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"PRYING9" --- AISC 9th ED.

PRYING ACTION ANALYSIS PROGRAM


Program Description:
"PRYING9" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis for prying action in
structural steel connections per the AISC 9th Edition (ASD) Code, pages 4-89 to 4-95. Specifically, bolt tension and
bolt shear are checked, and the prying force and required thickness are determined.
This program is a workbook consisting of three (3) worksheets, described as follows:

Worksheet Name

Description

Doc
Prying Action
Allowable Tension Force

This documentation sheet


Prying action analysis for connections per AISC 9th Edition (ASD) Manual
Allowable axial tension force at beam connection from bending due to prying

Program Assumptions and Limitations:


1. The Prying Action worksheet is valid for connections subjected to tension only, or to a combination of tension
and shear.
2. The Prying Action worksheet is only applicable for connection bolt diameters from 1/2 to 1-1/2
3. The Prying Action worksheet is only applicable for ASTM A325 or A490 high-strength connection bolts.
4. The Prying Action worksheet is applicable to connection bolts in bearing with threads included in shear plane
(N) or threads excluded from shear plane (X), as well as bolts in a slip critical connection (SC).
5. The Prying Action worksheet is applicable to connections with either standard or oversized bolt holes.
6. The Prying Action worksheet also takes fatigue effects into account when required to reduce the allowable bolt
tension stress.
7. The Allowable Tension Force worksheet has any applicable assumptions and limitations listed directly below
the tables of values.
8. This program contains numerous comment boxes which contain a wide variety of information including
explanations of input or output items, equations used, data tables, etc. (Note: presence of a comment box
is denoted by a red triangle in the upper right-hand corner of a cell. Merely move the mouse pointer to the
desired cell to view the contents of that particular "comment box".)

"PRYING9.xls" Program
Version 1.9

PRYING ACTION ANALYSIS


Job Name:
Job Number:

For Structural Steel Connections


Per AISC 9th Edition Manual (ASD) - Pages 4-89 to 4-95
Subject:
Originator:
Checker:

Input Data:
Total Tension Load, Tt =
53.70
Total Shear Load, Vt =
26.80
Steel Yield, Fy =
36
Bolt Diameter, db =
0.750
ASTM Bolt Desig. =
A325
Bolt Type (N, X, or SC) =
N
Bolt Hole Type = Standard
Tributary Length/Bolt, p =
4.500
Total No. of Bolts, Nb =
6
Width, bf = 8.5000
Thickness, t = 0.6250
Thickness, tw = 1.7500
Bolt Gage, g =
5.500
No. of Loading Cycles = 20000

bf/2=4.25
g/2=2.75
db=0.75

kips
kips
ksi

Q=2.94

in.

t=0.625

tw=1.75

in.

b'=1.5

T+Q=11.89
a'=1.875

bolts

b=1.875

in.
in.

a=1.5

M2

in.
in.
(for 25 years)

M1

Results:
2*T=17.9

Check Bolt Tension and Shear:


Ab = 0.4418 in.^2
vb =
4.47
kips/bolt
fv =
10.11 ksi
T=
8.95
kips/bolt
ft =
20.26 ksi
Tb =
28.00 kips
Fv =
21.00 ksi
Vb =
9.30
kips/bolt
Ft(w/o Shr.) =
44.00 ksi
Ft =
38.56 ksi
B=
17.00 kips/bolt

Ab = p*db^2/4
Nomenclature
vb = Vt/Nb
fv = vb/Ab
T = Tt/Nb
ft = T/Ab
Tb = Tb from AISC Table J3.7 (for A325 bolts)
Fv = Fv from AISC Table J3.2 (for N, X bolts)
Vb = Fv*Ab
Vb >= vb, O.K.
Ft = (Ft from Table J3.2, fatigue is not considered)
Ft = SQRT(Ft^2-(Ft/Fv)^2*fv^2) (for N, X bolts)
B = Ft*Ab (for N, X bolts)
B >= T, O.K.

