The Oppidan Press

Edition 6, 28 May 2014
Photo: GABRIELLA FREGONA
Going green
in the desert
11
Rhodes Jock
politics
Rhodes videogame
coming soon
Badat, de Klerk
bid farewell
2 7 11
News Features
2 Te Oppidan Press 28 May 2014
Vivian De Klerk
I
will be leaving Rhodes with
very mixed feelings. While I
am sad that my long and very
rewarding association with Rhodes
will be ending, I made this decision
six months ago and I anticipate my
future with excitement.
My close association with Rho-
des for 35 years (six as a student
(1971-76), 21 as an academic and
Head of the Linguistics Department
(1984-2007), and eight as the Dean
of Students) has been fantastic, but
I need new challenges and it’s time
for me to live a little more. Afer a
full research career which involved
writing many academic articles and
books, I can’t wait to try my hand
at creative writing and see whether
I can produce a novel or two. I also
need to get to know my four delight-
ful little grandchildren better, and I
want to do a lot of travelling.
Tere is so much that I will
miss: being greeted by happy and
friendly students around campus
(they’ve been my inspiration); giving
students advice, and helping them
during crises (I hope I was able to
make a real diference); sending out
regular messages to all my Twitter
followers; working closely with stu-
dent leaders and wardens (it’s been
a privilege); and the exhilaration
and excitement of Orientation and
Graduation. But there are also things
I most defnitely will not miss:
Intervarsity (a special nightmare
for Deans of Students); dealing with
complaints about drunken students;
long meetings; disciplinary issues;
the lack of water or electricity (not
my job!); and fghting the scourge
of AIDS.
I hope that Rhodes can eventu-
ally fnd sufcient funds in order to
enhance our campus recreational
and sporting facilities, and build an
attractive space in the Biko Building
to relax over a cup of cofee at night,
so that students don’t head for bars
and contribute to our infamous
‘drinking culture’. It would also be
great if the University could provide
safe, afordable transport of campus,
and up and down the ‘hill’, although
I believe we are nearly there.
I am very proud of Rhodes and its
students, and shall follow future de-
velopments closely. Naturally, I look
forward to the news that students
have miraculously realised that alco-
hol and drugs are quite harmful and
have decided to devote themselves
to their studies, resulting in a 100%
pass rate. More seriously, I hope
the DoS Challenge, the Leadership
Awards, Pocket Money Fund, Men-
torship programme, Get Home Safe
service and Top 100, in which I have
taken a deep personal interest, will
fourish and that Rhodes continues
to acknowledge and celebrate the
achievements of our really amazing
students.
Goodbye all ‘my’ students. I shall
miss you. And good luck – I hope
you make Rhodes proud.
Goodbye, all my
students - DoS
Emily Corke
Tis semester has brought about big changes in the senior
management of Rhodes University. Afer eight years
in their respective positions, both Vice-Chancellor Dr
Saleem Badat and Dean of Students (DoS) Dr Vivian de
Klerk have chosen to resign. Not only will students say
goodbye to de Klerk, they will also say goodbye to the
position of the DoS, which has served as the institutional
voice of the students.
Born and bred in Grahamstown, de Klerk is retiring here
in order to continue writing her novels and travel with her
husband, who has also taken early retirement.
“I am getting of because I feel it is time to go,” said de
Klerk. “I have always believed in leaving when you are on
top. It is my life philosophy to be proactive and make the
decision while the going is good.”
When de Klerk took the position of DoS eight years ago,
it was agreed that the position would cease to exist when she
retired. Te DoS position will now change to the Director of
Student Afairs.
Rhodes University Registrar Dr Stephen Fourie was part
of a review process considering the DoS division, a process
which happens at the end of every change of leadership.
Fourie was assisted by Natalie Ripley, head of Data Manage-
ment and Director of Development and Alumni Relations.
“We reviewed it and made various recommendations,
most of which have been adopted,” said Fourie. “Te major
change is that there will be a Director of Student Afairs
and it will not be an academic position but a support staf
position.”
Fourie went on to say that the recommendations were
approved by Senate and Council and the new position will
come into efect as of 30 June. He added that the position
will play very much the same role as that of the DoS. Fourie
further maintained that the recreational and residence divi-
sions would remain unchanged.
De Klerk was unable at this stage to comment on the
changes which are being made to the position that she is
leaving. She will ofcially vacate her post on 30 June, on her
60
th
birthday, just one year before completing a third decade
of working at Rhodes University.
“It is my present to myself. I have worked to live and now
I am going to live,” said de Klerk.
New direction after Dean’s departure
Tarryn de Kock
Tis past Saturday, Rhodes bid farewell to
Vice-Chancellor Dr Saleem Badat during a
reception on the Great Field. Afer eight years
as the Vice-Chancellor, Badat will be leaving
the University and moving to New York to take
up a position with the prestigious Andrew W.
Mellon Foundation.
“It has been a great pleasure working with
Dr Badat,” said Registrar Dr Stephen Fourie.
“He is an inspirational leader who has made an
enormous contribution to Rhodes, especially
in working tirelessly to make it, in his words, ‘a
home for all’.”
Afer accepting the position of Vice-Chancellor
in 2006, Badat’s frst act was to donate a portion
of his salary and benefts towards the creation
of a bursary fund aimed at assisting deserving,
needy students.
Despite some criticism for the slow process of
transformation at the University, many changes
made during Badat’s tenure have refected an
ongoing commitment to rectifying Rhodes’ con-
tentious history as a white university under the
apartheid administration. Tis includes the issu-
ing of an ofcial apology for the University’s past
actions and a commitment to its transformation
at the naming of the Bantu Stephen Biko Union
Building in September 2008.
“[Badat] has consistently sought to fnd
principled, rather than ad hoc, responses to the
issues he has had to deal with and this has led
to an open and fair management style,” Fourie
explained. Tis has included a reconfguration
of the salary diference between lecturers, junior
lecturers and support staf, in an attempt to en-
sure adequate reward for all levels of work at the
University and to aid in closing the gap in income
between academic and non-academic staf.
Deputy Vice-Chancellor of Research & De-
velopment Dr Peter Clayton said that the years
working with Badat have been the most stimulat-
ing of his career and praised Badat for personally
encouraging the scholarly develop-
ment of the University. He cited the
increases in research output and funding, and
postgraduate degrees, as evidence of his commit-
ment to transformation through education. In
Badat’s time at Rhodes there has been a 79% in-
crease in black PhD graduates and a 77% increase
in female PhD graduates from the University.
“Tis Vice-Chancellor demands from the
people around him that every decision is wrestled
with, every position has a principled basis, and
every difcult response is ethically made,” Clay-
ton added. “All who have been challenged by him,
who worked with him, and learned from him, are
more empowered for the experience.”
During Badat’s tenure, Rhodes has partnered
with various local schools for community engage-
ment initiatives. Te University has also forged
links with potential Rhodes students, ofering
scholarships to deserving students from under-
privileged communities. Tese moves stem from
Badat’s experiences as a young academic at the
University of the Western Cape. He has expressed
the feeling that education is a powerful tool for
liberation, fostering critical thinking and substan-
tially improving people’s living standards.
Student Representative Council President
Bradley Bense shared Fourie’s sentiments that
Badat would be missed: “Afer years of great
involvement, forward thinking and positive
infuence in developing higher education in
South Africa, Dr Badat has proven over and
beyond his commitment to the youth of this
country. For this we are indebted to him and we
will forever be thankful.”
Badat’s tenure reaches its end: students, staf say goodbye
Mila Kakaza
T
he recent dismissal of two Rhodes
University academics - charged with
scientifc misconduct and academic
plagiarism - has led to ambivalence about the
University’s handling of the afair, with some
criticising their approach as too harsh while
others believe that the matter was handled in
the best way possible.
“In terms of the Labour Law of South Africa,
for dismissal of misconduct there has to be a fair
trial,” said Deputy Dean of Law Gordon Barker.
Barker added that there must be fair reason to
dismiss a person and a fair hearing where the
employee can present their side of the story.
Te allegations of plagiarism were brought to
the University’s attention by Dr Rowena Martin
of the Australian National University. Martin
stated that the concern was not of the plagiarism
of her material but rather the plagiarism of a
number of papers authored by scientists around
the world.
“[Plagiarism] is the most serious ofence an
academic can commit,” said Director of Special
Projects Susan Smailes. Smailes explained that
A rejuvenated Rhodes Student Representative Council
With the ‘top dogs’ Dr Saleem Badat (Vice-Chancellor) and Dr Vivian de Klerk (Dean of Students) leaving in June, the
senior management at Rhodes is set to change next semester. Illustration: AMY SLATEM
Dean of Students Dr Vivian de Klerk
writes a farewell letter to Rhodes
students. Photo: KELLAN BOTHA

- DVC of Research and
Development Peter Clayton
“All who have been challenged
by him, who worked with
him, and learned from him,
are more empowered for the
experience.”
News Features
28 May 2014 Te Oppidan Press 3
Mila Kakaza
T
he recent dismissal of two Rhodes
University academics - charged with
scientifc misconduct and academic
plagiarism - has led to ambivalence about the
University’s handling of the afair, with some
criticising their approach as too harsh while
others believe that the matter was handled in
the best way possible.
“In terms of the Labour Law of South Africa,
for dismissal of misconduct there has to be a fair
trial,” said Deputy Dean of Law Gordon Barker.
Barker added that there must be fair reason to
dismiss a person and a fair hearing where the
employee can present their side of the story.
