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Chapter 2

Real NumbersN

N = {1, 2, 3, ....} Natural numbers


Z = {.....,
½ −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, ¾ .....} Integers
p
Q= : p, q ∈ Z, q 6= 0 rationals
q

Which of the following numbers given in decimal representation is considered a


rational number or irrational number?

0.5
0.33333333333333333333333333333
3.1415926535897932384626433832795
1.4142135623730950488016887242097

The first two numbers are rationals, but π ≈ 3.141592.... and 2 = 1.41421356237... So it
1
is safe to say that a rational number will have a finite decimal representation = 0.5 or
2
1 1
= 0.2 or an infinite decimal representation. 3 = 0.3333.. = 0.3̄. But an irrational number
5
will have no finite decimal representation but an approximate one.

Example1: Show that 0.185 represents a rational number?

Solution: Let x = 0.185 we have three digits that are repeating so multiply with 1000

x = 0.185 (1)
1000x = 185.185 (2)

subtract (1) from (2) to have

999x = 185
185
x =
999

Example2: Let x = 0.12 we have three digits that are repeating so multiply with 100

x = 0.12 (1)
100x = 12.12 (2)

subtract (1) from (2) to have

99x = 12
12 4
x = =
99 33

1
Example3: Let x = 2.4 we have three digits that are repeating so multiply with 10

x = 2.4 (1)
10x = 24.4 (2)

subtract (1) from (2) to have

9x = 22
22
x =
9
Remark: An irrational is non- reapeating and non-terminating.

2.3 Properties of real numbers


If a, b, c ∈ R then
(1) a + b ∈ R closure under addition
ab ∈ R closure under multiplication
(2)a + b = b + a Commutative Law for Addition
ab = ba Commutative Law for Multiplication
(3)(a + b) + c = a + (b + c) Associative Law for Addition
(ab)c = a(bc) Associative Law for Multiplication
(4)a(b + c) = ab + ac Distributive Property
(5) For any a ∈ R; a + 0 = a 0 is Additive Identity
For any a ∈ R; a.1 = a 1 Additive Identity
(6)*For any a ∈ R,
there exists −a ∈ R such that a + (−a) = 0 −a Additive Inverse

* For any a ∈ R, (a 6= 0)
1 1 1
there exist ∈ R such that a( ) = 1 multiplicative inverse
a a a

Exercises 2.1 (page 15)


6. True or False
a 0
(a) is the multiplicative inverse of .(F )
0
µ ¶ a
1
(b) − is multiplicative inverse of −π.(T )
π
(c) Every real number is rational or irrational.(T)
(d) All repeating decimals are rational numbers.(T)

2.5 Fractions and their operations


a
What is a fraction? It is a real number of the form ; a, b ∈ R, b 6= 0.
b
a c
Remark: If = , then ad = bc
b d
2
• Cross multiply.
2 6
Example: = , so 2 · 9 = 3 · 6
3 9

ac a
=
bc b
• Cancel numbers that are common factors in numerator and denominator.
2·5 2
Example: =
3·5 3

Properties of Fractions
a c ac
• · =
b d bd
To multiply
fractions, multiply numerators and denominators.
25 2·5 10
Example: · = =
37 3·7 21
⎡a ⎤
a c a d ⎣b a c a d
• ÷ = · c = ÷ = · ⎦
b d b c b d b c
d
To divide fractions, invert the divisor and multiply.
2 5 2 7 14
Example: ÷ = · =
3 7 3 5 15
a b a+b
• + =
c c c
To add fractions having the same denominator, add the numerators.
2 7 2+7 9
Example: + = =
5 5 5 5
a c ad + bc
• + =
b d bd
To add fractions having different denominators, find a common denominator. Then
add the numerators.
2 3 2·7+3·5 29
Example: + = =
5 7 35 35
a c ad − bc
• − =
b d bd
To add fractions having different denominators, find a common denominator. Then
add the numerators.
2 3 2·7−3·5 1
Example: − = = − 35
5 7 35
a −a a
• − = = sign operation
b b −b

3
5 11
Example: Evaluate +
18 12
LCD(18;12)=36.......
5×2 11 × 3 10 + 33 43
+ = =
18 × 2 12 × 3 36 36
3 2 5×3+2×4 23
+ 23 15 69
Example: Evaluate 24 5
3 = 20
2×5−3×3 = 20
1 = 20
× = .
3
− 5 15 15
1 4

