Tavisuflebis instituti, 2005

aqtiuri moqalaqeobis saxelmZRvanelo

Tavisuflebis instituti

wignis gamocema dafinansebulia demokratiis erovnuli fondis (National Endowment for Democracy) mier. miuxedavad amisa, mxolod Tavisuflebis instituti agebs pasuxs am gamocemis Sinaarsze. masSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi SesaZloa ar gamoxatavdes demokratiis erovnuli fondis (National Endowment for Democracy) azrs.

redaqtorebi: Tamar asaTiani akaki minaSvili

\ 2005, Tavisuflebis instituti

ISBN 99940-885-0-5

sarCevi

nawili I. samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba, rogorc adamianis uflebaTa dacvis saSualeba Tavi 1. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis filosofiuri da istoriuli fesvebi 1.1. Zveli saberZneTi 1.2. religiuri safuZveli 1.3. Sua saukuneebi – me-20 saukune Tavi 2. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis Teoria 2.1. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis ganmarteba nawili II. araZaladobrivi brZolis Teoria, strategiuli araZaladobrioba da kampaniebis warmoeba Tavi 1. politikuri Zalaufleba: formebi da safuZveli 1.1. politikuri Zalauflebis Teoria 1.2. sayrdeni burjebi 1.3. morCileba Tavi 2. araZaladobrivi brZolis formebi da meTodebi 2.1. strategiuli araZaladobrivi brZolis principebi 2.2. araZaladobrivi brZolis meqanizmebi da meTodebi 2.3. problemebis gadaWra 2.4. strategiuli Sefaseba nawili III. praqtikuli rCevebi 3.1. sakiTxis SerCeva 3.2. strategiis SemuSaveba 3.3. taqtikis arCeva

7 10 10 11 14 24 24

40 40 40 48 58 63 65 66 80 84 89 89 94 97

3.4. peticiebi 3.5. werilebis weris kampania 3.6. oficialur pirTan Sexvedra 3.7. satelefono kampania 3.8. mediis gamoyeneba 3.9. saganmanaTleblo aqciebi 3.10. demonstraciebis mowyoba 3.11. SemoqmedebiTi aqciebi

99 101 103 105 107 119 120 123

6

nawili I
samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba, rogorc adamianis uflebaTa dacvis saSualeba

`borotebis triumfisaTvis erTaderTi ram aris saWiro: rom kargma adamianma araferi gaakeTos~. edmund berki nacisturi reJimis dangrevisa da adamianis uflebaTa dacvis sferoSi Zireuli dokumentebis Seqmnis Semdeg warmoiSva imis mzardi imedi, rom msofliom Seabija axali mmarTvelobis epoqaSi, rodesac adamianis uflebebi da samarTlianoba gaTvaliswinebuli da daculi iqneba. samwuxarod, movlenebis Semdgomma ganviTarebam sapirispiro Sedegi gamoiRo: sabWoTa zegavlenisa da komunisturi ideologiis gavrceleba aRmosavleT evropis qveynebsa da msoflios sxva mxareebSi, mmarTvelobis sistema, romelic sruliad ugulebelyofda samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis mniSvnelobas, da samxedro diqtatura laTinur amerikaSi, demokratiuli sistemebis winaaRmdeg galaSqreba, adamianis uflebaTa uxeSi darRveva, genocidi da aparTeidi afrikis kontinentze. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlam win wamoswia kidev ramdenime diqtatoruli qveyana centraluri aziis saxelmwifoTa Soris da serbeTSi miloSeviCis mmarTvelobisasa, an im qveynebSi, romlebic oficialur doneze adamianis uflebaTa dacvis princips qadagebdnen, Tumca sinamdvileSi ruseTis msgavsad yovelgvar aRiarebul Tavisuflebas aRkveTdnen. garda amisa, avtoritaruli sistemis naTeli magaliTebia CrdiloeT korea da irani, romlebic dRemde aRiqmeba, rogorc saSiSroeba mSvidobisaTvis regionSi da mTel msoflioSi. samxedro intervenciamde erayi sadam huseinisa da misi samxedro dajgufebis mier danergili sastiki mmarTvelobis principis naTeli magaliTi iyo. bunebrivia, rom Seqmnilma faqtobrivma fonma adamianis uflebebisa da demokratiuli institutebis ganviTarebis Seyovneba gamoiw-

