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SOME NOTES IN ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

SEPARATION OF POWERS
How power of the govt allocated
Allocated among the 3 ranche! of the govt that are coe"#al
$eg%!lat%ve & ma'e( amend( and repeal law
E)ec#t%ve & enforce or %mplement the law
*#d%c%ar+ & con!tr#e and appl+ the law
,octr%ne of Separat%on of Power
Each dept of the govt ha! e)cl#!%ve cogn%-ance of matter! w%th%n %t! .#r%!d%ct%on
and !#preme w%th%n %t! !phere/ The power of each od+ cannot e e)erc%!ed +
the other( and the other od%e! have no overr#l%ng %nfl#ence or control over the
other/ 0It mean!1 NO EN2ROA2H3ENT on each od+4 therefore( each of them
%! independent/5
61 I! the !eparat%on of power a!ol#te7
A1 NO/
The a!ol#te and e)act del%m%tat%on of the 3 ranche! of the govt %! not
possible( otherw%!e %t wo#ld e impractical/
Therefore( the con!e"#ence %! 8$EN,IN9 OF POWERS :8OP;/
One dept cannot %gnore the act! of the other!( %t !ho#ld complement each
other! act!/
INSTAN2E OF 8OP
</ In ca!e of adm%n%!trat%ve agenc%e! :admv ag;( the+ are pr%mar%l+ w%th e)ec#t%ve
f#nct%on #t !omet%me! the+ are g%ven + law "#a!%=.#d%c%al power/
TEST OF >A$I, ,E$E9ATION OF POWER
</ 2ompletene!! te!t
?/ S#ff%c%enc+ of !tandard te!t
@T%acho v! Tan S+ A%o'( BC P DCD
@2ompan%a 9eneral de Toacco v! 2o#rt of P#l%c Et%l%t+ 2omm%!!%oner!( 3F P
<3D 0val%d delegat%on :completene!!;5
@ES v! Ang Tang Ho( F3 P <
3a%n %!!#e1 no def%n%t%on of e)traord%nar+ %ncrea!e4 left to the d%!cret%on of the
994 no penalt+ prov%ded %n law4 law doe! not pre!cr%e the e)tent of temporar+
appl%cat%on of RR to e prom#lgated + the 99/ Therefore, NO SUFFICIENT
STANDARD AND DELEATION OF LA!/
@People v! >era( DG P
@People v! Ro!enthal( *#ne <?( <C3C & H8l#e S'+ $awI4 I!!#e1 cancel !ec#r%t+
when p#l%c %ntere!t re"#%re!/ Wa! there a! !#ff%c%ent !tandard7 JES/ Rea!on1
"#blic interest is a s#fficient standard$
R#le on ,elegat%on of A#thor%t+
The delegate !ho#ld not e)tend h%! a#thor%t+4 otherw%!e the e)erc%!e of !#ch
a#thor%t+ ma+ e %nval%dated + the co#rt!/ 0 a! long a! the a#thor%t+ %! not
"#e!t%oned %t %! val%d5
@PAWE v! N$R2( <KD S FFF
@Ol!en L 2o v! Aldane!e( F3 P ?GC & ca!e where there wa! a law a#thor%-%ng a
!ecretar+ to cla!!%f+ toacco!/ He cla!!%f%ed a! !tandard tho!e that come from
certa%n prov%nce!/ S21 The Secretar+ a#!ed or e)ceeded h%! a#thor%t+
delegated to h%m/
Operat%on! of Adm%n%!trat%ve 8od%e! :refer to adm%n%!trat%ve proceed%ng!;
61 Are adm%n%!trat%ve reg#lat%on! %!!#ed w%tho#t a hear%ng %n v%olat%on of d#e
proce!!7
A1 It depend!/
If AR %! "#a!%=leg%!lat%ve %n nat#re hear%ng %! nece!!ar+ if the la% re&#ires,
other%ise, is NOT necessar'$
Hear%ng %! NE2ESSARJ %n the e)erc%!e of "#a!%=.#d%c%al power/
Adm%n%!trat%ve agenc%e! are NOT STRICTL( 8OEN, :#t %t %! !t%ll o#ndM; on
strict r#le! of ev%dence or proced#re a! long a! the f#ndamental and essential
re&#irements of d#e process are e)ercised or complied %ith$
2ard%nal Pr%mar+ R%ght! %n Adm%n%!trat%ve Proceed%ng!NRe"#%!%!te! for
Adm%n%!trat%ve ,#e Proce!! :B; 0'e+word1 HESS8IR5
</ R%ght to *earin+( %ncl#d%ng the r%ght to pre!ent one! ca#!e and !#m%t
ev%dence %n !#pport thereof/
?/ Tr%#nal m#!t con!%der the E,idence pre!ented/
3/ ,ec%!%on m#!t have !ometh%ng to S#pport %t!elf/
F/ Ev%dence m#!t e S#bstantial$
S#bstantial e,idence - %! !#ch relevant ev%dence a! a rea!onale m%nd m%ght
accept a! ade"#ate to !#pport a concl#!%on/
What %! relevant7
G/ The dec%!%on m#!t e .ased on the ev%dence pre!ented at the hear%ng or at
lea!t conta%ned %n the record and d%!clo!ed to the part%e! affected/
D/ The tr%#nal or od+ or an+ of %t! .#dge! m#!t act on %t! or h%! own
Independent con!%derat%on of the law and fact! of the controver!+ and not !%mpl+
accept the v%ew! of a !#ord%nate %n arr%v%ng at a dec%!%on/
B/ The 8oard or od+ !ho#ld( %n all controver!%al "#e!t%on!( Render %t! dec%!%on
%n !#ch a manner that the part%e! to the proceed%ng can 'now that var%o#! %!!#e!