Calculate Required Thickness:


b = 1.8750 in.
b' = 1.5000 in.
a = 1.5000 in.
a' = 1.8750 in.
r = 0.8000
d' = 0.8125 in.
d = 0.8194
b=
1.124
a' = 1.0000
t(req'd) =
0.604 in.

b = (g-tw)/2
b' = b-db/2
a = minimum of: (bf-g)/2 or 1.25*b
a' = a+db/2
r = b'/a'
d' = dh = db+1/16 (for Standard holes)
d = 1-d'/p
b = (1/r)*(B/T-1)
If b >= 1: a' = 1, If b < 1: a' = lesser of 1 or (1/d)*(b/(1-b))
t(req'd) = SQRT(8*T*b'/(p*Fy*(1+d*a')))
t >= t(req'd), O.K.
(continued)

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"PRYING9.xls" Program
Version 1.9

Calculate Prying Force, Q:


tc =
a=
Q=

1.122
0.851
2.94

in.
kips

tc = SQRT(8*B*b'/(p*Fy)) (to develop 'B' in bolts/no prying)


a = 1/d*((T/B)/(t/tc)^2-1) (Note: 0 <= a <= 1.0)
Q = B*d*a*r*(t/tc)^2 (prying force per bolt at design load)

Check Allowable Bolt Tension with Prying Action:


a' =
Ta =

1.5076
9.59

a' = 1/(d*(1+r))*((tc/t)^2-1)
If a' >1: Ta = B*(t/tc)^2*(1+d) , If a' < 0: Ta = B
If 0 <= a' <= 1: Ta = B*(t/tc)^2*(1+d*a')
Ta >= T, O.K.
Calculate Required Thickness to Eliminate Prying Action:
t(req'd) =

0.814

kips

in.

t(req'd) = SQRT(8*T*b'/(p*Fy))

Comments:

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"PRYING9.xls" Program
Version 1.9

PRYING ACTION ANALYSIS


Job Name:
Job Number:

Allowable Axial Tension Force at Beam End Connection


Based on Bending in Clip Angles or End Plate Due to Prying Action
Subject:
Originator:
Checker:

Input Data:
Steel Yield (Clips/Plate), Fy =
36
ksi
Bolt Diameter, db = 0.750 in.
ASTM Bolt Desig. = A325
Bolt Type (N, X, or SC) =
N
Bolt Hole Type = Standard
Tributary Length/Bolt, p = 2.750 in.
Bolt Gage, g = 5.500 in.

