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Real NumbersN

Z = {.....,

½ −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, ¾ .....} Integers

p

Q= : p, q ∈ Z, q 6= 0 rationals

q

rational number or irrational number?

0.5

0.33333333333333333333333333333

3.1415926535897932384626433832795

1.4142135623730950488016887242097

√

The first two numbers are rationals, but π ≈ 3.141592.... and 2 = 1.41421356237... So it

1

is safe to say that a rational number will have a finite decimal representation = 0.5 or

2

1 1

= 0.2 or an infinite decimal representation. 3 = 0.3333.. = 0.3̄. But an irrational number

5

will have no finite decimal representation but an approximate one.

Solution: Let x = 0.185 we have three digits that are repeating so multiply with 1000

x = 0.185 (1)

1000x = 185.185 (2)

999x = 185

185

x =

999

Example2: Let x = 0.12 we have three digits that are repeating so multiply with 100

x = 0.12 (1)

100x = 12.12 (2)

99x = 12

12 4

x = =

99 33

1

Example3: Let x = 2.4 we have three digits that are repeating so multiply with 10

x = 2.4 (1)

10x = 24.4 (2)

9x = 22

22

x =

9

Remark: An irrational is non- reapeating and non-terminating.

If a, b, c ∈ R then

(1) a + b ∈ R closure under addition

ab ∈ R closure under multiplication

(2)a + b = b + a Commutative Law for Addition

ab = ba Commutative Law for Multiplication

(3)(a + b) + c = a + (b + c) Associative Law for Addition

(ab)c = a(bc) Associative Law for Multiplication

(4)a(b + c) = ab + ac Distributive Property

(5) For any a ∈ R; a + 0 = a 0 is Additive Identity

For any a ∈ R; a.1 = a 1 Additive Identity

(6)*For any a ∈ R,

there exists −a ∈ R such that a + (−a) = 0 −a Additive Inverse

* For any a ∈ R, (a 6= 0)

1 1 1

there exist ∈ R such that a( ) = 1 multiplicative inverse

a a a

6. True or False

a 0

(a) is the multiplicative inverse of .(F )

0

µ ¶ a

1

(b) − is multiplicative inverse of −π.(T )

π

(c) Every real number is rational or irrational.(T)

(d) All repeating decimals are rational numbers.(T)

a

What is a fraction? It is a real number of the form ; a, b ∈ R, b 6= 0.

b

a c

Remark: If = , then ad = bc

b d

2

• Cross multiply.

2 6

Example: = , so 2 · 9 = 3 · 6

3 9

ac a

=

bc b

• Cancel numbers that are common factors in numerator and denominator.

2·5 2

Example: =

3·5 3

Properties of Fractions

a c ac

• · =

b d bd

To multiply

fractions, multiply numerators and denominators.

25 2·5 10

Example: · = =

37 3·7 21

⎡a ⎤

a c a d ⎣b a c a d

• ÷ = · c = ÷ = · ⎦

b d b c b d b c

d

To divide fractions, invert the divisor and multiply.

2 5 2 7 14

Example: ÷ = · =

3 7 3 5 15

a b a+b

• + =

c c c

To add fractions having the same denominator, add the numerators.

2 7 2+7 9

Example: + = =

5 5 5 5

a c ad + bc

• + =

b d bd

To add fractions having diﬀerent denominators, find a common denominator. Then

add the numerators.

2 3 2·7+3·5 29

Example: + = =

5 7 35 35

a c ad − bc

• − =

b d bd

To add fractions having diﬀerent denominators, find a common denominator. Then

add the numerators.

2 3 2·7−3·5 1

Example: − = = − 35

5 7 35

a −a a

• − = = sign operation

b b −b

3

5 11

Example: Evaluate +

18 12

LCD(18;12)=36.......

5×2 11 × 3 10 + 33 43

+ = =

18 × 2 12 × 3 36 36

3 2 5×3+2×4 23

+ 23 15 69

Example: Evaluate 24 5

3 = 20

2×5−3×3 = 20

1 = 20

× = .

