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Lama Hamoudeh 10/17/11

BIOL 3350 Unit 3 Review


1. Where are the location openings of the coronary arteries? Aorta, above the aortic valve.
2. Describe the event that happens during ventricle systole. The opening of the semi lunar valve.
3. What is meant by Preload work of the heart? The amount or volume the heart pumps before systole.
4. Describe Pulse Pressure, and what if any type of medication might be given for elevated pulse pressure.
Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor)
might be prescribed in this instance.
5. Describe the Cardiac Cycle. Term referring to all or any o the events related to the flow or blood pressure that
occurs from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next. Different phases of filling and ejection
of blood. Diastole (the period of time when the heart after systole, blood fills the ventricles) and systole
(contraction of heart chambers, driving blood out of the chambers).
6. What causes the closing of the AV valves, and what muscle(s) cause tension to better hold the valve? The AV
valves are closed by the tightening of the chordae tendiae. The chorea tendineae are attached to papillary
muscles that cause tension to better hold the valve.
7. What is the subvalvular apparatice? Both the papillary muscles and the chordate tendineae together.
8. What is the arterial system, and where is the greatest pulse pressure in the arterial system? Canals that carry
blood from the heart to the organs. Aorta is greatest pulse pressure.
9. In healthy adults, how many normal heart sounds are typically described and what are they? What causes the
first heart sound and any others that exist? Two, often described as lub and dub, which are first heart, sound
S1 and second heart sound S2. Closing of the AV valves and semi lunar valves respectively.
10. Describe the isovolumetric contraction period of the cardiac cycle. During the time period between the closure
of the AV valves and the opening of the aortic and pulmonic valves, ventricular pressure rises rapidly without a
change in the ventricular volume. Ventricular volume does not change because all valves are closed during this
phase.
11. What Greek words does the term tachycardia come from? In rapid tachycardia, why does the cardiac output
fall? Tachys (rapid or accelerated) and kardia (of the heart). Reduction in TIME for diastolic filling.
12. What factors have the largest effect on the amount of blood flow? What disease(s) might decrease blood
flow? Diameter, radius, etc. (how WIDE). Hypertension, atherosclerosis.
13. What are atherosclerosis and what part of the arterial system does affect? Clogged and hardened arteries that
narrow and become clogged with plaque. Affects large and medium sized arteries.
14. How does atherosclerosis exert its effects? Narrowing of the vessel lumen (ischemia), disruption of endothelial
lining, and inflammation of atherosclerotic plaques.
15. How does the sympathetic nervous system regulate blood pressure? Increased heart rate. Contraction strength.
Perveso resistance and release of epinephrine.
16. What is hypertension and what are the factors that predispose someone to the development of
hypertension? Chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure is elevated, obesity,
alcohol consumption, high sodium intake.
17. What are some symptoms of high blood pressure? May have no signs or symptoms, but some will have dull
headaches, dizziness, and/or abnormal amounts of nosebleeds.
18. The central circulation contains blood that is in what? Heart, lungs, pulmonary blood vessels.
19. What primarily controls autoregulation of blood flow in microcirculation? Metabolic needs of tissues.
20. What is microcirculation? The flow of blood through the fine vessels (arterioles, capillaries, and venules).
21. Describe the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism. Compensatory mechanisms that come into play in
heart failure. Rennin converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin 1. Angiotensis 1 is then converted into angeiotensis 2.
Angiotensis 2 constricts blood vessels and increases the blood pressure.
22. Build up of Hydrogen ions; Potassium ions, and nitric oxide in local tissues promote what? Vasodilatation
(widening of the diameter of a blood vessel in order to decrease the resistance to blood flow).
Lama Hamoudeh 10/17/11
23. What is an embolus and what are some causes and symptoms? Something that travels through the blood
stream, lodges in a blood vessel, and blocks it. Examples of emboli are detached blood clot, a clump of bacteria,
and foreign material such as air.
24. What is atherosclerosis and what are the major risk factors? A condition in which fatty material collects along
the walls of arteries. This fatty material thickens, hardens (forms calcium deposits), and may eventually block
the arteries. Major risk factors include hypertension, smoking, high blood cholesterol, high fat diet, obesity,
diabetes, and genetic predisposition.
25. How does cigarette smoking and hypertension enhance atherosclerosis? Disrupting endothelial layer of arteries.
26. Give examples of medical conditions that can induce secondary hyperlipoproteinemia? Diabetes mellitus and
obesity.
27. Long-term regulation of blood pressure depends on the function of what? Kidneys in terms of regulating body
levels of salt and water.
28. Where are the majority of the receptors that bind and remove LDL to carry cholesterol from circulation? The
liver.
29. What lifestyle factors increase the risk of atherosclerosis by producing a decrease in HDL? Cigarette smoking
30. What conditions can contribute to the development of venous thrombosis? Immobility, older age, pregnancy,
smoking, and obesity.
