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COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING PART 14

NAVIGATIONAL AIDS

Multiple Choice: Encircle the letter that corresponds to your
answer.

1. An area directly above a radio range station where
practically no signal is heard.

a. radio range
b. cone of silence
c. coverage area
d. RDF area

2. A shipboard equipment which measures the distance
between the ships bottom and the ocean floor by sending
the ultrasonic pulses via a transducer which are reflected at
the sea bottom and received with the same transducer.

a. echosounder
b. SONAR
c. Compandor
d. Hydrophone

3. The ratio of the pulse width to the time between the
beginning of 2 pulses

a. duty cycle
b. doppler shift
c. blind speed
d. tracking error

4. A navigation system from which hyperbolic lines of position
are determined by measuring the difference in the times of
arrival of pulses from widely spaced, synchronized
transmitting stations.

a. LORAN
b. TACAN
c. DME
d. VOR



5. A measure of the ability of the receiver to detect
transmission

a. selectivity
b. sensitivity
c. detector
d. demodulator

6. Radio range stations in LFR operate on frequencies between

a. 20KHz & 40 KHz
b. 200 KHz & 400 KHz
c. 30 KHz & 300 KHz
d. 2 MHz & 4 MHz

7. The fifth center tower in an LFR is used for transmitting
_____ reports

a. hazard
b. range
c. weather
d. direction

8. The direction of one terrestrial point from another, expressed
as angular distance from a reference direction.

a. heading
b. bearing
c. relative bearing
d. true bearing

9. DME operates in the ________ frequency band.

a. LF
b. HF
c. VHF
d. UHF

10. SONAR equipment feature which enlarges all echoes on the
screen.

a. grayline
b. zoom
c. sensitivity
d. ASP
11. A major obstacle in achieving high speed operation in a
SONAR manifested by turbulent water flow.

a. transom
b. cavitation
c. thru-hull
d. shoot thru

12. Considered to be the SONAR units antenna

a. crystal
b. transducer
c. localizer
d. transceiver

13. The speed of sound through water

a. 4800 m/sec
b. 1463 m/sec
c. 4800 miles/sec
d. 5000 ft/sec

14. What is an electronic measuring equipment used in
navigation operating in 1 GHz band which provides bearing
and distance indication?

a. TACAN
b. VOR
c. ILS
d. DME

15. An instrument used to measure one location in terms of
coordinates.

a. Global positioning system
b. Hydrometer
c. Altimeter
d. Increductometer






16. The distance in angular degrees in a clockwise direction
from magnetic north.

a. phase difference
b. azimuth
c. latitude
d. longitude

17. _______ is used with a localizer station to indicate the
desired approach path of an aircraft.

a. glide slope system
b. marker
c. LORAN chart
d. OBI

18. _______ is a 30 Hz signal which has a constant phase at all
points around the VOR station.

a. reference signal
b. variable signal
c. ID signal
d. voice modulation

19. If the peak transmitted power in a radar system is increased
by a factor of 16, the maximum range will be increased by a
factor of

a. 2
b. 4
c. 8
d. 16

20. After a target has been acquired, the best scanning system
for tracking is

a. nodding
b. spiral
c. conical
d. helical





21. The coho in MTI radar operates at the

a. intermediate frequency
b. transmitted frequency
c. received frequency
d. pulse repetition frequency

22. If the target cross section is changing , the best system for
accurate tracking is

a. lobe switching
b. sequential lobing
c. conical scanning
d. monopulse

23. The number of pulses that occur per second in a radar is
called

a. PRR
b. pulse train
c. pulse width
d. duty cycle

24. The phenomenon evidenced by the change in the observed
frequency of a sound or a radio wave caused by the time
rate of change in the magnitude of the radial component of
relative velocity between the source and the point of
observation.

a. tunnel effect
b. doppler effect
c. gunn effect
d. end effect

25. _______ are non-directional transmitters that operate in the
LF and MF bands.

a. radio beacons
b. DME
c. ILS
d. LORAN



26. When a single antenna is intended to be used for
transmitting and receiving , it is necessary to use a

a. duplexer
b. diplexer
c. combiner
d. translator

27. The most commonly used component in a RADAR
transmitter is the _______ tube.

a. dynatron
b. twystron
c. magnetron
d. cyclotron

28. A radar display that sweeps outward of the center of the
screen while rotating is known as

a. CRT
b. PPI
c. D-scope
d. periscope

29. The time from the transmission of a radar pulse to its
reception is 0.12 msec. The distance to the target is
_________ nautical miles.

a. 4.85
b. 11.2
c. 9.7
d. 7.9

30. The pulse duration of a radar signal is 600 nanoseconds.
The PRF is 185 pulses per second. The duty cycle is

a. 0.01%
b. 5.5%
c. 31%
d. 97%




31. Doppler effect allows which characteristic of a RADAR target
to be measured?

a. distance
b. speed
c. size of target
d. azimuth

32. Most radar antennas use

a. dipoles
b. broadside array
c. horn and parabolic antenna
d. discone

33. The following are the components of an ILS except:

a. localizer
b. glide slope
c. markers
d. goniometer

34. The following are hyperbolic systems except:

a. LORAN
b. DECCA
c. OMEGA
d. TACAN

35. What do you call an electronic measuring equipment used in
navigation which provides runway direction, distance and
height guidance to permit blind landing?

