tertiary remove of
ammonia as is very useful for plants. Refer to figure 3.7 above and figure ........................................18
ii.Activated sludge................................................................................................................................18

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Activated sludge is also a very useful method that can be employed to treat wastewater from sugar
industry. This method is very useful as one can recover the biogas generated. The effluent can be
discharged in the same manner as for waste stabilization ponds..........................................................18
iii.Trickling filter...................................................................................................................................18
Trickling filter is another biological method that can be used for effectively treatment of sugar
industry effluent. After the treatment the effluent can be used to irrigate the sugar cane farms or
further treated in the wetland for further reuse in the industry in different activities such as
cleanliness.............................................................................................................................................18
A flow diagram for treatment Scheme of effluent from sugar industry in Tanzania using WSPs as
one of the option from the general layout in figure 3.7 above..............................................................19
WSPs.........................................................................................................................................19
F............................................................................................................................................................19
SC GC...................................................................................................................................................19
M...........................................................................................................................................................19
M...........................................................................................................................................................19
FM........................................................................................................................................................19
A............................................................................................................................................................19
F............................................................................................................................................................19
Screen residues................................................................................................................................19
Sludge CW...........................................................................................................................................19
Grits......................................................................................................................................................19
I Effluent............................................................................................................................................19
I ........................................................................................................................................................19
L.................................................................................................................................................19
Figure.3.8 Treatment scheme for waste water from sugar industry using WSPs................................19
KEY:.....................................................................................................................................................19
A: Anaerobic pond................................................................................................................................19
M: Maturation ponds.............................................................................................................................19
CW: Constructed wetland.....................................................................................................................19
SC: Screen Chamber
..................................................................19
GC: Grit Chamber.................................................................................................................................19
FM: Flow Meter....................................................................................................................................19
WSPs: Waste Stabilization Ponds.......................................................................................................19
I: Incinerator..........................................................................................................................................19
L: Lagoons............................................................................................................................................19
COMMENTS .......................................................................................................................................19
The treatment objective is to treat the effluent to a level at which it can be used for some industrial
activities such as cleanness of the floor and washing the sugar canes. For that reason we have
provided two maturation ponds in series to enhance significant removal of pathogens and some
organic matter. In addition, we have provided the wetland for further removal of Nitrogen and
pathogens..............................................................................................................................................19
To improve sanitation at the industry we have included facilities for handling the residual wastes. It is
anticipated that the waste stabilization ponds will be disludged; therefore we have included lagoons
for sludge handling which can later be used as soil conditioner. In connection to this we have also
provided an incinerator for handling the residues from the screen as the wastewater contains a lot of
suspended coarse organic matter. ......................................................................................................19
3.4 Monitoring and Maintenance (good house keeping)......................................................................20
Prevention or minimization of spills and leaks through regularly inspecting and repairing of various
units such as pumps, conveyors and pipes, this also includes handling and storing molasses properly.
Monitoring of quantity and quality of incoming and outgoing water at the mill with flow meters by
measuring the flow................................................................................................................................20
3.5 Process Modifications ............................................................................................................................20
Minor changes in the sugar production and waste handling process can produce substantial reductions
in wastewater volume and pollutant load..............................................................................................20

