You are on page 1of 42

CIVIL & STRUCTURE DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT


THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA

REPORT OF PROJECT SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING
SEMESTER II, SESSION 2013/2014

KKKH4284 SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING


Assignment Title:
KAJANG SUSTAINABLE CITY CONCEPT
( SIMCITY)
Lecturers:
PROF. IR. DR. RIZA ARIQ ABDULLAH BIN O.K RAHMAT
Dr. MUHAMAD NAZRI BIN BORHAN
Ms. NORLIZA BT MOHD AKHIR

Group Member:
AHMAD NAZRUL HAKIMI BIN IBRAHIM A133762
MUHAMMAD RAMADHAN BIN ZAKARIA A133409
MUHAMMAD SAFUAN BIN CHE AHMED A133024




TABLE OF CONTENT PAGE

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
2.0 OBJECTIVE 2
3.0 ISSUE AT KAJANG 2
4.0 CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT 3
4.1 Quality Of Development 5
4.2 Integrating Transport And Development 6
4.3 Minimum environmental impact due to surge in travel demands 8
4.4 Development Access: Pedestrians, disabled people, cyclists, public 9
transport, private transport.
4.5 Parking 13
4.6 Urban Design Principles 16
4.7 Context: compatible with existing landforms and natural features,
retain, and where possible enhance important existing urban spaces,
townscape, parkland, natural or historical features; respect the
existinglayout of buildings within the street space, integrate into
the local community. 19
4.8 Safety and Security 21
4.9 Landscape and Biodiversity 23
4.10 Renewable Energy 25


4.11 Air Quality 29
4.12 Water Quality and Drainage 34
5.0 CONCLUSION 38
6.0 REFERENCES 39



Page | 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Kajang and its surrounding areas is a sub district within Hulu Langat District in the state of
Selangor. It was situated approximately 14 miles southern of kuala Lumpur. From Kuala
Lumpur, Kajang can be reached by road and rails. The population for Kajang is about 342,657
and the region is about 9298 hectares.
If viewed from topographical perspective, Kajang sub district is located on a highland
areas which is approximately 76,250 cm from the sea level. Most of the landscape is hilly filled
with mountains its flatlands can be found in the river basin such as Sungai Langat, Sungai Bangi,
Sungai Semenyih and Sungai Chua.
The population centres are at Sg kantan, Sg Jelok, Sungai Chua, Jalan Reko, Taman
Prima Saujana, Taman Kantan Permai and Taman kajang prima. The separation of ethnic is
about 60.4% malay, 19.3% Chinese, 9.7 % Indians and others ethnics is about 0.6%. The
employment in Kajang is coming from the industrial sector, public sector, private sectors and
also agricultural.
Every district or places have their own landmark. One of Kajang's landmarks is Stadium
Kajang which is situated in the heart of the town. It is near a popular hangout place among the
locals named Haji Samuri, which is also home to the famous dish satay Kajang. Another
landmark is the Kajang Mosque, which is easily recognisable by its bright yellow facade. The
mosque was painted and decorated by a local wealthy man.
There are a variety of facilities that comfort the community in Kajang. One of the
facilities is public transport such as station bus, cab and railway station. Other than that, health
facilities are provided in this city that is hospital and clinic.
For this project, we need to have a sustainable city in Kajang to ensure that the
development in related to the natural environment, have a good transportation systems, create an
efficient town structure, enhance the living environment and at the same time conserving the
land. Other than that, we also need to ensure the safe and healthy living environment that can
cater for the need of all residence including disabled, disadvantages and the aged.
Page | 2

There is no renewable energy in our city but we produce energy that convert to the
electricity from landfill. We reuse methane gas that produces from the landfill then convert to
energy then make it be as electricity sources.


2.0 OBJECTIVE
The objectives to redevelop Kajang into a sustainable city are as follows:
1) To stimulate a more effective economic growth.
2) To ensure the physical development of the city is in equilibrium with the environmental
needs.
3) To upgrade and improve the social needs of the local community.
4) To implement a modern, competitive and more systematic urbanization

3.0 ISSUE AT KAJANG
Kajang have a very high density of population and the capacity was exceeding the limit of the
area that should be occupied by the residential. Kajang city is very crowded with people and
vehicles. Thus, it will cause to environmental and social issues. Here are some of the issues that
we figured out at Kajang :
Page | 3

1) Higher population: the population in Kajang increase rapidly and its also due to the
higher employment such as in commercial sector and public sector. All the residential
will be converged at Kajang city. Thus, the area will be filled with many people.
2) Environmental issue: the increase in population and rapidly development of buildings in
contribute to pollution in Kajang. The critical pollution that occur in Kajang due to the
air pollution coming from transportation and for water pollution coming from industrial
and residential development along Sungai Langat. This situation make the residential
uncomfortable with the environment.
3) Lack of awareness in environmental issue: because of the increasing in population, solid
waste that generated will increase. A proper solid waste management should be done to
reduce the transportation of waste to the landfill.
4) Road congestion: road connection system in Kajang is very narrow and it cannot occupy
the higher density of traffic congestion. Higher traffic congestion happened during peak
hours and weekends. Due to the traffic congested, the pedestrian are not given priority
and the facilities such as pedestrian bridge and sidewalk are not being provided for the
pedestrian. So, the pedestrian safety is not a priority.
5) Demand on residential area. At the centre of Kajang city, the land use is more on the
community facilities components and for the residential areas, it was located at the edge
of the town. There are a few townships have been developed in Kajang such as Taman
Prima Saujana, Taman Kajang Perdana and many more. The increase in population
contributes in demand of the residential areas. But, the land left for the development is
decrease. Thus, we need to have a proper development at the city.
4.0 CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT
The general idea of our concept is to introduce a sustainable development for Kajang city
without compromising the community and future needs. Kajang city is already equipped with
basic amenities such as commercial center, housing, government offices, road network,
industries and public facilities. It is currently seen to possess high potential for further
development. However, from our opinion the development of Kajang city is not properly
planned which results in heavy traffic jam, flash floods, pollution, funding shortage and social
problems.
Page | 4

We are committed to a sustainable development for our future. Hence, we are ready with series
of plans and strategies to implement this commitment through a clear planning framework and
specific action programs. Hence, Kajang Local Plan for Sustainable Development sustainable
development objectives are:
1. Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment
2. Social progress which recognizes the needs of everyone.
3. Effective protection of the environment.
4. Prudent use of natural resources.