a. DME
b. VOR
c. TACAN
d. ILS

36. A radio aid to navigation that uses a rotatable loop or other
highly directional antenna arrangement to determine the
direction of a radio signal.

a. DME
b. RDF
c. TACAN
d. VOR

37. An agency of the United Nations, that formulates standards
and recommended practices for all civil aviation.

a. ICAO
b. CAA
c. IATA
d. ATO

38. LORAN is a navigation system used primarily for

a. obtaining fixes over large distances
b. approach control
c. blind landing
d. IFF surveillance operation

39. TACAN is a navigational aid providing

a. speed and height indication
b. bearing and weather information
c. bearing and distance indication
d. cone of confusion

40. Otherwise known as Coastline refraction or the refraction of
waves towards the coastline.

a. Polarization effect
b. Land effect
c. Skin effect
d. Luxembourg effect

41. Low-power radar uses

a. RIMPATT
b. TRAPATT
c. Magnetron
d. IMPATT

42. RADAR means:

a. Radio Detection and Rating
b. Radio Detection and Ranging
c. Radio Distance and Ranging
d. Radio Delay and Ranging
43. A long range navigation system in which two pairs of ground
stations transmit pulsed signal, which are used by aircraft or
ships to determine their position.

a. LORAN
b. SHORAN
c. Gee
d. TCAS

44. LORAN stands for

a. low radar navigation
b. low range navigation
c. long range radar navigation
d. long range navigation

45. LORAN was developed in the United States during WWII.
What system equivalent to LORAN, which was developed in
England and is used for guiding high-flying bombers over
Germany during WWII?

a. SHORAN
b. DECCA
c. OMEGA
d. Gee

46. What navigational system that uses the principle known as
hyperbolic navigation?

a. Gee
b. LORAN
c. OMEGA
d. All are correct

47. Navigation principle that depends on the measurement of
the difference in distance to two fixed stations whose
separation distance is accurately known.

a. triangulation
b. hyperbolic
c. elliptic
d. pilotage


48. In hyperbolic navigation, how many sets of hyperbolas are
needed before a position (fix) is obtained?

a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. 8

49. In LORAN system, at least how many ground stations are
needed before a position (fix) is obtained?

a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. 8

50. In Gee system, at least how many ground stations are
needed before a position or fix is determined?

a. 2
b. 3
c. 5
d. 7

51. In __________ system, one of the ground stations in each
pair serves as a master station and synchronizes the pulses
from the other station.

a. Gee
b. VOR
c. TCAS
d. LORAN

52. In __________ system, all the three stations are
synchronized and both difference distances are
simultaneously acquired.

a. Gee
b. VOR
c. TCAS
d. LORAN




53. Gee system operates at what frequency range?

a. 1850 1950 kHz
b. 40 80 MHz
c. 118 135 MHz
d. 960 1213 MHz

54. Operating frequency of LORAN system

a. 1850 1950 kHz
b. 40 80 MHz
c. 118 135 MHz
d. 960 1213 MHz

55. A long-range navigation system that operates at a frequency
of 100 kHz. It operates on the hyperbolic principles.

a. LORAN
b. LORAN A
c. LORAN C
d. LORAN D

56. Tactical LORAN system

a. LORAN
b. LORAN A
c. LORAN C
d. LORAN D

57. LORAN system used by aircraft that operates independent
of ground stations to prevent unwanted enemy detection of
aircraft position.

a. LORAN
b. LORAN A
c. LORAN C
d. LORAN D

58. Approximate range of LORAN system

a. 200 to 300 miles
b. 500 to 700 miles
c. 800 to 1000 miles
d. 1200 to 1500 miles

59. Approximate range of Gee system

a. 200 to 300 miles
b. 500 to 700 miles
c. 800 to 1000 miles
d. 1200 to 1500 miles

60. In LORAN system, if the ground station is in error, how does
it inform the users?

a. by blinking the signal
b. by shutting off the signal
c. by inverting the signal
d. by reducing the signal

61. In LORAN, if the ship moves a path such that every pulse
from two ground stations arrive at the ship at exactly the
same time, the ship is moving on

a. a circular course
b. a hyperbolic course
c. a perpendicular course bisecting the transmitters
baseline
d. a straight course joining the two transmitters
baseline

62. In LORAN, if the pilot flies such a path that his equipment
interrogates a ground transponder and receives return
pulses which have a constant time delay between
transmission and reception, the aircraft is flying

a. in circular path
b. in parabolic path
c. in hyperbolic path
d. in straight and level flight

63. A navigational system that is normally used by military, it
provides bearing and range.

a. VOR
b. DME
c. ADF
d. TACAN


64. TACAN operates at what spectrum?

a. LF
b. MF
c. VHF
d. UHF

65. TACAN operates at what frequency range?

a. 108 112 MHz
b. 330 335 MHz
c. 962 1213 MHz
d. 1030 1090 MHz

66. TACAN means

a. Tactical Air Navigation
b. Traffic Alert Collision and Navigation
c. Traffic Alarm Collision and Navigation
d. Tactical Aircraft Control and Navigation