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Mills should be operated at optimum capacity and with minimum stoppages because raw water
consumption per ton of cane crushed increases when crushing lower than the optimum capacity and
when hot water production is suspended during halts in operations (cleaning, restocking, and
breakdowns)..........................................................................................................................................20
For maximum sugar sucrose recovery, condensate hot water should be used for imbibitions. For
optimum recovery, imbibitions water should be maintained around 25-30% of cane used. ...............20
The TSS level of the wastewater is much less when the sugar cane is manually harvested. ...............20
Water conservation and sugar recovery can be improved by avoidance of overloading evaporators
and vacuum pans, boiling at excessive rates, or operating at incorrect liquid levels ...........................20
Dirt and large particles in effluents can be minimized by allowing suspended particles in filter cloth
washings to settle in a holding tank before being mixed with other effluents .....................................20
and screening wastewater before emitting to remove refuse, dirt, and remnants of the cane. Caustic
wastes from the cleaning equipment should be separated from the rest of the wastewater and
gradually released into furrows and blended with the other effluents..................................................20
The recycling of water is the primary factor in reducing wastewater volume. ....................................20
Effluents from sugar mills are often used for irrigation and this is considered an apt measure if the
wastes are first treated to remove oil and suspended particles and to correct the pH value.................20
Apart from the above pollution and control measures also good pollution prevention practices in
sugar manufacturing could account for the following main areas: ......................................................21
i.Reduction to product losses to less than 10% by better production of sugar and performing sugar
auditing. ................................................................................................................................................21
ii.Spraying of molasses on the ground is a disposal practice which should be discouraged. ..............21
iii.Minimize storage time for juice and other intermediate products to reduce product losses and their
discharge into the wastewater stream. ..................................................................................................21
iv.Give preference to less polluting clarification processes such as those using bentonite instead of
sulfite for the manufacture of white sugar............................................................................................21
v.Collect waste product for use in other industries such as the use of bagasse in paper mills and as
fuel. ......................................................................................................................................................21
vi.Co-generation systems for large sugar mills generate electricity for sale. ......................................21
vii.Beet chips should be used as animal feed. ......................................................................................21
viii.Optimize the use of water and cleaning chemicals. .......................................................................21
ix.Procure canes washed in the field.....................................................................................................21

4.0 GOOD PRACTICES IN SUGAR INDUSTRIES IN TANZANIA.....................21


Although the effluent treatment systems are not performing efficiently, some of the ........................21
sugarcompanies have demonstrated good practices in the following areas: ....................................21
1(i) Excellent housekeeping in the processing area, stores and waste management. ..........................21
(ii) The wastewater is collected and treated in a wastewater treatment system....................................21
(iii) Reuse and Recycling of bagasse for energy and floor cleaning, recycling of filter mud in cane
farms......................................................................................................................................................21
(iv)Reuse of molasses through a feedlot project and sale to community..............................................21
(v) Proper handling of solid waste, Collection and disposal of scrap metals to the scrap metals
dealers...................................................................................................................................................21
(vi)Fire fighting equipment is in place and well placed, Personal protective gears are in place and
used. .....................................................................................................................................................21
(vii) Medical waste incinerator and dump............................................................................................22
(viii) Vetiver grass technology for protection of irrigation canals from soil erosion, drip irrigation
system at TPC ......................................................................................................................................22
(ix) Proper record keeping and management of all materials...............................................................22

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION..................................................23


5.1Conclusion................................................................................................................................................23

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Basing on the treatment of effluent from the sugar industries in Tanzania, it seems that the
appropriate method for treatment of the effluent from sugar industries is known, that is biological
treatment by using waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP).The most challenging problem is poor
designing...............................................................................................................................................23
In trial to accomplish this assignment, we have come across to the WSPs of Mtibwa Sugar and
Kilombero Sugar Industries. It said that the design of both, did not follow the designing Principles
and hence un able to perform the intended work efficiently.................................................................23
5.2 Recommendation....................................................................................................................................23
The Tanzania Government should reinforce law and strong Environment aiding to bind the owners of
industries that they must consult the appropriate environmental experts especially Environmental
Engineering experts redesigning the treatment facilities of effluents from their industries so that
environmental protection is enhanced...................................................................................................23
Although they are performing slightly good on this parts, but they should be emphasized on the
cleaner production to minimize cost and protect the environment and public health...........................23

REFERENCES.....................................................................................................24
Frank Woodard (2001), Industrial Waste Treatment Handbook, Butterworth, Heinemann (2001).....24
Karia G.L, Christian R.A (2006) Wastewater Treatment, Concept and Design Approach, PrenticeHall of India Private Limited, New Delhi.............................................................................................24
Magayane Machibya and Fredrick Mwanuzi (2006) International Journal of Environmental Research
and Public Health ISSN 1661-7827......................................................................................................24
http://www.crc.uri.edu..........................................................................................................................24
http://www.germanwatch.org/tw/zu-afr06.htm.....................................................................................24

ix

LIST OF FIGURES
XI..............................................................................................................................I
22............................................................................................................................1