7

via. dRemde SemuSavebul iqna sxvadasxva saxelmwifo Tu saerTaSoriso meqanizmebi, romlebic icavs adamianis uflebebs, Tumca, samwuxarod, es meqanizmebi susti an araefeqturia diqtatoruli reJimis pirobebSi, rodesac saxelmwifo CarTulia korufciaSi, ar icavs kanonis uzenaesobas da arRvevs adamianis uflebebs. aseT SemTxvevebSi formaluri institutebi, SesaZloa, ar aRmoCndnen efeqturi saxelmwifos diqtatis Sesakaveblad. msoflio istoriaSi xSiria praqtika, rodesac diqtatorebis winaaRmdeg Zaladobrivi meTodebi (mag., omi) gamoiyeneba. Tumca Cveni mizani Zaladobriv meTodebze saubari ar aris, aramed SevecdebiT, ukeT warmovaCinoT araZaladobrivi meTodebis roli diqtaturis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi da maTi gamoyenebis istoria. araZaladobriobaze saubris dawyebamde mniSvnelovania, ganvixiloT samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis Tema. samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba adamianis uflebaTa dacvis erT-erTi alternatiuli saSualebaa da, rogorc istoriam naTlad dagvanaxva, es sakmaod efeqturi zomaa sxva saSualebebis naklovanebaTa gamosasworeblad. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis idea muSavdeboda da gamoiyeneboda antikuri droidan, im periodSi, rodesac erovnuli Tu saerTaSoriso saSualebebi ar arsebobda. Tumca me-19 saukunemde mas aklda `samoqalaqo~ elementebi da igi aRiqmeboda, rogorc kanonisadmi ubralo daumorCilebloba. dRes samoqalaqo daumorCileblobas odnav gansxvavebuli kvalifikacia mieniWa. kanonisadmi daumorCilebloba jer kidev Zveli saberZneTis droidan aRvivebda farTo interess. daumorCileblobis dilema aRwerilia miTologiaSi, tragediebsa da religiur moZRvrebebSi. iuridiuli da politikuri Teoriebis TvalsazrisiT, es sakiTxi mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli bunebiTi samarTlis filosofiasTan, kerZod, dawerili kanonis qmediTobasTan bunebriv faseulobebTan kavSirSi. aristotele, sokrate, wminda Toma akvineli da wminda avgustini amarTlebdnen daumorCileblobas, Tuki dawerili kanoni ar Seesabameboda bunebiT samarTals. loki aRiarebs daumorCileblobis SesaZleblobas, Tuki saxelmwifo arRvevs socialuri kontraqtiT gaTvaliswinebul valdebulebebs. me-19 saukuneSi henri devid torom erT-erTi epoqaluri namuSevari Seqmna daumorCileblobis dargSi da Semoitana termini `samoqalaqo~. me-20 saukuneSi daumorCileblobis idea farTovdeba da aqtiurad inergeba. mahaTma gandisa da martin luTer kingis namuSevrebma didi wvlili Seitana ideis ganviTarebaSi. garda amisa, ramdenime sxva gamoCenilma filo8

sofosma, rogorebic arian jon roulzi, ronald dvorkini, hugo adam bedo da hana arendti, warmoadgina Tavisi mosazreba am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis ideis momxreebi amtkiceben, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba, garkveuli kvalifikaciiT, SeiZleba xels uwyobdes demokratiul procesebs, Tumca oponentebi misi uaryofisas ZiriTadad argumentad asaxeleben masobrivi ukanonobis saSiSroebas. ukanaskneli drois movlenebma serbeTSi, saqarTveloSi da mimdinare procesebma ukrainaSi kidev ufro intensiuri gaxada es debatebi politikur wreebSic. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobasTan dakavSirebulma istoriam da literaturam wamoWra ramdenime SekiTxva, romlebic ganxilulia winamdebare wignSi. pirveli _ raSi mdgomareobs samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis namdvili xasiaTi da kvalifikacia, meore _ arRvevs Tu ara samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba adamianis uflebebs, vnebs Tu ara kanonis uzenaesobisa da demokratiis principebs, da mesame _ aris Tu ara gamarTlebuli samoqalaqo daumorCileblobisaTvis iuridiuli statusis miniWeba da SeiZleba Tu ara amgvarma statusma anarqiamde da ukanonobamde migviyvanos. zemoxsenebuli SekiTxvebidan gamomdinare, winamdebare wignis mizani imis demonstrirebaa, rom Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi da msoflios dRevandeli mmarTvelobis pirobebSi samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba dokumentSi ganmartebuli kvalifikaciebiT adamianis uflebaTa da demokratiis dacvis erT-erTi yvelaze efeqturi saSualebaa da miuTiTebs samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis legitimizaciaze, istoriuli ganviTarebis, Teoriuli informaciisa da arsebuli tendenciebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

9

Tavi 1 samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis filosofiuri da istoriuli fesvebi
`Tavisuflebis yvelaze didi saSiSroeba inertuli adamiania~. mosamarTle brandeisi Sesavali Sua saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi kanonis darRvevis idea kamaTis sagans warmoadgenda da mas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba me-18 saukuneSi mieqca bunebiTi samarTlisa da kanonis ideologiis warmoSobasTan erTad. im droidan daumorCileblobas aqtiurad iyenebdnen istoriuli politikuri gardaqmnebis misaRwevad da fundamenturi uflebebis dacvis uzrunvelsayofad. ramdenad ucnauric ar unda iyos, me-20 saukuneSi samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba msoflios wamyvani saxelmwifoebis mier wamowyebuli konfliqtebisa da omebisagan Tavis daRwevis saSualebad gamoiyeneba. sabWoTa kavSirSi samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba daexmara xalxs komunisturi diqtaturis damarcxebaSi. 1.1 Zveli saberZneTi 1.1.1 antigone dawerili kanonis daumorCileblobis idea antikur xanaSi warmoiSva. amis pirveli aSkara magaliTebi berZnul miTologiaSi gvxvdeba, kerZod, promeTes daumorCilebloba zevsisadmi. udidesma aTenelma tragikosma sofoklem adamianis mier dawerili kanonisadmi daumorCileblobis sakiTxi cnobil drama `antigoneSi~ ganmarta. antigone arRvevs kreonis brZanebas, romelic Tebes mmarTveli iyo da uyuradRebod tovebs gankargulebas, ar damarxos Zma, rasac igi sruliad amoralurad miiCnevs. aq SegviZlia visaubroT pirad moralur Sinagan faseulobebsa da kanonieri mbrZaneblis mier gacemul gankargulebas Soris arCevanTan dakavSirebul dilemaze. aSkaraa, rom tragediaSi mTavari aqcenti gakeTebulia ara daumorCileblobis sakiTxze, aramed antigones saqcielis moralur aspeqtze, TumcaRa igi sworad aris miCneuli iseTi dawerili kanonis uaryofis aqtis magaliTad, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba maRal moralur faseulobebs.