The plan shall include the Sustainable Development Principles as follows:
1) Quality of Development
2) Integrating Transport and Development
3) Minimum environmental impact due to surge in travel demands
4) Development Access: Pedestrians, disabled people, cyclists, public transport, private
transport
5) Parking
6) Urban Design Principles
7) Context: compatible with existing landforms and natural features, retain, and where
possible enhance important existing urban spaces, townscape, parkland, natural or
historical features; respect the existing layout of buildings within the street space,
integrate into the local community
8) Safety and Security
9) Landscape and Biodiversity
10) Renewable Energy
11) Air Quality
12) Water Quality and Drainage



Page | 5

4.1 QUALITY OF DEVELOPMENT

Our city will produce a quality development to achieve a sustainable development. There are
some qualities that should be focused to achieve sustainable development in term of economy
quality, social quality and environmental quality.

a. Economic quality
One of the ways to achieve the sustainable development is through economic health of
the city Economy activity, job creation and poverty should be noted and the role of
informal activities and small-scale trade become important. Example of the activities that
bring to sustainable in economically such as economic activities that can contribute to the
process of environmental awareness such as the production of environmental friendly
products, more frequently involved in activities sponsored activities and social
environmental in order to form a responsible corporate image. Sales of materials for
instance Recycling Program can not only preserve the environment but also can provide
some return economist.

b. Social quality
Sustainable urban development must take into account social justice, basic human needs,
public health, environmental awareness in space and time. Prevent development that
would increase the gap between rich and poor and encourage development that will
reduce social inequality and reduce wastage of manpower. Social equality should be
maintained in terms of economic opportunities in this city.

c. Environmental quality
Sustainable urban development should be carried out taking into account the ability cope that are
consumption of resources, distribution of waste and pollution that is triggered on the city and
surrounding areas. The environmental activity ensure the continuity of supply of natural
resources in the present and future through effective land use, reduction of non-renewable
resources, conversation of biological resources

Page | 6

4.2 INTEGRATING TRANSPORT AND DEVELOPMENT

Improving transportation and development is an important part of the state governments
commitment to promote urban areas in Kajang as attractive and convenient places in which to
live and work. We are seeking to direct growth and change in our cities and towns in ways that
are economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. Transportation is not just rely solely
on private motorcars, but the situations where the people should be able to walk, cycle, and use
public transport. A choice of transport helps the environment, provides more equitable access,
and improves the livability of our urban areas.

The way we plan for land uses and transport can increase the proportion of trips that can
be taken by foot, bicycle and public transport as people go about their daily tasks. When we plan
for transport choice, we also help manage the demand for travel by minimizing the number and
length of individual trips people need to make.

Hence, we will works with the Mayor of the city to ensure the integration of transport and
development by:
Reduce growth in the number and length of private car journeys.
Encouraging patterns and forms of development that reduce the need to travel, especially
by car
Seeking to improve public transport, walking and cycling capacity and accessibility
where it is needed, for areas of greatest demand and areas designated for development
and regeneration.
Encouraging integration of the major transport infrastructure plans with improvements to
the public realm.

Urban structure and transport systems shape each other. The community is increasingly
aware of the social, environmental and economic costs of growing car use in urban areas. Traffic
congestion is increasing, air quality is under threat, and time, land and money are being
consumed at ever increasing rates as people carry out their daily activities predominantly via car
Page | 7

trips. Roads play a critical role in meeting the transport needs of NSW residents and the states
economy. However, urban areas dominated by road infrastructure to accommodate high car
usage generally suffer poor amenity and congestion. Allowing high dependency on private cars
for travel often reduces accessibility and significantly impacts on the environment.

More sustainable modes walking, cycling and public transport can be more effective
and efficient ways of moving people in urban areas, especially when all costs are considered. For
example, public transport can make more efficient use of space and energy, and be more cost
effective than private cars. It also provides mobility for a wider range of people, including young
and older people without cars. To improve transport choice, we need to create an environment
that is friendly to pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users, including people with
disabilities. We need to make land use and development decisions that encourage people to use
sustainable modes of transport for one or more trips per day. We must also ensure that people
can reduce their travel needs by allowing several purposes to be served by one trip.

The need to manage travel demand
Forecast levels of travel demand in urban areas cannot be met by new and upgraded roads for
private cars. The economic, social and environmental costs are too great1. Therefore,
metropolitan, regional and transport plans and strategies are focusing on the need to manage
travel demand by:
influencing the location of urban development
expanding public transport networks
improving the quality of public transport services
expanding cycle and pedestrian facilities and making them more attractive to use
investigating strategies to encourage shifts in travel from the private car to other modes.

The role of land use planning
Page | 8

At all stages planning has a crucial role in providing transport choice and managing travel
demand. Planning can open up opportunities to use viable alternatives to the private car and
improve transport choice. Conversely, planning can reduce transport choice and, as a
consequence, encourage greater car reliance. If urban development and change encourage car
reliance, other measures to reduce car use and the environmental impact of transport will be less
effective or be more expensive. Planning and development must consider all relevant transport
modes. Improving access by walking, cycling and public transport must receive equal
consideration to, or greater consideration than, private car access. Land use planning is only one
important component of measures required to achieve transport objectives. Improvements to
public transport services, and travel demand policies such as parking supply, are equally
important. These measures need to be carefully considered when undertaking decision-making
processes.

4.3 MINIMUM ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT DUE TO SURGE IN TRAVEL
DEMANDS
4.3.1 Introduction
Kajang already exhibit many problems associated with unmanaged urbanization such as
pollution, inadequate water supply, weak sewerage infrastructure, waste disposal, high crime
rates, foreigners, and traffic congestion. Population growth and migration has also result in the
premature conversion of productive agriculture land, for residential and other urban users.
4.3.2 Existing Situation and Issues
4.3.2.1 Air Pollution
Issues
i. Most of the facilities are available at the center of the City which makes people focus on
the Kajang Town. This situation will cause high density of private cars which result on
traffic congestion, noise, and air pollution
4.3.2.2 Poor drainage system
Page | 9

Issues
i. The attitude of some people which always throw rubbish into the drain which result
clogged up in the drain.
ii. Flooding will occur when there is a heavy downpour in the city
4.3.2.3 Development Strategies
In order to enhance the problems, our aim is to:
i. Do maintenance to the sewerage system to prevent from flood problem.
ii. Maintaining the flow capacity of the rivers and ensuring there is no clogging.
iii. The feasibility of constructing gross suspended solid traps upstream and at other strategic
locations to collect waste and reduced clogging should be investigated to provide more
effective long-term measures to prevent flooding

4.4 DEVELOPMENT ACCESS: PEDESTRIANS, DISABLED PEOPLE, CYCLISTS,
PUBLIC TRANSPORT, PRIVATE TRANSPORT.
4.4.1 Introduction
Walking and bicycling are two most environmental friendly modes of transportation that enhance
both personal and social well-being. They are also very important travel modes that provide a
seamless transportation system that includes other modes of transportation such as buses and
commuter rail. In addition to transportation, these two modes of travel provide many public
access, health and economics.