Te allegations of plagiarism were brought to
the University’s attention by Dr Rowena Martin
of the Australian National University. Martin
stated that the concern was not of the plagiarism
of her material but rather the plagiarism of a
number of papers authored by scientists around
the world.
“[Plagiarism] is the most serious ofence an
academic can commit,” said Director of Special
Projects Susan Smailes. Smailes explained that
a complaint of scientifc misconduct was raised
with the University afer the academics’ published
work had been rejected by two journals, includ-
ing the European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.
Deputy Vice-Chancellor of Research and
Development Dr Peter Clayton tasked Smailes to
investigate the matter further. Smailes stated that
external experts agreed that there was sufcient
evidence against the academics to proceed with
a case.
At the beginning of March 2013 they were
served with a charge sheet and on 7 March this
year they were found guilty on all charges.
Rhodes University was praised by Martin for
the way in which it dealt with the matter.
“Considerable credit is due to Rhodes
University for investigating this issue and
for displaying a very strong commitment to
maintaining the quality, rigour and integrity of
the scientifc research produced by its employees,”
said Martin.
Data falsifcation and fabrication found in
the academics’ manuscripts were at the core of
Martin’s concerns.
“Both of these concerns – plagiarism and falsi-
fcation/fabrication of data – were upheld by the
Disciplinary Hearing,” she said.
Dean of Teaching and Learning Professor
Chrissie Boughey explained that this was because
the University has a responsibility to ensure that
the knowledge it produces is valid and reliable.
“Plagiarised work is not valid research produc-
tion and the University has to guard against this
at all costs,” Boughey said. “If it ignored plagia-
rised work, it would undermine the processes of
research production which are at the basis of its
existence,” she added.
With regard to this particular case and the
manner in which the University conducted it,
Boughey stated that the University responded the
only way it could.
Tat being said, some Rhodes academics ex-
pressed the opinion that the investigation was not
carried out with enough care. Te disciplinary
hearing, choice of chairperson, alleged lack of
transparency and the guilty verdict all did not sit
well with these academics.
One Rhodes academic, who spoke to
Te Oppidan Press but requested to remain
anonymous said, “Te decisions were all
inappropriate because not all circumstances
were considered as is required by the Rhodes
University Disciplinary Procedure.”
Te academic went on to state that Vice-Chan-
cellor Saleem Badat was misinformed throughout
the process.
“Te investigators, suddenly on the eve of
the closing arguments, tried to introduce a new
argument - which, although it was eventually not
included in the record, created doubt.”
Te Legal Resources Centre (LRC) assisted
the academics being investigated. One academic
against the University’s decisions stated that the
University had displayed “unnecessary and unac-
ceptable hostility towards the LRC”. When asked
about the LRC’s involvement in the case, Smailes
reserved her comment.
Further allegations of pending plagiarism cases
which have not yet been dealt with by the Uni-
versity have also emerged, as well as inequality in
dealing with such plagiarism issues.
“Tere have been no other cases of plagiarism
amongst academics of the University before this
one,” Smailes said.
“Allegations have been made and we don’t
know if there is any basis to them. But whenever
allegations of plagiarism are made in the Univer-
sity, we investigate,” she added.
University divided by plagiarism
Leila Stein, Gemma Middleton and
Tsholofelo Tselaemang
As it nears the halfway mark of
its term of ofce, the Student
Representative Council (SRC) has
proven itself in striving to provide
a cohesive representative body with
a focus on reworking its internal
systems and its overall image. Here is
a breakdown of the changes that they
have made.
Rejuvenating Student Governance
Although they began the year
on a back foot afer having to run
by-elections for Community Engage-
ment and Academic Councillors, the
SRC has sought to work as a cohesive
unit. Once on track, the SRC got to
work re-evaluating and revamping the
constitution, with help from Advocate
Craig Renaud and Advocate Susan
Smailes, Director of Special Projects
for the Vice-Chancellor.
“We are very focused on internal
governance this year,” said President
Bradley Bense. “We are making major
strides in operational modelling and
how we create transparency and ac-
countability accessible to students.”
Tis is still to be done, in part,
through the introduction of a Student
Parliament in place of the existing
Student Forum. Along with this, all
SRC members are required to submit
monthly reports as well as attending
all SRC commitments.
A new image
In conjunction with altering internal
structures, the SRC is looking to
revamp its public image.
“Te SRC perception needs to be
changed across campus as a structure
that operates to empower student
organisations and students to remain
active and relevant in our society,” said
Bense in explanation.
In the past, many students com-
plained that they did not know their
SRC councillors and what the SRC did.
To combat this, the SRC employed a
strategy of involvement in student life
at the University. “We’ve tried to be
more visible this year at everybody’s
events,” said Secretary General Grace
Moyo. “We worked on students seeing
us and knowing who we are.”
Publicity problems and student
disinterest
Despite their increased involvement
in student events, the SRC has been
having problems with getting their
own events publicised and the Student
Body Meeting on 15 May had an audi-
ence of less than 20 people.
“Tis [the Student Body Meeting]
is a platform for the students, and the
students don’t arrive,” stated Academic
Councillor Siyanda Makhubo, indicat-
ing that poor attendance is blamed on
student apathy.
When a post voicing this opinion
appeared on the SRC Facebook page
the next morning, students argued
that the majority of students were not
informed of the event.
“All we hear is rants about non-
attendance when no one bothers to
efectively communicate with us,” said
student Shingie Manamike. Tis break-
down in communication has been
acknowledged by Moyo and Bense.
Dealing with the major issues
Te SRC is currently battling to
provide students with safe and reliable
transportation options. Te cur-
rent system is failing, with costs for
maintenance and daily running which
are too high for the SRC to sustain.
Moreover, the University has ordered
the programme be shut down, which
makes the current service illegal.
However, the SRC has plans to rec-
tify this by introducing a proposal that
features a tender of R2.64 million per
year with transport company Blunden
Coach Tours.
Tis money would be levied across
student accounts and the programme
would run for three consecutive years.
Te proposal is set to be reviewed at
the Budget Committee in November.
Repaying old defcits
Although the process began last
year, this year’s SRC has signifcantly
improved the poor fnancial situation
that they began the year with.
Te SRC operates with four separate
divisions of its fnances: the O-Week
account, Committee account, Bus run-
ning allocation and Societies account.
“Te O-Week account had a defcit
of R41 856 but has been cleared of all
defcits and is now in surplus,” said
Treasurer Tumelo Tudinyane.
Tis was made possible through the
decision to outsource the Great Field
Party this year. Te SRC is also doing
all it can not to leave its successors
in the lurch. “Tere have also been
implementations of fnancial directives
that will place us in a better fnancial
position in the long term,” he said.
A rejuvenated Rhodes Student Representative Council
The 2014 SRC is about to enter the last quarter of their term in ofce. Photo: SUPPLIED
Politics
4 Te Oppidan Press 28 May 2014
Tarryn de Kock
L
ast week saw the 12th annual Teach-In
lecture series hosted by the Political and
International Studies department. Tis
year’s theme focused on the recent national
elections, and the diferent lectures broadly
questioned to what end power was being pur-
sued by political parties.
A common thread picked up by the speakers
was that South Africa’s recent elections saw no
remarkable change, but that the current political
landscape ofers great potential for change in the
future. Of primary interest in these discussions
was the role that the Economic Freedom Fight-
ers (EFF) and Julius Malema will have to play
in South Africa now that they have achieved a
signifcant number of seats in Parliament.
“Te EFF was the wildcard, and with only
eight months campaigning, the fact that they won
1.1 million votes is signifcant,” said Monday’s
speaker, Associate Editor of the Daily Maverick
Ranjeni Munusamy.
Munusamy’s discussed the steady rise of Male-
ma as a big personality in South African politics.
Munusamy argued that the EFF are popular
because their leader Malema sees problems and
diagnoses solutions without getting caught in
policy rhetoric like Mamphela Ramphele on the
Agang campaign trail.
Identity politics have come to characterise the
sphere of party politics because of the strong at-
tachment to recognisable leaders being privileged
over more public articulation of policies.
Tis is not limited to the EFF, either. Writer
and activist Sisonke Msimang’s discussion ‘Don’t
Touch Me on my #Swag: elections, race and (be)
longing in South Africa’ discussed the concept
of ‘swag’ in relation to three key political fgures,
and how their political parties emerged in terms
of their articulation of this kind of self-styling.
“Swag is frequently used as a part of a style
of self-bragging and boasting about one’s own
prowess. It needs self-reference,” Msimang said.
She discussed the idea of swag in hip hop culture
relating to ideas of arrogance and ‘being cool’, but
mentioned that the concept involves a level
of authenticity.
“Swag also meant keeping it real and not for-
getting your roots or where you came from”.
Msimang argued that swag was also contained
in, and a performance of, a violent, aggressive
and emotionally distant masculinity, describing
Malema as a Robin Hood-type fgure who pro-
jects a sense of justice even whilst doing ethically
problematic things.
Democratic Alliance (DA) leader Helen Zille
also came under scrutiny due to increasing
problems within the ofcial opposition relating to
the direction of the party’s leadership. Msimang
said that Zille had attempted to have swag, but
that she had also become more aggressive in the
build-up to the 2014 elections than she had ever
been before. “Zille’s views on race were worri-
some and showed that she is out of touch with the
current picture in South Africa,” Msimang said.
For her, Zille was not as sure of her relevance as
Malema, and was trying to assert the same mas-
culine identity while simultaneously subverting it
as a female party leader.