10

1.1.2 sokrate kanonis daumorCileblobis istoriaSi da sazogadod istoriaSi erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili nawarmoebia platonis `krito~, romelSic gadmocemulia sokratesa da misi megobris kritos saubari. sokrate misma Tanamoqalaqeebma cixeSi daamwyvdies da sikvdili miusajes. krito gamosavlis monaxvis mcdelobisas cdilobs, daarwmunos sokrate, gaiparos cixidan da daarRvios dadgenili wesebi. sokrate uars ambobs da SeimuSavebs ideologias, romelsac `daarwmune an daemorCile~-s doqtrina ewodeba. mas safuZvlad udevs morali, romlis Tanaxmadac, moqalaqem unda daarwmunos Tavisi mmarTveli, Secvalos kanoni an daemorCilos am kanons. igi imeorebs: `rogorc omSi, ise kanonis sasamarTloSi da yvelgan unda gaakeTo is, rasac Seni qveyana gibrZanebs, an ara da unda daarwmuno igi sayovelTao samarTlis Sesabamisad, magram orpiroba codvaa sakuTari mSoblebis winaSec ki da kidev ufro didi codvaa Seni qveynis winaSe~. igi acxadebs, rom Tuki kerZo pirs ase advilad SeuZlia daarRvios adamianTa mier dadgenili wesi, es gamoiwvevs qaoss da daangrevs yvela miRebul princips. sokrates sami argumenti mohyavs kanonmorCilebis gasamarTleblad. pirveli is, rom saxelmwifo aris mSobliuri damokidebulebis saxe yoveli moqalaqis mimarT; meore: saxelmwifo aris mcveli; mesame: yovel moqalaqes micemuli aqvs morCilebis piroba im faqtiT, rom davaJkacebis asakSi am saxelmwifoSi cxovrobs. im kanonis darRveva, romelzec Sen Tanxmoba ganacxade, uRirsi saqcielia da aman SesaZloa uaryofiTi zegavlena iqonios momaval Taobebze. aSkaraa, rom sokrate sruliad ar aRiarebs kanonis darRvevis SesaZleblobas, piriqiT yvela Rones xmarobs, raTa daamtkicos, rom adamianis mier dawerili kanoni kargia. igi acxadebs, rom kanonis aRsrulebisagan gaqcviT, adamiani amtkicebs ukanono gadawyvetilebis siswores; amdenad, misTvis sasjelis miReba erTgvari mcdelobaa usamarTlo kanonis naklovanebebis warmoCenisa. platonis `apologiaSi~ sokrate cdilobs warmoadginos gamarTlebuli daumorCileblobis cneba, romelic aucileblobis princips da uzenaesi mmarTvelisadmi damorCilebas eyrdnoba. magram nebismier SemTxvevaSi sasjeli miRebul unda iqnes, rac mogvianebiT daumorCileblobis ZiriTad principad gadaiqca. 1.2 religiuri safuZveli 1.2.1 bibliuri filosofia sazogadod, qristianoba mmarTvelis morCilebas qadagebs, ramdenadac igi RmerTisagan aris movlenili. RmerTi asaCuqrebs mmar-

11

Tvels brZanebis gacemis uflebamosilebiT qriste mimarTavs morwmuneT da eubneba maT: `netar xarT Tqven, roca gaglanZRaven, gagdevnian da yovelnairad borots ityvian Tqvenze Cems gamo. ixareT da imxiaruleT, vinaidan didia Tqveni sazRauri caSi. aseve devnidnen winaswarmetyvelT, romlebic Tqvenze uwin iyvnen~, miuTiTebs ra, rom samoqalaqo mmarTvelis pativiscema da misi morCileba sayovelTao keTildReobisaTvis mxolod kargis momtania. amave dros, eqstremalur situaciaSi, `rodesac codva gardauvalia~, mimdevrebi uflebamosilni arian, ar daemorCilon mmarTvels da mis kanonebs im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki adamianis dawerili normebi ewinaaRmdegeba RmerTis mier mowodebul uzenaes wess, ramdenadac RmerTis neba samoqalaqo mmarTvelis kanonze uzenaesia. mociqulTa saqmeebSi, Tavi 26, miTiTebulia, rom `Cven RmerTs unda davemorCiloT da ara adamians~, amdenad, kanonis Zala damokidebulia imaze, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba igi uzenaes nebas. qristianebma yvela Rone unda ixmaron, rom gaaumjobeson adamianis mier Seqmnili kanoni, gaauqmon usamarTlo da amoraluri wesebi. ufro metic, adamiani unda iRvwodes sxvaTa uflebebisa da keTildReobisaTvis. bibliaSi moyvanilia dawerili wesisa Tu kanonis daumorCileblobis mravali magaliTi, romlebSic daumorCilebloba warmodgenilia qmedebiTi formiT an pasiurobiT, anu umoqmedobiT. mkvlelobis amkrZalavi RmerTis kanonis dacvisas ebraelma bebiaqalebma uaryves faraonis kanoni da uari ganacxades axalSobilTa mkvlelobaze. sedraki, misaki da abednaqo ar eTayvanebodnen oqros qandakebas mefe nabuqodonosoris gankargulebis miuxedavad, ramdenadac iTvleboda, rom es erT-erTi yvelaze didi codva iyo. mogvebmac ar gaumxiles herodes Cvili iesos adgilsamyofeli. 1.2.2 religiuri moazrovneni kaTolikuri eklesia Zalze aqtiuri iyo samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis moZraobaSi. wamebulni yvela droSi realurad axorcielebdnen TavianT daumorCileblobas da iRebdnen sasjels, raTa amgvarad gamoevlinaT usamarTloba. Tavad qristes jvarcmis faqtic ki SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc daumorCileblobis aqti. eklesia aqtiurad uWerda mxars samoqalaqo uflebaTa moZraobas amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi yrilobebSi aqtiuri monawileobiT. nacistebis periodSi mRvdlebma mraval ebraels aRmouCines daxmareba.