%nvolved and the rea!on of the dec%!%on rendered/
@P%ct#re Wor'er! A!!oc%at%on v! Prem%er Prod#ct%on( Inc/( C? P OFF & %!!#e1 %!
approval of la+ off val%d7 Wa! there d#e proce!!7 S21 Even %f admv ag are NOT
STI2T$J o#nd( the f#ndamental re"#%rement! of d#e proce!! shall not be
i+nored/ HEARIN9 %! a re"#%rement of d#e proce!!/
2a!e! e)empted from Not%ce and Hear%ng :NH; %n Adm%n%!trat%ve $aw
</ ,%!tra%nt of propert+ of the del%n"#ent ta)pa+er/
?/ Prevent%ve !#!pen!%on of an off%cer or an emplo+ee pend%ng %nve!t%gat%on/
"re,enti,e s#spension & at the eg%nn%ng of the controver!+ the
competent a#thor%t+ ma+ !#!pend an emplo+ee for CK da+! !o that the+
w%ll not %nfl#ence the w%tne!!e!/
3/ Removal of an actin+ appointee or temporar+ appo%ntee 0def1 appo%ntment of
off%cer NOT "#al%f%ed #t %t %! NE2ESSARJ4 he ha! no !ec#r%t+ of ten#re5
@3ERA$2O v! 3ed%na( <F S G<K & P#l%c Serv%ce 2omm%!!%on approval of
3eralco #tP Iss#e/ Wa! the order of !#!pen!%on a!ed on the e) parte mot%on
val%d7 Wa! there d#e proce!!7 S21 Order of !#!pen!%on wa! not ,alid ec/ %t
wa! a!ed on e) parte mot%on and w%tho#t g%v%ng the part+ adver!el+ affected the
opport#n%t+ to oppo!e the !#!pen!%on and pre!ent h%! !%de to the "#e!t%on/ The
!#!pen!%on %! a v%olat%on or den%al of d#e proce!! wh%ch %! re"#%red + the
2on!t%tt#t%on/
2orrect%on of cler%cal error! %n the dec%!%on! %! allowed #t the Commission ha!
