Turkish words and ways.

İnroduction This little book is to help you to get to grips not only with the spoken language but also the the subliminal language that is part of any culture. Sometimes gestures body language facial grimaces that accompany words can give more meaning than the word itself. And you will learn Turkish has more than its fair share of such nuances. The task you are setting yourself in learning Turkish will frustrate infuriate and fascinate you. For the level of competence you are seeking , from basic phrases to a deeper understanding of the grammar İ hope you will find inspiration and encouragement in these pages. First chapter……………………………………bölüm bir There is no escaping it you will have to learn the alphabet,but the great thing is that there is only one sound for each letter.. Unlike English ,Turkish is phonetic and unlike many other languages it is relatively easy to pronounce.
This is for those who are just starting to learn Turkish and are daunted by what seems an impossible language to get to grips with. if you want to learn just for holidays then all you need is a good phrase book. if you intend living in Turkey or spending a lot of time here then you have to tackle at least some of the grammar. there are some good books on the market..some promise that you can learn in three months...hah..don't believe them!! there are also a few sites on the web which you can find with a Google search. BUTTTT doesn't matter how good a site or a book is..the work comes from you and your motivation. İ promise once you get the basics you will get addicted to learning this fascinating language...İ hope you will give me some feed back.. i rely on it to know if you understand my explanations.. Ok lets go. Unique to Turkish is; 1.The way in which the vowel sounds fit in with each other. Known as vowel harmony 2.The way that some consonants change to keep the sound smooth. Known as consonant mutation 3.The way that letters are added to the end of words to give the meaning . These are called suffixes. 4.There is no gender in Turkish..he/she/it are all the same.

Lets start off with the alphabet. There are 29 letters..21 consonants and 8 vowels.Each letter has just one sound. There is no Q-W-X.....which explains why sex is spelt seks..and sexy..seksi

The consonants B-D-F-G-K-L-M-N-P-S-T-Y-Z..are more or less as we pronounce them. b-c-ç-d-f-g--k-l-m-n-p-s-t-y-z Cc-Çç-Ğğ-Hh-Şş-Vv.. are as follows C as in Judge....Cuma..say it juma..Friday Ç as in Chair .....çarşamba..char sham ba..wednesday Ğ is hardly heard..ağır..agh-ır..heavy..but there is a sound there! H is always pronounced. ..pa-hah-lı..expensive Ş as in Shut...şubat shoo bat february. V is almost a W sound...tuvalet..too wah let..toilet.. there are 8 vowels in 2 groups..a-ı-o-u.....e-i-ö-ü AIOU sound comes from the back of the throat EİÖÜ sound comes from the front of the mouth. A .always flat and short..Apple....adam..ad..am..man E as in egg....evet..ev et..yes. I..undotted..as in ill..ılık..ıll ıck..warm İ dotted...as in eel..iyi..ee yee...good O undotted..as in ok....ocak..o jack..january. Ö dotted as in twerp/slurp...öp..urp...kiss. U undotted as in under ucuz uh ju z cheap u back of the mouth. Ü dotted.as in glue.... üç ooch three...ü front of the mouth. There is very little stress on words. Every letter is said..so get practicing your RRRs and pay attention to the ends of words..you MUST get these right...this is where the meaning lies. ok lets get going with a few common words şeker...shecker..sugar süt....soot..........milk çay chay....tea. tuz..salt peynir pay..neer...cheese...(pay that rhymes with day) sandviç.. sand..wee..tch sandwich yemek..food para ...money now lets add on some bits and pieces to the ends the suffix Li means with or containing so tea with sugar is ''Şeker+li çay..şekerli çay..sugary/sweet tea. şekerli çay istiyorum..i want sweet tea. tea with milk is süt+lü çay...sütlü çay...milk with..tea. sütlü çay istiyorum..i want tea with milk. salty food