12

wm. Toma akvineli, me-13 saukunis gamoCenili filosofosi, ganixilavda RvTaebriv mmarTvelobas, rogorc bunebiTi samarTlis wyaros, romelic, Tavis mxriv, gvkarnaxobs dawerili kanonis arss. nebismieri qmedeba, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba RmerTis nebas, usamarTlod unda CaiTvalos da `mas ar gaaCnia fesvebi ucvlel bunebiT samarTalSi~. misi swavlebidan gamomdinare, mmarTveli, romelmac Zalauflba Zalis gamoyenebiT an korufciiT moipova, gadagdebul unda iqnes Tundac Zaladobis gziT. erTaderTi gamonaklisi am SemTxvevaSi iyo momdevno saxalxo dasturi. akvineli qadagebda bunebiTi samarTlis Teorias racionalobasa da sayovelTao keTildReobaze dayrdnobiT. akvinelis Tanaxmad, usamarTlo kanonebi warmoadgens Zaladobis aqts, kanonis damaxinjebas da, amdenad, umjobesia daarRvio, vidre daemorCilo maT. akvinelis filosofiaSi Cven vxedavT usamarTlo kanonebis daumorCileblobis movaleobis sawyiss. misi azriT, usamarTlo aqti sulac ar aris savaldebulo yvelasaTvis, ramdenadac igi scdeba samarTlianobis principebs. samarTlianoba mas gamohyavs gaazrebul midgomad, romelic, Tavis mxriv, warmoqmnilia bunebiTi samarTlisagan. usamarTlo kanoni SeiZleba orgvarad arsebobdes: aqtebi, romlebic ewinaaRmdegeba `adamianis keTildReobas~, rodesac amgvar normebs mivyavarT `sixarbesa da pativmoyvareobamde~, romlebsac adamiani Tavisi Zalauflebis farglebs gareT warmoqmnis da meore, rodesac dawerili kanoni arRvevs RvTaebriv wess. amgvari kanonebi ar aris savaldebulo sindisisaTvis da `am saxis kanonebi arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar unda iqnes daculi~. Jan kalvini, gamoCenili religiuri reformisti, amarTlebs kanonebisadmi winaaRmdegobas im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki igi `uRirsi mTavrobis~ winaaRmdeg ganxorcielda. misi swavlebis zegavlenis qveS moqceuli misi mimdevrebi amtkicebdnen, rom mmarTveli valdebulia, pativi miagos adamianis morals da rwmenas da Tuki is ver asrulebs am valdebulebas, adamiani movalea, winaaRmdegoba gauwios mas, ramdenadac samoqalaqo mmarTvelis mxridan RmerTis nebis daumorCilebloba `mkrexelobaa~. miwieri mmarTvelisaTvis gaweuli winaaRmdegoba xazgasmuli iyo sxva religiuri reformistebis swavlebasa da ideologiebSic, maT Soris frangi hugenotebis, religiur-politikuri moZraobebis, rogoricaa anabaptistebis da menonitebis, iseTi jgufebis, rogoricaa Levelers Diggers, Quakers, Ranters da sxv. maTi moTxovnebi gansxvave13

buli iyo, magram maTi qmedebani e. w. araZaladobrivi pirdapiri qmedebis fesvebs warmoadgenda. iyvnen religiuri figurebic, romlebic kanonis daumorCileblobas qadagebdnen. religiuri reformistuli moZraoba, romelsac martin luTeri xelmZRvanelobda, mtkiced uaryofda samoqalaqo mmarTvelis daumorCileblobas, imis miuxedavad, `samarTliani iyo misi qmedebebi Tu usamarTlo~. igi Tvlida, rom monarqis daumorCilebloba seriozuli codvaa. magram, rogorc istoria gviCvenebs, sinamdvileSi protestantuli moZraoba axorcielebda religiur daumorCileblobas papis Zalauflebisadmi, rodesac isini amgvar mmarTvelobas RmerTis nebis sawinaaRmdegod Tvlidnen. rogorc davinaxeT, religiurma filosofiam myari safuZveli Seqmna daumorCileblobis filosofiisaTvis; Tumca es ar aRiqmeboda, rogorc e. w. samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba da, ZiriTadad, mas ar gaaCnda winaaRmdegobis individualuri zneobrivi niadagi. igi ar iTvleboda masobriv aqciad, romelSic gaerTianebuli iyo popularul xmaTa mniSvnelovani raodenoba. misi mTavari mizani iyo, Seekra damcavi wre religiuri rwmenisaTvis da Tavidan aecilebina miwieri mmarTveloba, romelic RvTaebrivi wesebisagan warmoSobil bunebiT samarTals emyareboda. es SeiZleba politika iyo, romelsac garkveuli religiuri wreebi atarebdnen, raTa gaeZlierebinaT eklesia da misi gavlena saxelmwifoze erTi mxriv an adgilobrivi eklesia papis mmarTvelobis winaaRmdeg meore mxriv. arc erTi religia an religiuri moZraoba ar qadagebda kanonis daumorCileblobas adamianis rwmenis Tavisuflebis uflebis dacvis saxeliT, garda Levelers-isa, romlebic xmis uflebas da Tanasworobas iTxovdnen da kvakerebisa, romlebic winaaRmdegobas uwevdnen mTavrobis mier Sekrebis uflebis akrZalvas. es situacia odnav Seicvala me-20 saukuneSi, rodesac eklesiebis warmomadgenlebma daiwyes monawileobis miReba samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis moZraobaSi, rogoric iyo adamianis uflebaTa dacvis moZraoba amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi 1960-ian wlebSi da saqarTveloSi 2003 wlis `vardebis revoluciis~ dros, rodesac religiuri umciresobebi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebdnen araZaladobriv pirdapir qmedebebSi. 1.3 Sua saukuneebi _ me-20 saukune 1.3.1 nikolo makiaveli nikolo makiaveli gamoCenili politikuri moazrovne iyo, romelmac gamoikvlia saxelmwifos marTvis xelovnebisa da Zalauflebis