3

− 5 15 15

1 4

Handout#2

1 1 1

1) If = + , then x =

x y z

(a) y+z

1

(b)

y+z

z+y

(c)

yz

yz

(d)

z+y

µ ¶2

1 3

−1 +

2 4

2) =

1 5

+

2 6

4

(a)

3

4

(b) −

3

4

(c)

−3

3

(d)

4

µ ¶

7

1+

8

3) =

1 7

−

4 3

−9

(a)

10

4

5

(b) −

6

5

(c)

6

9

(d)

10

a

1−

4) b

a =

1+

b

a+b

(a)

a−b

a−b

(b)

a+b

b−a

(c)

a+b

1−b

(d)

1−a

3−1 + 3

(5) 25

9

+ 3−2

15

(a)

13

13

(b)

15

15

(c)

26

26

(d)

15

a b x2 − y 2

(5) If x = and y = , then

b a x−y

a2 − b2

(a)

ab

2a

(b)

b

a + b2

2

(c)

ab

a + b2

2

(d)

a

5

2.6 Exponents

Definition: xn = x.x.x...........x

| {z } n∈N

n−times

Example:

22 = 2.2 = 4 32 = 3.3 = 9 42 = 16 52 = 25

23 = 2.2.2 = 8 33 = 3.3.3 = 27 43 = 32 53 = 125

24 = 2.2.2.2 = 16 34 = 3.3.3.3 = 81

25 = 2.2.2.2.2 = 32

1

(2) Negative exponent x−n =

xn

1

(3) It follows = xn

x−n

Example: 35 = 243

(−2)4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 16

Laws of Exponents:

If p ,q and r ∈ Z

• ap aq = ap+q

ap

• = ap−q

aq

• (ap )q = apq

• (ab)p = ap bp

³ a ´p ap

• = p

b b

³ a ´−p µ b ¶p

=

b a

a−p bp

• =

b−q aq

−4

(2a−2 b) (−3ab)−3

Example: Simplify

a−4

6

−4

(2a−2 b) (−3ab)−3

a−4

a4

=

(2a−2 b)4 (−3ab)3

a4

=

(16)a−8 b4 (−27) a3 b3

a9

=

(−432) b7

Exercise 2.2:

µ 2 3 ¶3 µ 3 ¶3

2ab c 2c 8 9

(a) 2

= = c

5ab 5 125

1 1 b2 − a

(b) a−1 − b−2 = − 2 =

a b ab2

µ 3n 2n ¶−1

x y x−2n y 3n+1 y 3n+1 y −2n y n+1

(e) = = =

x−2n y 3n+1 x3n y 2n x3n x2n x5n

µ −1 −2 ¶0

x y

(f) =1

x3 y −4

−3 −3 1 2 1 − 16 −15

(h) (2x2 ) − 2 (x2 ) = 6

− 6 = 6

= .

8x x 8x 8x6

x2 x2 2 3 y3

(i) ÷ = x y × = y9.

y −3 y 3 x2

(a + 2)6 (a + 1)15 10

(g) 5 = (a + 2) (a + 1) .

[(a + 2) (a + 1)]

2.7 Radicals

√

What is radicals? It is written n b are also used to denote roots.

b : Radicand; n : index; √ : radical sign.

1

Definition: It n is positive integer and b is a real number such that b n is real ,

then √n 1

b = bn

7

Properties of radicals:

√ n

(1) ( n a) = a

√ √ √

(2) n ab = n a n b

r √

a n

a

(3) n = √ .

b n

b

p√ √

(4) m n a = mn a

½

√n |a| n is even

(5) a = n

a n is odd

m

³ 1 ´m 1

(6) a n = a n = (am ) n m.n ∈ N

m 1

(7) a− n = m

an

Exercise: Page 22

√

1. 81 = −9 (False)

√

2. 81 = 9 (True)

√

3. 121 = ±11 (False)

√ √ √

4. 9 + 16 = 9 + 16 (False)

p √ √

5. (9)(16) = 9 16 (True)

√

6. x2 = x if x < 0. (False)

p

7. y 2 = |y| (True)

q

8. (−5)2 = −5 (False)

q

9. (−6)2 = 6 (True)

(5) Evaluate :