yemek tuzlu ..salty food yemek tuzlu seviyorum..i love salty food cheese sandwich peynir+li sandviç peynirli sanviç var mı? ..is there cheese sandviç? para+lı paralı para luh...no eee sound!!...it means with money.. paralı giriş....entry with money..pay to enter. lets try the same words with SİZ on the end SİZ means without. Şekersiz without sugar... şekerli..with sugar Sütsüz.. without milk sütlü with milk Tuzsuz without salt... tuzlu with salt Peynirsiz..without cheese.. peynirli with cheese. Parasız.. without money paralı.. with money. The suffix Lİ is also used to say where you are from Nerelisiniz...or just nereli?..where are you from? Bodrumlu..from Bodrum Marmarisli.from Marmaris. İstanbullu..from İstanbul Alanyalı..from Alanya. look at the above endings..its your first intro. to vowel harmony Lİ..LÜ....SİZ..SÜZ. LI..LU SIZ...SUZ.. Don't worry too much about the vowel harmony at this stage..but always bear it in mind....its there to keep the language sound smooth. the next ending to learn is DE/DA (TE/TA..after certain letters..ive used Marmaris as an eg...but its not too important just yet) this means either 'in on at' araba is car araba+da......in car ev is house.. ev+de..in house Marmaris'TE...İn Marmaris..(its TE) Bodrum'DA İn Bodrum The DE follows after dotted vowels EİÖÜ The DA follows after undotted vowels AIOU next try DEN/DAN..this means from or via. ev+den..from the house araba+dan from the car.. Marmaris'TEN..from Marmaris...(its Ten) Bodrum'DAN....From Bodrum The next one to learn with these is E/A..this means ...to into onto this one can also be YE/YA..the Y is used if the last letter of the word is a vowel as in the first example

araba-y-a.. to the car ev+e .. to the house Marmaris'E. . to Marmaris Bodrum'A.. to Bodrum Alanya'YA. to Alanya Fethiye'YE.. to Fethiye why do we need a Y in araba-y-a...its because vowels dont come in pairs as they do in english such as..ea..ie..ai ou..ua..etc..this can't be in Turkish.. therefore if a word ending in a vowel needs a suffix a buffer letter is used.. There are three buffer letters S.Y.N.i will explain these fully another time..they are not too bad to understand.. thats enough for now. next time we will make some basic sentences using the above suffixes.

2nd chapter ikinci bölüm
2nd - more for new learners..personal endings

lets do some more basic stuff. this time looking at personal endings which are fixed to the ends of words Note that there is no gender in Turkish..he she it and his/her/its all share the same words also there are two forms of 'you' one is for familiar.and one is for formal or respect. The endings are in two broad categories 1.the ones that show belonging....my -your- his -her -its -our -their 2.the ones that show condition..such as ill, rich, poor,old, tired etc..and also action(verbs) such as come go walk eat love etc...İ- you/you - he she it -we- they These are the possessive endings....my-- your/your-- hisher- its- our- their lets use house and car...to demonstrate possessive endings. a dotted vowel...EV..udotted ARABA ev...house ev+im ... my house..... evimiz ..our house ev+in.. your house. familiar ev+iniz .. your house formal ev+i..his her its house ev+leri their house. neredesin?..where are you? Ev+ De in house.at home. (we did DE/DA before)

araba+m.. my car.. araba+mız..our car araba+n.. your car familiar araba+nız formal araba +S-ı..his/her/its car...(explanation below) araba+ları.. their car he she it -ending is İ (or-Ü-I-U) ev+i his house. arabA- S+I...his car..the S is a buffer letter to keep the vowels apart. this buffer letter S is only ever used for ..his/her/its when the word ends in vowel İ know this is a lot to take in ..but take a big breath as i'm going straight on with the other personal endings..so you can be aware of them together....they don't look or sound much different. Take it all in your stride. the other category of personal endings is ... İ am.. you are/you are ..he/she/it is..we are they are. OR.according to the verb tense.İ-you-he-she-it-we-they. Their endings are very similar to the previous group but they are added to nouns to show state or condition..and also importantly to verbs to show who's doing what. Here then are two nouns..beautiful and ill güzel+İM .i am beautiful. hastA+YIM....i am ill..note the Y güzel+SİN/SİNİZ. you are beautiful hasta +SINIZ..you are ill güzel+DİR..he/she/it is beautiful hasta+DIR.. he/she/it is ill güzel+İZ..we are beautiful hastA+YIZ .. we are ill..note the Y güzel+DİR-(LER not always used) hasta+DİR-LAR (not always used)and also these are added to the ends of verbs....but i will do these next. I don't want to give you too much. here's a simple sentence putting together..house.+.our+ the suffix for in+ i am...bear in mind its just for an example.. neredesin?..where are you? ev+imiz+de+yim.....house our in i am. EV- house İMİZ..our..personal possessive ending DE....in (on/at) Y-İM..i am..personal verbal ending. evimizdeyim

thats just a simple way to show how endings make a phrase into one word. (but more usually you would just say it.. evdeyim....i'm at home)ev-de-yim

