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InterMath

Title: Mystery Quadrilaterals: Classify a quadrilateral by making measurements in a dynamic


construction
Problem Statement
Some quadrilaterals have special names because they have some special properties. For example, a
rectangle is any quadrilateral with four right angles. lternately, a rectangle is a parallelogram with ! right
angle "Can you explain why#$ square is %more special% than a rectangle because it has four right angles
and four equal sides
"so a square is a
special rectangle.$
&ach of the 'eometer(s Sketchpad files below contains a different quadrilateral. )our goal is to use your
knowledge about quadrilateral properties and the Measure menu in 'eometer(s Sketchpad to determine
the MOST specific name of each quadrilateral.
Be careful! ll of the quadrilaterals will look like squares, but only one of them will actually be a square.
*ustify each of your responses by including properties of the quadrilateral that make it unique.
+ystery ,uadrilateral !
+ystery ,uadrilateral -
+ystery ,uadrilateral .
+ystery ,uadrilateral /
+ystery ,uadrilateral 0
+ystery ,uadrilateral 1
Problem setup
I am trying to determine which of the mystery quadrilaterals is a square. I predict that mystery quadrilateral 1
will be a square. Since all of the quadrilaterals look like squares, using the distinctive properties of specific
quadrilaterals will be vital.
Plans to Solve/Investigate the Problem
Using GS, I will measure and compare all four angles of each quadrilateral. I will also measure the length of
each side and compare. In addition, I will research the specific properties of quadrilaterals in order to
distinguish each one.
Investigation/Exploration of the Problem
I first measured the angles and sides of each quadrilateral and made comparisons. I then investigated the
properties of quadrilaterals and began to classify each. I also needed to investigate how to show that sides are
parallel mathematically.
!uadrilateral Sides "ngles arallel #ther
arallelogram #pposite sides
equal
#pposite angles
equal
#pposite sides
parallel
$hombus % equal sides #pposite angles
equal
#pposite sides
parallel
$ectangle #pposite sides
equal
"ll angles are
right angles&'(
degrees
#pposite sides
parallel
Square % equal sides "ll angles are
right angles
#pposite sides
parallel
)rape*oid + sides are
parallel
,ite "d-acent sides
equal
.iagonals are
perpendicular&
#ne line of
symmetry
Slope / since slope is a measure of the angle of a line from hori*ontal and since parallel lines must have the
same angles, parallel lines have the same slope and line that have the same slope are parallel. 01eb site2
2
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10 -5 5
j
BC
AD
k
mBAD = 90.00
mCBA = 91.00
mDCB = 89.01
mADC = 89.99
Sl ope AD = -1.76
Sl ope j = 0.57
Sl ope BC = -1.69
Sl ope k = 0.57
AD = 4.17 cm
k = 4.24 cm
BC = 4.17 cm
j = 4.17 cm
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MYSTERY
QUADRILATERAL 1
D
C
A
B
!uadrilateral 1 has 3 equal sides "., -, and 45. . )he measure of the angles is all different. )here is one right
angle which is angle 4".. )wo opposite sides 0- and k 2 are parallel because they have the same slope. I
conclude that this is a trape*oid.
6
4
2
-2
-4
-5 5
j
2
!
s
Sl ope s = -15.79
Sl ope ! = 0.06
Sl ope 2 = -15.79
Sl ope j = 0.06
mBAD = 90.00
mCBA = 90.00
mDCB = 90.00
mADC = 90.00
j = 5.86 cm
s = 5.91 cm
! = 5.86 cm
2 = 5.91 cm
Thi s templte i s p!t o" the #$te!%th p!oj ect& c!ete' () the *$i +e!si t) o" ,eo!-i .
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%3ST453 6*AD5#7AT45A7 2
D
C
A
B