However, it was the treatment of Jacob Zuma
that exemplifed Msimang’s defnition of ‘swag’.
“He came from standard education, the son
of a domestic worker. He represents the school
of hard knocks,” Msimang explained. “What
would he have been if not President? He could
have been a gardener, a taxi driver - a reality
most black South Africans could relate to. Nelson
Mandela was born into nobility and was always
a chief, so his success and his sainthood almost
seems preordained. People are proud of Zuma,
and this shouldn’t be underestimated.”
Te Teach-Ins emphasised the fact that South
African politics could change drastically within
the next fve years, based on a series of ‘ifs’.
Tese are contingent on the ability of major
parties to move past the current crises of
leadership, ideology and support base that they
all face in some way.
Te varying responses they could have to these
crises could alter the ways in which people have
been voting over the last 20 years and, more
importantly, prevent what Manager of Political
Parties and Parliamentary Support Ebrahim Fakir
called “more excessive cannibalism of the state
and its resources” by the “swagged-out pirate ship
of South African political parties” that Msimang
so vividly described.
Teach-In talks election #swag
Binwe Adebayo
Despite claims on the campaign trail
of united fronts, cohesive practices
and a work-together attitude, the
weeks since the National Elections
have unveiled a petty politics beneath
the surface of many political parties.
Tis is most starkly represented
by the departure of Agang leader
Mamphela Ramphele from politics
afer so recently having established her
party.
Elsewhere, the DA Federal Executive
has been characterised by mudslinging
and factionalism - marked particularly
by Helen Zille’s explosive statements
about her central role in the ‘making’
of Lindiwe Mazibuko.
Despite the fact that neither of these
parties are at the helm of national
politics, they are still representative of
millions of votes. Whether these are
genuine issues or just the sulking of
sore losers, they still have very impor-
tant work to do.
Te recent news presents some
worrying symptoms for South Africa’s
political health going forward. Te
national opposition represents an
important function in our democracy,
and its leadership is in many ways as
important as the parliamentary leader-
ship of the ANC.
It would seem, however, that as soon
as Lindiwe Mazibuko announced her
plans to put politics on hold in favour
of Harvard, all that she stood for went
with her. Mazibuko was indeed a
stellar ‘fnd’ by Zille - a black woman
(can you hear the BEE boxes being
ticked?) whose eloquence, education
and charisma made her attractive to
new-age young black voters while not
altogether alienating the old (white)
guard. Te DA will struggle to replace
her in parliament.
Over at the EFF headquarters, the
focus has been on fashion rather than
fnancial policy. Te party recently
unveiled their new, red overalls which
will be the ofcial gear for parliament
proceedings.
While the party does have a strong
interest in workers, the depictions of
national MPs in miner and cleaner
outfts (while earning MP salaries)
makes a mockery out of the lives of
their constituents, who cannot simply
change into the latest pair of Country
Road pyjamas when they have fnished
their performance.
For a new party which has gained
signifcant interest and support in its
frst election, the focus must quickly
move away from a “we did it” mental-
ity when there is still so much work to
be done.
Usually, parties are given 100 days
or so before their performance is
evaluated. Tis is absolutely fair and it
must be clear that the intention of this
article is not to pronounce premature
judgement.
In fact, the romantic in me wants
to believe that these issues are simply
symbolic of a teething process for
many parties.
However, it is important that we are
not blind to these indications. Our job
did not end at the polls and if this kind
of political play-fghting continues, it
is most certainly our responsibility to
bring back into clear focus the prom-
ises which were held up to us.
Te words of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
in Te Social Contract are truer now
than ever: “As soon as any man [sic]
says of the afairs of the State ‘What
does it matter to me?’, the State may be
given up for lost”. 
Post-election politics prove problematic
The departure of Agang leader Mamphela Ramphele (left) from politics, and the rift between DA leader Helen Zille (centre) and Lindiwe Mazibuko (right) has
revealed the “petty” nature of post-election politics. Photo: SOURCED
Sisonke Msimang speaks on the role of ‘swag’ and authenticity in relation to the recent national
elections and race relations. Photo: IVAN BLAŹIC
The EFF was the
wildcard, and with
only eight months
campaigning , the
fact that they won
1.1 million votes is
signifcant.
- Ranjeni Munusamy , Associate
Editor at the Daily Maverick

Politics
28 May 2014 Te Oppidan Press 5
that exemplifed Msimang’s defnition of ‘swag’.
“He came from standard education, the son
of a domestic worker. He represents the school
of hard knocks,” Msimang explained. “What
would he have been if not President? He could
have been a gardener, a taxi driver - a reality
most black South Africans could relate to. Nelson
Mandela was born into nobility and was always
a chief, so his success and his sainthood almost
seems preordained. People are proud of Zuma,
and this shouldn’t be underestimated.”
Te Teach-Ins emphasised the fact that South
African politics could change drastically within
the next fve years, based on a series of ‘ifs’.
Tese are contingent on the ability of major
parties to move past the current crises of
leadership, ideology and support base that they
all face in some way.
Te varying responses they could have to these
crises could alter the ways in which people have
been voting over the last 20 years and, more
importantly, prevent what Manager of Political
Parties and Parliamentary Support Ebrahim Fakir
called “more excessive cannibalism of the state
and its resources” by the “swagged-out pirate ship
of South African political parties” that Msimang
so vividly described.
The departure of Agang leader Mamphela Ramphele (left) from politics, and the rift between DA leader Helen Zille (centre) and Lindiwe Mazibuko (right) has
revealed the “petty” nature of post-election politics. Photo: SOURCED

Opinion
6 Te Oppidan Press 28 May 2014
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Hannah McDonald. Advert Designers: Amber-Leigh Davies, Amy Davidson.
Junior Designers: Alex Maggs, Amy Ebdon, Amy-Jane Harkess, Sihle
Mtshiselwa. External Content Advisors: Tope Adebola, Ndapwa Alweendo,
Lucy Holford-Walker. OppiTV: Chief Editor: Natalie Austin. Content Editor:
Vimbai Midzi. Output Editor: Lilian Magari. Webcast Producer: Marc
Davies. Ombudsperson: Professor Anthea Garman.
Letters to the Editor: editor@oppidanpress.com
Advertising details: advertising@oppidanpress.com
www.oppidanpress.com
www.facebook.com/theoppidanpress
www.twitter.com/oppidanpress @oppidanpress
The Oppidan Press publishes letters which are bona fde expressions
of opinion provided that they are not clearly libellous, defamatory,
racist or sexist. We publish anonymous letters, but as an act of good
faith on your part, we require your full name. We reserve the right
to shorten letters due to space constraints and to edit them for
grammatical inaccuracies. Letters that do not make it into our print
edition will be published on our website.
Ben Rule
For legal reasons we are unable to
disclose the identity of the ‘mouth’.
Tese views are derived from personal
experience.
Opinion Editor: Marijuana has
quite a bad reputation among those
outside of its community, frstly for
fostering an addiction and secondly
for being a gateway into more serious
substances. Are either of these true
from your experience?
My experience has been that mari-
juana is certainly a dependency-induc-
ing substance. Te classical distinc-
tion between so-called psychological
dependency and physical dependency,
I believe, is a fallacy. I have seen myself
and others physically withdraw from
marijuana use.
However, I reject the gateway theory.
I believe, and from my own lived
experience, I have observed that those
who have a tendency to consume illicit
substances do so without any marked
correlation to any other drug con-
sumption [and] I have been amazed at
how quickly someone can experiment
and abuse all manner of substances
without any patterns or correlations.
Most of us on campus have heard
stories of (or know personally)
people whose habits have resulted in
academic failure (quite spectacularly,
in some cases). Is it possible for a
sustainable balance between a weed
habit and a degree to be achieved?
I believe such a sustainable balance
is possible, but not probable. Despite
there being some individuals who are
able to sustainably balance a weed hab-
it with a successful academic regimen,
this is certainly a minority. I emphasise
minority: I would say there are about
2-5 persons per 100 weed smokers at
Rhodes who do not encounter serious
academic difculties as a result of their
weed habit.
Tere is a pervasive belief that there
are dozens of these people around
campus, smoking constantly and pass-
ing their degree. Tis is an engineered
fallacy, designed to lure people into
smoking at inopportune times, when
their better judgment would tell them
otherwise. If I sold weed, I’d spread
such a message too - it is surely good
for sales.
It seems clear, from the ‘legalise it’
movement, to Bob Marley posters,
to Snoop Dogg, to Cheech & Chong,
that this is beyond just a substance –
it’s a culture. What is it about weed,
as opposed to other drugs, that
makes people so passionate about it
as a lifestyle and culture?
Tis is something I really struggle to
answer. Maybe it fows from the posi-
tive association between marijuana use
and pleasant social experiences that re-
sult therefrom. It fosters kinship and a
blissful state of relaxation. Individuals
who seek to prolong these experiences
or to embody them on a permanent
basis become transfxed with this
culture. Te culture has evolved to
embrace like-minded persons who do
not judge such a passion. Te process
of growing the plant seems to embody
the fulflment of the marijuana life-
style, from my perspective. Personally,
I spend very little time engrossed in
the cultural aspects of marijuana use.
Te media’s use of marijuana con-
sumption references is something I
fnd unappealing.
What was wrong with sobriety?
Te attraction of the altered state
is that it allows a release from the
banality of life. I personally struggle
to deactivate my mind when I am
grappling with something that is either
emotionally or academically intensive.
Te appeal lies in the ability to exclude
such material from my thought process
and focus on something that I choose
to focus on.
