# Design of Earthing System…

v Purpose of earthing……
ü Safety of the living beings around the vicinty of the substation ü Proper functioning of the protection system under fault condition ü To limit the touch and step potential within tolerable limits

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Human Safety
Current Range Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø 1 mA 1-6 mA 9-25 mA 25-60 mA 60-100 mA Effects on Humans Threshold of perception Let go currents Pain full, hard to let go Muscular contractions Ventricular fibrilation

0,116
Maximum Body Current: Ik =

vt

for t = .03s to 3s

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Soil Resistivity Measurement
Wenner Four-Pin Method: Four probes are driven into the earth along a straight line, at equal distances ‘a’ apart , driven to a depth ‘b’. The voltage between the two inner (potential, V) electrodes is then measured and divided by the current between the two outer (current, I) electrodes to give a value of resistance R.

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Soil Resistivity Measurement
Then, 4πaR ρa = 1+ 2a √(a2+4b2) ______ a_ √(a2+b2)

where, ρa is the apparent resistivity of the soil in Ω-m R is the measured resistance in Ω a is the distance between adjacent electrodes in metres b is the depth of the electrodes in m

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Conductor Size Calculation…
The area of the conductor of earthing mat is given by: If . (tc.λr.ρr.104/Tcap) Ac2 = ln {1+ (Tm-Ta)/(K0+Ta)}
where, If is the symmetrical fault current in KA (rms), the maximum current that would flow in any section of the earthing system is the duration of fault current in sec.
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tc

Conductor Size Calculation…
λr
ρr Tcap Tr K0 Ta Tm is the co-efficient of linear expansion of the earthinging conductor is the resistivity of the earthing conductor in µΩ- cm at reference temperature, Tr is the thermal capacity factor of the earthing conductor in Joules/ cm2/ 0C is the reference temperature=200C = [(1/λr) - Tr] is the ambient temperature is the maximum allowable temperature for joints
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Calculation of resistance of the earthing grid
1 RG=ρ. + LM √(20xAe) 1 1+ 1+h√(20/Ae) 1

Where, Ae h LM is the area of the ground mat. is the depth of burried conductor is the length of the total buried conductor

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Calculation of tolerable touch potential…
Etouch = (1000+1.5xCsxρs ).(0.116/√ts) Estep = (1000+6.0xCsxρs ).(0.116/√ts)
Where,

ts
Cs

ρ ρs

is the duration of shock current & is the surface layer derating factor and is given by: 0.09 (1- ρ/ρs) Cs = 1 – 2hs+0.09 is the soil resistivity of the substation is the surface layer (gravel) resistivity

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Calculation of attainable touch potential…
The attainable touch (mesh) potential is calculated by the following expression;
Em = Where, Km Ki LM IG ρ. Km. Ki. IG LM

is the spacing factor for mesh voltage is the correction factor for grid geometry is the effective length of the burried earthing conductor is the maximum grid current
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Calculation of attainable step potential…
The attainable step potential is calculated by the following ρ. Ks. Ki. IG LS

Es =

Where, Ks is the spacing factor for step voltage Ki is the correction factor for grid geometry and LS is the effective length of LC+LR for step voltage in metres IG is the maximum grid current

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For Safe design…. Em<Etouch & Es<Estep
Etransfered(=IG.RG) should be within limit

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