Effective pedestrian and bicycle network depends on several factors such as accommodating
pedestrian and bicyclist on arterial and collectors streets, selecting appropriate facilities, creating
and maintaining a system of closely-spaced interconnected local streets and lastly overcoming
barriers such as highways crossing, intersection, railroads and rivers.

Page | 10

Accessibility for people with disabilities means many things raging from physical access to
services and the built environment. The main provision measure is to adapt rail, bus and taxis for
easy access and adaptation of toilet and waiting room.

4.4.2 Existing Situation and Issues

A) Travel Demands

Existing situation
Increased into and out migration have both contributed to the present traffic congestion in the
Kajang town. It is also significant that the population have grown rapidly by the past few years
due to the incoming of the legal and illegal immigrant.

Apart from that, the high travel demand has increased due to private transportation especially
private cars. As the consequences, the congestion had worsened during peak hour where the
capacity is very high. This is the time where people come back from work to go home.

Issues
i. High travel demand to and from Kajang town during peak hour and weekend

B) Traffic Management

Existing situation
Traffic management are aimed at optimizing the existing infrastructure and improve the flow
capacity and to be more responsive to the traffic demand at different times of the day. Besides
that, traffic control measures that contribute to the traffic management in urban area including
one-way street system and penalties for illegal on-street parking. Additional measures that relates
to the road safety are through the use of traffic signage, pavement line marking and barriers.

Issues
Page | 11

i. Although a lot of traffic management measures have been done and to make it easy for
the road user, but it is still not enough to help reduce the traffic congestion. This is
because the traffic demands have continuously increased by day.

C) Pedestrians

Existing situation
In Kajang, the pedestrian networks were not progressively implemented in the town. There are
not single pedestrian bridges in town. There were also no zebra crossings around the town. These
make it hard for the people to cross the road during peak hour. The feelings of being hit by the
vehicle coming through were always on their mind.

Issues
There were lack of legal pedestrian crossing and also lack of continuity for pedestrian
open space.
The security is very loose and illegal immigrant seems to be anywhere near the backstreet
where that is the only ways to the Plaza Metro Kajang if the people use the public
transport.

D) Bicyclists
Existing situation
Cycling has been incorporated into the housing area and recreational areas. But in the town of
Kajang, bicyclists are rarely seen. The conditions make it hard for the people to cycle under the
hot burning sun. Sometimes, only the construction workers were seen using the bicycle.

Issues
Cycling in Kajang are quite dangerous. With all those buses and private transport on the roads,
plus the unreliable condition on the road, making it dangerous for to use bicycle in Kajang town.

E) Disabled people

Page | 12

Existing solution
In Kajang, there were not much seen the facility for the disabled people. In using the public
transport, there are no landing ramps for the disabled people. There were still using steps, this
make it harder for the people with wheelchair or cane stick. Besides that, there are no brailles
sign for people with low visual impairment.

Issues
Lack of awareness among the people in Kajang.

F) Private Transport

Existing situation
Recent traffic condition shows that the registered car owner had increased due to the decreasing
of worlds oil price. In most of the traffic capacity, private cars account for the largest percentage
of all the motorized trips. The Kajang council had taken extra actions in order to reduce the
number of private cars enter the town of Kajang. Among the actions are to reduce the number of
parking lots and to increase the rate of parking charges to the shopping complex.

Issues
Due to the increase of parking charges, the park operators offers seasonal parking tickets which
are cheaper. This had encouraged the using of private transport to the town. The willingness to
wait for hours if the car parks are full is also the factors that make this problem unsolvable.

4.4.3 Development Strategies
Redirecting the movement pattern of using the private transport to the public transport.
Improving the quality and as well as extending the services for public transport especially
commuter trains and local buses
Improve the traffic management system by implementing the smart system.
Lower the traffic speed limits
Smaller corner turning radii
Cultivation of green strips and green trees.
Page | 13

Improve the existing transportation infrastructure for shared use of streets and roads by
bicycle and motor vehicle
Integrating local streets, shared use path and rail-trails into the bicycle network.
Putting ramp instead of steps
Provides layers, well defined signs for people with a visual impairment
Improving the access to toilet or washing facilities.
Ticker gate at commuter station for the disabled.
Wide doors for lifts.
Elevators control buttons positioned at heights that are accessible to wheelchair users.
Increased the parking charges in town
Reduce number of parking in the Kajang town
Increase the price of vehicles sold in Malaysia and also decreases the number of imported
cars and motorcycles.
Cashing out subsidies and unbundling pricing

4.5 PARKING
4.5.1 Introduction
As more and more people owns cars, more parking lots become necessary. Parking as part of an
overall transportation system is one of the crucial issues of our times. As the number of
automobiles increase exponentially, the need to house them in close proximity creates a
challenging design problems.

Unfortunately, parking lots can adversely effect the environment as well as detract from the
community center. Parking lots should be designed to allow for users and deliveries to reach
easily on site, circulate through the parking lots and exit the site. Clear, easily understandable
circulation should be designed into the project to allow drivers and pedestrian to move through
the site without confusion.

4.5.2 Existing Situation and Issues

Page | 14

A) Not enough parking

Existing condition
In Kajang, the parking provided by the council was not sufficient enough. This could be seen
when the peak hour, the cars will be parked double or where it could be parked. This could cause
massive traffic jam due to the attitude of the drivers.

Issues
Vehicles which were not parked in the actual parking lots could worsen the congestion here in
Kajang.

B) Decentralized parking

Existing issues
The parking here in the town were not centralized. Parking were scattered everywhere in the
town. Besides that, there is parking that was not supervised by the Kajang council.

Issues
Lack of supervision by the local council.
Also help to worsen the traffic congestion

C) Excessive of paved parking

Existing situation
In Kajang, most of the parking was flexible pavement. There is not even a single porous parking.
Sometimes, if the heavy load vehicles enter the town, the pavement will be damaged. This could
bring danger to the motorcyclist especially during the rainy season.

Issues
During heavy rains, the surface runoffs could not precipitated into the ground and enters the
drainage system in heavy flow. If the rains were too heavy, Kajang will be flooded. These
Page | 15

disasters had happened twice lately. As the consequences, the ground floors of the Plaza Metro
Kajang were submerged. These had cause lots of financial damages to the businesses here.

D) Lack of landscape

Existing situation
The parking lots in this town do not have any green trees around it. In fact Kajang town do not
have so much landscape. The trees were rarely to be seen. Even if there are trees, it is not very
healthy and beautiful.

Issues
Lack of landscape and steetscapes.
Without the trees planted in the town, the town will be hotter and this will decreased the number
of pedestrian and cyclist. Besides that, the plants help to filtrate the surface runoff to the ground.