Handout#2
1 1 1
1) If = + , then x =
x y z
(a) y+z
1
(b)
y+z
z+y
(c)
yz
yz
(d)
z+y

µ ¶2
1 3
−1 +
2 4
2) =
1 5
+
2 6
4
(a)
3
4
(b) −
3
4
(c)
−3
3
(d)
4

µ ¶
7
1+
8
3) =
1 7

4 3
−9
(a)
10

4
5
(b) −
6
5
(c)
6
9
(d)
10

a
1−
4) b
a =
1+
b
a+b
(a)
a−b
a−b
(b)
a+b
b−a
(c)
a+b
1−b
(d)
1−a

3−1 + 3
(5) 25
9
+ 3−2
15
(a)
13
13
(b)
15
15
(c)
26
26
(d)
15

a b x2 − y 2
(5) If x = and y = , then
b a x−y
a2 − b2
(a)
ab
2a
(b)
b
a + b2
2
(c)
ab
a + b2
2
(d)
a

5
2.6 Exponents
Definition: xn = x.x.x...........x
| {z } n∈N
n−times

Example:
22 = 2.2 = 4 32 = 3.3 = 9 42 = 16 52 = 25
23 = 2.2.2 = 8 33 = 3.3.3 = 27 43 = 32 53 = 125
24 = 2.2.2.2 = 16 34 = 3.3.3.3 = 81
25 = 2.2.2.2.2 = 32

Remark: (1) Zero exponent x0 = 1


1
(2) Negative exponent x−n =
xn
1
(3) It follows = xn
x−n
Example: 35 = 243

(−2)4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 16

−(2)4 = −(2.2.2.2) = −16

Laws of Exponents:
If p ,q and r ∈ Z

• ap aq = ap+q
ap
• = ap−q
aq
• (ap )q = apq

• (ab)p = ap bp
³ a ´p ap
• = p
b b
³ a ´−p µ b ¶p
=
b a
a−p bp
• =
b−q aq
−4
(2a−2 b) (−3ab)−3
Example: Simplify
a−4

6
−4
(2a−2 b) (−3ab)−3
a−4
a4
=
(2a−2 b)4 (−3ab)3
a4
=
(16)a−8 b4 (−27) a3 b3
a9
=
(−432) b7

Exercise 2.2:
µ 2 3 ¶3 µ 3 ¶3
2ab c 2c 8 9
(a) 2
= = c
5ab 5 125
1 1 b2 − a
(b) a−1 − b−2 = − 2 =
a b ab2
µ 3n 2n ¶−1
x y x−2n y 3n+1 y 3n+1 y −2n y n+1
(e) = = =
x−2n y 3n+1 x3n y 2n x3n x2n x5n
µ −1 −2 ¶0
x y
(f) =1
x3 y −4
−3 −3 1 2 1 − 16 −15
(h) (2x2 ) − 2 (x2 ) = 6
− 6 = 6
= .
8x x 8x 8x6
x2 x2 2 3 y3
(i) ÷ = x y × = y9.
y −3 y 3 x2

(a + 2)6 (a + 1)15 10
(g) 5 = (a + 2) (a + 1) .
[(a + 2) (a + 1)]

2.7 Radicals

What is radicals? It is written n b are also used to denote roots.
b : Radicand; n : index; √ : radical sign.

1
Definition: It n is positive integer and b is a real number such that b n is real ,
then √n 1
b = bn

7
Properties of radicals:
√ n
(1) ( n a) = a
√ √ √
(2) n ab = n a n b
r √
a n
a
(3) n = √ .
b n
b
p√ √
(4) m n a = mn a
½
√n |a| n is even
(5) a = n
a n is odd
m
³ 1 ´m 1
(6) a n = a n = (am ) n m.n ∈ N

m 1
(7) a− n = m
an
Exercise: Page 22

(4) Determine whether true or false?