31. Where does deep venous thrombosis (DVT) generally occur? Deep veins of the legs or the pelvic veins.
32. What are the two factors that predispose to the development of varicose veins? Obesity and long term standing.
33. Describe varicose veins. Swollen, twisted, and sometimes painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection
of blood.
34. What parameters of circulation are related to the arterial blood pressure? Cardiac output and peripheral
vascular resistance.
35. General action of ADH anti diuretic hormone. Increases the absorption of water and sodium in the
kidneys (more so of water). Water and sodium can go into circulation and increase blood pressure.
36. What helps reduce water retention and decease vascular volume in individuals with hypertension? Limiting
the amount of salt (NaCl).
37. Where are the effects of hypertension on the heart largely manifested? Left ventricular hypertrophy
(enlargement).
38. What does the diastolic blood pressure represent? What does the systolic blood pressure represent?
Diastolic: pressure maintained by the perifpheral blood vessels during diastole. Systolic: the blood pressure
when the heart is contracting.
39. What does the systolic component of blood pressure directly reflect? Maximum arterial pressure during the
contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.
40. What is pregnancy induced hypertension related to? What is another term for this? Toxic mediators. From
impaired placenta perfusion that alter vessels endothelial cells. Toxemia or preeclampsia.
41. What are symptoms of toxemia? High blood pressure (a blood pressure reading higher than 140/90 mm Hg, or
a significant increase in one or both pressures), protein in the urine, edema (swelling).
42. Explain isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. Aorta gets increasingly rigid.
43. Describe ACE-inhibitors? ACE = angiotensis converting enzymes. Decreases conversion angiotensin 1 to
angiotensis 2.
44. In addition to hypertension, what else might ACE inhibitors is used to treat? Scleroderma and migraines.
45. What medication is frequently used to reduce the risk of coronary thrombosis (blood clot) in the absence of
angina? Anti platelets, such as Plavix.
46. Describe variant (Prinzmental's) angina (chest pain). Chest pain caused from coronary vessel spasm.
Lama Hamoudeh 10/17/11
47. What is myocardial infarction? What are the signs and symptoms of myocardial infarction? Heart attack.
Crushing chest pain, feeling of nausea and indigestion.
48. What is the most recommended treatment to reduce chest pain for myocardial infarctions? Nitroglycerin.
49. What is the cause for the high frequency myocardial infarction from 6:00 am to noon? Catecholamine
sensitivity of coronary vessels higher more vasocontracting action.
50. Most common complication of early myocardial infarction? Dysrhythmias (irregular heart beat).
51. What role does myoglobin play in myocardial infarction? Enzyme test used to determine if there are elevated
levels. Levels elevate during the first 2-3 hours of a heart attack.
52. Explain why anginal pain does not develop in a number of people with advanced coronary atherosclerosis? pain
tolerance, sedentary life style, adequate collateral circulation.
53. Describe the cardiac conduction system. Specialized myocardial cells that can create and conduct impulses.
54. What is hypovolemic shock and what are the causes? Emergency condition in which sever blood and fluid loss
makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body. This type of sock can cause many organs to stop
working. Causes: excessive loss of body fluid (includes vomiting).
55. What is the reason for the appearance of pale, cool, and clammy skin that is found in an individual with
shock? Blood is shunted away from skin to vital organs.
56. What compensatory mechanisms come into play if heart failure occurs? Hypertrophy, sympathetic stimulation,
rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism.
57. Describe ECG graph paper. What is an ECG and what represents the ventricular depolarization on the ECG?
Electrocardiograph runs at a paper of 25 mm/s. one small block of ECG paper translates into a 0.04 s. five
small blocks make up 1 large block, which translates in .20 s. electrocardiogram. Records the electrical
activity of the heart. QRS
58. Most common initial manifestations of dilated cardiomyopathies are related to? Heart failure.
59. Describe what happens during the T, P and QRS wave of the cardiac cycle. T: ventricular re-polarization. P:
atrial depolarization (stimulation). QRS: complex ventricular depolarization (stimulation). Know the
different ones that are stimulation and depolarization.
60. Sympathetic stimulation causes what effects on the heart? in rate and strength of cardiac contraction.
61. What is the SA node and what is its function? Sinoatrial node. It is the pacemaker of the heart generates
impulses faster than other cardiac cells.
62. Describe congestive heart failure. Inability to meet the needs of the body demand for blood.
63. What is the order of impulse conduction in the heart? SA-AV node bundle of HIS-Purkinje system. (sa
going to va and his going to purkinje)
64. What is the modern explanation of the mechanism of cardiac cell contraction? (Which crossbridge) a cross
bridge that is formed between myosin and actin.
65. What are LDL and HDL? Which one carries cholesterol to the liver for removal? Lipoprotein that carries
cholesterol to the blood vessels is LDL. The lipoprotein that carries cholesterol to the liver for removal is
HDL.