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## DECEMBER 2013 COMMON TEST

School of Life Sciences & Chemical Technology
(Diploma in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering)
Level 2 Time Allowed: 1.5 Hours

TRANSFER PROCESSES - FLUID FLOW

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:

2. The following tables and charts are appended as Appendices 1 to 4.
Chart A - Friction Factor Chart (Appendix 1)
Table A - Constants and Coefficients (Appendix 2)
Table B - Formulae & Equations (Appendix 3)
Table C - Properties of water (Appendix 4)

3. This paper consists of 7 pages including this cover page. Check carefully to
make sure your set is complete.

QUESTION 1 (20 marks)

1.1 A pipeline of 100 mm diameter conveying water at a velocity of 2.5 m/s
branches into two pipes of 50 mm and 75 mm as shown in Figure 1.1. If the
velocity in the 75 mm pipe is 1.8 m/s, determine the velocity of flow in the 50
mm pipe and the total flow rate in 100 mm pipe.

Figure 1.1
(10 marks)

1.2 Water at 25C flows at the rate of 0.25 m
3
/s through a 200 mm diameter pipe.
The pipe enlarges suddenly to 450 mm diameter. Further downstream the
pipe diameter contract suddenly to 250 mm diameter as shown Figure 1.2.
Calculate
(a) the head loss due to the sudden expansion
(b) the head loss due to the sudden contraction
(c) the head losses at the entrance from and the exit to the water tanks.
2

Figure 1.2
(10 marks)

QUESTION 2 (20 marks)

2.1 If 30 litres of a liquid has a mass of 15 kg, determine its mass density, weight
density and specific gravity.
(6 marks)

2.2 Water at 20C flows out of a tank through a siphon formed by a bent pipe, 25
mm in diameter as shown in Figure 2.1. The pipe discharges into the
atmosphere at C. The absolute atmospheric pressure is 101.325 kN/m
2
. The
energy loss in the whole length of the pipe is equivalent to a total of
[60(v
2
/2g)] m head of water. Calculate
(a) the volumetric flow rate through the pipe
(b) the absolute pressure at B.

B

9 m

A
2 m

0.4 m 5 m

C
Figure 2.1
(14 marks)

QUESTION 3 (20 marks)

3.1 A pipe of 25 mm diameter carries water at 35C flowing with a velocity of 1.6
m/s. Calculate the Reynolds number and determine the type of flow.
(6 marks)

3

3.2 Water at 30C flows in a 250 mm diameter wrought iron pipeline over a
distance of 2.5 km with a velocity of 1.4 m/s. The pipeline contains fittings as
follows: two fully open gate valves, two swing check valves, seven 90
standard elbows, and three long radius 90 elbows. Calculate:
(a) the head loss due to friction in the pipeline
(b) the head loss due to all the fittings using equivalent length method
(14 marks)

QUESTION 4 (20 marks)

(6 marks)

4.2 A pipeline is designed to convey water flowing at 25C from Upper Peirce
Reservoir to Lower Peirce Reservoir as shown in Figure 4.1. The difference in
water level between the two reservoirs is 15 m and the length of the pipeline
is 13 km. The total localised fittings losses amount to [10(V
2
/2g)]. The
entrance from and exit to the reservoirs are sharp. Determine the volumetric
flow rate if the diameter of the coated cast iron pipeline is 500 mm.

Figure 4.1
(14 marks)

4

Appendix 1

Chart A: Friction Factor Chart (Source: Mott, R. L., Applied Fluid Mechanics, 6
th

edition, 2006)

5

Appendix 2
Table A: Constants and Coefficients

Universal Constants
Acceleration due to gravity 9.81 m/s
2

Specific gravity of mercury 13.6
Standard atmospheric pressure 101.325 kN/m
2
absolute value
Universal gas constant 8.314 kJ/kmol-K