Chqpter 3.üçünçü bölüm
basic 3 this is about THE...in fact there is no THE in Turkish İn english THE is called the definite article A or AN are indefinite articles. İn turkish the definite article is a suffix or ending which is used in a sentence and shows the object of the sentence...making it the direct object. Getting to grips with this is one of the hardest parts for new learners..but if you take it in early on you will be ok. BUT DON'T WORRY THİS ONE İS *****a stinker. the suffix like all suffixes is harmony related..so get over it!! its İ-Ü..I-U..after words that end in a consonant after a word that ends in a vowel it takes a Y or an N as a buffer between the vowels. there are three buffer letters S -Y-N S is used only with the 3rd person singular..ie. he/she/it..and I explained it with the personal endings..so have a look! Y is used with a noun that hasn't or isnt taking any other endings..as in the examples below N is a bit more difficult and once you are ok with Y we will look at the extended endings which do away with the Y and use N..and frighten the life out of you when you first come across them lets look first at a basic english sentence..(forgive me if its too simple..its for my benefit to put it across) the man painted the car.. the man is the subject painted is the verb what did the man paint..the car the car is the object. this in turkish is Adam arabayı boyadı araba is taking THE as a direct object araba-Y-I the Y is a buffer letter..the direct object ending is I the man painted THE car..not any old car..THE car..araba-y-I lets look at another example Jane read the book Jane kıtabı okurdu kitap..is book..kitabı the book.. don't worry about the P to B change at this stage..its really to avoid a hard sound Jane read MY book Jane kitabımı.okurdu kitab+ım..my book..and my book is still the verb's object..therefore still takes the direct object suffix...hence

kitab+ım+ı Here's another Gary bira içti Gary drank beer Gary birayı içti Gary drank THE beer. (tchTch) and another..and using the indefinite article A or AN plus the ending for in/on/at..DE/DA SokakTA bir araba var..its Ta not Da for the sound. street in A car there is..no ending needed. var means there is..and you will hear it a lot and yet another Sende para var mı?.. on you is there money..have you any money? Sen+DE you+ in /on/at ending..making sende..on you and then this one using THE money. 'Parayı aldın mı ? 'did you take the money.?' Mİ is the question marker..if you hear it you know you are being asked a question.? ask anything you're not clear about..but really this is a strange concept for english speakers...and a great feeling when you finally say AAH! now i get it!. yes..ive been busy cos i might be off line..for a day or two..might not ..so i may inundate you with stuff ..sorry yusufs sister had a baby before xmas..and now she's been diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis..terrible..she's only 34.. so we are a bit upside down..doing this helps me to keep my mind off it 'til we know more.

Chapter 4 ..dörtüncü bölüm

4th basic for new learners well after kicking off these basic bits and pieces with some grammar lets relax a bit with some everyday words. we've done ABC..now look at some numbers..and ways to use them Turkish children love to show you how they can count to 10 in english. So lets show them we can do it in Turkish its a good way to get sounds right. bir 1.. bee rrr.. get your tongue into gear with those RRRs bir is also used for a or an.. iki 2 eekee.....iki çay 2 teas üç 3 ootch üç nescafe 3 nescafe dört 4. . dirt dört kedi 4 cats. say it short & with the R & T well pronounced beş 5 besh.. beş köpek 5 dogs altı 6 altuh altı kişi 6 people yedi 7 yed ee yedi çocuk 7 children