xi

1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION


There are four sugar factories on mainland Tanzania: Kilombero Sugar Company,
Mtibwa Sugar Estate, Tanganyika Plantations Moshi and Kagera Sugar Ltd. These
companies were privatized between 1998 and 2001. The sugar factory on Zanzibar is
newly leased and is expected to resume production in 2008. The factories are represented
by the Tanzania sugar Producers Association. Both in Kilombero and Mtibwa outgrowers
supply approximately 50% of the cane requirement for these factories. Kagera has just
started an out grower scheme.
All out growers are represented by a local association as well as their national apex body,
the Tanzania sugar Cane Growers Association. The regulatory institution for the sugar
sector is the sugar Board of Tanzania which is a specialized department of the
government but supervised by a board of directors which comprises representatives from
all stakeholders. The sugar board is an umbrella organization representing the interests of
the sugar sector and manages activities supporting the sector. The sugar producers,
notably out growers are the main beneficiaries. To maximize ownership, the project will
continue to work with the sugar Board. The project will therefore be owned by both
government and all the other key sugar interests represented within the sugar board. All
result areas will have sugar Board involvement and within Result Area 5, there is an
ongoing focus to strengthen the sugar Board
.

1.1 SUGAR PROCESSING


The sugar industry processes sugar cane and sugar beet to manufacture edible sugar.
More than 60% of the worlds sugar production is from sugar cane and the balance is
from sugar beet. Approximately 10% of the sugar cane can be processed to commercial
sugar and uses approximately 20 cubic meters of water per metric ton (m 3/t) of cane
processed. Sugar cane contains 70% water; 14% fiber; 13.3% saccharose
(About 10 to 15% sucrose); and 2.7% soluble impurities. Sugar canes are generally
washed and then juice is extracted from them. This juice is then clarified to remove mud,
evaporated to prepare syrup, crystallized to separate out the liquor, and then centrifuged
to separate molasses from the crystals. Sugar crystals are then dried and may be further
refined before bagging for shipment. In some places (for example, in South frica),
extraction of juice is performed by a diffusion process which can give higher rates of
extraction with lower energy consumption and reduced operating and maintenance costs.
For processing sugar beet (water concentration 75%, sugar concentration 17%), only the
washing, preparation, and extraction processes are different. After washing, the beet is
sliced and the slices are drawn into a slowly rotating diffuser where a countercurrent flow
of water is used to remove sugar from the beet slices. Approximately 15 m 3 of water and
28 kilowatt hours (kWh) of energy is consumed per metric ton of beet. Refining of sugar
involves removal of impurities and decolorization. The steps generally followed include
affination

(mingling

and centrifugation),

melting,

clarification,

decolonization,

evaporation, crystallization, and finishing. Decolonization methods use granular activated


carbon, powdered activated carbon, ion exchange resins, and other materials. This is a
highly seasonal industry, with season lengths of approximately 6 to 18 weeks for beets
and 20 to 32 weeks for cane.
The figure 1.1 bellow shows the whole process of sugar processing from cutting of sugar
cane to the production of raw sugar which goes to refinery machine.

Figure 1.1: Raw sugar milling process

Figure 1.2: Refined sugar process

1.2 Sources of wastewater in sugar industries in Tanzania


Industries have high degree of similarities in producing wastewater of high variation
thats why no one fixed method for treatment of all industries producing the same
products.
The main source of wastewater in sugar industries in Tanzania includes the following:1.2.1 Flume water
The flume and wash waters contribute the largest amount of wastewater and contain
considerable amounts of soil, suspended beet fragments, stems, and leaves and dissolved
solids which have diffused from the beets. The amount of soil depends on the harvesting
conditions and generally averages 5-6% of the beet weight. The BOD of this waste water
is about 200mg/l and may be considerable higher if the beets had decomposed during
storage
1.2.2 Cleaning purposes
In almost all sugar producing industries there are a lot of cleaning activities being taking
place. Cleaning activities at this juncture includes general cleanliness activities at the
industries premieres in which is widely used. Activities such as mopping and the related
duties are all water intensive activities from which a lot of wastewater is produced. Other
activities includes cleaning of storage utilities, laboratory apparati as well as the conveyor
pipes all these activities uses water all of which turns into wastewater
1.2.3 Wastewater as a result of leakages
During the entire production processes in sugar industries there are a lot of leakages of
liquids such as solvents; syrups, oils, lubricants as well as water .Leakages are severe in
case when there are poor house keeping measures. These leakages may occur during the
production processes itself or during the storage phase. In situation when maintenance
and repair is poor a lot of leakages occur in conveyors and storage facilities.