no r%ght or %! not allowed to chan+e s#bstantiall' the dec%!%on a! to pre.#d%ce a
part+ w%tho#t an+ hear%ng/
The mere fact that the dec%!%on doe! not conform to the ev%dence pre!ented
%! not a .#!t%f%cat%on for the amendment of the dec%!%on/
In the ca!e( the !#.ect amendment w%tho#t a hear%ng %! a v%olat%on of d#e
proce!!( therefore( %nval%d/
A con!tr#cted dam :pr%vate; wa! aated + the Prov Eng%neer and the
9overnor w%tho#t not%ce on the gro#nd that %t wa! a fert%le reed%ng place for
mo!"#%toe! :a n#%!ance;/ S#mmar' abatement$
61 Wa! the aatement val%d7
A1 NO/ The dam %! not a n#isance per se #t a n#isance per accidens/
In the aatement of n#isance per accidens( the a#thor%t+ !ho#ld re!ort to
co#rt/
RE$E1
N#%!ance per !e1 S#mmar+ aatement %itho#t not%ce
N#%!ance per acc%den!1 S#mmar+ aatement %ith notice and hearin+N .#d%c%al
re!ort( EN$ESS( a od+ %! a#thor%-ed to grant !#ch order/
61 2an +o# e&#ate adm%n%!trat%ve d#e proce!! w%th d#e proce!! %n the !tr%ct
.#d%c%al !en!e7
A1 NO/ Rea!on1 The !tandard d#e proce!! that m#!t e met %n adm%n%!trat%ve
tr%#nal allow! certa%n lat%t#de a! long a! the element of fa%rne!! %! not %gnored/
0admv ag not o#nd + !tr%ct r#le! on proced#re and ev%dence5
@Adam!on v! Amore! & de!p%te the a!ence of not%ce there %! !t%ll d#e proce!! %f
part%e! are g%ven the opport#n%t+ to e heard/ :In .#d%c%al d#e proce!!( strict -
there m#st be a hearin+;
R%ght aga%n!t !elf=%ncr%m%nat%on
R%ght aga%n!t !elf=%ncr%m%nat%on ma+ e %nvo'ed %n Adm%n%!trat%ve proceed%ng!/
@2aal v! Aap#nan( D S <KDF & a charge aga%n!t an adm%n%!trat%ve off%c%al for
#ne)pla%ned wealth :RA 3K<C;/ Iss#e/ 2an RASI e %nvo'ed7 When to %nvo'e
RASI7 S21 When +o# are called #pon to te!t%f+ a! a w%tne!!/ It can e wa%ved
when +o# vol#ntar%l+ appeared a! a w%tne!! and +o# w%ll e compelled to te!t%f+
on cro!!=e)am%nat%on/
N81 Jo# can %nvo'e RASI d#r%ng cro!!=e)am%nat%on a! !oon a! the %ncr%m%nat%ng
"#e!t%on %! profo#nded/
@Pa!c#al v! 8oard of 3ed%cal E)am%ner( ?O S 3FG
R#le on E)ha#!t%on of Adm%n%!trat%ve Remed+ :EAR;
Whenever there %! an ava%lale adm%n%!trat%ve remed+ prov%ded + law NO
.#d%c%al reco#r!e can e made #nt%l all !#ch remed%e! are ava%led of and
e)ha#!ted/
Rea!on! for EAR1
</ If rel%ef %! f%r!t !o#ght from a !#per%or admv ag re!ort to co#rt ma+ e
#nnece!!ar+/
?/ The admv ag !ho#ld e g%ven the chance to correct %t! error!/
3/ Pr%nc%ple of com%t+ and conven%ence re"#%re! the co#rt to STAJ the%r hand!
#nt%l the adm%n%!trat%ve proce!!e! are completed/
F/ S%nce *#d%c%al Rev%ew :*R; %! #!#all+ made thro#gh !pec%al c%v%l act%on !#ch
proceed%ng w%ll not normall+ pro!per %f there %! a pla%n( !peed+ and ade"#ate
remed+ %n the ord%nar+ co#r!e of law/ 0 one SPA remed+ %! EAR5
? 2orollar+ Pr%nc%ple! w%th EAR
</ Doctrine of Finalit' of Administrati,e Action & Hno re!ort to co#rt! w%ll e
allowed #nle!! the adm%n%!trat%ve act%on ha! een completed and there %! noth%ng
left to e done %n the adm%n%!trat%ve !tr#ct#re/I
?/ Doctrine of "rior Resort0Doctrine of "rimar' Administrati,e 1#risdiction &
Hwhere there %! competence or .#r%!d%ct%on ve!ted #pon an adm%n%!trat%ve od+ to
act #pon a matter( no re!ort to the co#rt! ma+ e made efore !#ch
adm%n%!trat%ve od+ !hall have acted #pon the matter/I
@Reg%onal ,%rector & Reg%on B v! 2A( 9R Q <<K<C3( *an <B( <CCG
Effect of fa%l#re to e)ha#!t%on adm%n%!trat%ve remed%e!
lo!! of ca#!e of act%on4 the other part+ ma+ move to d%!m%!! +o#r ca!e for lac'
of ca#!e of act%on for fa%l#re to e)ha#!t adm%n%!trat%ve remed%e!/
E)cept%on! to the ,octr%ne of EAR
</ Doctrine of 2#alified "olitical A+enc' 3or Alter E+o Doctrine4 & Hall e)ec#t%ve
and adm%n%!trat%ve organ%-at%on! are ad.#nct! of the e)ec#t%ve department/ The
head! of var%o#! e)ec#t%ve department! are a!!%!tant! and agent! of the 2h%ef
E)ec#t%ve( and e)cept where the 2h%ef E)ec#t%ve %! re"#%red + the 2on!t%t#t%on
or + law to act %n per!on or when the e)%genc%e! of the !%t#at%on demand that he
act! per!onall+( the m#lt%far%o#! e)ec#t%ve and adm%n%!trat%ve f#nct%on! of the
2h%ef E)ec#t%ve are performed + and thro#gh the e)ec#t%ve department/ And the
act! of !ecretar%e! of !#ch department! performed and prom#lgated %n the
reg#lar co#r!e of #!%ne!! are( #nle!! d%!approved or reformatted + the 2h%ef
E)ec#t%ve( pres#mpti,el' the acts of the Chief E)ec#ti,e/ 0He can delegate h%!