sekiz 8.. sek eez sekiz ev 8 houses dokuz 9 dokuz masa 9 tables on 10 on kız 10 girls To make things plural you add LER or LAR..BUT when you put a number with the noun it stays singular. eg. beş kedi var...there are 5 cats çok kediLER var..there are a lot of cats here are some words that go with numbers.. you may be asked how many of something you want 'how many?' 'Kaç tane?' and you can say 'iki tane'..or 'üç tane'..or however many numbers you want Kaç means 'how many' Tane..ta-ne..means item or piece. 'iki tane ekmek'..two loaves. hangisi? means 'which one?' 'hangisi istiyorsun? which one do you want? heres a good practice for vowel harmony..not quite basic but good for understanding how things work with the harmony add on one of these ending ...- inci -üncü- ıncı -uncu to make cardinal numbers (is that right cardinal ? cos i'm hopeless with numbers) bir+inci..and you get 1st..beer een jee ikinci..2nd.. ee-kin-jee üç/üncü 3rd ootch oon ju dörd/üncü..the T goes to D. 4th durd un ju beş/inci 5th besh een jee alt/ıncı 6th alt un j yed/inci 7th yed een jee sekiz/inci 8th sekiz eenjee dokuz/uncu 9th dok uz un ju on/uncu 10th E or İ are followed by inci 1st 2nd 5th 7th 8th Ö or Ü are followed by üncü..3rd 4th A or I are followed by ıncı 6th O or U are followed by uncu 9th 10th ''Hangi kat? which floor? 'üçüncü kat' third floor heres the week days hafta week

hafta sonu weekend...... and for those into grammar..son+u SON (last) with the possessive end U pazartesi monday.. pazar tes ee salı tuesday saluh çarşamba wedneday char şham ba perşembe thursday pear şem be cuma friday juma cumartesi saturday jumar tes ee there we are thenn...get cracking

and NONE of this

5th basic for new learners basic 5 is about question words. we all need to ask for something or somewhere or someone at some time or another. So here are a few question words...and some endings to use with them. Some of them you will know and some of you who are really starting off might find it a bit hard..but keep at it and remember to always look at the word ends..and start to recognize when its a suffix...and what it means. kaç? this means how much..or how many Kaç para how much(money) Kaç tane ? how many? Saat kaç..say it katch what's the time? Saat kaçTA at what time...using the ending for in/on/at..DE/DA..(here its TA for harmony) [B]NE ? [/B] means what? Ne var? whats there.? and also used to ask what's wrong? Ne oldu?.whats up .. whats the matter...say it knowldu Ne demek? what does it this mean demek is one of the verbs for 'to say' if you want to ask what something means say 'Bu ne demek'.what does this mean ne diyor..what did he say?....again diyor is from the verb demek . Ne kadar..how much ''Bir kilo ne kadar' how much a kilo

Bunlar ne kadar.. say it necka dar how much are these Şunlar ne kadar how much are those here are three ways to ask why? you can use any one Ne+DEN..neden..why..what from Ne+İÇİN. niçin..what for..neecheen NİYE..why nee ye now look at NE+RE means 'what place' NERE and lets add some bits on to give different meanings. DE/DA on the end of a word means İN or AT or ON Nere+de...nerede...say it nerrde NEREDE..where at. Neredesin? where are you Evdeyim.. i'm at home..ev+de+y-im..buffer Y Neredesin.?. otobüsdeyim...i'm in the bus neredesin[/B[B]]?.. bankadayım..i'm in the bank..note change in the harmony now add DEN to nere NEREDEN..where from? Bu nereden aldın? where from did you take/buy this Metro'DAN aldım 'Nescafe nereden aldın.?' where did you get the nescafe from? Bims'den aldım.(Bims is a cheap shop bit like kwiksave or aldis..great value) add the suffix for TO which is E (orA) NERE-Y-E.. buffer Y nereye..where to Nereye gidiyorsun? where to are you going. and the suffix Lİ...means where are you from? nereli..? or nerelisiniz.? londralı-y-ım i am from London..or wherever..just add Lİ on the end...with the right harmony of course!!!

Hangi means which hangi otele gidiyorsunuz? which hotel to going are you note the suffix E for TO on the end of Otel Hangi+S+İ hangisi means which 'hangisi istersiniz which one do you want?