Marijuana is not conducive to multi-
tasking. For me, this is its appeal. I
never smoke when I have something
crucially important to do, nor do I
smoke during the week when I have
dozens of other commitments to at-
tend to. In this way, I constrain it to
something that is akin to drinking a
beer afer a long day. What I hope to
share is how that context for marijuana
consumption is limited by many fac-
tors. Would you drink a beer on the
way to a dawnie, every day?
The joint in the horse’s mouth
While marijuana is often portrayed as a “gateway drug”, some users at Rhodes dispute this claim, seeing no correlation
between its use and further ‘experimentation’. Photo: SHEILA DAVID
The segment where the Opinion Editor sits down with a horse’s mouth and
gets a few answers. This week’s horse: Weed smokers. This week’s mouth: An
anonymous weed smokesperson.
C
onspicuously sprayed across a wall in the centre of campus stands a
reminder in question form: a grafti tag that reads “Where Leaders
Learn?” Dark paint on white plaster, this lesson in the signifcance
of punctuation greets me each morning as I walk towards the Library and,
each morning, it makes me think.
What legitimate claim do we have to being the university at which our
society’s future leaders are intellectually nurtured? And looking to the history
of our institution, what do we need to ask about the way in which leadership
has traditionally been understood here and the way in which that conception
has or has not transformed?
A conversation of this nature has received a lot of attention at the University
of Cape Town in the last little while, with opinions fying back and forth about
whether the statue of Cecil John Rhodes should be removed from campus.
In the past few days, Cape Town activist group Tokoloshe Stencil Collective
(TSC) graphically asserted their view on the matter, claiming responsibility
for tagging the statue with the words “Remember Marikana”. TSC said in a
statement that the grafti had been done in honour of all black students whose
ancestral land and natural resources were stolen by colonial leaders like Rho-
des, “Because 1994 changed fokol.”
One wonders how the Collective would contribute to the discussions that
take place from time to time about changing the name of Rhodes University.
Te entire afair might also make one question which leaders university stu-
dents should be looking to as exemplars.
Page 2 of this edition is dedicated to two leadership fgures who have taken
these issues seriously, but who will no longer be with the University when
we all return afer winter vacation: Dean of Students Dr Vivian de Klerk and
Vice-Chancellor Dr Saleem Badat. Tis week, OppiTV will be hosting Dr
Badat together with Professor Pedro Tabensky from the Allan Gray Centre for
Leadership Ethics (AGCLE), heritage activist Simphiwe Msizi, and a num-
ber of students to discuss leadership and the lessons we can learn from past
leaders connected to the University. In particular, we will be interrogating the
legacy of Steve Biko as an individual who grounded much of his struggle in
student leadership.
Tese questions are particularly signifcant for us as Te Oppidan Press
right now because this edition marks our mid-year editorship handover. I
am extremely pleased to hand the position of Editor-in-Chief over to current
Deputy Editor Amanda Xulu, who will be working together with newly-
appointed incoming Deputy Editor Stuart Lewis. We also welcome Chelsea
Haith as Online Editor, assisted by Liam Stout. My sincere congratulations are
due to these individuals, whose contributions to the team have proved them
more than capable.
It is not easy to leave Oppi afer nearly four years, but I have every faith in
these individuals and the incredible team that they are there to support. Hav-
ing seen the publication grow in strength and spirit and knowing the potential
that exists among its members, I cannot wait to see where things will go.
>> Makana Unity League: New residents’
alliance leaves Rhodes out
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>> Coconut: Ex-sitcom actor turned Rhodes
student on the cutthroat world of South
African television
>> Grahamstown Film Club: Locals rally to fll
gap left by closed cinema
Opinion
28 May 2014 Te Oppidan Press 7
Serena Paver
I
studied George Orwell’s Animal Farm in
high school. I remember my class calling
it a waste of time but, contrary to popular
belief, I think the allegorical message behind
those talking animals is still relevant today.
Government is a scary word. Synonymised
with words like restraint, regulation, or control,
it can make a person jumpy. Under the guise
of democracy, governments can abuse popular
support or even attempt to escape accountability
for misdemeanours. Tis is what the Pigs did in
Animal Farm and it is my fear that this is what
our country’s ‘benevolent’ leaders are currently
doing too.
It starts with securing a new regime, discard-
ing past oppression and embracing the estab-
lishment of equality. In the book, the animals
chase their cruel human masters of the farm to
create a socialistic Animal State. South Africa
showed its strength as a nation when apartheid
was conquered and for a while we were shiny
with the hope of our new equality. Just like the
animals’ laws, we created our new Constitution
(still hailed as one of the world’s best) to protect
ourselves from the cruelty of apartheid. Together
we were optimistic.
Shortly afer, however, leaders began to exert
infuence: defning power boundaries by ensnar-
ing the public’s trust. In Animal Farm, the Pigs
generously assume the role of government – be-
ing the most intelligent sect of the animal collec-
tive, this only seems right. In South Africa, the
ANC made the leap to become our leaders who,
like the Pigs, were chosen by their community –
and for the most part they have the wellbeing of
their subjects at heart.
At frst, the animal community attempted to
create a schooling system which taught reading
and writing. But the Pigs soon discovered difer-
ent levels of education meant diferences in access
to power access. Tis discrepancy is clear in
South Africa, where inconsistencies of education
also seem to be perpetuating the class divisions.
We are one of the most unequal societies in
the world, and our education system is a stark
reminder (and cause) of this.
Te power then gets to the Pigs and they start
to subtly undermine the idea of equality, putting
the needs of some animals above the needs of
others. Te Pigs use their ‘superior intelligence’
to make the other animals believe they deserve
special treatment. Whether deserving or not,
the same special treatment is clear in our class
systems. Instead of equality, the “1% whites” have
been joined by the “1% blacks” – the opposite of
creating an economically equal society. Tis fows
into the crux of the book: “All animals are equal,
some are just more equal than others.”
Suddenly in the book one realises: this is remi-
niscent of the old farm. Te animals continue to
be taken advantage of and they remain uneducat-
ed and unheard. Our ‘progress’ has been similar
- the uneducated remain uneducated, the poor
remain poor and get poorer, the hungry remain
hungry and get hungrier, the unheard remain
voiceless. How is this diferent from what it was
like before?
By the end of the book, chaos reigned. Te Pigs
had total control; they could literally do whatever
they chose – including getting away with acts of
full-out violence, breaking their all-important
laws and walking on two feet like their human
enemies. Sometimes, it seems to me our govern-
ment is heading in a direction which so closely
resembles our previous regime that we may need
another revolution.
South African Politics – an Animal Farm?
The South African political environment has several features which seem to parallel George
Orwell’s short novel, Animal Farm. Photo: KELLAN BOTHA
Deane Lindhorst and Jordan Stier
Sitting at the Kaif pondering the state
of things, I notice the fat caps worn
like crowns and the rugby shorts that
demand attention. I ask myself how
it is that the ideas of the Jock class
have become the ruling ideas of the
Rhodes cultural milieu.
How have the Jock intellectuals
managed to win ideological control
over the Rhodes masses? Have they
managed to spread their worldview
through frequenting certain establish-
ments in the town? Or is it by engaging
in public ‘jock’ behaviour which
becomes normalised?
I eavesdrop subtly upon the con-
versations of those around me. Some
are talking about their god-awful
lecturer, and some about the state of
the country, and some about other bits
of fuf. But the most important topic
at the Kaif, today and everyday, is the
night out.
Te groups’ conversations get louder
as they seem to compete over who
had the best Friday night – a competi-
tion that the Jock intellectuals almost
inevitably win.
At the Kaif however, it is not only
the Jocks that talk of their night: the
hipsters converse about their unending
selfes, while the nerds talk of the im-
minent death of their genius - presum-
ably owing to the hangover that ensues
afer a night in the Jock’s play-pen.
Tey weren’t always like this. On
Fridays past the nerds would learn, the
gamers would game, and the hipsters
would... well, do whatever they did.
But the loudness and overwhelming
presence of the Jocks has slowly lured
them out of their comfort zones and
into these drinking establishments,
where fst-pumping and ‘bru’ continue
to reign supreme. By day these dis-
sident groups continue to snigger and
denounce the Jocks and their way of
life, and yet by night they all end up in
these establishments, fst-pumping the
night away.
What continues to perplex me
especially, however, is what the
mechanism of their control might be
- is it the institution of naps? Towards
the end of the night, the hipsters and
nerds are inevitably lef swaying to
music they do not like while the Jocks
are walking to the night’s chosen
home. Is it during pillow talk that the
Jock intellectuals perpetuate their
worldview?
Between the Jock class’ bread and
butter of sporting events and bar
nights proposed as residence enter-
tainments, the space for events based
on alternate ideas is limited. All of the
regular social spaces are fooded with
Jock Ideals.
Or perhaps these ideas are perpetu-
ated in the media we consume in our
everyday lives. From social media,
where the photos from the night out
are plentiful and fat-cap-flled, to the
student press, where Jocks are very
ofen used as journalistic sources, one
cannot seem to escape this ‘jockracy’
of ideas. It seems the dissident groups
sufer ailments of coordination and
false consciousness. Te hipsters are
too busy pretending they don’t care
and keeping the Grahamstown hair-
dressers in business, while the nerds
remain outside lighting cigarettes and
becoming enthralled in conversations
on Gramsci.
While the battle of ideas rages on,
for now it seems that the fat cap faces
no threat of being dislodged.