!uadrilateral + has % right angles. I know this because they all measure '( degrees. )he opposite sides "4
and .5 are equal. #pposite sides are parallel because "4 and .5 have the same slope as well as ". and 45.
I conclude by definition that this is a rectangle. It cannot be a square because all four sides are not equal.
6
4
2
-2
-4
-10 -5 5
p o
CB
m
Sl ope o = 2.98
Sl ope p = -0.84
Sl ope m = 2.98
Sl ope CB = -0.84
mBAC = 90.00
mDBA = 90.00
mACD = 90.00
mBAC = 90.00
p = 4.71 cm
o = 4.71 cm
CB = 4.71 cm
m = 4.71 cm
%3ST453 6*AD5#7AT45A7 8
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B
C
D
A
!uadrilateral 3 has % right angles. )hey all measure '( degrees. )he sides all measure the same length of %.61
c.m. 4oth pairs of opposite sides0 54 and p& m and o2 are parallel because they have the same slope. 4y
definition, this is a square.
6
4
2
-2
-4
-10 -5 5
BA BC
CD
k
Sl ope CD = 0.82
Sl ope k = -1.17
Sl ope BA = 0.82
Sl ope BC = -1.17
mDAB = 89.00
mCDA = 91.00
mBCD = 89.00
mABC = 91.00
BC = 8.92 cm
BA = 8.92 cm
k = 8.92 cm
CD = 8.92 cm
This templte is p!t o" the #$te!%th p!oject& c!ete' () the *$i+e!sit)
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MYSTERY
QUADRILATERAL 4
D
C
A
B
!uadrilateral % has % equal sides. )hey all measure 3.'+ c.m. )here are no right angles. 7owever, opposite
angles are equal. "ngle 45. and angle ."4 both measure 8' degrees. "ngle "45 and "ngle 5." both
measure '1 degrees. #pposite sides are parallel because the opposite sides have the same slope. )his is a
rhombus.
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-3 -2 -1 1 2 3
m
AB
l
n
Sl ope l = -7.92
Sl ope $ = 0.11
Sl ope m = -7.92
Sl ope AB = 0.11
mCAB = 89.06
mDCA = 90.94
mBDC = 89.06
mABD = 90.94
$ = 2.80 i$.
l = 2.25 i$.
AB = 2.80 i$.
m = 2.25 i$.
%3ST453
6*AD5#7AT45A7 5
Thi s templte i s p!t o" the #$te!%th p!oj ect& c!ete' () the *$i +e!si t) o" ,eo!-i .
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http/00111.i $te!mth-.-.-tech.e'.0
D
C
A
B
!uadrilateral 9 has no right angles because none of them measures '( degrees. Sides m and l are opposite sides
and are equal because they both measure +.+9 inches. Sides "4 and n are opposites and equal because they
measure +.3( in. #pposite angles are equal. #pposite sides are parallel because they have the same slope. )his
is a parallelogram.
4
2
-2
-4
-6
-5 5
AD
CD
AB
BC
Sl ope CD = -5.79
Sl ope BC = 0.14
Sl ope AB = -5.47
Sl ope AD = 0.15
mDAB = 88.42
mCDA = 91.00
mBCD = 88.42
mABC = 92.15
CD = 4.27 cm
AD = 4.27 cm
AB = 4.28 cm
BC = 4.28 cm
This templte is p!t o" the #$te!%th p!oject& c!ete' () the *$i+e!sit)
o" ,eo!-i.
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http/00111.i$te!mth-.-.-tech.e'.0
MYSTERY
QUADRILATERAL 6
B
C
A
D
Quadrilateral 6 has two pairs of sides that are equal The sides !" and #" are ad$a%ent and equal and
measure &'( %m )# and !) are also equal sides that are ad$a%ent The* both measure &'+ %m There
are no right angles, however- there is one pair of opposite angles. !ngle )#" and !ngle "!)/ that both
measure 00&' degrees There are no parallel sides be%ause the slopes are all different This is a 1ite
:;tensions of the roblem
:;plore some overlapping relationships by answering the following questions< 1hy is the relationship between
a square and a rectangle= 1hy is the relationship between a rectangle and a parallelogram= 1hy is the
relationship between a rhombus and a parallelogram=
$ectangle #pposite sides
equal
"ll angles are
right angles&'(
degrees
#pposite sides
parallel
Square % equal sides "ll angles are
right angles
#pposite sides
parallel
>" square is a special type of rectangle.
arallelogram #pposite sides
equal
#pposite angles
equal
#pposite sides
parallel
$ectangle #pposite sides
equal
"ll angles are
right angles&'(
degrees
#pposite sides
parallel
>" rectangle is a special case of a parallelogram
arallelogram #pposite sides
equal
#pposite angles
equal
#pposite sides
parallel
$hombus % equal sides #pposite angles
equal
#pposite sides
parallel
>" rhombus is a special case of a parallelogram with four equal sides
!uthor 2 #onta%t
5hantel ?ewis
chantel@lewisAputnam.k1+.ga.us
GS 5onnection< Students must understand quadrilaterals and the properties that make them unique.
GS<
B9G1. Students will understand congruence of geometric figures and the correspondence of their vertices,
sides, and angles.
B9+. Students will investigate, develop, and evaluate mathematical arguments.
B93. Students will use the language of mathematics to e;press ideas precisely.
3in1.s/ to resour%es- referen%es- lesson plans- and/or other materials
http<&&www.onlinemathlearning.com&quadrilaterals.html
http<&&www.purplemath.com&modules&slope+.html
Important Note: Cou should compose your write/up targeting an audience in mind rather than -ust the
instructor for the course. Cou are creating a page to publish it on the web.