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ChapLer 2
8ellglous ulverslLy
Colden 8ule
Clobal LLhlcs
Secularlsm
laLo: LuLhyphro
ls someLhlng rlghL because
Cod commands lL?
Cr does Cod command lL
because lL ls rlghL?
laLo LuLhyphro
And Lherefore, LuLhyphro,
you may be dolng whaL ls
agreeable Lo Zeus buL
dlsagreeable Lo Cronos or
uranus, and whaL ls
accepLable Lo PephaesLus
buL unaccepLable Lo Pera,
and Lhere may be oLher
gods who have slmllar
dlerences of oplnlon.
Can Lhere be unlLy?
ulverse gods (polyLhelsm)
ulverslLy of rellglons
ulverslLy of lnLerpreLauons of rellglon
ulverslLy of commands wlLhln rellglon
WhaL ls Lhe 1ruLh? WhaL ls Lhe eLhlcal core?
Candhl, 8ellglon and 1ruLh"
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M.k. Candhl
1869-1948
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Candhl: Llvlng ower and MysLery
8ellglon LhaL underlles rellglon
lndenable mysLerlous power LhaL pervades
everyLhlng
A llvlng power LhaL ls changeless and holds all
LogeLher, creaLes, dlssolves, and re-creaLe
Candhl: Love and urlLy
1hls power ls purely
benevolenL"
Cod ls love
1o know Cod one musL
sLruggle agalnsL evll
Lhe purer l Lry Lo become Lhe
nearer Lo Cod l feel myself Lo
be."
Candhl: lalLh and unlLy
8eyond 8eason = lalLh
8eyond Lhe senses
8uL auesLed Lo by propheLs and sages ln all
counLrles and cllmes
Candhl: Cod dened
Cod ls:
1ruLh
Love
LLhlcs and morallLy
Consclence
Candhl: Colden 8ule
1o see Lhe unlversal and all-pervadlng SplrlL
of 1ruLh face Lo face one musL be able Lo love
Lhe meanesL of creauon as oneself"
ldenucauon wlLh everyLhlng LhaL llves ls
lmposslble wlLhouL self-purlcauon"

Candhl: Cod ln Servlce
l am endeavorlng Lo see
Cod Lhrough servlce of
humanlLy, for l know Cod
ls nelLher ln heaven, nor
down below, buL ln every
one."
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Candhl: Parmonlzlng Lhe world's
rellglons
1rue Moral 8ellglon harmonlzes" Lhe world's
rellglons
8ellglons are dlerenL roads converglng Lo
Lhe same polnL. WhaL does lL mauer LhaL we
Lake dlerenL roads, so long as we reach Lhe
same goal?"
All rellglons are Lrue, all rellglons have some
error ln Lhem."
Candhl: ulverslLy ls normal
ln Cod's house Lhere are
many manslons and Lhey are
equally holy."
8ellglous dlerence because
rellglons appeal Lo our
dlerenL LemperamenLs and
cllmaLes
Candhl: Moral Sense ls prlmary
l decllne Lo be bound by
any lnLerpreLauon,
however learned lL may
be, lf lL ls repugnanL Lo
reason or moral sense"
Mlchael lgnaue: Clobal LLhlc(s)
b. 1947
Can we agree upon a
global eLhlc amld
dlverslLy?
ls global eLhlc(s)
slngular or plural?
Pow do we deal wlLh
rellglon?
lgnaue: Clobal eLhlcs
slngular and plural
8ased ln naLural law": old as phllosophy lLself
A slngular ldeal-of a unlversal eLhlcal framework
8ased ln lnLernauonal law (un, Ceneva
Convenuons, eLc.)
Conlcung and conLradlcLory-Lhe resulL of
compromlses
lural sources, lnsuLuuons, and goals
lgnaue: roblem of 8ellglons
lnLerfalLh and ecumenlcal
auempLs Lo relmaglne a global
eLhlcs

8u1: rellglon ls conLesLable

8ecall laLo's LuLhyphro
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lgnaue: ulvlne Command problem
WhaL ls conLesLable ls noL merely wheLher
Lhe AlmlghLy exlsLs ln any form, buL wheLher
eLhlcal sysLems depend for Lhelr valldlLy on
Pls or Per commands. Many rellglous and
splrlLual sysLems lnslsL LhaL eLhlcal duLy Lakes
Lhe form of a dlvlne command, buL noL all
eLhlcal sysLems do. lndeed, many of Lhe
human values LhaL orlenL and gulde human
conducL have no dlvlne or meLaphyslcal
foundauon."
lgnaue: Secular loundauons
An eLhlc can have
secular foundauons
wlLhouL maklng nal
clalms abouL Lhe LruLh of
Lhese foundauons."
Puman lacLs
need for love
Abhorrence of
undeserved cruelLy
lgnaue: Agree and ulsagree
Agree we have human rlghLs and unlversal
obllgauons
8uL dlsagree abouL why-and how Lhese
values are grounded
8eachlng ouL Lo common ground, whlle
agreelng Lo dlsagree abouL Lhe clalm LhaL
eLhlcal conducL musL be derlved from a
splrlLual or rellglous duLy"
lgnaue: 8rackeung uarwln
LLhlcs could have naLural/blologlcal
explanauon
8uL Lhls ls conLesLable Loo
SC: brackeL uarwln along wlLh rellglon
lgnaue: 1hree ConlcLs
1. ulsagreemenL among moral communlues
abouL Lhe conLenL of Lhe good
2. ulsagreemenL wlLhln moral communlues
abouL whaL shared prlnclples requlre
3. ulsagreemenL abouL whaL shared prlnclples
(across communlues) requlre
lganaue: ConlcLs wlll remaln
!usuce v. uemocracy
!usuce v. Mercy
LlberLy v. LquallLy
Clven Lhese anunomles, lL ls noL obvlous how
a global eLhlc can be an lnLernally conslsLenL
nonconLradlcLory rank orderlng of moral
goods."
8u1: Lhe goal ls Lo open a global dlscusslon
abouL how Lo deal wlLh Lhese conlcLs
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lgnaue: Crluclze 8ellglous and oLher
AuLhorlues
8ellglons are obllged Lo
[usufy Lhemselves
ulscard Lhe ldea LhaL
rellglously based moral
vlews are superlor
dlscard Lhe ldea LhaL any
one value Lrumps anoLher
by vlrLue of lLs assoclauon
wlLh any klnd of auLhorlLy."
lgnaue: Common 8eason and
Adversarlal !usucauon
Adversarlal !usucauon: Lo argue
and persuade ln open dlscusslon
ln a globallzed world, Lhe facL of
adversarlal [usucauon ls
unavoldable because Lhe
parucular and Lhe unlversal do
noL llve ln dlsconnecLed bell [ars"
lgnaue: Lxample of lCC
lCC: lemale CenlLal
Cumng" (lCM)
noL abouL mlsslonary
converslon away from
polygamy or paLrlarchy
8uL shorL Lerm, local, and
llmlLed dlscusslon
lgnaue: racucal balance beLween
Clobal and Local
Clobal = vlew from nowhere"
Local = vlew from
somewhere"
ulalogue (#0:&'5#',#+
;<58=4#8./) balances Lhese
Can Lhere be a common
sLandard agreed Lo by all,
from whlch Lo begln Lhe
dlalogue?

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