The dominant ideas of jockracy
In recent years the so-called ‘jock’ culture clique has come to dominate Rhodes
society and culture. Photo: KELLAN BOTHA
...the
overwhelmingly
trending topic
at the Rhodes
University Kaif,
today and
everyday, is the
night out.

Ben Rule
We are reaching that time in the year where the weather is starting to med-
dle with all of our lives. Te Student Representative Council (SRC) should be
aware of this and take steps to fx the problem, especially since it rained all
over their parade last week.
Te SRC is a commonly-used scapegoat for the problems that the student body
experiences on campus. Tis is completely legitimate. Since we were all forced to
endure their nonsensical election propaganda and help them reach quorum last
year, we have acquired certain whinging rights. Tis is how democracy works. It
is therefore much better to hold the SRC accountable for things that are beyond
the scope of their functions than it is to investigate the proper avenues for raising
these matters at this institution. If they weren’t so busy painting large overalls
and wearing blazers, maybe something would actually get done about the library
sockets, or the dining hall meals, or the fact that dawnies still exist.
Tis brings me to my primary complaint. Why are we, as a student body that
supposedly believes in accountability and transparency and all of that other lovely
stuf you put in your wafes, not holding the SRC accountable for the weather?
Bad weather is a constant and pervasive problem on campus – it is clearly the vil-
lain responsible for a number of pressing evils: poor lecture attendance, decreased
health, worse moods which lead to bad tempers which lead to violence, a general
inability to go out and drink in comfort, rubbish assignment marks, illegal inter-
net activities, student apathy, conspiracy theories, increased teenage pregnancies,
cannibalism, incest, global warming and AIDS.
Bad weather is clearly a scourge of student society. Students are forced to fght
a momentous battle against it without any help from the establishment. Any at-
tempts by the SRC to provide additional transport or umbrellas should immedi-
ately be recognised as devious shenanigans, cheap smoke and mirror distraction
tactics to mask the fact that they are not dealing with the issue. What they really
need to do is change the weather. Tis would be the grandest contribution to
student wellbeing that any elected body has ever made, and frankly I can’t believe
that it hasn’t occurred to them yet. Clearly their minds are clouded. We as a stu-
dent body need to band together to call our leadership to account and address the
things that matter. When the SRC fxes the bad weather, we can say that they are
doing a proper job of representing us.
The weather is the SRC’s fault
Poor weather is responsible for poor health, bad moods and decreased class
attendance. Photo: VICKY PATRICK
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Arts & Entertainment
8 Te Oppidan Press 28 May 2014
Demi Drew
D
espite having societies which explore
creative platforms like gaming and
anime, Rhodes still does not have a
society dedicated to comic book readers and
writers. While some may argue that this is due
to lack of initiative, others question what such
a society would actually do to keep its members
active once it was started.
Gaming Society Chairperson Jean-Clive Bailey
believes that this dilemma has to do with our
society as a whole. “I do think the lack of a comic
book society is due to the fact that comic books
are not part of the South African pop culture,” he
explained. “Te reason why we have things like
the Anime Society and the Gaming Society is
because the mediums we are accustomed to have
been introduced to members since high school
and are easily accessible.”
However, there are those who would like to see
the introduction of a comic book society which
would create a new platform for students to voice
their opinions while encouraging their artistic
abilities. Bill Masuku, a comic book creator and
third-year BCom student, says that he loves
drawing and storytelling and “would really like to
promote literacy and the visual arts within
South Africa.”
Masters in Fine Art student and comic book
enthusiast Kathleen Sawyer believes that “creating
a larger and friendlier community is possible, as
many better-versed fans can be disparaging of
new readers who know less”.
Tis may be because the basic facts about
the world of comics are becoming increasingly
complex. Since the frst comic book Famous
Funnies was published in 1933 the industry has
boomed, with the United States producing the
most well-known comic book titles such as Te
Walking Dead, Fables and the near endless supply
of superheroes belonging to the two kings of the
comic world, Marvel and DC.
Te advent of famous comic-book characters
in flms, television series and video games has not
only greatly increased their popularity but also
the popularity of comics as a whole.
Tis has led to new developments in the
comic-book industry: Marvel Comics recently
introduced Kamala Khan, the frst-ever Muslim
character to headline her own comic book, who
has been featuring in the third volume of the
Ms. Marvel comics since February 2014. Te
introduction of such a unique and controversial
character showcases how comics use their crea-
tive platform to put forward ideas that challenge
societal norms.
Closer to home, the art of comic collecting can
be a pricey hobby. While Japanese manga has
almost no copyright laws when released outside
of Japan, stricter licensing and copyright laws
associated with American comics make import-
ing them into South Africa very expensive. Tis
may be another reason why Rhodes has a healthy
anime and manga following, but no comic book
society just yet.
Despite this, as long as the beautiful aesthetic
and interesting accompanying storyline of com-
ics continue, there will be those who use comic
books as a way to develop their imagination and
to gain further knowledge in a more visually
oriented format.
“Readers can become emotionally invested in
the characters, wanting them to do well [and] to
be happy,” Sawyer explained. “[Tey are] willing
to suspend disbelief in the most fantastical of
moments. Tere are no bad special efects or
unbelievable actors. Instead, writers are free to
create scenarios that suit their personal imagina-
tive visions.”
Comic book society yet to be formed at Rhodes

There are no bad
special efects or
unbelievable actors.
Instead, writers are
free to create scenarios
that suit their personal
imaginative visions.
- Kathleen Sawyer,
Masters in Fine Art and
comic book enthusiast
Josh Stein
Anime is a unique form of Japanese
animation which boasts a diverse
selection of genres, styles and char-
acters. Despite the richness of its
form, anime is ofen brought down
by negative stereotypes and precon-
ceived notions which only refect a
miniscule portion of the artform as
a whole.
One of the biggest misconceptions
that anime fans have encountered is
the idea that anime is perverted or
childish.
Some of the most successful anime
deals with complex themes such as
love, life, death and sex, but since
Western audiences still tend to see
animation as intended for children,
these mature themes can come as an
unexpected shock.
“Anime is a way of telling stories.
Tey just happen to be animated
and voiced in a language that is not
English,” explained Chairperson of the
Rhodes Neko Anime Society Natascha
Dominick. “At the end of the day that
is all it really is - a diferent way to tell
a story.”
Te stories that anime tells, however,
span over such a wide range of topics
that some of the misconceptions ofen
touch on some truth.
“With every art form you are going
to get the more perverted side and the
more childish side, but there is more
to it,” noted media representative and
technician for Neko Julia Davies.
Artistic styles and animators of
anime difer greatly from their Western
counterparts. Artistically, anime tends
to stray towards a more realistic style
of animation as opposed to the exag-
gerated style typical of most Western
animations.
Anime also difers in terms of its
storytelling: while Western animation
tends to focus on episodic narratives,
with each episode presenting its own
self-contained story, anime is usually
serial in nature, with stories stretching
over several episodes and seasons.
Tere are anime movies that would
give even the best Disney movies a
run for their money when it comes to
charming and heart-warming tales.
At the same time, there are shows
that look at the most real aspects of
human existence, and in this way
anime is not unlike shows such
as Game of Trones, True Blood and
even Dexter, whose content can be
considered controversial but is more
accepted because of its genre.
One of the most well-known anime
animators, Hiyao Miyazaki, has
received wide-spread recognition on
the international stage. Miyazaki is
responsible for movies like Spirited
Away, which became the most
successful flm in Japanese history
and won the Oscar for best animated
feature in 2002. His movies revolve
around humans and their relationship
with nature.
“While watching media produced in
a diferent part of the world, whether
Japan or anywhere else, you gain a new
perspective on how things work there
and begin to develop a respect for the
culture and lifestyle,” said Dominick.
“Anime provides an amazing
opportunity to visually explore
stories that could not come to life in
live action flm,” added Kaylin Van
Aswegen, an avid anime fan.
Anime: more than just child’s play
Anime cosplay has become an important part of anime fandom not only in Japan but worldwide too, with cosplay
groups and conventions becoming more popular. Photo: SUPPLIED
Portraits of Grahamstown
Josh White
Every day we walk through
campus, passing fellow
students, listening to our
lecturers and falling so
far into our own work
that we forget to take an
interest in others around
us. ‘Portraits’ will profle
people from all stages in
their academic career,
allowing us as readers to
know a bit more about
the people we see, and
especially the ones we
never see.
Tis edition profles
Jeannette Ginslov, who has
lectured part-time at the
Drama Department since
June 2013. She is involved
in P(Ar)take at the National
Arts Festival this year.
What is P(Ar)take?
P(Ar)take is a public art
performance that con-
nects viewers and dance
videos between mobile
devices, networks and city
spaces. It is part archive,
part ‘time-machine’ and part
performance of memory - a living archive. Te Augmented Reality (AR)
application Aurasma will allow you to view short videos of ten South African
choreographers’ works from the last thirty years, within the context of South
African history and its transformation. A live performer accompanies the
tour and dances in and out of this feld of augmented media, amplifying the
signature movements of each choreographer. Te AR journey and integra-
tion of live performance explores new and unique choreographic possibili-
ties.
What made you choose this specifc project? What infuenced you?
I am interested in challenging traditional and conventional means of
presenting dance on stage. Site-specifc works, new media and screendance
in urban spaces using cell phones and apps is a new platform for dance and
breaks the conventional way of viewing dance. Te live performer dances in
and out of this feld of media, sometimes disrupting the connection between
cellphone and viewer. Ultimately, viewers are not passively consuming the
dance videos and history of South African contemporary dance, but entering
into a dialogue with it.