4.5.3 Development Strategies
Built a plaza that could place all the vehicles in specific place and encourage people to
walk to their destination.
Increase the parking charges so that people will use the public transport and hence
reducing the usage of private transport.
The council should tighten the security and laws so that there will no longer be illegal
parking around the town.
Paved area could be sized to accommodate expected daily use which will likely required
less paved area.
Paved only the pathway and utilize porous paving materials in parking spaces.
Pervious pavement could be used, such as the grass and gravel pave lot above to reduce
the impact of parking lot runoff.
Maximizes landscape area along the streets and minimizes overall impervious area of the
land.
Green streets frontage manages both public and private runoff.
Page | 16

Building site and street frontage become one integrated space designed for stormwater
management.

4.6 URBAN DESIGN PRINCIPLES
4.6.1 Introduction
Urban design principles combine aspects of architecture, landscape architecture. Public works,
transportation system and public arts to create dynamic urban environment. However with
increasing activities of these disciplines, it is better to conceptualized as a design practice that
intersects all of the aspects.

The design principles seek to foster good development without inhibiting design creativity and
flexibility. The basic principles of the designs are contextual sitting, the importance of pedestrian
environment, architectural sensitivity, respect for historic structures and durability of building
materials. These design principles should guides architects and developers and should serve as a
basis to design review committees.

4.6.2 Existing Situation and Issues

A) Corridors and gateways

Existing situation
The street to the outer district from Kajang is quite confusing. The signage and road network
were not properly designed
Issues
i. This condition needed to be overcome in order to promote Kajang internationally.

B) Streets

Existing Situation
In Kajang, especially during nights, the condition of the street are quite dark. Lack of efficient
street lighting make it Kajang is not safe enough during that particular time of day.
Page | 17


Issues
i. Lack of lighting during night

C) Development Blocks

Existing situation
In terms of development, there are plenty of shopping complexes, schools, police station, fire
station, market, hospital, post office and religious worship around the town.

Figure 39: Plaza Metro Kajang Figure 40: Billion Shopping Complex

As for the residential area, the mixed-income housing was seen clearly just outside the town
center. For government sector offices such as JKR, Kajang City Council (MPKj) and SYABAS,
all those office were situated in the middle of the town.

Issues
i. During office hour, these areas of town were full with people, but during night, these
places were very quite. These could make Kajang town a very dangerous place at night
where any possible crime could happen.
ii. Other problem is that when emergency cases occurs, ambulances and fire bridges will be
having hard time to go through the congested traffic due to its location.

D) Parks and open spaces

Existing situation
In Kajang, there are no parks here. The town does not have green area to be made as recreational
parks.

Issues
i. Lack of green areas
Page | 18

ii. Discourage the attitude for exercising for the people in Kajang
iii. Increase the hot temperature during day time.

E) Landmarks

Existing situation
Kajang is famous for its Sate Hj Samuri. But the restaurant were located in the middle of busy
roads

Issues
i. Lack of specific monument representing Kajang town

Development Strategies
The major corridors that relatives to the building must be identified preserved and
enhanced.
Gateways are the main zones of the Kajang city that could make people realize that they
were entering the Kajang town.
Implementation the suitable hardscape, softscape street furniture and signage.
High quality of street lighting creates scene of safety for the users.
Streets comprise the greatest portion of the town and dominate the sense of traveling
public and the pedestrian.
Require to create flexible development blocks which can support mixed-use including
entertainment, office, retail, education, recreation and mixed-income housing.
Design public spaces Kajang Theme Park and parks which create memorable
addresses and animate Kajang
Installation of fountains, sculptures, water gardens and special lighting that can contribute
to the life of Kajang and make the experience more meaningful.
Besides that, Kajang council also could built a recreational park where all sorts of activity
could be done such as camping, boating, fishing and picnicking.
Built up a statue or monument that could represent Kajang town to the visitors.

Page | 19

4.7 CONTEXT: COMPATIBLE WITH EXISTING LANDFORMS AND NATURAL
FEATURES, RETAIN, AND WHERE POSSIBLE ENHANCE IMPORTANT
EXISTING URBAN SPACES, TOWNSCAPE, PARKLAND, NATURAL OR
HISTORICAL FEATURES; RESPECT THE EXISTING LAYOUT OF
BUILDINGS WITHIN THE STREET SPACE, INTEGRATE INTO THE LOCAL
COMMUNITY.

Increasingly, at the national level, new environmental policies are being introduced, perhaps
including a National Environmental Action Plan or National Plan for Sustainable Development.
Such policies are often supported by legislation. Government policies in areas such as water,
land distribution and food production, especially if supported by legislation, are likely to be
highly significant for irrigation and drainage projects. An EIA should outline the policy
environment relevant to the study in question. Results are also likely to be most easily
understood if they are interpreted in the light of prevailing policies.

Policies and regulations are sometimes conflicting and can contribute to degradation. It is
within the scope of an EIA to highlight such conflicts and detail their consequences in relation to
the irrigation and drainage proposal under study. An example of conflicting policies would be an
agricultural policy to subsidize agro-chemicals to increase production and an environmental
policy to limit the availability of persistent chemicals. A totally laissez-faire policy will result in
unsustainable development, for example through uncontrolled pollution and distortions in
wealth. This creates problems which future generations have to resolve. On the other hand,
excessive government control of market forces may also have negative environmental impacts.
For example, free irrigation water leads to the inefficient use of this scarce and expensive
resource, inequities between head and tail users and water logging and salinity problems.

A project or programme and its environmental impacts exist within a social framework.
The context in which an EIA is carried out will be unique and stereotype solutions to
environmental assessments are therefore not possible. Cultural practices, institutional structures
and legal arrangements, which form the basis of social structure, vary from country to country
and sometimes, within a country, from one region to another. It is a fundamental requirement to
Page | 20

understand the social structure of the area under study as it will have a direct impact on the
project and the EIA.

Local, regional and national regulations, laws and organizations are interlinked. The way
in which they are interlinked needs to be explicitly understood as part of the EIA. An
understanding of the institutional and legal framework concerning the environment and irrigation
and drainage development is critical to the success of any project or programme. Indeed, it is
likely that recommendations arising from the EIA will include restructuring or strengthening
institutions, particularly at a local level, for example, ensuring adequate maintenance or effective
monitoring of drain water quality. Recommendations for new legal controls or limits may also
form part of the EIA output; for example, stipulating a particular flow regime in order to
maintain a wetland.