Nasıl means how nasılsınız..how are you..as i'm sure you all know nasıl gidiyor..how's it going.? nasıl geleceksen..how will you come.? Bu nasıl..whats this like Alanya nasıl?..Türkiye nasıl?... Bodrum nasıl..güzel mi? How's..Bodrum..is it beautiful... meaning how is the place şu nasıl..iyi mi? Chapter 6
the last time no.5 we looked at question words one in particular was Ne+Re .meaning 'what place?' NEREDE said .. nerrde..where at?...literally -what place at Ne+Re+DEN..where from? literally- what place from NE+Re+YE..where to? literally -what place to do you remember? these same endings can be fixed onto the following words BU..means this ŞU..means that O means that remotely. BU+RA..... BU takes RA for harmony..NE took RE..RE/RA signifies 'place' BU+RA+DA .. this place..İN or ON or AT here say it burrda Burada oturuyorum...i am living here this place in live I Fethiye'DE oturuyorum..i live in Fethiye Fethiye in living am I otur-uyor-um..living am i otur (verb) means to sit..but is also used for 'to reside' BURA+DAN say it buRRdan buradan..from here buradan yeni giysi aldım from here new clothes i bought yeni is new giysi is clothes..gee see..hard G aldım i bought..its a verb

we haven't looked at verbs yet..calm down..they're coming BURA+Y+A ..the Y is a buffer Buraya here..to here.. Buraya gel...come here! (usually said with extreme irritation to bad kids) Burada Şurada..here and there ŞU takes exactly the same ends.. ŞURA....that place..there şuraDA..in that place..at that place.in there .at there ..shurrda ŞuraDAN from that place..shurdan Şura+Y+A..to that place..shuraya Telefon şuraya götür.. Take the telephone over to there

O+RA..over there..also takes the same endings orada..in that place orada (ingiltere) güzel bir yer. over there it is a beautiful place. oradan geldiler... over there from came they they came from over there geldiler a verb..yes i know .we havent done them yet..keep cool..we'll get there.

these three also take plural ends Buraları these places Şuraları those places Oraları those places thereabouts and also the possessive pronoun for he/she/it Go back and find it..its on the Basic 2....personal possessive endings. the ending can be either one of these..İ-Ü-I-U..or buffered by S when following a vowel buraSI.. this place... buraSI çok sıcak..this place is very hot. ŞuraSI that place Orası that place..remote. the S buffer letter is only used for his/her/its & when following a vowel. but i think that this suffix needs more explaining..so we will leave it for now.. and i think thats enough of here and there and this and that..just for now...

7th basic about present tense verbs this ones long..sorry..and maybe a bit oof but you are going to have to understand how verbs are put together...takes some doing at the start so i'm going to use just four verbs in the present tense as an introduction... There is a lot to learning the verbs but take it slow and get a good understanding of the terms used at each stage before going to the next..When you come across a word that looks LOOOng..don't give up..break it down into two or three syllables and say it out loud We said a bit about harmony..how vowel sounds.(and consonants.).have to agree with each other to give the language a smooth sound....(yes we did..have a look back at basic 4..numbers) thats all it is there for ..smoothness...so if you get the sound wrong don't worry ..we love the way some foreigners sound cute in english..don't we..well so do the Turks love our stumbling efforts...we sound cute...sevimle.. Get yourself a cuppa..settle down..its going to take a bit to get through. İve chosen for the E group harmony(EİÖÜ) BİLMEK to know YÜRÜMEK..to walk and A group harmony (AIOU) KALMAK..to stay and also to remain. OTURMAK..to sit and also to reside take off MEK or MAK to get the verb root BİL..YÜRÜ..KAL..OTUR... The present tense sign is İ-YOR...YOR is always the same..but the first vowel changes to follow the root vowel....you will see as we go on. add the tense sign to the root BİL-İ-YOR... BİLİYOR.... am knowing.....İ follows E or İ YÜR-Ü-YOR..YÜRÜYOR. am walking Ü follows Ü or Ö KAL-I-YOR..KALIYOR.. am staying....I follows A or I OTUR-U-YOR...OTURUYOR... am sitting U follows U or O Can you see the rules of the harmony. The present tense personal endings are now added on and these are ALWAYS the same in this tense. UM-i- UZ-we.. SUN..you..SUNUZ you...LAR they BİLİYOR-UM..i know....BİLİYORUZ we know BİLİYORSUN.. you know..BİLİYORSUNUZ..you formal.. bi-li-yor-sun-uz

