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Examination of Urine

1) Physical Examination Normal findings of urine
Colour Pale Yellow or Amber Colour
Appearance/ turbidity Clear
Volume 1000 to 2000 ml in 24 hrs.
Reaction Acidic
PH -4.6- 8
Odor aromatic odor Smells Like ammonia due to presence of
volatile acids.

2) Chemical Examination
Ketones - Negative
Sugar -Negative
Bile salt Negative
Blood - Negative
Protein - Negative
Bile pigment - Negative

3) Microscopic Examination RBC-
Pus cell - Negative
Crystals- Negative
Epithelial cells- Negative
Casts - Negative
AFB- Negative

4) Specific gravity - 1.003 -1.030
Test tube 4 to 6, along with
test tube stand.
Test tube holder 1.
Spirit Lamp Match box.
Kidney tray.
Benedict solution, Nitric acid
or sulphosalic acid.
Acetic acid
Red and blue litmus paper
Ammonium sulphate crystal,
sodium nitroprusside crystal
Liquor ammonia, Weak
solution of Tr. Iodine
Sulphur powder
Measuring cup
Bottle brush

To put urine in that.

To hold the test tube.
To heat the urine.
To discard the waste.
To check urine sugare.
To test urine for albumin.
to test urine for reaction.
to measure specific gravity of
to test urine for acetone

to test for bile pigment.
to test for bile salt
to measure the amount of
urine. to measure the drops
of urine
to clean the test tube.

Urine Tests

Urine for sugar or Benedicts test

Purposes Screening to detect diabetes
Confirmation diagnosis of diabetes
Monitoring the effectiveness of
diabetes control
Heat 5ml of benedicts
solution over the spirit
Holding test tube away from
Add 8 drops of urine with
dropper and heat for two
Again cool & observe the
Colour changes.
Record the date time name
of investigation, and the
result, in the patients
record file.

To check the solution
whether it is clear or not .

To protect yourself.
To check urine sugar.

To see the result.
Proper documentation will
help for the references and
for accurate treatment to
the patient.
Colour Changes Urine glucose
Absence of Colour Change Nil
Light Green Trace
Dark Green 1 +
Yellow 2 +
Orange 3 +
Brick Red 4 +
Urine for Albumin- Hot test

Take urine up to 2/3 of the test tube and heat the
upper 1/3, rotate test tube constantly.
Then add few drops of acetic acid along the sides
of the test tube and observe for precipitation.
If the cloud disappears, it is due to phosphate If
the cloud still remain it indicate the presence of
albumin, it will not disappear with acetic acid.
If urine is highly acidic or highly alkaline, the
reading will be false.
Albumin level
No precipitate Nil
Slightly cloudy Trace
One finger breadth or translucent 1+
Two finger breadth or translucent 2+
Three finger breadth or opaque 3+
Thick Precipitate 4+
Cold Test

Add 2 ml of sulphosalicylic acid or nitric
acid to 2 ml of urine in a test tube.
If albumin is Present white precipitate will
be seen where two fluids meet.
protein is indicated by cloudy Precipitate.
Test For Acetone / Roth eras

Purposes Screening for ketonuria- routine
hospital urine test, pre-surgery, pregnant women,
Glycosuria- testing for ketone body
To check for control of diabetes
To differentiate between diabetic
coma and insulin shock.
When heavy sugar is found in the urine test for
acetone is done.
1) Take 3 cm of ammonium Sulphate crystals in a
test tube.
2) Add equal amount of urine to it.
3) Put one crystal of sodium nitroprusside.
4) Close the test tube with Cork and shake the
test tube.
5) Add 1.5 cm of concentrate ammonia
6) Read the Result immediately. It acetone is
present a permanganate Purple colored ring is
formed at the junction of urine and ammonia
7) Discard the urine and clean the articles.
Heys test / Test for bile salt.

Take 5 ml of urine in the test tube.
Sprinkle Sulphur Powder on the
surface of the urine.
If the powder sinks down to the test
tube, it indicates the presence of bile
salt in the urine.

Simths test / test for bile pigments.

Take of a test tube with urine.
Add a weak solution of iodine by dropper to
from a layer on the surface of urine .
If green Colour develops at the junction of the
iodine and urine it indicates the presence of
bile pigment in the urine.
Discard the urine and clean the articles.

To test reaction.
Dip one end of a litmus into the urine.
If urine is acidic, blue litmus turn into
It urine is alkaline, red litmus turn into
No change in both litmus papers.
Indicates neutral reaction.
Normal urine is acidic in reaction


Take conical glass fill 20-
30 ml urine
Allow a urinometer to float
in the urine
Take reading just before
spinning stops
Read the specific gravity
at the eye level.

To check for specific
See that the urinometer
does not touch the bottom
and sides of the conical
To prevent error
Take the lower meniscus to
prevent error in reading
Normal specific gravity is 1.003 to 1.030

Urinometer scale is 1.000 to 1.060

It is high in diabetes mellitus due to the
presence of sugar , and it can be low in
kidney disease due to the inability of the
kidneys to concentrate the urine.