14

safuZvlebi. misi ideologiis ZiriTadi mimarTuleba mdgomareobda imaSi, rom xalxis marTvisa da kontrolisaTvis mmarTvelma qveSevrdomebs SiSi unda STaunergos, romelic ar gadaizrdeba sisastikeSi, raTa Tavidan aicilos siZulvili. garda amisa, sazogadoebaSi siZulvilis Camoyalibebis SesaZleblobis minimumamde dasayvanad mmarTvelma Tavi unda Seikavos individualuri sakuTrebis xelyofisagan da uzrunvelyos sasjelis gamoyenebis Zlieri argumentacia. imisaTvis, rom sworad marTos qveyana, mmarTveli saWiroebs mniSvnelovani raodenobiT xalxis mxardaWerasa da erTgulebas. rogorc ki mis mimarT keTilganwyoba gaqarwyldeba, misi Zalaufleba dasustebas daiwyebs da igi TamaSgare mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndeba. igi amtkicebs, rom `visac sazogadoeba mTlianad mtrad hyavs gadaqceuli, verasodes SeZlebs daicvas Tavi; da rac ufro sastikia igi, miT ufro susti xdeba misi reJimi~. rac Seexeba daumorCileblobas, makiavelis Zlier eSinoda imisa, rom daumorCilebloba sakmaod nayofieri niadagi iqneboda mTavrobis sawinaaRmdego qmedebebisaTvis. magram misi swavleba Zalauflebis Sesaxeb naTlad miuTiTebda samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis siZliereze marTvisaTvis xelis SeSlis TvalsazrisiT, Tuki mmarTveli dakargavda erTgul mimdevrebs. mogvianebiT mravalma avtorma gamoiyena makiavelis swavleba daumorCileblobis arsis ganmartebisaTvis. 1.3.2 henri devid toro cnobili amerikeli filosofosi da naturalisti, henri devid toro, erT-erTi maTgania, vinc Zalze didi wvlili Seitana samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis dRevandeli gagebis CamoyalibebaSi da mxari dauWira radikaluri uTanxmoebis moZraobas. igi pirveli iyo, vinc Semoitana termini `samoqalaqo~, raTa xazi gaesva daumorCileblobis samoqalaqo mniSvnelobisa da rolisaTvis saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis naklovanebebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. toro mouwodebda monobis gadagdebisaken, kerZod, igi ewinaaRmdegeboda 1850 wlis kanons gaqceuli monebis Sesaxeb. kanoni sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobas akisrebda pirebs, ZiriTadad CrdiloeTidan, romlebic daxmarebas uwevdnen an TavSesafars aZlevdnen gaqceul monebs. 1846 wels torom uari ganacxada saarCevno gadasaxadis gadaxdaze, riTac Tavisi protesti gamoxata amerikis mier meqsikaSi gaCaRebuli omis winaaRmdeg da amisaTvis igi cixeSi Casves. kanonis daumorCileblobasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze sakuTari Sexe15

duleba torom aRwera Tavis cnobil eseSi `samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis Sesaxeb~, romelic SemdgomSi praqtikulad bibliad gadaiqca samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis moZraobisaTvis mTel msoflioSi da dRemde `igrZnoba misi arseboba amerikis cxovrebaSi~. toro aRwers mTavrobas, rogorc arastabilur erTeuls, romelic advilad eqvemdebareba uzurpacias da misi ganadgureba an damaxinjeba Zalze advilia. umciresobas amgvar pirobebSi ar gaaCnia sakmarisi Zalaufleba konkurenciis gasawevad. ase rom, kanoni umciresobisaTvis erT-erT saSiSroebas warmoadgens, rogorc iaraRi umravlesobis nebisaTvis. e. i. is Zalauflebis daTrgunvis saSualebaa da, amdenad, igi ar SeiZleba iyos amosavali wertili, piriqiT, pativi unda vceT uflebas da ufleba unda iyos yoveli dawerili aqtis amosavali wertili. igi ambobs, rom `upirvelesad Cven unda viyoT kacni, da mxolod Semdeg _ subieqtebi~. toro Riad akanonebs samoqalaqo daumorCileblobas im pirobiT, rom igi ramdenime moTxovnas daakmayofilebs. daumorCileblobis ZiriTadi piroba tiraniis garemoa, romelic efeqturia da TviTon kvebavs Tavis Tavs. am SemTxvevaSi igi aRiarebs revoluciis uflebas, magram ara sistemis gaumjobesebis an SecvlisaTvis, an `cudis aRmofxvrisaTvis~ (gansxvavebiT mravali sxva moazrovnisagan, romlebsac mogvianebiT ganvixilavT), aramed viRacis `binZuri~ TamaSisagan, amoralurobisagan Tavis dasaRwevad. misi azriT, adamianis movaleobaa, mxari ar dauWiros cudi kanonebis cxovrebaSi gatarebas. igi mxolod swori saqcielis Cadenis valdebulebas aRiarebs, xolo swori is aris, rac gamarTlebulia sindisiT da ara meqanikuri kanonis miRebiT. sxeulisagan gansxvavebiT, sindiss ver gaakontrolebs mTavroba, romelsac ufro meti fizikuri Zalaufleba gaaCnia, xolo sindisiereba samarTlianobis efeqturi maCvenebelia da iaraRi mCagvrelis winaaRmdeg. kanonis erTguleba, mTavrobis qmedebebisa da politikis gamtyunebis SemTxvevaSic ki, aranair Sedegs ar iZleva, radganac pasiuroba adamians siborotis gacnobierebul mxardamWerad aqcevs. toros azriT, `usamarTlobis agentobis~ Tavidan asacileblad yvelaze efeqturi da Sesaferisi saSualebaa kanonis darRveva `siborotis manqanis~ gasaCereblad. `samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis Sesaxeb~ ar aris ubralo filosofiuri namuSevari. igi mouwodebs masebs da aqtiuri samoqalaqo pozicia daikavon. toros azriT, `umciresoba uZluria manam, sanam umrav16