1. 81 = −9 (False)

2. 81 = 9 (True)

3. 121 = ±11 (False)
√ √ √
4. 9 + 16 = 9 + 16 (False)
p √ √
5. (9)(16) = 9 16 (True)

6. x2 = x if x < 0. (False)
p
7. y 2 = |y| (True)
q
8. (−5)2 = −5 (False)
q
9. (−6)2 = 6 (True)

(5) Evaluate :
√ √
1. 3 −64 = − 3 64 = − (16 × 4)1/3 = −4

2. 43 −64 Not Defined
r
8 2
3. 3 =
125 5

4. 5 −32 = −2

8
q
5. 3 (−10)3 = −10
q
6. 4 (−10)4 = |−10| = 10
r
4 256 4
7. =
81 3
r
3 −27 −3
8. =
125 5

Evaluate:
1 1
9− 2 81 4 3−1 × 3 1 4
(2) 2 = −2 −2 = −4 = 3
27− 3 3−2 (3) (3) 3

Simplify:
p p p
3
8y 5 = 2 3 y 3 y 2 = 2y 3 y 2
r
6 5a7
; b<0
a−6 b6
r
6 5a7
−6 6
ra b
13
6 5a
=
b6
1 6√
= 5aa12
|b|
a2 √6
= 5a
|b|
since b < 0 then
a2 √6
= 5a
−b

Handout#3
3n−1
1. n =
92

(a) 3n

(b) 3

9
1
(c)
3

1
(d)
27

µ ¶−1/3
ab−3
2. =
125b0 a−8

5b3
(a) −
a

5b
(b) −
a3

5b3
(c)
a
5b
(d)
a3

µ ¶2 µ ¶−2
yz 2 y2z
4. =
x2 x
z2
(a)
x2 y

z2
(b)
xy 2
³ xy ´2
(c)
z
µ ¶2
z
(d)
xy

10
1
5. =
2−1 + 3−1 + 4−1
(a) 9

1
(b)
9

12
(c)
13

13
(d)
12

6. If x−3 = 8 then x2 =

(a) 4

(b) 2

1
(c)
2

1
(d)
4

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Simplify:
r
162 9√
1. = 2
49 7
√ √ p p √ √ √
2. 12 + 75 = (4)(3) + (25)(3) = 2 3 + 5 3 = 7 3
√ √ √ q q q √ √ √ √
3. 16 + 250 − 128 = (2) 2 + (5) 2 − 3 (4)3 2 = 2 3 2 + 5 3 2 − 2 3 2 = 5 3 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3


1 √ 2 p 1√ √ 29 √
4. √ − 3 50 = − 3 2 (25) = 2 − 15 2 = − 2
2 2 2 2

Conjugate:
√ √ √ √
Definition: a conjugate of m+ n is m − n.
Example:
√ √ ¡√ √ ¢
2 2 3− 5 2 3− 5 √ √
(1) √ √ =√ √ ×√ √ = = 5 − 3.
3+ 5 3+ 5 3− 5 3−5
√ √ ¡ √ ¢2 ¡ √ ¢2
1+ 5 1+ 5 1+ 5 1+ 5
(2) √ × √ = =
1− 5 1+ 5 1−5 −4
3 3
3 3 34 3 × 34 3 √
4
(3) √ = 1 × 3 = = 3 4 = 27
4
3 34 34 3

Handout#4

27
1) √ =
32

3 6
(a)
8

8 6
(b)
3

4 6
(c)
9

9 6
(d)
4

µ ¶ 32 µ ¶ −1
4 8 3

25 27
2) µ ¶ 12 =
9
64

12
32
(a)
125
32
(b) −
125
125
(c)
32
125
(d)
−32

q q q
3) (−5) + (−3) − 3 (−8)3 =
2 4 4

(a) zero
(b) 16
(c) −16
(d) 2


4) 4a2 b3 − 8a2 =

(a) 2ab 2b − 4

(b) 2 |a| b3 − 2

(c) 2 |a| 2b3 − 4

(d) 2 |a| b3 − 4

p
x3 − 8x3 y 6 =
(5) 3 p
(a) x 3 1 − 2y 3
(b) x − 2xy 2
p
(c) x 3 1 − 8y 3
q
(d) x 3 1 − (2y 2 )3

1
(6) √ √ √ =
5 + 4 − 16
1 ¡√ ¢
(a) 5+2
3
1
(b) √
2+ 5

(c) 5 + 2

13
1
(d) √
2− 5

34
(7) √ =
3 2+1

(a) −6 2 − 2

(b) 6 2 + 2

(c) 6 2 − 2

(d) 6 2 − 1

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