BİLİYOR..he/she/it BİLİYORLAR they know YÜRÜYOR+UM..i am walking..youRR-ou-yoR-um.. KALIYOR+UM. .i am staying OTURUYOR+UM..i am sitting..ot-ur-u-yor-um and that's (almost) all there is to forming the present tense of any verb.We will have a go at verbs where the consonant sound changes ..and ye-mek and de-mek...as we progress...they're not hard. you can stop there..or continue to the negative form to make them negative..add M-ME-MA after the root..and the pronoun as the above examples. BİL-M- İYOR don't know..bilmiyorum..bil-mee-yor-um YÜRÜ-M-ÜYOR don't walk yourr-ou-mee-yor um..i'm not walking. KALMIYOR don't stay..kal-mee-yor-um..i am not staying. OTURMUYOR don't sit.. ot-urr-mee-yor-um..i'm not sitting(or residing) and if you still want more here's the question form used to ask a question without using a question word (like the ones we did in basic 5th) the form is like this..the question marker is Mİ-MÜ-MI-MU depending on what last vowel its following. But the question marker for ALL verbs in the present tense is MU..why..because its following İYOR and as we saw above in the harmony rules O or U is followed by U MU is after the root+tense and the pronouns are added to MU MUyUM...MUSUN/MUSUNUZ MU MUyUZ LAR is the exception and is followed by MI you can see it best in examples BİLİYOR MU-Y- UM..am i knowing..do i know..the Y is a buffer between the vowels. BİLİYOR MU/SUN..are you knowing..do you know.. or MU/SUNUZ BİLİYOR MU.. is he she it knowing does he know BİLİYOR MU-Y-UZ..are we knowing..do we know BİLİYORLAR MI ...do they know? (the odd one out..but always like this) and a few examples (geliyorlar mı..are they coming?) Yürüyorlar mı..are they walking? Kalıyorlar mı..are they staying) etc. if you've got down to here...may i suggest you pick a verb you want to use and mix and match it using the above 'til you feel ok with it. and anything you are finding a puzzle hold your hand up and ask..maybe somebody else is

having the same problem..so lets discuss it. certainly before we go on to the past tense. it'll be ok xx .and heaven help us..the present.. and..and..

basic 8.easy about shopping 8th basic and really basic..nice and easy. all about shopping..but can't get away from it..a bit of grammar thrown in. lets start with some words..and bits of real easy grammar and scatter some nice useful dialogue here and there ( to keep you reading !!) the word for shopping is Alışveriş a shopping list is alışveriş listesi grammar point..listeSİ..the possessive..remember..the list belongs to the shopping..hence S-İ Alışveriş say it..alush vereesh alışveriş merkezi..shopping centre. Merkez ..centre..takes the possessive liste .S..İ..merkez..İ..both taking the possessive İ .. liste-s-i needs the buffer S between the vowels. Dükkan is a shop Bakkal dükkan/ı is a grocers shop..note the end. manav is a greengrocers kırtasiye..stationery kitabevi..bookshop ikinci el..second hand Nereye gidiyorsun..? where are you going Dükkan/A gidiyorum..note the end shop-to going am I..i am going to the shop Hangi dükkan.?...(we looked at Hangi in basic 5..question words..yes we did! Which shop ? Bakkal-ı note the end the grocers. git means go..when the T is followed by a vowel it softens to D Gid-iyor-um.. go am i..i am going gid-iyor-sun.. go are you..you are going gidiyor.MUsun.? .are you going? MU the question marker