1.2.4 Wastewater as a result of production processes


Sometime, during the production processes of sugar there are wastewater as by products
of the production process. Wastewater at this juncture becomes as a result of softening
and dilution activities whereby most of the wastewater comes out with the molasses as a
product.
1.2.5 Barometric condenser water
The barometric condenser and cooling waters have a low BOD content, about 40mg/l,
however, The condenser water picks up ammonia from the evaporating juices and
therefore is always alkaline, having pH ranging between 8-10
1.2.6 Lime mud
The lime mud is the slurried lime cake discharged from the filters. This waste is low in
volume but it has high BOD and the suspended solids content ranges from 4-6% of the
beets, which is approximately the same as the flume sediment
1.2.7 Air emissions
Air emissions from sugar processing and refining industries, results mainly from the
combustion of bagasse (fiber residue of sugar cane) and fuel oil or coal. Other air
emission sources include juice fermentation units, evaporators, and sulfitation units.
Approximately 5.5 kilograms (kg) of fly ash per metric ton of cane processed (or 4,500
mg/m 3 of fly ash) is present in the flue gases from the combustion of bagasse
1.3 General characteristics of sugar manufacturing effluents
Sugar manufacturing effluents typically have biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)
(1,700-6,600 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in untreated effluent from cane processing and
4,000-7,000 mg/L for beet processing), COD (2,300-8,000 mg/L from cane processing
and up to 10,000 mg/L in beet processing), total suspended solids (up to 5,000 mg/L),
and high ammonium content. The wastewater may contain pathogens from contaminated
materials or production processes. A sugar mill often generates odor and dust, which
need to be controlled. Most of the solid wastes can be processed into other products and
by-products. In some cases, pesticides may also be present in the sugar cane rinse liquids.

2.0 WASTE GENERATION AND WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT IN SELECTED


SUGAR INDUSTRIES IN TANZANIA
Sugar industry is one of the most important industries in Tanzania. There are currently
four major sugar estates in Tanzania namely Kilombero, Mtibwa, TPC and Kagera Sugar
Estates. Mtibwa and Kagera sugar estates are owned by the same company. Compared
with other manufacturing industries, the sugar industry sector is a minor contributor to
environmental loads, as most of its outputs are not hazardous. However, sugar industries
produce high amounts of biodegradable waste, and the high organic loads of liquid
effluents (wastewater) also represent a major problem.
The known treatment method for effluents emanating from sugar industries is biological
treatment whereby waste stabilization ponds or lagoons are very common. In Tanzania,
the methods used are waste stabilization ponds. Bellow are some industries and the
effluent treatment method.
2.1 Mtibwa Sugar Industry
2.1.1 Sources of waste water
Wastewater from the factory is mainly generated from washing operation (wash water)
including wash water from factory laboratory, boiler blow down and cooling water. The
wastewater is collected and disposed to the cane fields without any treatment. Currently
no water quality parameters are monitored. Wastewater from laboratories is disposed to
the wastewater chamber without environmental impact consideration.
2.1.1.1 Wastewater Management
Factory wastewater is collected into an open channel that drains into the wastewater
treatment ponds. The construction of the line from the caustic soda washing is in such a
way that in normal operation there is a sluice valve that is shut to direct the water into the
wastewater channel. Otherwise the waste water channel is bypassed into a storm water
drain.