Are you planning anything more? What will your future involvement
with the university and with Grahamstown be, if any?
Funding permitting, next year February I may be back to shoot two more
dance videos for Juanita Finestone-Praeg. Tis will complete the trilogy of
dance flms examining the stories of three diferent women in diferent states
of being and locations.
Jeannette Ginslov, part-time lecturer at the
Drama department is heavily involved in
projects like P(Ar)take. Photo: ASHLEIGH
MEY
Battle of the Acoustics: The six-string fnale’
Jordan Stier
Live Music Society’s (LMS) Battle of
the Acoustics competition reached
its conclusion on Saturday 24 May,
as the four fnalists graced the stage
at Olde ‘65 one more time. Te four
acts mastered many acoustic pieces
throughout the competition for the
beneft of capacity crowds.
“Te support has been great and I
am hoping it continues to grow,” said
event organiser Sheila David. Tis
year’s supporters were able to appreci-
ate a mix of acoustic sounds, with the
four contestants each playing a selec-
tion of original pieces and covers.
Overall winner Robert Pienaar,
who also competed in last year’s
tournament, decided to add some
variation by tapping into diferent
genres.
“Tat seems to keep the crowd a
bit more interested. I like the fact that
we have to have some originals and
are encouraged to do some covers. It
requires more skill to write songs that
the crowd will like than to just play
covers,” he said.
“I think that compositions are
better than covers because it shows
your originality as a musician,” agreed
Sam Hardy, one member of the still
unnamed three-person act that also in-
cludes Courtney Cronje and Mathieu
Audibert.
Te group enjoyed playing a mixture
of genres. “We like playing some pop
Arts & Entertainment
28 May 2014 Te Oppidan Press 9
Josh Stein
L
ocal Grahamstown band
Shackles and Bones have
achieved what all bands dream
of: signing a deal. SilverCup Records,
a new start-up label based in the
Western Cape, has approached the
band about signing a one year album
contract with them. Te band was
ofcially signed on 20 May.
Te rock band with “the stage
presence of an electrocuted dinosaur,”
according to their Facebook biography,
has been quite busy this year. Teir
most recent exploits were in Cape
Town, which resulted in recognition
from the label and a larger audience.
Tis just goes to show how the band
is making a name for itself beyond
the Grahamstown scene. “We had
two awesome shows and played our
frst acoustic set with this line up. We
played at Zula Bar on Long Street and
Obviouzly Armchair in Observatory.
Tere was a nice crowd of people that
showed up,” recalled Luke Clayton,
guitarist and vocalist for the band.
Te band feels positive about the
label and said that they hope to con-
tinue on with them if things go well.
Being ‘approached’ by interested labels
is something that the band has become
accustomed to, but before now, no
label has really stuck around long
enough to invest.
“To be fair we did not believe it this
time when we got the call. We met
them in Cape Town and they showed
us a contract. We have never gotten
tangible proof of a record deal before,”
explained vocalist and guitarist Dave
Glover. “If you are a little garage band
playing at pubs all over the country,
there is a certain kind of person who
will claim to be a manager. Te frst
two times it happened to me it turns
out they were just some drunken
dudes,” said Glover.
In the past, the band has been
plagued by various changes to band
members but Glover did not see this
as an obstacle - merely a challenge that
got Shackles and Bones to where they
are now. “Band members have come
and gone, which has been trying at
times, but also cool because with each
new member it seems to get better and
better,” he said.
Glover added that the band has had
problems holding onto drummers
in the past. “We’ve gone through
more drummers than years we’ve
been active. We’ve gone from getting
someone’s 17-year-old brother to a
31-year-old Argentinian. It’s really
tricky to hold down a drummer
in Grahamstown!”
Te band expressed their views on
the state of the rock scene not only in
Grahamstown but across South Africa
as well. “Te scene here is almost
underground; I think that in South
Africa, rock music is just a very small
market. Te market is oversaturated
with rock bands. It’s a little bit of a bun
fght. To get to the next level, it takes a
lot of luck and hard work,” explained
Clayton.
Tis stif competition has led to
rivalry and unfriendly behaviour
between competing bands. “We have
had some bad experiences with other
bands not paying us any attention or
not even recognising us as another
band,” explained bassist Steven Ellery.
As a result of these experiences, the
band has formed bonds with other
bands like Lu-Fuki and are always will-
ing to assist any band that needs help.
Clayton ofered his advice to those
who are just starting out as musicians.
“Every band I’ve been in has started
out terribly and has only gotten better
with time. We’ve been doing this for
four years and I think we can still get
better, but we have come very far. Just
stick with it because it doesn’t matter
if you suck at the beginning - that is
totally normal.”
Shackles and Bones secure record deal
Shackles & Bones have signed with Western Cape-based label, SilverCup Records. Photo: GABRIELLA FREGONA

The scene
here is almost
underground; I
think that in South
Africa, rock music
is just a very
small market.
- Luke Clayton,
Shackles & Bones
Battle of the Acoustics: The six-string fnale’
Jordan Stier
Live Music Society’s (LMS) Battle of
the Acoustics competition reached
its conclusion on Saturday 24 May,
as the four fnalists graced the stage
at Olde ‘65 one more time. Te four
acts mastered many acoustic pieces
throughout the competition for the
beneft of capacity crowds.
“Te support has been great and I
am hoping it continues to grow,” said
event organiser Sheila David. Tis
year’s supporters were able to appreci-
ate a mix of acoustic sounds, with the
four contestants each playing a selec-
tion of original pieces and covers.
Overall winner Robert Pienaar,
who also competed in last year’s
tournament, decided to add some
variation by tapping into diferent
genres.
“Tat seems to keep the crowd a
bit more interested. I like the fact that
we have to have some originals and
are encouraged to do some covers. It
requires more skill to write songs that
the crowd will like than to just play
covers,” he said.
“I think that compositions are
better than covers because it shows
your originality as a musician,” agreed
Sam Hardy, one member of the still
unnamed three-person act that also in-
cludes Courtney Cronje and Mathieu
Audibert.
Te group enjoyed playing a mixture
of genres. “We like playing some pop
rock, some reggae or some indie rock,”
explained Hardy.
Despite Hardy’s interest in original
compositions, his group did not per-
form any for the Oldes crowd, partially
because of the relatively new nature of
the trio.
“We don’t have any name because
we have just started playing together,”
Hardy said. However, he argues, play-
ing covers can make the act just as
relevant to all crowds.
“Te advantage with covers is that
the public ofen knows the song that
you are playing, therefore they tend to
enjoy it more than original songs.”
Even though his qualifcation for
Saturday’s fnal exemplifed his skill,
Pienaar is playing for the love of music
rather than for a career.
“A career in music? Well, a paid
one would be good,” he joked. Te
competition has been more of a
platform for spreading his name on
the Rhodes music scene than in the
big leagues.
“I have been in the gig since grade
10, but [since] coming to Rhodes I
have had to start of fresh as an acous-
tic guitarist instead of being in bands,
and so it is good to get exposure where
you can.”
Hardy’s group shares a similar view
on having aspirations in the music
industry. “We decided to compete
because it’s nice to be able to play live
in front of a nice audience,” says Hardy.
“I’d love to make a living by playing
music but it takes a lot of practice and,
as we all know, studies take up the ma-
jority of our time at Rhodes. But who
knows? Maybe in a couple of years.”
Pienaar hopes that the tournament
will allow him to form a group of his
own. “It has helped [me] to meet some
musicians at Rhodes and hopefully
maybe some committed guys or ladies
to start a band [with].”
“Music isn’t something that you
learn but it’s something that you inte-
grate in your lifestyle,” said Hardy.
“Te more you enjoy playing music
the more you will practice, therefore
the better you’ll become.”
The Live Music Society’s Battle of the Acoustics fnal took place on Saturday 24
May. Ben Phipson was one of the participants in the competition.
Photo: SHEILA DAVID
Environment
10 Te Oppidan Press 28 May 2014
Mikaela Erskog
I
n the last edition we began a
discussion on the relationship
between environmentalism and
social uplifment, and the need for
the creation of green urban spaces.
Continuing this discussion, we de-
cided to look into how Makana resi-
dents are slowly but surely creating
environmentally sustainable spaces
that cultivate a greener and more
responsible urban lifestyle.
Large-scale commercial farming and
agriculture ofen employs environ-
mentally damaging practices. It also
tends to exploit local natural resources.
Makana Municipality Agricultural
Development (MMAD) Manager Piwe
Gqweta and intern Mbulelo Solaanyile
explained that although commercial
agriculture is widely practiced, their
aim is to promote small-scale and
emerging farmers.
Smaller farming ventures allow for
fairer resource distribution and re-
duced environmental impacts. MMAD
and the Department of Agriculture
encourage small-scale and emerging
farmers to make use of community
gardens, supplying tools and (for
slightly bigger ventures) assisting with
the allocation of appropriate land.
Solaanyile explained that although it
is not always feasible, MMAD has tried
to encourage local agri-ventures to
have ongoing community services and
to enforce environmentally-friendly
farming methods.
Tis has taken the form of competi-
tions which encourage communal dis-
tribution of surplus produce, supplying
of permanent (instead of seasonal)
farming jobs and the regulation of po-
tential monocultural practices through
crop rotation. “We do not want to
tell them what to do. We maintain
boundaries,” said Gqweta, emphasis-
ing that MMAD only aims to assist in
agricultural, environmental and
social integration.