Here's some words to do with shopping Muşteri..customer..iyi bir muşteri..a good customer. makbuz ..receipt Fiş ..receipt..and also an electric plug!! Hesap ..bill taksit.. installment taksitle.. by installment peşin fiyatı..cash price..fiyat/ı note the end. peşin para..ready money these next two words are essential for shopping (and for everything.) VAR..and YOK...there is and there isnt VAR MI ? is there? what ever you want ask like this .(what you want)...+...var mı? Lite Cola var mı?..have you light cola lite cola var..yes there is lite cola yok..no there isn't Süt var mı? have you milk Süt var..yes there is milk Süt yok..no there isnt Ekmek var mı..have you bread VAR..yes there is maalesef ekmek yok unfortunately ther isn't Kırmızı şarap var mı..have you red wine Var efendim...yes there is.. Yok efendim..no there isnt efendim means sir or madam..its also used if you haven't been heard /understood and they want you to repeat. its also used when answering the phone.''efendim..?..yes? when shopping you will need to ask ..how much.?.will you weigh these.?..have you more.*.have you biger/small etc..we won't cover everything here but ,it will give you some ideas. KADAR has many uses here's a few Ne kadar..how much? Bir metre ne kadar how much is a metre Bu kumaşın metresi ne kadar.or kaç para this fabric a metre how much ..or how much money kumaş is fabric

here is a first taste (for some of you) of the possessive relationship in action kumaşIN metreSİ ..the fabric (owner) İTS metre (owned).this needs a full explanation which we will do later...don't panic..its Sunday..a day of rest) Bu kadar this much Bu fazla....this is too much. Bu kadar yetmez.....this much isn't enough O yetmez that isn't enough.. Bu kadar yeter...this much is enough yeter enough...yetmez..not enough.. MEZ you will see as a negative of the wide/aorist tense verbs and if you want to know how many of something is in a kilo ask like this(another one of your handy question words from basic 5) Bir kilo'da kaç tane var?.. kilo-DA...kilo in a kilo in how many are there Bir kilo'da kaç tane muz var? how many bananas in a kilo note that its just VAR.. not VAR MI.?.as you have asked the question with KAÇ Pirzola var mı?.. have you lamb chops? iki kilo'da kaç tane pirzola var? how many lamb chops in two kilos? Tane means a single piece or an item Demet means a bunch..or a bouquet bir demet çiçek..a bouquet of flowers bir demet maydanoz..a bunch of parsley Bunlar tartar mısınız? will you weigh these ne yapıyorsun?..yap/mak..to do what are you doing yap-ıyor-sun..from the present tense verbs we did in basic 7 (have a look) alışverişE çıkıyorum.. alıverişE. to shop. .case ending for TO shopping to going out am I çıkmak to go out çık-ıyor-um..i am going out. Bugün çıkmıyorum....i'm not going out today yes..hope that will help

even more basics Early on when learning Turkish you will have come across the ''possessive relationship..''some books will refer to it as the genitive case...there are 5 noun cases in turkish(6 if you count the bare case) and this is the 5th one..we have looked at the others..yes we have..E/A..to..DE/DA..in on at DEN/DAN.from than...i/ü/ı/u..the direct object/definte article it was painless This is the same as our apostrophe 'S..but whereas we just have for eg.''Jane'S book' to show ownership/possession..Turkish has endings for both Jane and the book. Jane'NIN kitab-I.....Jane's book İf you want to say something like the following (and at some stage you will need to) ''This is Sandra's book.'' (Bu Sandara'nın kıtabı) or ''My husband's car is red (Kocamın arabası kırmızıdır) Koca can mean either ..husband/huge/big/enormous/adult. or variations of the above.....then you must show this relationship with the right endings. The endings are harmony related.. these are for the owner/possessor İN-ÜN---IN-UN When following a vowel they take buffer letter N.. NİN-NÜN-NIN-NUN do you remember the harmony last vowel A or I followed by I last vowel U or O..followed by U last vowel E or İ ..followed by İ last vowel Ü or Ö followed by Ü These are for the owned....we looked at these in basic 2 İ-Ü-I-U.. when following a vowel they take buffer letter S -Sİ-SÜ-SI-SU lets put some together My father's car. Babamın arabası baba..father