power to h%! !ecretar+ ec/ of h%! m#lt%far%o#! act!5
E)cept%on to ,6PA :therefore( EAR %! re"#%red;
</ Where the law e)pre!!l+ prov%de! for EAR/
?/ Where the appeal had alread+ een made to the Pre!%dent efore the
Pre!%dent co#ld act the appeal wa! w%thdrawn/
E)ception/ When the w%thdrawal wa! a!ed on the Pre!%dent!
fa%l#re to act/ :therefore( w%thdrawal %! .#!t%f%ed;
?/ Where the adm%n%!trat%ve remed+ %! fr#%tle!!/
3/ Where there %! ESTOPPE$ on the part of the adm%n%!trat%ve agenc+/
F/ Where the %!!#e %nvolved %! p#rel+ a legal "#e!t%on :%e/ It %nvolve!
%nterpretat%on or con!tr#ct%on of law and %t! appl%cat%on;
G/ Where the adm%n%!trat%ve act%on %! patentl+ %llegal amo#nt%ng to lac' or e)ce!!
of .#r%!d%ct%on/
@2aada v! Al#nan( ?DK S O3O
D/ Where there %! #nrea!onale dela+ or off%c%al %nact%on/ :eg/ W%thdrawal of
act%on ec/ of Pre!%dent! fa%l#re to act w%th%n a rea!onale t%me;
B/ Where there %! %rreparale %n.#r+ or threat thereof( #nless .#d%c%al reco#r!e %!
%mmed%atel+ made/
@de $ara v! 2lor%el( <F S ?DC
O/ In land ca!e!( where the !#.ect matter %! a pr%vate land/
C/ When the law doe! not ma'e EAR a cond%t%on precedent to .#d%c%al reco#r!e/
<K/ Where the o!ervance of the doctr%ne w%ll re!#lt to the n#ll%f%cat%on of the
cla%m/
<</ Where there are !pec%al rea!on! or c%rc#m!tance! demand%ng %mmed%ate
act%on/
<?/ When d#e proce!! %! clearl+ v%olated/
@6#%!#m%ng v! *#dge ( <C3 S G?K
*#d%c%al Rev%ew of Adm%n%!trat%ve ,ec%!%on
RE$E1 H E)cept when the 2on!t%t#t%on re"#%re! or allow %t( .#d%c%al rev%ew :*R;
ma+ e granted or w%thheld a! 2ongre!! choo!e!/I
0The law ma+ declare that an adm%n%!trat%ve dec%!%on %! f%nal and rev%ewale5
8a!e! of *#d%c%al Rev%ew
</ 2on!t%t#t%on
?/ Stat#te
3/ 9eneral Pr%nc%ple! of $aw & Hthere %! an #nderl+%ng power %n the co#rt! to
!cr#t%n%-e the act! of adm%n%!trat%ve agenc%e! on "#e!t%on! of law and .#r%!d%ct%on
altho#gh no r%ght of rev%ew %! g%ven + the !tat#te!/ Th%! %! de!%gned to 'eep the
adm%n%!trat%ve agenc%e! w%th%n the%r .#r%!d%ct%on and protect !#!tant%al r%ght! of
the part%e! affected/ It %! part of the !+!tem of chec'! and alance! wh%ch
re!tr%ct! the !eparat%on of power! and fore!tall! ar%trar+ and #n.#!t
ad.#d%cat%on/I
3ethod! of Ota%n%ng *RN2la!!e! of *R
</ Stat#tor+ or Non=!tat#tor+
Stat#tor' & when law e)pre!!l+ prov%de! that there %! *R/
Non5stat#tor' & when no e)pre!! prov%!%on of !tat#te! #t rel%ef ma+ e
ota%ned + mean! of common law remed%e! or + prerogat%ve wr%t!/
?/ ,%rect or 2ollateral
Direct & +o# are "#e!t%on%ng the adm%n%!trat%ve act%on %n !#!e"#ent
proceed%ng/ :eg/ $ac' of .#r%!d%ct%on or grave a#!e of d%!cret%on;/ The
n#ll%f%cat%on of the adm%n%!trat%ve act%on %t!elf %! the 66667AIN ISSUE/
Collateral & rel%ef %! !o#ght from adm%n%!trat%ve act%on %n a proceed%ng the
pr%mar+ p#rpo!e %! !ome rel%ef other that !ett%ng a!%de of the .#dgment/ The
%!!#e of adm%n%!trat%ve act%on %! INCIDENTAL ISSUE/
61 What co#rt ha! .#r%!d%ct%on of *R of adm%n%!trat%ve act%on7
A1 Ender R#le F3 of the R#le! on 2%v%l Proced#re( the 2A ha! appellate
.#r%!d%ct%on over dec%!%on! of 2TA and f%nal order! or re!ol#t%on! made +
agenc%e! e)erc%!%ng "#a!%=.#d%c%al f#nct%on!/
S#.ect! of *R
</ 6#e!t%on! of FA2TS
S#bstantial e,idence r#le & fact#al f%nd%ng! of adm%n%!trat%ve agenc%e! are
generall+ concl#!%ve #pon the co#rt! %f !#pported + !#!tant%al ev%dence( th#!