Beam
Size
(Depth)
W6
W8
W10
W12
W14
W16
W18

W21

W24

W27

W30

W33

W36

bf=8+tw
g=5.5

bf=8
g=5.5
t

Nr

Nr
3
3

Lc=4

tw

3
3

tw

For Clip Angles


For End Plate
5/16
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
1/2
5/8
3/4
1
ALLOWABLE AXIAL TENSION FORCE AT BEAM END CONNECTION (kips)
Beam # Bolt t = 5/16'' t = 3/8"
t = 1/2"
t = 5/8"
t = 3/4"
t = 1/2"
t = 5/8" t = 3/4" t = 1"
Web, tw Rows
Clip
Clip
Clip
Clip
Clip
End
End
End
End
(in.)
(Nr)
Angles
Angles
Angles
Angles
Angles
Plate
Plate
Plate
Plate
0.170
1
2.1
3.1
5.9
9.9
15.4
4.6
7.2
10.4
18.4
0.170
2
4.2
6.2
11.8
19.8
30.8
9.2
14.4
20.7
36.8
0.190
2
4.2
6.2
11.9
19.9
31.0
9.3
14.5
20.8
37.0
2
4.2
6.2
11.9
20.0
31.1
8.9
14.5
20.9
37.1
0.200
3
6.3
9.4
17.8
30.0
46.7
13.9
21.7
31.3
55.6
0.230
3
6.3
9.4
18.0
30.2
47.1
14.0
21.9
31.5
56.0
3
6.4
9.5
18.1
30.4
47.5
14.1
22.0
31.6
56.3
0.250
4
8.5
12.7
24.1
40.6
63.3
18.8
29.3
42.2
75.0
3
6.5
9.6
18.3
30.9
48.3
14.2
22.2
32.0
56.9
0.300
4
8.6
12.8
24.5
41.2
64.4
19.0
29.6
42.7
75.8
5
10.8
16.0
30.6
51.5
80.4
23.7
37.0
53.3
94.8
4
8.7
13.0
24.8
41.9
65.5
19.2
30.0
43.1
76.7
0.350
5
10.9
16.3
31.0
52.3
81.8
24.0
37.5
53.9
95.9
6
13.1
19.5
37.2
62.8
98.2
28.8
44.9
64.7
115.1
5
11.0
16.5
31.4
53.1
83.1
24.2
37.8
54.5
96.9
0.395
6
13.3
19.7
37.7
63.7
99.7
29.1
45.4
65.4
116.2
7
15.5
23.0
44.0
74.3
116.4
33.9
53.0
76.3
135.6
5
11.2
16.8
32.1
54.2
85.1
24.6
38.4
55.3
98.3
6
13.5
20.1
38.5
65.1
102.1
29.5
46.1
66.4
118.0
0.460
7
15.7
23.5
44.9
75.9
119.1
34.4
53.8
77.4
137.7
8
18.0
26.8
51.3
86.7
136.1
39.3
61.5
88.5
157.3
6
13.5
20.2
38.6
65.3
102.4
29.6
46.2
66.5
118.3
7
15.8
23.5
45.0
76.1
119.5
34.5
53.9
77.6
138.0
0.470
8
18.0
26.9
51.4
87.0
136.6
39.4
61.6
88.7
157.7
9
20.3
30.3
57.9
97.9
153.7
44.4
69.3
99.8
177.4
6
13.8
20.6
39.6
67.0
105.5
30.1
47.1
67.8
120.5
7
16.1
24.1
46.1
78.2
123.0
35.2
54.9
79.1
140.6
0.550
8
18.4
27.5
52.7
89.4
140.6
40.2
62.8
90.4
160.7
9
20.7
31.0
59.3
100.6
158.2
45.2
70.6
101.7
180.8
10
23.0
34.4
65.9
111.7
175.8
50.2
78.5
113.0
200.9
6
14.0
20.9
40.2
68.2
107.5
30.5
47.7
68.6
122.0
7
16.4
24.4
46.9
79.6
125.4
35.6
55.6
80.1
142.3
0.600
8
18.7
27.9
53.6
90.9
143.3
40.7
63.5
91.5
162.7
9
21.0
31.4
60.3
102.3
161.2
45.7
71.5
102.9
183.0
10
23.4
34.9
67.0
113.7
179.1
50.8
79.4
114.4
203.3

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"PRYING9.xls" Program
Version 1.9

Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Primary use of this table is to quickly determine if clip angles or end plate connection should be used.
For double-angle clips, this table assumes 2-L4x3-1/2 angles with long outstanding legs (OSL).
Total width for double-angle clip connection, bf = 2*4" + min. beam web thickness (tw) = 8"+tw.
Total width of end plate is assumed to be bf = 8".
This table is for axial tension force (transfer force at joint) only. Beam end shear is not considered.
Check of combined stresses on connection bolts must be done independently.
Forces shown in table are conservative, when based on use of minimum web thickness for given beam size (depth).
Forces shown in table are "unfactored", i.e., allowable stress increases for wind or seismic are not included.

Prying Action Analysis Formulas:


Nb = 2*Nr
bf = 2*(4" OSL)+tw , for clip angles
bf = 8" , for end plate
b = (g-(2*ta+tw))/2 , for clip angles
b = (g-tw)/2 , for end plate
b' = b-db/2
a = minimum of: (bf-g)/2 or 1.25*b
a' = a+db/2
r = b'/a'
B = 19.44 kips/bolt (for 0.75" A325N bolts)
d' = dh = 0.8125 (for Standard bolt holes)
d = 1-d'/p
tc = SQRT(8*B*b'/(p*Fy))
a' = 1/(d*(1+r))*((tc/t)^2-1)
Allowable axial tension force, T:
If a' > 1 , T = Nb*(B*(t/tc)^2*(1+d))
If 0 <= a' <= 1 , T = Nb*(B*(t/tc)^2*(1+d*a'))
If a' < 0 , T = Nb*B

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