Figure 2.1 Waste water treatment plant at Mtibwa sugar estate


2.1.1.2 Waste Water Treatment Ponds
The treatment ponds were constructed in year 2000 and have a capacity of 15,000 m3
following a series of complaints from nearby communities about the wastewater that was
dumped and allowed to flow in their areas. The treatment ponds have however, been
constructed in an adhoc manner and without following proper engineering design
procedures. There are a total of six ponds, which are operating in a series manner. During
our visit, it was noted that the inlet-outlets of the different stages of the ponds are poorly
located and serious channeling is experienced. Because of this the ponds are not fully
utilized. Redesigning of the units is necessary for their optimal utilization. Moreover,
these ponds act as water storage facility. The treated water can be reused in the cane

Figure 2.2 One of the Mtibwa sugar treatment pond

2.2 Tanganyika Planting Company (TPC)


2.2.1 Wastes water Management
Wastewater from the factory is mainly generated from washing operation (wash water)
including wash water from factory laboratory, boiler blow down and cooling water. The
wastewater is collected and disposed to the cane fields without any treatment. Currently
no water quality parameters are monitored. Wastewater from laboratories is disposed to
the wastewater chamber without environmental impact consideration.
2.3 Kilombero sugar industry
2.4 Waste treatment at Kilombero sugar industry
Waste water originates from washing, raw sugar processing, cooling and other processes
as stated in the previous industries.
The sewerage of the Kilombero Sugar Company (K2 side) consists of a network which
gravitate to the pumping station thereafter gravitate to the wastewater stabilization ponds
(treatment plant). The plant consists of a very basic, single series of ponds, one large
pond connected to a much smaller pond. Earlier studies by different consultants have
referred the first pond as anaerobic pond and the second one as facultative pond.
However, according to the layout and depth requirements the first pond can be regarded
as facultative pond and the smaller one to be maturation pond thus a need for the
anaerobic pond, (Magayane M et all,2006)

Figure 2.3: Existing layout of the K2 pond


2.5 Research results on the performance of kilombero (WSP)
(As conducted by Magayane Machibya and Fredrick Mwanuzi from the University of
Dar es Salaam)
Kilombero Sugar Company recently launched a study to review their sewage system in
terms of design, configuration, effectiveness and the quality of influent and effluent
discharged into the Ruaha River (receiving body).The concern was that the population at
the company is increasing and the water in the river, after effluent from oxidation pond
has joined the river, is used as raw drinking water by villages located further downstream.
2.5.1 Methods and Materials
Review of Existing Pond Layout
Generally there exist two types of waste stabilization pond systems. The Facultative
Maturation System (FM system) and the Anaerobic-Facultative Maturation System
(AFM-System) in the absence of the grit chambers and screen. The two systems require
different area and configuration for proper functioning, (K2 side) consists of a network
which gravitate to the pumping station thereafter gravitate to the wastewater stabilization
ponds (treatment plant).
9

Discharge Data
Three types of data were collected in order to be able to review the sewage system of the
Kilombero sugar company (K2 side). The first key data collected was the waste water
discharge from the whole system. The two approaches which were used included the use
of the social and quantitative approach where by a population and an estimated waste
water discharge of 80 liters per day per capita were used to calculate the discharge.
The second approach where special equipment called Ultrasonic meter was used to
estimate the flows in the main pipe. The results from the two methods did not differ
significantly as P = 0.61 which is greater than 0.05.
When the results from the two approaches were compared, the result from the social
method showed higher daily discharges (600.56m3/day) compared to the ultrasonic meter
results which showed 598.46m3/day. As it is usual with all designs, the higher parameter
was considered during the design stage. (Magayane M et all, 2006)
Water Quality Data
Water samples were taken at the inlet and outlet of the water stabilization ponds in a
repetitive ways three times a day (morning, afternoon and evening). In addition water
samples were taken from the receiving body (Ruaha River) before and after the effluent
joined the river. The sampling locations were as illustrated by Figure 3. The collected
samples were then analyzed in the laboratory using standard procedures as illustrated in
Table 2. The results from the analysis in the laboratory, for each of the sample, are
presented in Tables 3 and 4.

10

Figure 2.4 Sampling points


Table 2.1:Water quality from oxidation ponds

Table 2.2 Water quality from Ruaha River

11

Discussion of the Results


Before the design options was made for the waste water treatment, the water quality
samples were analyzed first. The main parameters looked at were the bacterial quality,
BOD loads and residual chlorine status. These could give pollution levels in the
environment [7-9]. The Ruaha River was found to be polluted even before the ponds
effluents thus there are more polluters upstream. The existing pond system was not
functioning properly as the effluents were of poor quality when compared with the
standards [10-12, 14], requiring the need for new system design. The BOD load variation
was quite remarkable for morning hours and evening hours. During evening most of the
workers are at home and thus produce more pollution during this time of the day. This
paper provides five points which are supposed to discuss the results as fully as possible.
These are given below:
i.