MMAD continues to assist in setting
up urban and school gardens in back-
yard spaces. Tis has involved projects
such as growing vegetables out of
refuse bags containing organic waste.
In reference to the redefnition of ag-
riculture and farming in urban areas,
Solaanyile remarked, “We are trying to
change the mindset of people.”
Nomathamsanqa Mavikela is a Gra-
hamstown resident and the co-owner
of Mavikela Poultry and General Trad-
ers. Her family-owned micro-agricul-
ture and small-scale poultry farming
business is one example of a venture
that is redefning what it means to live
sustainably and independently within
the city limits.
For the last fve years, Mavikela,
her mother and siblings have grown
a range of organic vegetables in their
small garden. Te family prides them-
selves on using natural fertilisers such
as earthworms (which help to promote
rich soil nutrients) and manure from
their chickens. “[Commercial] ferti-
liser is just not right,” said Mavikela.
She keeps free-range chickens
as part of her family venture. Te
business also uses very few energy
resources, transporting its produce to
the local markets on trailers attached
to bicycles which were provided by the
Makana Municipality.
Not only is her business organic
and virtually waste and pollution-free,
Mavikela’s garden also serves as a com-
munity hub where younger residents
can learn about and grow vegetables
and raise poultry. Her garden also
hosts a regular soup kitchen and allows
local businesses and customers to
source locally-grown food.
“It is a family project and we also
support schools and people in the
community,” explained Mavikela.
“Tey help us with the garden and
clean the chickens... Te children from
Nathaniel Nyaluza High School want
to learn how to do this.”
Grahamstown resident Anele Lwane
commented on how Mavikela’s family
business serves the wider community:
“Sometimes they [the Mavikelas] will
give people some food so that they
save money instead of going to the
shops… People can sometimes come
and take for themselves.”
Mavikela’s small business is expand-
ing due to her and her family recently
acquiring more land. Tey plan to use
this land to start a bigger farming pro-
ject. Tey have, however, shown that it
is possible to have an independent pro-
ject that is organically integrated into
the urban community and employs
responsible agricultural practices.
Makana’s micro agri-business blossoms
Elisa Edmondson
With World Fish Migration Day on 24 May and
World Oceans Day on 8 June, the issues sur-
rounding our water bodies will be made more
visible in the next few weeks. As with most days
dedicated to recognising a particular issue,
these campaigns will hopefully generate more
thought and consideration about how humans
play a decisively detrimental role in their inter-
actions with the ocean and how we can improve
our aquatic relations.
In Grahamstown, initiatives are being under-
taken at Rhodes and in town. For example, the
local Pick ‘n Pay uses enviromental guidelines
which determine the species which can and can-
not be sold.
However, the state of the ocean in the hands
of humans has continued to become increasingly
dire. Professor at the Department of Ichthyology
and Fisheries Science Warwick Sauer sees the
major problems facing the ocean
as overexploitation and various
forms of pollution such as mining,
coastal development, and oil spills.
In connection with World
Oceans Day, Fish Migration Day
is a global efort to help spread
awareness concerning the impor-
tance of migratory fsh species, as
fsh migration patterns are becom-
ing increasingly disrupted, leading
to a scarcity of certain species.
“Unfortunately, migration routes of fsh are
fraught with an increasing number of obstacles
created by man, such as dams, which have pre-
vented the upstream migration of many fshes,”
said senior lecturer at the Department of Ichthy-
ology and Fisheries Science Warren Potts.
Climate change may also alter fsh migration
patterns. Tis phenomenon has been researched
through the Angola Ocean Tracking Network,
an ongoing project which was
launched by the Department of
Ichthyology and Fisheries Science
July of 2013.
Tis intensive project focuses on
a body of water of the southern
coast of Angola, where the ocean
is warming ten times faster than
global averages.
Te research looks into the
specifc biological implications that
global warming has on the fsh and
any changes in their migration patterns, in order
to better understand where human intervention
can be proactive.
Although there are many factors to consider
regarding the maintenance of aquatic biodiver-
sity, the most signifcant decrease in the numbers
of fsh is due to overfshing and unsustainable
fshing practices, based on the demands of hu-
man consumption.
According to the South African Sustainable
Seafood Initiative (SASSI), over 80% of the
world’s fsh stocks are currently overexploited or
exploited to their maximum.
To contribute positively to the cause of fsh and
their migration patterns, Potts recommends that
students educate themselves about the fsh that
they are eating and only buy seafood products
that have been categorised as environmentally
sustainable as recognised by the SASSI. “Tere is
even a cellphone app to help you make informed
decisions,” added Potts, referring to the Black-
Berry app ‘SASSI’.
However, critical attention and participa-
tion needs to occur in relation to all aquatic life.
“Humanity is committing long-term suicide,” said
Senior Scientist at the South African Institute for
Aquatic Biodiversity Ofer Gon.
“We need to demonstrate self-refection and
responsibility, while taking accountability for
our actions,” he added.
Fishes founder under human consumptive pressures
The Micro-farms in Grahamstown, such as Mavikela Poultry and General Traders, are creating a sustainable niche within
the city limits for themselves. Photos: GABRIELLA FREGONA
Features
28 May 2014 Te Oppidan Press 11
and virtually waste and pollution-free,
Mavikela’s garden also serves as a com-
munity hub where younger residents
can learn about and grow vegetables
and raise poultry. Her garden also
hosts a regular soup kitchen and allows
local businesses and customers to
source locally-grown food.
“It is a family project and we also
support schools and people in the
community,” explained Mavikela.
“Tey help us with the garden and
clean the chickens... Te children from
Nathaniel Nyaluza High School want
to learn how to do this.”
Grahamstown resident Anele Lwane
commented on how Mavikela’s family
business serves the wider community:
“Sometimes they [the Mavikelas] will
give people some food so that they
save money instead of going to the
shops… People can sometimes come
and take for themselves.”
Mavikela’s small business is expand-
ing due to her and her family recently
acquiring more land. Tey plan to use
this land to start a bigger farming pro-
ject. Tey have, however, shown that it
is possible to have an independent pro-
ject that is organically integrated into
the urban community and employs
responsible agricultural practices.
Makana’s micro agri-business blossoms
Professor prioritises the science of people
Bradley Prior
Sci-Tech
Rhodes University has not been typically
known for its game development. However,
a group of pioneering Rhodes University
Computer Users Society (RUCUS) members,
and mentors from the Computer Science
department, are in the process of designing a
virtual card game based on life at Rhodes.
Te team consists of nine student develop-
ers and defers to lecturers from the Computer
Science department for direction.
Most of the developers are Computer Sci-
ence students, but the team includes members
profcient in the felds of design, writing and
graphics.
Te concept behind this game has been
likened to intricate trading card games such as
Hearthstone and Magic: Te Gathering (a suc-
cessful card game which has had both physical
and digital iterations). However, instead of kill-
ing fantasy creatures, players will be competing
with their opponents to earn their degree.
Te team frst met on 30 March and develop-
ment of the game started in earnest in April.
No release schedule timeline has been revealed
yet, but the project is expected to be a fairly
long-term endeavour.
“I think developing a game like this will give
people very valuable experience in working
on a largish-scale sofware project, in a team,”
commented Head of Development David Yates.
“We’re making a conscious efort to use the
sort of development collaboration tools that
companies use in the industry for our game.
It’s the sort of practical experience you largely
don’t get in coursework.”
Computer Science lecturer Yusuf Motara was
quite positive about the project. As an advisor
for the team, Motara believes that the experi-
ence will help the team once they embark on
careers. “It’s always nice to go to a company
with a sizable portfolio. Being part of the crea-
tion of a nice, polished game is a nice bonus.”
Experienced video game journalist and ITF
Gaming co-owner Brady Ruiters was also posi-
tive about the project. “I can honestly say that
a card game based on university life at Rhodes
was the the last thing I was expecting to see.
However, it sounds like it could defnitely yield
some interesting results,” he said.
Despite the technical nature of the project
undertaken by RUCUS, Yates believes that
anyone can get involved in making a computer
game. “I urge people from all backgrounds
who’ve never thought about making a game to
give it a bit of thought,” he said.
“Tere are loads of excellent resources for
easy development, and you can use many of
them without knowing the frst thing about
programming.” Te development team is still
looking for enthusiastic designers and con-
tributors of many varieties.
If you are interested in getting involved, contact
David Yates at rucus.gamedev@gmail.com.
Instead of killing fantasy
creatures, players of the
game will be competing
with their opponents to
earn their degree.

Khanyi Mlaba
News Features
W
hen Professor Martin
Hill stood in the front of
a lecture theatre to speak
about biological control, the last
thing the audience expected was to
be laughing at his witticisms. “I hope
I’m entertaining; I personally fnd
myself incredibly funny,” he said.
Hill, entomologist and recent father
of two, received two of this year’s Vice
Chancellor’s Distinguished Awards:
one for Research and one for Com-
munity Engagement. Deputy Vice -
Chancellor Dr Sizwe Mabizela stressed
that winning two distinguished awards
for the same project and in the same
year was a very rare accomplishment.
“It’s something that has not happened
since the nineties,” said Mabizela.
Hill and his team received the
awards for their work on aquatic weeds
– an issue that afecting many coun-
tries. Te weeds have been congesting
crucial waterways and there is a large
cost each year to control them because
they are difcult to remove. Tey
prevent recreational use of freshwater
systems, lead to the loss of water from
storage systems, and negatively afect
freshwater ecosystems when the weeds
occur in high densities. Te solution to
the problem comes in the form of bio-
logical control, which basically means
using natural agents to solve a problem
created by invasive plant species.