67. The TACAN system has how many two-way channels?

a. 33
b. 63
c. 126
d. 252

68. Adjacent channels in TACAN system are separated by

a. 0.1 MHz
b. 1.0 MHz
c. 30 MHz
d. 63 MHz

69. In TACAN system, the transmit and receive frequencies are
spaced

a. at 1.0 MHz
b. at 63 MHz
c. at 99 MHz
d. at 150 MHz


70. TACAN system can operate without interference to over how
many aircraft at the same time?

a. 10
b. 25
c. 50
d. 100

71. Approximate maximum slant-range of TACAN:

a. 100 nmiles
b. 200 nmiles
c. 400 nmiles
d. 600 nmiles

72. TACAN provides bearing similar to that of

a. ADF
b. Compass
c. VOR
d. LORAN

73. TACAN provides range or distance similar to that of

a. Barometric-altimeter
b. Radio altimeter
c. LORAN
d. DME

74. In TACAN system, the main azimuth reference burst is
transmitted usually at

a. magnetic North
b. magnetic South
c. magnetic West
d. magnetic East

75. The TACAN ground station replies to interrogation exactly
__________ after receiving the interrogation.

a. 10 sec
b. 25 sec
c. 50 sec
d. 100 sec

76. A TACAN station is identified by means of

a. Morse code
b. ASCII
c. BCD
d. EBCDEC

77. In TACAN system, morse coding is achieved by proper

a. spacing of pulse pairs
b. variation of pulse amplitude
c. adjustment of pulse repeatation
d. pulse with modulation

78. The basic TACAN operates on

a. ground to ground
b. ground to surface only
c. air to surface only
d. air to air only

79. Which navigational system that is capable of air-to-air
ranging?

a. Radio altimeter
b. TACAN
c. DME
d. ADF

80. Air-to-air TACAN is possible if the system is modified to
receive __________ and by adding a transponding function
to the airborne equipment.

a. standby frequency
b. harmonics
c. image frequency
d. reflected frequency

81. Air-to-air TACAN will provide distance information to

a. the interrogating aircraft only
b. the transponding aircraft only
c. both aircraft
d. ground in both aircraft

82. When both aircraft are able to display distance information
between them, the operation is known as

a. bilateral ranging
b. dual ranging
c. RHO-RHO navigation
d. RHO-THETA navigation

83. Navigation system that derives position based on the
measured distance of two different stations (DME/DME).

a. RHO-RHO
b. RHO-RHO-RHO
c. RHO-THETA
d. THETA-THETA

84. A method of navigation that derives position by
measurement of distance and bearing from a single ground
station (DME/VOR).

a. RHO-RHO
b. RHO-RHO-RHO
c. RHO-THETA
d. THETA-THETA

85. Uses hyperbolic principle in position determination.

a. ADF
b. VOR
c. LORAN
d. DME

86. Navigation system that operates at VLF and is originally
designed for use on ballistic missile submarine.
a. ADF
b. IRS
c. OMEGA
d. NMS






87. Hyperbolic navigational system that transmits continuous-
wave

a. LORAN
b. DECCA
c. FMS
d. GPS

88. Co-located VOR and TACAN station is called

a. VORTAC
b. VOR/TACAN
c. VOR/DME
d. TACVOR

89. A radio navigation whose ground station transmits two
signals (reference and variable). It operates at VHF band.

a. DME
b. ATC
c. LORAN
d. VOR

90. VOR uses a sub-carrier of

a. 9960 Hz
b. 30 Hz
c. 60 Hz
d. 108 MHz

91. Frequency range of TVOR

a. 108 117.95 MHz
b. 962 1860 kHz
c. 1030 1090 MHz
d. 962 1213 MHz

92. VOR beacons for en-route navigation has a typical output
power of

a. 50 W
b. 200 W
c. 50 kW
d. 50 MW

93. With 200 watts power output VOR station, it can provide a
service range up to

a. 25 NM
b. 200 NM
c. 600 NM
d. 5000 NM

94. DME means

a. altitudes
b. distance
c. air speed
d. slant distance

95. DME operates at a frequency range of

a. 1030 1090 MHz
b. 962 1213 MHz
c. 329.3 335 MHz
d. 1750 1950 kHz

96. DME measures distance by using

a. pulse radar principle
b. radar transponder principle
c. continuous-wave radar principle
d. virtual ground principle

97. System that enables navigator or pilot to determine its time-
to-station (TTS) or time-to-go (TTG).

a. VOR
b. DME
c. ADF
d. TCAS

98. The airborne equipment or component used in DME system
is called

a. interrogator
b. transceiver
c. duplexer
d. transponder

99. What do you call the ground equipment used in DME
system?

a. interrogator
b. transceiver
c. duplexer
d. transponder

100. Equipment such as interrogator or transponder are
actually a

a. receiver
b. transmitter
c. transceiver
d. any of these