The Ruaha River is not safe bacteriologically even before the influence of the
effluent from the Sugar Company as some levels of bacteria are observed. For
drinking water without disinfection or boiling, the recommended standard is
ZERO/100ml.

12

ii.

Though there is a reduction in the number of E.Coli between influent and effluent
still the levels at the ponds outlets are quite high indicating that the ponds are not
adequately removing the bacteria. For immediate raw re-use by the villagers located
just downstream, after the effluent has joined the river, the number should not exceed
200/100ml.

iii.

BOD5 from K2 effluents which has a maximum of 63.1mg/l experienced in the


evenings might be the results of the attendants who was harvesting water hyacinths in
the evening and this might have affected the results) but generally effluents from the
K2 ponds are of the order 27.7 and 33.2 mg/l which is a bit high to be discharged into
the receiving water body (Tables 3 & 6).

iv.

The general trend has shown that there are more BODs during the evenings
compared to the rest of time. This is an indication that the peak hour is in the evening.

v.

Highest recorded residual chlorine is 0.47 mg/l in the evening but in other cases
the residual chloride is quite low indicating a proper disinfectants management.

Table 2.3: Key water Quality parameters levels

13

Conclusion
The design of the waste water stabilization pond in K2 is not in accordance with
specification standards defined in different design books and manuals and that is why it
does not produce effluent of acceptable standards in receiving bodies. A review and its
proposed re-design for proper functioning of the existing stabilization ponds have been
conducted and design options suggested in this paper. In most developing countries like
Tanzania, the low effluent which is discharged into receiving bodies and their effect to
the downstream communities will need more investigation particularly on ways in which
the effect can be minimized. There exists a number of water quality models that can trace
the fate and transport of pollutants once discharged into the receiving water bodies. The
impact of pollution can then be established to know the distance down stream to which
pollution is still experienced. Application of models such as these will allow the
governing authorities to advise the communities of where they should collect water. Also
this can even optimize the pond design in terms of size, which can save cost. In addition,
studies of relation between water levels in receiving bodies and their relative level of
pollutant can help in decision making by governing authorities to advise the communities
living in the downstream to treat the water before using them at critical levels of
pollution. Alternatively, the water collection point can be defined according to the
seasonal calendar and or flow levels in receiving bodies.
Configuration and Sizes Required for Proper Function of the Pond
The result of the calculations in revealing the existing configuration, layout and design of
the oxidation ponds in K2 shows that the ponds are neither Facultative Maturation system
(FMS) nor Anaerobic Facultative Maturation system (AFMS). This has been illustrated
by a review design calculations. The review design calculation shows configuration
indicated in Table 3.4 for the proper functioning of the ponds. The layout would be as
shown in Figures 3.5 and 3.6.

14

Table 2.4: Supposed sizes of oxidation pond

The figures bellows show the proposed layout for Kilombero WSP by Magayane
Machibya and Fredrick Mwanuzi from the University of Dar es Salaam.
.

Figure 2.5 Layout of the K2 pond

Figure 2.5 Layout of the K2 pond

With FM system

with AFM system4.0

15

3.0 POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL


3.1 Re-circulating cooling waters
Continuous sampling and measuring of key production parameters allow production
losses to be identified and reduced, thus reducing the waste load. Fermentation processes
and juice handling are the main sources of leakages. Odor problems can usually be
prevented with good hygiene and storage practices.
3.2 Treatment Technologies
Pretreatment of effluent consists of screening and aeration normally followed by
biological treatment. If space is available, land treatment or pond systems are potential
treatment methods. Other possible biological treatment systems include activated sludge
and anaerobic systems which can achieve a reduction in the BOD level of over 95%.
Odor control by ventilation and sanitation may be required for fermentation and juice
processing areas. Bio filters may be used for controlling odor. Cyclones, scrubbers, and
electrostatic precipitators are used for dust control
Effluents should be sampled annually for biocides to ensure that they are not present at
significant levels.
Monitoring data should be analyzed and reviewed at regular intervals and compared with
the operating standards so that any necessary corrective actions can be taken. Records of
monitoring results should be kept in an acceptable format. These should be reported to
the responsible authorities and relevant parties, as required.
3.3 Proposed treatment scheme for effluent from sugar industry in Tanzania
Characteristics of waste water from sugar Unit for Removal
industry
High BOD (2,300-8,000 mg/L )