lesobas eqvemdebareba; am SemTxvevaSi is umciresobac ki ar aris; magram misTvis winaaRmdegobis gaweva SeuZlebeli xdeba, rodesac mTeli Tavisi simZlavriT iCens Tavs~. rodesac igi gulwrfelad ganudgeba mTavrobas, umravlesoba iZulebuli gaxdeba, xeli aiRos Tavisi politikis gatarebaze. igi mouwodebs xalxs, gamoiyenon daumorCileblobis teqnika, ar gadaixadon gadasaxadebi, wamovidnen samsaxurebidan da miiRon sasjeli, rogorc amas moiTxovs usamarTlo saxelmwifo. da Tu xalxi ganudgeba mTavrobas da aRar dauWers mas mxars, mTavrobas sxva gamosavali ar darCeba da igi xels aiRebs Tavisi aramarTebuli politikis warmarTvaze. `adamiani movalea, Sewyvitos sakuTari umweobis mxardaWera~ saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis saxeliT. 1.3.3 mahaTma gandi mahaTma gandi iyo indoeTis gamoCenili erovnuli lideri, romelic me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi moRvaweobda ganTavisuflebis samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis kampaniiT. misi wvlili samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis ideis ganviTarebaSi ara mxolod Teoriulia: man wamoiwyo samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis erT-erTi yvelaze masobrivi moZraoba kacobriobis istoriaSi. gandim mTeli Tavisi cxovreba samxreT afrikaSi rasobrivi diskriminaciisa da usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolas miuZRvna. mSvidobiani winaaRmdegobis meTodebiT mahaTma gandim miaRwia indoeTis damoukideblobas didi britaneTis kolonialuri marTvisagan. mravali sxvadasxva teqnika, romelTac igi samxreT afrikasa da indoeTSi iyenebda, Zalze sasargeblo aRmoCnda Semdgomi moZraobebisaTvis. man Seqmna Zalauflebisa da Tanxmobis, dominirebisa da winaaRmdegobis urTierTqmedebis magaliTi. liderisa da organizatoris gansakuTrebuli monacemebi daexmara mas, fexze daeyenebina indoeli xalxi da daerwmunebina isini, rom arsebobs xalxis Zalaufleba, Zalaufleba, romelmac SeiZleba Secvalos situacia, Tuki win aRudgebian arsebul mdgomareobas. gandim Seqmna erTgvari saxelmZRvanelo samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis moZraobisaTvis, filosofiuri naSromi `satiagraha - Satyagraha~, romelic saxelmZRvanelo iyo indoelebisaTvis, raTa maT araZaladobrivi brZola ewarmoebinaT britaneTis Zalauflebis winaaRmdeg. sityva `Satyagraha~ niSnavs simarTlisaTvis Tavdadebas an simarTlis Zalas. toros filosofiis msgavsad, mxolod mas Semdeg, rac adamiani mSvidobiani gziT uaryofs borots, mas gaexsneba simarTlis xedva, anu Satyagraha. es naSromi srulebiT uaryofs nebismier saidum17

loebas da gaxsnilia yvelasaTvis, visac surs, eZios simarTle. misi mizani ar aris gamarjveba an damarcxeba, misi saboloo mizania harmoniis miRweva gaumjobesebisaTvis. gandi qadagebda xalxis nebis uzenaesobas mTavrobis usamarTlobaze. igi xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom brZola usamarTlo mTavrobis winaaRmdeg ubralo moqalaqeobrivi ufleba ar aris, es misi wminda movaleobaa. amave dros, igi srulebiT uaryofs `damazianebeli saSualebebis~ gamoyenebas samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis miznebis miRwevis saqmeSi. igi miuTiTebs, rom araZaladobrivi winaaRmdegoba Secvlis politikasa da tiranias da arasodes mimarTavs iZulebis raime meTods. gandim kargad icoda, rom yovelTvis arsebobs imis SesaZlebloba, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba anarqiasa da qaosSi gadaizardos. movlenaTa amgvari ganviTarebis gamosaricxad igi amtkicebda, rom miRebul unda iqnes mkacri zomebi, kerZod, samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia mxolod konkretuli pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rodesac saxelmwifo sCadis `did borotebas~, da mxolod im xalxis mier, visac gansakuTrebuli dadebiTi Tvisebebi axasiaTebs. mTeli Tavisi sicocxlisa da gamocdilebis ganmavlobaSi gandim daamtkica, rom Tuki usamarTlo da amoraluri garemoebebis gamo xalxis aRSfoTeba da ukmayofileba garkveul dones miaRwevs, amis yvelaze realuri dasasruli iqneba mmarTvelis gadagdeba, magram Zaladobis gamoyenebis gareSe, piriqiT, mSvidobisa da araTanamSromlobis gziT, romelic mmarTvels sayrdens gamoaclis. samxreT afrikaSi misi brZola Tanasworobisa da TavisuflebisaTvis naTeli magaliTia imisa, rom adamianis fundamenturi uflebebis uxeSi darRvevebis winaaRmdeg amgvari brZola mxolod Teoriuli ar aris, aramed misi praqtikuli ganxorcielebac savsebiT realuria. gandi imasac ki amtkicebda, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba TavisTavad uflebaa: `samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba aris ufleba, romelic uzrunvelyofili unda iyos kanoniT, magram romelic uaryofilia ... borotTan araTanamSromloba iseTive movaleobaa, rogoric sikeTesTan TanamSromloba ... mTeli istoriis ganmavlobaSi yvela gzam, romelic kacobriobam siyvaruliTa da simarTliT gaiara, gamarjvebamde miiyvana igi. iyvnen tiranebi ... da garkveuli drois manZilze isini SeiZleba uZlevelni Candnen, magram sabolood isini yovelTvis ecemodnen, yovelTvis~.
18