At a local or regional level there may be particular regulations and customary practices
which will influence environmental aspects of any project and these must be understood. The
participation of local groups and the direct beneficiaries, mainly farmers, is essential to
successful EIA. This may best be achieved by involving district councils. At the district level
there is more interaction between sectors. Consultation with local interest groups, including non-
governmental organizations (NGOs), will enable local views to be taken into account and their
concerns addressed. An awareness of social and cultural problems may enable solutions to be
found and conflicts to be averted before project implementation commences. Ignorance of a
problem will prevent a satisfactory solution being found.

If land acquisition, economic rehabilitation (providing an alternative source of income) or
resettlements of displaced people are factors in any proposed development, special care will be
needed in carrying out the EIA. In most countries such issues are socially and politically
sensitive and legally complex and must be identified early, during screening. They should be
highlighted so that they are adequately studied by experts early in project preparation.

Poor people often find themselves in a vicious circle. They are forced by their poverty to
exploit natural resources in an unsustainable manner and suffer from increasing poverty because
Page | 21

of environmental degradation. They often inhabit fragile, marginal eco-zones in rural and,
increasingly, semi-urban areas. High population growth is linked to poverty and further
contributes to the dynamics of the vicious circle as ever increasing demands are made on finite
natural resources. Therefore, the needs of the poor, their influence on the project and the project's
impact on vulnerable groups all require particular attention in an EIA.

Planning permission or planning consent is the permission required in order to be allowed to
build on land, or change the use of land or buildings. Planning permission will be granted for
alterations and extension to existing buildings provided they:
Respect the form, siting, materials, details and character of the original property and its
curtilage;
Respect the characteristics of the wider area, particularly where the property forms part of
a semi-detached pair, a terrace, or a formal street pattern;
Would not cause unacceptable harm to the amenities of neighbouring occupiers;retain
adequate car parking within the site
4.8 SAFETY AND SECURITY

In selected countries and cities, insecurity has moved from being a social issue, affecting the
well-being of individuals, to being a serious development constraint, compromising the
attractiveness and potential of neighborhoods, and locking people in isolation and spiraling
decay. Insecurity discourages local investment and prevents the participation of people in active
life, while restricting their access to services.

Cities that attract economic power and foster growth can also spawn crime, violence, and
overall insecurity. Rates of crime and violence can increase dramatically in cities and are usually
most extreme in larger centres. Urban safety and security is vital for development, investment
and access to services. In Latin America, urban violence is among the five leading causes of
death. Among poor communities, many people live a life of constant fear and routine violence.
Insecurity is not only due to criminal gangs but also to brutality and victimization by police
forces. For women, there are additional concerns about domestic violence and sexual abuse. In
Page | 22

other words, violence and insecurity is a problem with multiple causes that calls for multiple and
mutually reinforcing solutions.

Municipal governments must take the lead in building safer communities. A city is also
best placed to ensure that investments and activities that effectively prevent crime are delivered
in close consultation and collaboration with citizens, local police, and relevant agencies.
Examples include street lighting around bus stops that reduce opportunities for aggression,
allowing the poor to take better paying jobs outside their community. Or public spaces, housing,
and recreational spaces designed in consultation with neighbors with specific risks in mind to
effectively reduce the incidence of crime. In a number of countries, there is now recognition that
providing security for the wealthy leaves the rest of the population much less secure. Not only
does it serve to exclude certain groups from public spaces, but it makes those excluded less
secure and shifts the problems elsewhere. There are now attempts to look for more equitable and
less exclusionary solutions, through better design and management of public spaces, as well as
careful negotiation with local users.

The provision of a secure and safe environment for its residents is a significant concern
of any major city. In Kajang, more crime like robbery activities and pick pocket. There have
some places in Kajang that have less safety like in Kajang Town. It is because many illegal
residents that live at Kajang.Police station is supplemented by police posts and in addition, there
is a system of neighborhood watch centre. To improve safety in the city, the Malaysian Crime
Prevention Foundation launched the Safe City Programmed where the communities themselves
participate in ensuring the security of their areas. Security and emergency facilities include
police station, police posts, neighborhood watch centers and fire station.

Furthermore, in order to ensure a safe and healthy living environment that can cater for the
need for all groups of people including the disabled, the disadvantaged and the aged:
Kajang shall, in consultation with the appropriate authorities, ensure that sufficient police
stations, police posts, and neighborhood watch centers are provided and adequately
distributed.
Page | 23

Place the closed-circuit television (CCTV) at the place that always happen crime
activities.
The residents must have civic intention and always help people when they in difficult
situation.
The Local Authority Party must do their own job.
Build overhead bridge for pedestrians

4.9 LANDSCAPE AND BIODIVERSITY

Biological diversity in all its dimensions and facets is always tied to habitats, which need a
concrete areal section of the earths surface for their existence. Biological diversity is therefore
always defined for a certain reference area, and landscape structure is a key element for the
understanding of species diversity. Important preconditions for high biological diversity are the
abiotic site conditions and the geomorphology. Habitats with spatially heterogeneous abiotic
conditions provide a greater variety of potentially suitable niches for plant species as habitats
with homogenous characteristics. Variations in physical structure (e.g., slope direction, soil
structure) have proven to be an appropriate factor for the prediction of the richness, diversity and
dominance of plant species.

Hence, the development at this city should:

Ensure that new developments respect the character of the local landscape, successfully
incorporate features of landscape importance and, where appropriate, include the creation
of a high quality functional landscape within the sites.
Ensure that new developments avoid causing harm to important wildlife habitats and
species that are under threat.
Encourage the incorporation of features into new developments to sustain and enhance
wildlife.

In line with vision to maintain the sustainable and greenery, the steps that we should take are:
Page | 24

Protect the forest at Hulu Langat District and Hulu Semenyih District area. Do not disturb
the reserve forest areas. While at the undeveloped land areas, we should do planting to
ensure the greenery of that place.

Do the landscape at town and home. For those who have bog yard at home, they should
build a garden by their own.

Build more recreation garden and small park such as Tasik Chempaka for recreation
and habitat of flora and fauna.

Adapt the concept of the green city which aiming cleanest n most beautiful cities. The
additional green areas should be implementing around residential, offices, landmark, and
commercial buildings. This is because Kajang green retreats enhance its citizens
physical and mental health well being.

Build the river front at Kajang as a place of critical ecological importance, as well as a
place for working and living. Where the river has been an excuse for dividing
neighbourhood and peoples, we desire a place where people can come together. We
concur with the view that parks can create new value on adjacent lands, but also propose
that a new ecology of parks is necessary that makes productive use of the rich riverfront
lands and waters, as well as the people on its shores. Transformation of Kajang town
center base on river-front development is one of the ways to transform Kajang from a
small old town to a big modern town. The natural river adds to the variety of scenery
within the urban area and the citys biodiversity interest.