Recommended Roughness Values of e (in mm)
Spun iron 0.03
Wrought iron 0.05
Uncoated steel 0.03
Coated steel 0.06
Galvanised iron 0.15
Coated cast iron 0.12
Cast iron 0.25
Concrete (class 4) 0.15
Concrete (class 3) 0.60
Concrete (class 2) 1.50
Concrete (class 1) 3.00

Loss Coefficients for Pipe Fittings
Fittings Values of
D
L
e

Coefficients, k
Screwed ends Flanged ends
Globe Valve Fully Open
Conventional
Y-Pattern

400 10 5
160 4 2
Gate Valve
Fully Open
75% Open
50% Open
25% Open

13 0.2 0.1
35 1 0.5
260 5.6 2.8
900 24 12
Tee line flow 20 0.9 0.2
Tee Branch branch flow 60 2 1
Standard 90 elbow 30 0.9 0.3
Standard 45 elbow 16 0.4 0.2
Long radius 90 elbow 20 0.6 0.2
Return Bend 50 2.2 0.4
Standard 45bend 15 0.2
Swing Check Valve 135 2.5
Plug Valve 18 0.324
Ball Valve Fully Open 3 0.05
Angle valve Fully Open 145 5
Foot valve 75 15
Butterfly valves 40 0.4
6

Appendix 3
Table B: Formulae & Equations

Energy Equation

Reynolds No

Venturi meter

)
[(

]

Orifice meter

)
[ (

]

Pitot-static tube:

()

()

Single stage isothermal compressor:

)
Single stage compressor:

Multi-stage Compressors (Inter-stage
cooling) Optimum compression ratio
(

Multi-stage Compressors

) [(

) [(

]
Pump Affinity Laws

Pump Impeller Size

()

Pump Specific Speed

()
Hydraulic
Power

Pump Efficiency
(

)

7

Appendix 4
Table C Properties of water

Properties of water at various temperatures
Temperature (C) Density (kg/m
3
) Dynamic Viscosity (Ns/m
2
)
0 1000 1.79 X 10
-3

5 1000 1.52 X 10
-3

10 1000 1.31 X 10
-3

15 999 1.14 X 10
-3

20 998 1.00 X 10
-3

25 997 0.89 X 10
-3

30 996 0.80 X 10
-3

35 994 0.72 X 10
-3

40 992 0.65 X 10
-3

45 990 0.60 X 10
-3

50 988 0.55 X 10
-3

55 986 0.51 X 10
-3

60 983 0.469 X 10
-3

65 980 0.437 X 10
-3

70 978 0.406 X 10
-3

75 975 0.380 X 10
-3

80 972 0.356 X 10
-3

85 969 0.335 X 10
-3

90 965 0.316 X 10
-3

95 962 0.299 X 10
-3

100 958 0.284 X 10
-3

END OF PAPER

1

JUNE 2013 COMMON TEST

School of Life Sciences & Chemical Technology
(Diploma in Environmental & Water Technology)

Level 2 Time Allowed: 1.5 Hours

TRANSFER PROCESSES - FLUID FLOW

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:

2. The following tables and charts are appended as Appendices 1 to 3.
Chart A - Friction Factor Chart (Appendix 1)
Table A - Constants and Coefficients (Appendix 2)
Table B - Useful Formulae (Appendix 3)

3. This paper consists of 6 pages including this cover page. Check carefully to
make sure your set is complete.

QUESTION 1 (30 marks)

(a) Calculate the density and the specific gravity of 24 litres of a liquid having a
mass of 18 kg.

(b) Oil flows at the rate of 3 L/s through a 50 mm diameter pipe which expand
suddenly to 75 mm diameter pipe. Further downstream the pipe contract
suddenly to a 35 mm diameter pipe. Calculate:
(i) head loss due to the sudden expansion
(ii) head loss due to the sudden contraction

(c) A pipeline of 250 mm diameter carrying water at an average velocity of 3.5
m/s branches into two pipes of 150 mm and 200 mm diameters. If the average
velocity in the 150 mm pipe is 2 m/s, determine the average velocity of flow in
the 200 mm pipe and the total flow rate in the 250 mm diameter pipe.