1.3.4 martin luTer kingi martin luTer kingi sasuliero moRvawe iyo da mSvidobisaTvis brZolis saqmeSi nobelis premiiT daajildoves. igi amerikis `samoqalaqo uflebaTa moZraobis~ lideri iyo 1960-ian wlebSi da mimarTavda araZaladobriv, mSvidobian protests da daumorCileblobas amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi rasobrivi TanasworobisaTvis brZolisas. umTavresad gandis swavlebaze dayrdnobiT, man moaxerxa moZraobis warmatebulad organizeba da daimsaxura ara mxolod afroamerikelebis simpaTia da mxardaWera, aramed mis rigebSi mravali TeTrkaniani moqalaqec idga. Tavis mimdevrebTan erTad igi samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis sxvadasxva meTodebs iyenebda, ganzrax arRvevda kanonebs, romlebic krZalavda Tavyrilobebs da manifestacias, aseve rasobrivi segregaciis Sesaxeb kanonebs da `Zlieri ekonomikuri gamijvnis programas~. kingis cnobili naSromi am sferoSi aris `werili birmingemis qalaqis cixidan~, romelic man birmingemis cixeSi samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis saqmianobisaTvis patimrobisas dawera. am naSromSi igi ganmartavs Tavis pozicias da ideebs amerikaSi Seqmnili situaciis Sesaxeb, mosazrebebs araZaladobriv protestTan, rogorc samarTlianobis miRwevis efeqtur gzasTan, dakavSirebiT. iseve rogorc gandi, kingic amtkicebs, rom brZolis saboloo mizani aris ara mowinaaRmdegis damarcxeba, aramed samarTlianobis aRdgena, sazogadoebis gardaqmna. Zaladobis magivrad igi darwmunebis meTods mimarTavda. Zaladoba aZlierebs, aormagebs amoralurobas. igi iwvevs siZulvils da aRrmavebs ubedurebas, romelic mxolod urTierTgagebis gziT SeiZleba aRmoifxvras. miuxedavad amisa, igi aseve acnobierebs, rom darwmunebasTan erTad saWiroa damatebiTi zewola, ramdenadac `privilegirebuli jgufebi iSviaTad Tmoben TavianT principebs nebayoflobiT~ da `mCagvreli nebayoflobiT arasodes mogvcems mSvidobas; igi unda moiTxovos Cagrulma~; amave dros, zewolisaTvis ar SeiZleba boroti saSualebebis gamoyeneba. kingma warmoadgina samarTliani da usamarTlo kanonebis klasifikacia. igi amarTlebs daumorCileblobas usamarTlo kanonebisadmi. misi azriT, samarTliani kanonebi moralur kodeqss da RvTaebriv nebas unda Seesabamebodes. usamarTlo kanonebis aRwerisaTvis igi mimarTavs wm. Toma akvinelis filosofias, romelic ambobs, rom amgvari normebi adamianis pirovnul degradacias axdens da laxavs mis Rirsebas. umravlesoba cdilobs, umciresobas Tavs moaxvios usamar19

Tlo kanonebi, romlebic Tavisi arsiT savaldebulo ar aris. amgvari kanonebis Seqmnisas umciresobas aravin iTvaliswinebda, mas ar hqonda xmis ufleba. samagierod samarTlian kanonebs umciresoba yovelTvis usityvod iRebs. kingi iziarebs toros mosazrebas imis Sesaxeb, rom usamarTlo kanoni savaldebulo ar aris, ramdenadac `es saerTod ar aris kanoni~. misi azriT, kanonebi segregaciis Sesaxeb sastikad ewinaaRmdegeba adamianis bunebas, pirovnebasa da morals. amdenad, igi mimarTavs yvelas da mouwodebs, ar daemorCilon am kanonebs. magram iqve dasZens, rom kanonis yvela darRvevis gamarTleba ar SeiZleba. igi iZleva garkveuli moTxovnebis CamonaTvals, romelic samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis Tanamedrove gansazRvrebis nawilia, kerZod: samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba gaxsnili unda iyos, masSi ar unda iyos araviTari saidumloeba da misi principi unda iyos araZaladobrivi winaaRmdegoba. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis mimdevrebi mzad unda iyvnen, miiRon sasjeli. sasjelis miRebas praqtikuli daniSnuleba aqvs, romelic usamarTlobis saaSkaraoze gamotanis gziT TanamoqalaqeTa sindisze zemoqmedebaSi da, amgvarad, moraluri dacvisa da maTi mxardaWeris mopovebaSi mdgomareobs. garda amisa, sasjelis miReba ganmartavs imas, rom daumorCilebloba zogadad pativs scems kanons da kanonis uzenaesobis princips. kingi aRniSnavs, rom negatiuri mSvidobis pirobebSi, rac arsebuli daZabulobis xelovnur SeniRbvas niSnavs, arsebobs SesaZlebloba imisa, rom kanoni da mmarTveloba usamarTlobas mimarTavdes, maSin, roca misi pirdapiri funqcia samarTliani sistemis SenarCunebaa. negatiuri mSvidoba aferxebs progress. xalxma unda mimarTos pozitiuri mSvidobis meTods, rogoricaa araZaladobrivi protesti, raTa sazogadoebaSi arsebul uTanxmoebas saburveli Camoxsnas da yvelasaTvis uzrunvelyos monawileobis SesaZlebloba. kingis azriT, pozitiuri mSvidoba xels uwyobs sazogadoebis simSvides, radgan adre Tu gvian ukmayofilo sazogadoeba moiTxovs sakuTari uflebebisa da interesebis dacvas, magram Tu es dagvianda, Zaladoba gardauvalia. amdenad, pozitiuri mSvidobis drouli damyareba dagvexmareba situaciis gantvirTvaSi. kingis Teoria gandisa da toros Teoriebis msgavsia. igi xazs usvams, rom TanamSromloba, aqtiuri iqneba igi Tu pasiuri, sinamdvileSi imis mxardaWeras niSnavs, vinc araswor qmedebebs sCadis. xolo araTanamSromloba, Tavis mxriv, aZlierebs SeuTanxmeblobas, ramac
20