Create the biodiversity conservation. Natural habitats are conserved as far as possible by
using land sparing techniques. This should be supplemented by the creation of habitats by
reinstating revering areas, planting hedgerows and establishing other protective areas and
buffer zones areas.

Page | 25

Create a river basin at Kajang which is Hulu Langat River basin. he existence of a river
basin can restore natural ecosystems are increasingly removed because of its
development of the increasingly rapid development. The existence of this river basin
could provide habitat for flora and fauna, thereby restoring natural ecosystems are
increasingly affected. An aquatic life in particular is capable of reproducing and also
gives importance to the local population to source crude supplies. River basin planning is
an ongoing process that promotes sustainable water uses that protect and improve the
water environment. Particular incident, the planning and building of river basins,
developers should take into account factors surrounding, environment especially. In the
building of river basins, steep slopes should be avoided because of runoff will speed. This
will reduce water infiltration into the soil and thus can cause bank erosion. Soil erosion
will then reduce the level of water quality and reduce the depth of the river basin area



4.10 RENEWABLE ENERGY

Many countries currently relies heavily on coal, oil, and natural gas for its energy. Fossil fuels
are non-renewable, that is, they draw on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming
too expensive or too environmentally damaging to retrieve. In contrast, the many types of
renewable energy resources-such as wind and solar energy-are constantly replenished and will
never run out.
Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Sunlight, or solar
energy, can be used directly for heating and lighting homes and other buildings, for generating
electricity, and for hot water heating, solar cooling, and a variety of commercial and industrial
uses. The sun's heat also drives the winds, whose energy, is captured with wind turbines. Then,
the winds and the sun's heat cause water to evaporate. When this water vapor turns into rain or
snow and flows downhill into rivers or streams, its energy can be captured using hydroelectric
power.
Page | 26

Along with the rain and snow, sunlight causes plants to grow. The organic matter that
makes up those plants is known as biomass. Biomass can be used to produce electricity,
transportation fuels, or chemicals. The use of biomass for any of these purposes is
called bioenergy. Hydrogen also can be found in many organic compounds, as well as water. It's
the most abundant element on the Earth. But it doesn't occur naturally as a gas. It's always
combined with other elements, such as with oxygen to make water. Once separated from another
element, hydrogen can be burned as a fuel or converted into electricity.
Not all renewable energy resources come from the sun. Geothermal energy taps the
Earth's internal heat for a variety of uses, including electric power production, and the heating
and cooling of buildings. And the energy of the ocean's tides come from the gravitational pull of
the moon and the sun upon the Earth.
In fact, ocean energy comes from a number of sources. In addition to tidal energy, there's
the energy of the ocean's waves, which are driven by both the tides and the winds. The sun also
warms the surface of the ocean more than the ocean depths, creating a temperature difference
that can be used as an energy source. All these forms of ocean energy can be used to produce
electricity.
Why use renewable energy?
With energy prices rising and climate change now headline news, the need to save energy and
reduce the amount of climate changing carbon dioxide we all emit has never been more
important. Renewable energy produces little or no carbon dioxide. Once most systems are
installed energy is produced with minimal running costs, saving you money in the long term. The
exception is biomass where you may need to buy fuel. Payback times will vary from technology
to technology.

For any community to be sustainable, one of the things it should be striving to be is
environmentally sensitive providing places for people to live that are considerate of the
environment. When we use energy throughout our daily lives we are consuming, in most cases,
energy from non renewable or finite resources such as coal and oil. However, when we use
energy that is produced from renewable forms we greatly reduce the negative impact on the
Page | 27

environment. The more energy we consume from renewable sources, and the more efficiently we
use our energy, the more we will all minimise climate change and protect our local and global
environments.

Solar energy
Passive Solar Heating and Daylighting
Solar energy technologies use the sun's energy and light to provide heat, light, hot water,
electricity, and even cooling, for homes, businesses, and industry. There are a variety of
technologies that have been developed to take advantage of solar energy.
Step outside on a hot and sunny summer day, and you'll feel the power of solar heat and
light. Today, many buildings are designed to take advantage of this natural resource through the
use of passive solar heating and daylighting.

The south side of a building always receives the most
sunlight. Therefore, buildings designed for passive solar
heating usually have large, south-facing windows.
Materials that absorb and store the sun's heat can be built
into the sunlit floors and walls. The floors and walls will
then heat up during the day and slowly release heat at
night, when the heat is needed most. This passive solar
design feature is called direct gain.
Other passive solar heating design features include sunspaces and trombe walls. A
sunspace (which is much like a greenhouse) is built on the south side of a building. As sunlight
passes through glass or other glazing, it warms the
sunspace. Proper ventilation allows the heat to
circulate into the building. On the other hand, a
trombe wall is a very thick, south-facing wall, which
Page | 28

is painted black and made of a material that absorbs a lot of heat. A pane of glass or plastic
glazing, installed a few inches in front of the wall, helps hold in the heat. The wall heats up
slowly during the day. Then as it cools gradually during the night, it gives off its heat inside the
building.
Many of the passive solar heating design features also provide daylighting. Daylighting is
simply the use of natural sunlight to brighten up a building's interior. To lighten up north-facing
rooms and upper levels, a clerestory - a row of windows near the peak of the roof - is often used
along with an open floor plan inside that allows the light to bounce throughout the building.
Of course, too much solar heating and daylighting can be a problem during the hot
summer months. Fortunately, there are many design features that help keep passive solar
buildings cool in the summer. For instance, overhangs can be designed to shade windows when
the sun is high in the summer. Sunspaces can be closed off from the rest of the building. And a
building can be designed to use fresh-air ventilation in the summer.

Photovoltaic (solar cell) Systems
Solar cells convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power
calculators and watches. They are made of semiconducting materials similar to those used in
computer chips. When sunlight is absorbed by these materials, the solar energy knocks electrons
loose from their atoms, allowing the electrons to flow through the material to produce electricity.
This process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage) is called the photovoltaic (PV)
effect.
Solar cells are typically combined into modules that hold about 40 cells; a number of these
modules are mounted in PV arrays that can measure up to several meters on a side. These flat-
plate PV arrays can be mounted at a fixed angle facing south, or they can be mounted on a
tracking device that follows the sun, allowing them to capture the most sunlight over the course
of a day. Several connected PV arrays can provide enough power for a household; for large
electric utility or industrial applications, hundreds of arrays can be interconnected to form a
single, large PV system.
Page | 29

Thin film solar cells use layers of semiconductor materials only a few micrometers thick. Thin
film technology has made it possible for solar cells to now double as rooftop shingles, roof tiles,
building facades, or the glazing for skylights or atria. The solar cell version of items such as
shingles offer the same protection and durability as ordinary asphalt shingles.
Some solar cells are designed to operate with concentrated sunlight. These cells are built into
concentrating collectors that use a lens to focus the sunlight onto the cells. This approach has
both advantages and disadvantages compared with flat-plate PV arrays. The main idea is to use
very little of the expensive semiconducting PV material while collecting as much sunlight as
possible. But because the lenses must be pointed at the sun, the use of concentrating collectors is
limited to the sunniest parts of the country. Some concentrating collectors are designed to be
mounted on simple tracking devices, but most require sophisticated tracking devices, which
further limit their use to electric utilities, industries, and large buildings.
The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into
electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much
of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that makes up the cell. Because of this, a typical
commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%-about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell
generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher
cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal
of the PV industry, NREL researchers, and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories,
and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies
of less than 4%.