WSPs

High COD (2,300-8,000 mg/L )

WSPs

High suspended solids (up to 5,000 mg/L)

Screen Chamber

High ammonium content

WSPs and constructed wetland

16

Contains soil

Grit Chamber

3.3.1 General layout of waste water treatment scheme for sugar industry

Figure 3.7 General treatment plant for handling wastewater from sugar industry
Key:
IN=Inflow flow rate
SC=Screen Chamber
GC=Grit Chamber
FM= Flow measurement Unit
AN=Anaerobic pond
F=Facultative pond
M=Maturation pond
CW=Constructed Wetland
FEB=Flow Equalization basin
PST= Primary Sedimentation Tank
BU=Biological Unit
TF=Trickling Filter
SST=Secondary Sedimentation Tank
SD=Sludge Digester

17

DB= Drying Bed


EF=Effluent
3.3.2 Wastewater treatment options in the proposed treatment scheme
The above treatment scheme shows different options through which wastewater from
sugar industry can be treated. It consists of three biological treatment options:
1. Waste stabilization ponds
2. Activated sludge
3. Trickling filter
i. Waste stabilization ponds
Wastewater from preliminary treatment units may be treated by waste stabilization ponds.
Waste water from the pond may be further treated using Constructed wetland to remove
the remaining ammonia, the effluent can be reused for some industrial activities like
cleanliness or discharged to the receiving stream since it has been treated to the level at
which can not pause environmental problems. If the effluent has to be used for irrigating
sugar cane farms, there is no need for tertiary remove of ammonia as is very useful for
plants. Refer to figure 3.7 above and figure
ii. Activated sludge
Activated sludge is also a very useful method that can be employed to treat wastewater
from sugar industry. This method is very useful as one can recover the biogas generated.
The effluent can be discharged in the same manner as for waste stabilization ponds.
iii. Trickling filter
Trickling filter is another biological method that can be used for effectively treatment of
sugar industry effluent. After the treatment the effluent can be used to irrigate the sugar
cane farms or further treated in the wetland for further reuse in the industry in different
activities such as cleanliness.

18

A flow diagram for treatment Scheme of effluent from sugar industry in Tanzania using
WSPs as one of the option from the general layout in figure 3.7 above.
WSPs
SC

GC

FM

F
Screen residues
Sludge

CW

Grits
I

Effluent

I
L
Figure.3.8 Treatment scheme for waste water from sugar industry using WSPs.
KEY:
A: Anaerobic pond
M: Maturation ponds
CW: Constructed wetland
SC: Screen Chamber
GC: Grit Chamber
FM: Flow Meter
WSPs: Waste Stabilization Ponds
I: Incinerator
L: Lagoons
COMMENTS
The treatment objective is to treat the effluent to a level at which it can be used for some
industrial activities such as cleanness of the floor and washing the sugar canes. For that
reason we have provided two maturation ponds in series to enhance significant removal
of pathogens and some organic matter. In addition, we have provided the wetland for
further removal of Nitrogen and pathogens.
To improve sanitation at the industry we have included facilities for handling the residual
wastes. It is anticipated that the waste stabilization ponds will be disludged; therefore we
have included lagoons for sludge handling which can later be used as soil conditioner. In
connection to this we have also provided an incinerator for handling the residues from the
screen as the wastewater contains a lot of suspended coarse organic matter.