Te community employs the use of
small insects which feed on the weeds
to clear the water from alien species.
“You don’t have to be big to be power-
ful, you just have to be numerous,” said
Hill, explaining the efectiveness of the
insects.
Te initiative started in Kenya and
has made its way back to South Africa.
Te system is so simple that com-
munities can farm their own insects
and cleanse their own water. “What
is great is that it’s the community that
has been impacted by this weed, and
it is the community that is taking
control to eliminate it,” said Hill. Hill
aims to bring entomology and biology
to the fore through this participatory
community involvement. “It’s about
partnership, not charity. We can bring
certain things to the table, but the
community also helps a great deal,” he
explained.
Te project has created jobs for
some disabled residents as well as
internship programmes for local Gra-
hamstown schools. “Professor Hill and
his team are one of the examples of the
positive contribution you can make in
society,” said Mabizela. Hill said that he
did not expect much recognition from
the University because he was just do-
ing two things that he loves: entomo-
logical research and helping people.
“Use your skills in an appropriate way,
use what you have to help others and
let others help you,” Hill added.
Although he and his team have
received extensive praise due to their
work, Hill remains humble. “I’m just
fortunate in that I do my hobby for a
living, that’s all.”
Professor Martin Hill is the latest
recipient of two separate Vice-Chan-
cellor awards. Photo: SHEILA DAVID
Artistic environment at AfrikaBurn
Right: Subterfuge: “the size, the
aggressive shapes and the piercing
of the earth of the piece refer
to the potential damage done
by fracking and other industrial
exploitation of the Karoo. The
juxtaposed soft blending in colour
of the piece as well as its foating
appearance at night refers to the
attempted sugar-coating of such
industrial ventures.”
Photos: GABRIELLA FREGONA
RUCUS ventures into
game development
Big Machunt: A sacrifcial
piece featured at AfrikaBurn as
commentary to consumerism. Professor Hill and
his team are one
of the examples
of the positive
contribution
you can make
in society.

- Deputy Vice-Chancellor
Dr Sizwe Mabizela
Sports
Muhammad Hussain
T
he Rhodes Hockey First XI
completed their frst Varsity
Cup hockey tournament over
the weekend ending 18 May. Despite
the fact that they started the tourna-
ment as the underdogs, the Rhodes
team eventually ended the tourna-
ment with three draws - two against
the University of Witwatersrand
(Wits) and one against the University
of Cape Town (UCT).
In the frst game of the fnal week-
end the team lost 3-5 to the University
of Stellenbosch (Maties) with goals
from Matthew Hunter, Timothy West-
wood and top goal scorer for Rhodes
University, Darryn van Huyssteen. Van
Huyssteen described, “playing under
constant pressure and with such
intensity as something to relish” and
added that the spirit for every game
was phenomenal.
Rhodes’ second game was a play-of
for seventh against Wits which saw the
boys in purple notching up a 2-2 draw
thanks to van Huyssteen and SA U/18
player Cody van Wyk, who scored his
second goal of the tournament. “It was
quite a nice feeling as a midfelder to
score two Varsity Cup goals,” said van
Wyk proudly.
Despite not being able to win any of
their games, it is evident that the team
has made considerable improvements
over the three weekends during which
the tournament was held.
In the fnal weekend they scored fve
goals in two games - the same number
of goals that they scored over the
frst two weekends combined. “Tis
weekend we played our best hockey of
the tournament,” commented captain
Brendon Smith.
“Individually each person learnt
a lot about his game,” Smith contin-
ued. “As a team we learnt to play well
together and build chemistry. It was a
learning curve.”
Van Huyssteen also emphasised
this team spirit. “Te boys played with
tremendous passion and fght, each
and every game,” he said.
Te Varsity Cup hockey tournament
takes place every year and alternates
between the women’s and men’s
sections. To keep their place in the
tournament, teams need to stay within
the top eight at the annual University
Sports South Africa (USSA) Tourna-
ment which is held in July. Smith said
that the next challenge for the First
XI is two-fold: to win the local league,
which kicks of on Sunday 25 May, and
to stay in the top fight of USSA.
Rhodes Hockey round-up
Douglas Smith
Benny Gondwe is nearing the
completion of his frst semester
at Rhodes University, and if all
goes according to plan it will also
be his last semester. Afer his frst
attempt was cut short, the young
soccer wizard hopes to leave South
Africa once more in order to pur-
sue his dream of playing profes-
sionally in the UK.
Last year Gondwe, who is study-
ing towards his Bachelor of Arts
in HKE this year, decided to throw
caution to the wind and fnd out
just how far he could take his soccer
career. He moved to Birmingham,
England where he attempted to
break into the professional soccer
scene. “I decided that I would rather
come home having tried and failed,
and know where I stand with my
football,” Gondwe explained.
He managed to secure a try-out
with local club Bromsgrove Sporting
FC and this initial evaluation then
developed into a trial period which
lasted three months. “Players were
coming in around me and getting
contracts in as little as two weeks,
so at that point I began to question
whether or not I was going to make
it,” Gondwe explained.
However, the coaching staf as-
sured him that his eforts were not
going unnoticed and he was eventu-
ally ofered a contract. Tis was
largely due to Gondwe’s continued
hard work and impeccable training
attendance record.
Gondwe says that he admires the
way that English players are coached
and conditioned from youth teams
up to frst teams. “In the UK, profes-
sionalism is drilled into players from
a young age, but in South Africa
players only take things seriously
if they hope to play professionally,”
said Gondwe.
Gondwe’s own professionalism
and talent impressed the coaching
staf of the club and he began earn-
ing a regular spot in the match-day
team - a dream come true afer
a year of climbing up the ranks.
Unfortunately, by November 2013
his one-year Visa had expired.
Tat is why Gondwe decided to
enrol at Rhodes, in order to get on
with his life in case he was not able
to return to England. However, he
still hopes to go back - albeit not
to Bromsgrove Sporting FC. Even
though he thoroughly enjoyed his
time with the club, Gondwe was im-
pressed by what he saw in the Eng-
lish university leagues while he was
in Birmingham. In April this year,
he received an ofer to attend the
University of Bedfordshire to play
soccer when their new academic
year begins in September.
If all goes well, this will qualify
Gondwe for a student Visa and he
will be able to pick up where he lef
of last November. Until then, he will
continue to feature for the Rhodes
First XI in the USSA qualifers and
for the Phoenix Knights in the Inter-
nal League.
A well-shaped column: Gondwe
earns opportunity abroad
Benny Gondwe is looking to pur-
sue a professional football career in
the UK. Photo: SUPPLIED

I decided that I would
rather come home
having tried and
failed, and know
where I stand with my
football.
- Benny Gondwe
Gabi Bellairs-Lombard and Kimara Singh
Both the Rhodes men’s and women’s soccer teams suf-
fered slight setbacks in their last round of University
Sports South Africa (USSA) qualifcation matches against
Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU) on 18
May. However, the teams remain positive going into the
next round of fxtures which are scheduled for next term.
Te Rhodes women’s team has had a number of fxtures
cancelled this semester which has had a negative efect on
the team. Tese cancellations have been due to opponents
not being registered with the league in time or having
missed scheduled fxtures entirely.
Coupled with the fact that they have lost the only two
games that they have played this year, the women’s team’s
chances of qualifying seem slim.
However, women’s team coach Brynmor Heemro said,
“Te overall team morale is good and the players acknowl-
edge that there has been improvement since last year in both
coaching and playing.”
Heemro hopes that aspects like improved communication
and composure on the ball for the women’s side will result in
well-rounded performances in the next round of fxtures.
“Te team has been getting stronger and I could see we
refused to give up when we were down against NMMU, but
we have to work a lot harder in order to reach our goals and
dominate in important games,” captain of the women’s soc-
cer team Oshoveli Kukuri said.
Te Rhodes men’s side have not done much better this
year. During the most recent round of matches they sufered
a narrow 1-0 loss to NMMU, who currently sit at the top of
the log with ten points. Rhodes is currently ffh with four
points, but with a few games remaining they still have the
chance to move up in the table.
Captain of the men’s soccer team Artwell Marazani was
satisfed with his team’s performance in the frst round of
fxtures, but voiced his opinion on the penalty decision that
cost them the game against NMMU. “Te decision mentally
disturbed the players, but I hope we learn from this and
grow in confdence,” he said.
Newly appointed head-coach Samkelo Papu added, “I do
not know how the players were in previous years, but all I
can say is that our players have shown impressive character
in every game they’ve played so far.” He also explained that
the men are playing in the Local Football Association (LFA)
league this year to keep players on top of their game.
Wins in the next round of fxtures are extremely impor-
tant for both teams. Maximum points from their next few
games will be vital if either of the men’s or women’s soccer
teams are to qualify for USSA.
Rhodes soccer teams remain positive despite setbacks
The Rhodes Hockey First XI team after their frst Varsity Cup hockey tourna-
ment on 18 May. Photo: DARRYN VAN HUYSSTEEN
Categories
Applications open 1 July 2014
Forms available on www.oppidanpress.com
Apply for the annual Investec-Rhodes Top 100 Awards!
4. Sports Award
5. Community Engagement Award
6. Academic Excellence Award
7. Commerce and Finance Award
1. Dean of Students Leadership Award
2. General Excellence Award
3. Arts, Culture, Media and Society Award
Lecturers fred
for plagiarism
Teach-In 2014
talks elections
Flourishing
micro-farms
3 4 10

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