4.11 AIR QUALITY

Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or
biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. Household
combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities and forest fires are common sources of
air pollution. Pollutants of major public health concern include particulate matter, carbon
Page | 30

monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Outdoor and indoor air pollution cause
respiratory and other diseases, which can be fatal.

Air pollution comes from many different sources
that are stationary sources such as factories,
power plants, and smelters and smaller sources
such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations;
mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks,
and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as
windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all
contribute to air pollution. Air Quality can be
affected in many ways by the pollution emitted from these sources. These pollution sources can
also emit a wide variety of pollutants

Outdoor air pollution
Outdoor air pollution is large and increasing a consequence of the inefficient combustion of
fuels for transport, power generation and other human activities like home heating and
cooking. Combustion processes produce a complex mixture of pollutants that comprises of
both primary emissions, such as diesel soot particles and lead, and the products of
atmospheric transformation, such as ozone and sulfate particles.
Urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year.
Children are particularly at risk due to the immaturity of their respiratory organ systems.
Those living in middle-income countries disproportionately experience this burden. Exposure
to air pollutants is largely beyond the control of individuals and requires action by public
authorities at the national, regional and even international levels.
Indoor air pollution
Indoor cooking and heating with biomass fuels (agricultural residues, dung, straw, wood) or
coal produces high levels of indoor smoke that contains a variety of health-damaging
pollutants. There is consistent evidence that exposure to indoor air pollution can lead to acute
lower respiratory infections in children under age five, and chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease and lung cancer in adults.
Page | 31

Indoor air pollution is responsible for 2 million deaths annually. Acute lower respiratory
infections, in particular pneumonia, continue to be the biggest killer of young children and
this toll almost exclusively falls on children in developing countries.


There are a lot of manmade sources of air pollution, they are population explosion, deforestation,
urbanisation and industrialisation, whose effects can be explained as follows:
a) Burning of fuels like wood,cow dung
cakes,coal and kerosene in homes pollute the
air.
b) Exhaust gases emitted by motor vehicles
which pollute the air are the major source of
air pollution in big cities.
c) Industries pollute air by releasing various
types of pollutants such as sulphur
dioxide,oxides of carbon,nitrogen
oxide,chlorine,asbestos dust and cement dust.
d) Thermal power plants pollute air by emitting sulphur dioxide and fly-ash.
e) Nuclear power plants pollute air by releasing radioactive rays.
f) Use of fertilisers and pesticides in agriculture pollute the air.
g) Mining activities releases particulate matter into the air and pollutes it.
h) Indiscriminate cutting of trees and clearing of forests increases the amount of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere and thereby pollutes it.
i) Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration,fire extinguishers and aerosol sprayers pollutes
air by depleting the ozone layer.
j) Smoking pollutes air by emitting carbon monoxide and nicotine.
Harmful Effects of Air Pollution:
Page | 32

a) Air pollution affects respiratory system causing breathing difficulties and diseases such as
bronchitis,asthma,lung cancer,tuberculosis and pneumonia.
b) Air Pollution affects the central nervous system causing carbon monoxide poisoning.CO has
more affinity for haemoglobin than oxygen and thus forms a stable compound carboxy
haemoglobin(COHb),which is poisonous and causes suffocation and death.
c) Air pollution causes depletion of ozone layer due to which ultraviolet radiations can reach
the earth and cause skin cancer,damage to eyes and immune system.
d) It causes acid rain which damages crop plants,trees,buildings,monuments,statues and metal
structures and also makes the soil acidic.
e) It causes greenhouse effect or global warming which leads to excessive heating of earth's
atmosphere,further leading to weather variability and rise in sea level.The increased
temperature may cause melting of ice caps and glaciers,resulting in floods.
f) Air pollution from certain metals,pesticides and fungicides causes serious ailments.
Lead pollution causes anaemia,brain damage,convulsions and death.
Certain metals cause problem in kidney,liver,circulatory system and nervous
system.
Fungicides cause nerve damage and death.
Pesticides like DDT(Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane) which are toxic enter into
our food chain and gets accumulated in the body causing kidney disorders and
problems of brain and circulatory system.
Prevention And Control of Air Pollution: Different techniques are used for controlling air
pollution caused by 'gaseous pollutants' and that caused by 'particulate pollutants'.
a) Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants:The air pollution caused by gaseous pollutants
like hydrocarbons,sulphur dioxide,ammonia,carbon monoxide,etc can be controlled by
using three different methods-Combustion,Absorption and Adsorption.
Combustion: This technique is applied when the pollutants are organic gases or
vapours. The organic air pollutants are subjected to 'flame combustion or catalytic
Page | 33

combustion' when they are converted to less harmful product carbon dioxide and
a harmless product water.
Absorption: In this method,the polluted air containing gaseous pollutants is
passed through a scrubber containing a suitable liquid absorbent.The liquid
absorbs the harmful gaseous pollutants present in air.
Adsorption: In this method,the polluted air is passed through porous solid
adsorbents kept in suitable containers.The gaseous pollutants are adsorbed at the
surface of the porous solid and clean air passes through.
b) Methods of controlling particulate emissions:The air pollution caused by particulate
matter like dust,soot,ash,etc, can be controlled by using fabric filters,wet
scrubbers,electrostatic precipitators and certain mechanical devices.
Mechanical Devices: It works on the basis of following:
Gravity: In this process,the particulate settle down by the action of
gravitational force and get removed.
Sudden change in the direction of air flow: It brings about
separation of particles due to greater momentum.

Fabric Filters: The particulate matter is passed through a porous medium
made of woven or filled fabrics.
The particulate present in the polluted air are filtered and gets
collected in the fabric filters, while the gases are discharged.
The process of controlling air pollution by using fabric filters is
called 'bag filtration'.
c) Wet Scrubbers:They are used to trap SO
2
,NH
3
and metal fumes by passing the fumes
through water.
d) Electrostatic Precipitators:When the polluted air containing particulate pollutants is passed
through an electrostatic precipitator,it induces electric charge on the particles and then the
aerosol particles get precipitated on the electrodes.
Some other methods of controlling Air Pollution:
Page | 34

1. Tall chimneys should be installed in factories.
2. Better designed equipment and smokeless fuels should be used in homes and industries.
3. Renewable and non- polluting sources of energy like solar energy,wind energy,etc,should
be used.
4. Automobiles should be properly maintained and adhere to emission control standards.
5. More trees should be planted along roadsides and houses.