√ √

1. 3 −64 = − 3 64 = − (16 × 4)1/3 = −4

√

2. 43 −64 Not Defined

r

8 2

3. 3 =

125 5

√

4. 5 −32 = −2

8

q

5. 3 (−10)3 = −10

q

6. 4 (−10)4 = |−10| = 10

r

4 256 4

7. =

81 3

r

3 −27 −3

8. =

125 5

Evaluate:

1 1

9− 2 81 4 3−1 × 3 1 4

(2) 2 = −2 −2 = −4 = 3

27− 3 3−2 (3) (3) 3

Simplify:

p p p

3

8y 5 = 2 3 y 3 y 2 = 2y 3 y 2

r

6 5a7

; b<0

a−6 b6

r

6 5a7

−6 6

ra b

13

6 5a

=

b6

1 6√

= 5aa12

|b|

a2 √6

= 5a

|b|

since b < 0 then

a2 √6

= 5a

−b

Handout#3

3n−1

1. n =

92

(a) 3n

(b) 3

9

1

(c)

3

1

(d)

27

µ ¶−1/3

ab−3

2. =

125b0 a−8

5b3

(a) −

a

5b

(b) −

a3

5b3

(c)

a

5b

(d)

a3

µ ¶2 µ ¶−2

yz 2 y2z

4. =

x2 x

z2

(a)

x2 y

z2

(b)

xy 2

³ xy ´2

(c)

z

µ ¶2

z

(d)

xy

10

1

5. =

2−1 + 3−1 + 4−1

(a) 9

1

(b)

9

12

(c)

13

13

(d)

12

6. If x−3 = 8 then x2 =

(a) 4

(b) 2

1

(c)

2

1

(d)

4

11

Simplify:

r

162 9√

1. = 2

49 7

√ √ p p √ √ √

2. 12 + 75 = (4)(3) + (25)(3) = 2 3 + 5 3 = 7 3

√ √ √ q q q √ √ √ √

3. 16 + 250 − 128 = (2) 2 + (5) 2 − 3 (4)3 2 = 2 3 2 + 5 3 2 − 2 3 2 = 5 3 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

√

1 √ 2 p 1√ √ 29 √

4. √ − 3 50 = − 3 2 (25) = 2 − 15 2 = − 2

2 2 2 2

Conjugate:

√ √ √ √

Definition: a conjugate of m+ n is m − n.

Example:

√ √ ¡√ √ ¢

2 2 3− 5 2 3− 5 √ √

(1) √ √ =√ √ ×√ √ = = 5 − 3.

3+ 5 3+ 5 3− 5 3−5

√ √ ¡ √ ¢2 ¡ √ ¢2

1+ 5 1+ 5 1+ 5 1+ 5

(2) √ × √ = =

1− 5 1+ 5 1−5 −4

3 3

3 3 34 3 × 34 3 √

4

(3) √ = 1 × 3 = = 3 4 = 27

4

3 34 34 3

Handout#4

√

27

1) √ =

32

√

3 6

(a)

8

√

8 6

(b)

3

√

4 6

(c)

9

√

9 6

(d)

4

µ ¶ 32 µ ¶ −1

4 8 3

25 27

2) µ ¶ 12 =

9

64

12

32

(a)

125

32

(b) −

125

125

(c)

32

125

(d)

−32

q q q

3) (−5) + (−3) − 3 (−8)3 =

2 4 4

(a) zero

(b) 16

(c) −16

(d) 2

√

4) 4a2 b3 − 8a2 =

√

(a) 2ab 2b − 4

√

(b) 2 |a| b3 − 2

√

(c) 2 |a| 2b3 − 4

√

(d) 2 |a| b3 − 4

p

x3 − 8x3 y 6 =

(5) 3 p

(a) x 3 1 − 2y 3

(b) x − 2xy 2

p

(c) x 3 1 − 8y 3

q

(d) x 3 1 − (2y 2 )3

1

(6) √ √ √ =

5 + 4 − 16

1 ¡√ ¢

(a) 5+2

3

1

(b) √

2+ 5

√

(c) 5 + 2

13

1

(d) √

2− 5

34

(7) √ =

3 2+1

√

(a) −6 2 − 2

√

(b) 6 2 + 2

√

(c) 6 2 − 2

√

(d) 6 2 − 1

14

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