2

QUESTION 2 (20 marks)

(a) Water flows in a 250 mm diameter pipeline between pumps with a velocity of
1.7 m/s and a frictional factor of 0.02. The pipe contains fittings as follows:
three fully open gate valves, two check valve, six 90
0
standard elbows and
0
elbows. Calculate the head loss due to all the fittings
using equivalent length method.

(b) Water flows at a rate of 15 L/s in a horizontal galvanised iron pipe of 200 mm
diameter. If the pipe is of uniform diameter, determine head loss due to
frictional resistance in 400 m length of pipe? What is the pressure drop in this
length of pipe?

QUESTION 3 (20 marks)

(a) A pipe of diameter 75 mm carries water at a flow rate of 8 L/s for a distance of
20 m. The pressure in the pipe at the upstream end is 25 kPa and at the
downstream end the pipe has decreased in elevation by 1.5 m. Assuming the
2
/2g) per meter length of pipe, Calculate the pressure at the
downstream end.

(b) Oil with specific gravity 0.8 is pump through a uniform 30 mm diameter pipe at
a flow rate of 0.03 m
3
/s. Calculate the pump head required given that the total
head loss in the system is 15 m. Neglect all other head losses in the system.

oil
oil
P= 45 kPa
Pressurized

pump

8
m
3
m

S.G = 0.8
4 m ID
5 m ID
S.G = 0.8
3

QUESTION 4 (10 marks)

A pump is used to pump oil of specific gravity 0.85 and dynamic viscosity 0.006
Pa.s as shown in Figure b e l o w. Oi l is pumped from tank and discharged to
the atmosphere through a 100 mm diameter pipeline, 150 m long commercial steel
pipe. The oil level in tank is 8 m below the discharge point to the atmosphere. The
oil in the tank i s open t o t he atmospheric pressure. The entrance f r om t he
t ank to the pipe is sharp-edged and all fitting head loss in the piping system is 7
2
/2g). If the head developed by the pump is 30 m,
calculate discharge from the pipe in m
3
/s.

8 m
4

Appendix 1

Chart A: Friction Factor Chart (Source: Mott, R. L., Applied Fluid Mechanics, 6
th

edition, 2006)

5

Appendix 2
Table A: Constants and Coefficients

Constants
Acceleration due to gravity 9.81 m/s
2

Specific gravity of mercury 13.6
Water density 1000 kg/m
3

Water viscosity 0.001 Ns/m
2

Standard atmospheric pressure 101.325 KN/m
2
absolute value

Loss Coefficients for Pipe Fittings
Values of
D
L
e
Loss Coefficients, k
Fittings
D
L
e
Screwed ends Flanged ends
Globe Valve
Conventional
Y-Pattern

400 10 5
160
Gate Valve
Fully Open
75% Open
50% Open
25% Open

10 0.2 0.1
35
150
900
Standard Tee Run 10 0.9 0.2
Standard Tee Branch 60 2 1
90Standard Elbow 30 0.9 0.3
45Standard Elbow 16 0.4 0.2
90
o
Long Radius Elbow 20 0.6 0.2
Return Bend 50 2.2 0.4
Check Valve 50 2.5
Plug Valve 18 0.324
Ball Valve (Fully
Open)
3
0.05
Angle valve 55 5
Foot valve 75 1.5

Loss coefficients for sudden contraction K
c

## 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

K
c
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

6

Appendix 3
Table B: Formulae

Energy Equation

Reynolds No

Orifice meter

)
[(

]

Venturi meter

Pitot-static tube:

Sudden contraction (entrance loss)

Sudden expansion (exit loss)

pipe channel)

pipe channel)

Single stage isothermal compressor:

)
Single stage compressor:

Multi-stage Compressors
Optimum compression ratio
(

Multi-stage Compressors

) [(

) [(

]
Pump Affinity Laws

Pump Impeller Size

()

Pump Specific Speed

()
Pump Power

Pump Efficiency
(

)

END OF PAPER