4.12 WATER QUALITY AND DRAINAGE
Water quality
Water quality is determined by the presence and quantity of
contaminants, by physical/ chemical factors such as pH and
conductivity, by the number of salts present and by the
presence of nutrients. Humans largely influence all these
factors, as they discharge their waste in water and add all
kinds of substances and contaminants to water that are not
naturally present.

Water quality is affected by a wide range of natural and
human influences. The most important of the natural influences are geological, hydrological and
climatic, since these affect the quantity and the quality of water available. Their influence is
generally greatest when available water quantities are low and maximum use must be made of
the limited resource; for example, high salinity is a frequent problem in arid and coastal areas. If
the financial and technical resources are available, seawater or saline groundwater can be
desalinated but in many circumstances this is not feasible. Thus, although water may be available
in adequate quantities, its unsuitable quality limits the uses that can be made of it. Although the
natural ecosystem is in harmony with natural water quality, any significant changes to water
quality will usually be disruptive to the ecosystem.
The effects of human activities on water quality are both widespread and varied in the degree
to which they disrupt the ecosystem and/or restrict water use. Pollution of water by human
Page | 35

faeces, for example, is attributable to only one source, but the reasons for this type of
pollution, its impacts on water quality and the necessary remedial or preventive measures
are varied. Faecal pollution may occur because there are no community facilities for waste
disposal, because collection and treatment facilities are inadequate or improperly operated,
or because on-site sanitation facilities (such as latrines) drain directly into aquifers. The effects
of faecal pollution vary. In developing countries intestinal disease is the main problem, while
organic load and eutrophication may be of greater concern in developed countries (in the rivers
into which the sewage or effluent is discharged and in the sea into which the rivers flow or
sewage sludge is dumped). A single influence may, therefore, give rise to a number of water
quality problems, just as a problem may have a number of contributing influences.
Eutrophication results not only from point sources, such as wastewater discharges with high
nutrient loads (principally nitrogen and phosphorus), but also from diffuse sources such as run-
off from livestock feedlots or agricultural land fertilized with organic and inorganic fertilisers.
Pollution from diffuse sources, such as agricultural runoff, or from numerous small inputs over a
wide area, such as faecal pollution from unseweredsettlements, is particularly difficult to control.
Given all of these issues, Gleick et al. (1995) offer a working definition of sustainable water use
as:

A basic water requirement will be guaranteed to all humans to maintain human health.
A basic water requirement will be guaranteed to restore and maintain the health of
ecosystems.
Water quality will be maintained to meet certain minimum standards. These standards
will vary depending on location and how the water is to be used.
Human actions will not impair the long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows.
Data on water resources availability, use, and quality will be collected and made
accessible to all parties.
Institutional mechanisms will be set up to prevent and resolve conflicts over water.
Water planning and decision making will be democratic, ensuring representation of all
affected parties and fostering direct participation of affected interests.

Drainage
Page | 36


A sustainable drainage system is designed to reduce the potential impact of new and existing
developments with respect to surface water drainage
discharges. The term sustainable urban drainage
system

is not the accepted name, the 'Urban' reference
having been removed so as to accommodate rural
sustainable water management practices. Increasing
urbanization has caused problems with increased
flash flooding after sudden rain. As areas of
vegetation are replaced by impermeable concrete,
tarmac or roofed areas the area loses its ability to
absorb rainwater. This rain is instead directed into surface water drainage systems, often
overloading them and causing floods.
The idea behind sustainable drainage system is to try to replicate natural systems that use cost
effective solutions with low environmental impact to drain away dirty and surface water run-off
through collection, storage, and cleaning before allowing it to be released slowly back into the
environment, such as into water courses. This is to counter the effects of conventional drainage
systems that often allow for flooding, pollution of the environment with the resultant harm to
wildlife and contamination of groundwater sources used to provide drinking water. The
paradigm of sustainable drainage system solutions should be that of a system that is easy to
manage, requiring little or no energy input (except from environmental sources such as sunlight,
etc.), resilient to use, and being environmentally as well as aesthetically attractive. Examples of
this type of system are reed beds and other wetland habitats that collect, store, and filter dirty
water along with providing a habitat for wildlife.
Sustainable drainage system use the following
techniques:
source control
permeable paving such as pervious concrete
storm water detention
Page | 37

storm water infiltration
evapo-transpiration (e.g. from a green roof)
A common misconception of sustainable drainage system is that they reduce flooding on the
development site. In fact the sustainable drainage system is designed to reduce the impact that
the surface water drainage system of one site has on other sites. For instance, sewer flooding is a
problem in many places. Paving or building over land can result in flash flooding. This happens
when flows entering a sewer exceed its capacity and it overflows. The sustainable drainage
system aims to minimise or eliminate discharges from the site, thus reducing the impact, the idea
being that if all development sites incorporated sustainable drainage system then urban sewer
flooding would be less of a problem. Unlike traditional urban stormwater drainage systems,
sustainable drainage system can also help to protect and enhance ground water quality.

Page | 38

5.0 CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, the public participation should assist in achieving sustainable development in
optimal utilization of available resources. The concept of eco-partnership which places emphasis
on the concerted efforts of various stakeholders such as private enter prices, various government
agencies and community based and non governmental organizations (CBOs and NGOs) to carry
out study activities aimed at increasing public awareness on sustainable environment should be
promoted and enhanced. The public should also be encouraged to adopt the 3R concept of
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

Page | 39

6.0 REFERANCE
i. http://kajangtown.blogspot.com/
ii. http://kajangtown.blogspot.com/
iii. www.lonelyplanet.com
iv. http://www.thestar.com.my/story.aspx?sec=central&file=%2f2011%2f3%2f15%2fcentral
%2f8239893
v. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kajang_Town_Main_Junction.jpg
vi. http://www.my-rummy.com/Kajang/Hotel/images/Plaza_Metro_Kajang.jpg
vii. http://greatergreaterwashington.org/post/5001/lessons-from-a-south-american-bus-rapid-
transit-system/
viii. http://www.urbanhabitat.org/node/344
ix. http://jimsbikeblog.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/bike-rental-system-in-hangzhou.jpg
x. http://jebateja.blogspot.com/2010/05/kajang.htmlxi. San antonio riverxii. curitiba