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:
Enlarged
Well bore
Wellbore
Collapse
Stable
Wellbore
Rubble
Zones
Fracturing and
Ballooning
Tensile failure along the wellbore
circumference caused when shale
pore pressure exceeds hydrostatic
pressure of drilling fluid column.
Shear failure, occurring when
wellbore stresses receive insufficient
support from the mud weight. Can
be aggravated by changes in
well bore azimuth and inclination.
Well bore pressure prevents
formation fluid influx or well bore
collapse, and does not exceed
fracture pressure.
Stress-related failure of brittle rocks.
Often natural earth stress fields,
especially near salt bodies and
active fau Its.
Fractures open due to increased
pressure when circulating mud.
Fractures close when circulation
stops.
Call: 281.243.4300 Email: info@knowsys.com Visit: www.knowsys.com

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Splintered shale
'--._,,,, cuttings exhibit
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-' .--,"- : -: :
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.. _--
..

/ong, concave
shape.
WeI/bore
covings exhibit
non-paral/e1,
angular edges;
may appear
gouged,
Happy dril/er,
reduced risk
and costs.
WeI/bore cavings
are tabular with
paral/el surfaces.
r ....., .................'''. / .
1   . Drilling fluid
losses are
indicative of a
bal/ooning
weI/bore.
-....--.-..
......, ..... _ ....-
-_.-. -'-"-' ------_. ----------._ .. _ .
. _._. . ..
• Stop drilling and increase mud weight
• If cavings cannot be controlled, set
casing to avoid influx and/or stuck pipe
• Decrease ROP
• Increase flow rate
• Increase mud weight gradually until
cavings are sparse
• Maintain clean well bore
• Avoid swab and surge pressures
• Use real-time modeling to derive
optimum mud weight for borehole
stability
• Minimize changes in mud weight and
swab/surge pressures
• Avoid reaming and mechanical agitation
of rubble zone
• Monitor trips through destabilized zones
• Watch for avalanches and stuck pipe
until zone is cased
• Manage fracture growth by reducing
ECD and mud weight
• Locate fracture using time-lapse logging
• Minimize surge pressures on fracture
• Monitor and reduce the volume and t ime
trend of flow back
• Apply polymer or LCM to damaged interval
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