babaM my father babam-IN my father'S araba car araba-Sı..his car babamın arabası...my dad's car...you can put a slight stress on the S my sister's friend kız kardeşımın arkadaşı. kız-kard-esh-ım-ın ... ar-ka-dash-u kardeş is sibling.. kız kardeş ..sister.. erkek kardeş ..brother arkadaş friend arkadaşımın evi. ar-kar-dash-ım-ın evee my friends house. ''arkadaşımın evi kalıyoruz.'' friend-my-of-house-his staying are we'' we are staying in my friend's house. here are some examples of harmony...and buffer letters. Sandra'nın... apostrophe for a proper noun..buffer N.. Jim'in..Jim's.....No buffer. Alanya 'nın.. ..Alanya's Yusuf 'ın..Yusuf's .Bodrum'un..Bodrum's..Fethiye' nin Fethiye's Annemin..my mother's.. anne-mother annem- my mother annem-in my mother's..belonging to my mother amca paternal uncle dayı maternal uncle amcam.. my uncle amcamın evi..my uncle's house amca-m-IN ev-İ dayım..my uncle dayımın karısı..my uncle's wife dayı-m-ın karı-S-ı Annenin anne-n-in..your mother's annenin paltosu your mother's coat. Anne..mother..anne-N your mother

Annen-in your mother's Palto coat Palto-S U..buffer S and possessive U (U as its following an O) onun arabası his car o-nun..his/her/its O he/she/it my daughter's handbag Kızımın el çantası kız..girl or daughter kız-ım..my daughter kızım-ın..my daughter's el.hand çanta bag el cantası..handbag thats the basics of this construction...as you go on you will see that more suffixes can be added here's a taste..it looks awful but it isn't... babamın bankasındayım baba-m-ın..my father's banka .bank babamın banka-Sı my father's bank babamın bankası-n-da-y-ım father-my-of -bank-his-in-am-i banka-Sı..his bank..buffer S bankası+N+DA....N buffer...DA the suffix for in/on/at.. bankasında+Y+ım..Y buffer..ım for i am i am in my father's bank. hope that makes some sense to you..not a ramble keep going..it will get easier. xx 10th part some more basic Turkish This time its about making sentences...this is a real sticking point Most books will tell you word order is back to front with the verb coming last and that leaves you thinking when trying a sentence you just have to turn it around...thats not exactly right...don't worry though it will slot into place the more you practice. A lot of Turks have difficulty understanding us due to us not getting the word order right and leaving off the proper endings...or in fact not adding any endings. At the start of learning we tend not to add on the suffixes..we learn a word but don't realize it needs those bits and pieces to make sense. I know 'cos i had awful problems with word order..still do after a vodka and tonic!!

Lets do some simple sentences. the order should be..in most sentences(!) subject...time..place...object.. verb. so an english sentence for example ''this morning i saw my friend in the market.'' in turkish would be i- this morning- in the market- friend-my -saw-i (Ben ) Bu sabah carşıda arkadaşımı gördüm..there's no need for Ben as you have said it with the verb..gör-dü-M if you said the sentence with an english word order and without the right suffixes it might be something lke this.. Bu sabah gördüm ben arkadaş çarşı...(uh uh) this morning saw i,..I friend market... you saw the morning..and the next three words are all unconnected. Most Turks would just smile politely without having a clue what you are on about. watch what you say!! here's an easy one Masada -çay içen kadın -benimle kalıyor. Table at- tea drinking woman- me with staying she is. the woman at the table drinking tea is staying with me. that sentence has the subject ..''tea drinking woman'' after the place..''the table''..its not important. Kadin..is the subject benimle..with me....is the object kalıyor ..staying ..the verb. the essential order is there.. woman..subject with me ..object staying..verb. if we said it in its english word order.. the woman drinking tea at the table is staying with me but with turkish words it would come out like this.. kadın çay içiyor masada kalıyor ile ben...uh uh woman tea is drinking table on is staying with me. could be a cause for confusion...they could think you've had a blip and are staying on the table with the tea drinking woman. another.. Sokadaki araba beyazdır street in which car white is the car in the street is white. Here's another.. ..so

arkadaşımın evinde sıgara içmiyorum i don't smoke in my friends house. try and work the last one out.. it has some grammar points ..can you suss them out.? and here's a vocabulary list using some of the above çarşı.....char.shu....market or shopping centre çarşıya....to the market çarşıda.. in the market arkadaş..ark-a-dash..friend arkadaşIM my friend arkadaşım+ın..my friend'S.. benim me/my benimLE with me..you can use 'with' İLE separately benim ile..with me..its a personal choice. Kadın..woman Kal-ıyor-he/she/it is staying. Gördüm..i saw hope this brings you a bit closer to understanding word order..it's not easy..it's not just word order..it's thought process too that's different or

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