19

3.4 Monitoring and Maintenance (good house keeping)


Prevention or minimization of spills and leaks through regularly inspecting and repairing
of various units such as pumps, conveyors and pipes, this also includes handling and
storing molasses properly. Monitoring of quantity and quality of incoming and outgoing
water at the mill with flow meters by measuring the flow.
3.5 Process Modifications
Minor changes in the sugar production and waste handling process can produce
substantial reductions in wastewater volume and pollutant load.
Mills should be operated at optimum capacity and with minimum stoppages because raw
water consumption per ton of cane crushed increases when crushing lower than the
optimum capacity and when hot water production is suspended during halts in operations
(cleaning, restocking, and breakdowns).
For maximum

sugar sucrose recovery, condensate hot water should be used for

imbibitions. For optimum recovery, imbibitions water should be maintained around 2530% of cane used.
The TSS level of the wastewater is much less when the sugar cane is manually harvested.
Water conservation and sugar recovery can be improved by avoidance of overloading
evaporators and vacuum pans, boiling at excessive rates, or operating at incorrect liquid
levels
Dirt and large particles in effluents can be minimized by allowing suspended particles in
filter cloth washings to settle in a holding tank before being mixed with other effluents
and screening wastewater before emitting to remove refuse, dirt, and remnants of the
cane. Caustic wastes from the cleaning equipment should be separated from the rest of
the wastewater and gradually released into furrows and blended with the other effluents
The recycling of water is the primary factor in reducing wastewater volume.
Effluents from sugar mills are often used for irrigation and this is considered an apt
measure if the wastes are first treated to remove oil and suspended particles and to correct
the pH value.

20

Apart from the above pollution and control measures also good pollution prevention
practices in sugar manufacturing could account for the following main areas:
i. Reduction to product losses to less than 10% by better production of sugar and
performing sugar auditing.
ii. Spraying of molasses on the ground is a disposal practice which should be
discouraged.
iii. Minimize storage time for juice and other intermediate products to reduce product
losses and their discharge into the wastewater stream.
iv. Give preference to less polluting clarification processes such as those using
bentonite instead of sulfite for the manufacture of white sugar
v. Collect waste product for use in other industries such as the use of bagasse in
paper mills and as fuel.
vi. Co-generation systems for large sugar mills generate electricity for sale.
vii. Beet chips should be used as animal feed.
viii. Optimize the use of water and cleaning chemicals.
ix. Procure canes washed in the field.
4.0 GOOD PRACTICES IN SUGAR INDUSTRIES IN TANZANIA
Although the effluent treatment systems are not performing efficiently, some of the
sugarcompanies have demonstrated good practices in the following areas:
1(i) Excellent housekeeping in the processing area, stores and waste management.
(ii) The wastewater is collected and treated in a wastewater treatment system.
(iii) Reuse and Recycling of bagasse for energy and floor cleaning, recycling of filter
mud in cane farms.
(iv)Reuse of molasses through a feedlot project and sale to community.
(v) Proper handling of solid waste, Collection and disposal of scrap metals to the scrap
metals dealers.
(vi)Fire fighting equipment is in place and well placed, Personal protective gears are in
place and used.

21

(vii) Medical waste incinerator and dump.


(viii) Vetiver grass technology for protection of irrigation canals from soil erosion, drip
irrigation system at TPC
(ix) Proper record keeping and management of all materials.

22

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


5.1Conclusion
Basing on the treatment of effluent from the sugar industries in Tanzania, it seems that
the appropriate method for treatment of the effluent from sugar industries is known, that
is biological treatment by using waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP).The most challenging
problem is poor designing.
In trial to accomplish this assignment, we have come across to the WSPs of Mtibwa
Sugar and Kilombero Sugar Industries. It said that the design of both, did not follow the
designing Principles and hence un able to perform the intended work efficiently.
5.2 Recommendation
The Tanzania Government should reinforce law and strong Environment aiding to bind
the owners of industries that they must consult the appropriate environmental experts
especially Environmental Engineering experts redesigning the treatment facilities of
effluents from their industries so that environmental protection is enhanced
Although they are performing slightly good on this parts, but they should be emphasized
on the cleaner production to minimize cost and protect the environment and public health

REFERENCES
Frank Woodard (2001), Industrial Waste Treatment Handbook, Butterworth, Heinemann
(2001)
Karia G.L, Christian R.A (2006) Wastewater Treatment, Concept and Design Approach,
Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi
Magayane Machibya and Fredrick Mwanuzi (2006) International Journal of
Environmental Research and Public Health ISSN 1661-7827
http://www.crc.uri.edu
http://www.germanwatch.org/tw/zu-afr06.htm