co#rt! are precl#ded %n f%nd%ng #pon the "#e!t%on of fact!/
E)ceptions/
</ When e)pre!!l+ allowed + !tat#te!
?/ In ca!e of fra#d( %mpo!%t%on or m%!ta'e other than error of .#dgment %n
eval#at%ng the ev%dence/
3/ Error %n the apprec%at%on of the plead%ng! and %nterpretat%on of
doc#mentar+ ev%dence! pre!ented + the part%e!/
FR Appl%cat%on of 8RAN,EIS ,octr%ne :%nfra;
?/ 6#e!t%on! of $AW & %nvolve! %nterpretat%on and con!tr#ct%on of law and %t!
appl%cat%on/
3/ 3%)ed "#e!t%on FA2T and $AW
.RANDEIS Doctrine of assimilation of facts & Hwhere what p#rport! to e a
f%nd%ng #pon a "#e!t%on of fact %! so in,ol,ed %ith and dependent #pon a
&#estion of la% a! to e %n !#!tance and effect a dec%!%on on the latter :%e/
6#e!t%on of law; the co#rt w%ll( %n order to dec%de the legal "#e!t%on( e)am%ne the
ent%re record %ncl#d%ng the ev%dence( %f nece!!ar+/
9#%del%ne! %n the e)erc%!e of *R
</ It %! not for the rece%v%ng co#rt to we%gh the confl%ct%ng ev%dence( determ%ne
cred%%l%t+ of w%tne!!e!( or !#!t%t#te .#dgment on !#ff%c%enc+ of ev%dence/ 0N8 1
the!e are f%nd%ng! of fact! and the co#rt !hall not loo' %nto th%! th%ng!5
61 I! *#d%c%al Rev%ew are trial de no,o8
A1 NO/ *R %! merel+ an a!certa%nment of whether or not the f%nd%ng of the
adm%n%!trat%ve agenc%e! are con!%!tent w%th the law free from fra#d and
%mpo!%t%on and !#pported + ev%dence/
Re! *#d%cata
61 I! there R* %n Adm%n%!trat%ve dec%!%on!7
A1 JES/ :I!mael v! ,ep#t+ Secretar+ & S21 ,ec%!%on! and order! of
adm%n%!trat%ve agenc%e! have #pon the%r f%nal%t+ the force and %nd%ng of a f%nal
.#dgment w%th%n the p#rv%ew of R*/ The!e dec%!%on! and order! are concl#!%ve
#pon the r%ght! of the affected part%e! a! tho#gh the !ame had een rendered +
a co#rt of general .#r%!d%ct%on/ The r#le on R* th#! for%d! the reopen%ng of a
matter once determ%ned + competent a#thor%t+ w%th%n the%r e)cl#!%ve
.#r%!d%ct%on;/
R* appl%e! to adver!ar%al :%e/ ? oppo!%ng part%e! w%th ? oppo!%ng cla%m!;
adm%n%!trat%ve proceed%ng/
N81 R* appl%e! onl+ when adm%n%!trat%ve agenc%e! e)erc%!e &#asi59#dicial
f#nct%on/
E)ception/ %n "#e!t%on on c%t%-en!h%p/
@E)ception/ :!o( R* appl%e!;
</ 6#e!t%on of c%t%-en!h%p %! the mater%al %!!#e to the controver!+
and re!olved after a f#ll=lown hear%ng/
?/ Hear%ng %! w%th the act%ve part%c%pat%on of the Sol%c%tor 9eneral/
3/ F%nd%ng! %! aff%rmed + the S#preme 2o#rt/

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