SeiZleba xeli SeuSalos privilegirebulT im SemTxvevaSi, Tu araTanamSromloba da pirdapiri qmedeba daangrevs Zalauflebis sayrden burjebs da sazogadoebis mobilizacias moaxdens. kingis ideologiam da samoqalaqo uflebebis moZraobam naTlad dagvanaxva, Tu raoden efeqturi SeiZleba iyos masobrivi saxalxo samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba adamianis uflebebis dacvisaTvis brZolaSi, rodesac TviT xalxi moiTxovs Tavisi uflebebis dacvas mSvidobiani gziT. am moZraobis uSualo Sedegi iyo samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis miReba, rac mSvidobiani winaaRmdegobis gamarjvebas niSnavda maSin, rodesac amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaesi sasamarTlo mudmivad ugulebelyofda afroamerikelebis interesebs (es sakiTxi ufro Rrmad ganixileba Semdeg TavebSi). daskvna kanonis darRvevis istoria gviCvenebs, rom adamianis mier dawerili kanonebis daumorCilebloba miTologiuri da religiuri wyaroebidan warmoiSva da mas aqeT ramdenime midgoma iqna SemuSavebuli. me-19 saukunis meore naxevramde periodSi, romelic toros mosazrebebsac moicavs, daumorCilebloba iTvleboda garkveuli pirovnebebis pirad damokidebulebad im kanonebisadmi, romlebic ewinaaRmdegeba konkretuli sazogadoebis sindissa da morals. im periodSi daumorCilebloba ar iyo mowodebuli imisaTvis, rom gaeerTianebina protestis momxreTa didi raodenoba da igi ZiriTadad filosofiuri naSromebis farglebSi rCeboda. daumorCilebelTa mTavari sawuxari iyo kanonebis moraluri da RvTaebrivi wyaroebis urTierTkavSiri bunebiT samarTalTan, romelsac adamianis mier dawerili aqtebi arRvevda. miuxedavad amisa, me-19 saukuneSi Cven vxedavT Zvras masobrivi aqciebis mimarTulebiT. me-20 saukuneSi winaaRmdegobis moZraobebma globaluri rezonansi gamoiwvia. axali teqnologiebisa da masobrivi sakomunikacio saSualebebis Seqmnam moZraobas `transnacionaluri mniSvneloba~ SesZina. Tuki gadavxedavT yvela mosazrebas samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis Sesaxeb, advilad aRmovaCenT saerTo models. jer erTi, araZaladobrivi meTodebis gamoyenebis principi ZiriTadi safuZvelia daumorCileblobis moZraobisaTvis. kanonis darRvevis momxreebi amtyuneben sisastikesa da Zaladobas da acxadeben, rom es adamianis bunebis degradirebas axdens. meorec, daumorCilebloba sindisismieri unda iyos, e. i. igi unda emyarebodes gulwrfel rwmenas imisa,
21

rom kanoni ewinaaRmdegeba samarTlianobasa da moralurobas. es moTxovna ganasxvavebs daumorCileblobas rigiTi kriminaluri qmedebisagan. me-18 saukunidan dawyebuli, mas Semdeg, rac warmoiSva socialuri kontraqtis Teoria, wuxilma TandaTanobiT adamianis uflebebsa da Tanasworobaze gadainacvla, rodesac xalxma daiwyo protestis gamoTqma da moiTxova rasobrivi Tanasworoba. loki Tavis TeoriaSi akanonebs im mTavrobisadmi winaaRmdegobas, romelic arRvevs kontraqtis pirobebs da iWreba im uflebebSi, romlebic adamians bunebam mianiWa. mSvidobiani daumorCileblobis elementebi aSkarad Cans amerikis damoukideblobis moZraobaSi. amerikis mosaxleobam gamoxata daumorCilebloba 1765 wlis sagerbe mosakreblis Sesaxeb kanonisadmi, romelic kabalur valdebulebebs awesebda qaRaldis nawarmze, maT Soris iuridiul dokumentebsa da gazeTis qaRaldze.mosaxleoba aqtiurad mimarTavda araTanamSromlobis iseT meTodebs, rogoricaa: peticiebi, gadasaxadebze uaris Tqma, socialuri boikoti sagerbe gadasaxadis amkrefisadmi, gazeTebis gamoqveyneba gadasaxadebis gadaxdis gareSe, agreTve uaris Tqma britanuli nawarmis Semotanaze da moxmarebaze. samSvidobo kampania, romelsac cnobili filosofosi da nobelis premiis laureati bertran raseli xelmZRvanelobda, protests acxadebda pirveli msoflio omis winaaRmdeg. indoeTis damoukideblobis moZraobas mohyva nacistur germaniaSi araTanamSromlobis aqcia, romelmac aTasobiT sicocxle gadaarCina da saZirkveli gamouTxara reJims. belgiasa da SvedeTSi gamarTulma masobrivma saprotesto aqciebma Sedegad sayovelTao saarCevno uflebis Sesaxeb aqtis miReba moitana. civi omis dros warmoebulma samSvidobo moZraobam xeli Seuwyo Statebze zewolis ganxorcielebas, raTa maT mSvidoba SeenarCunebinaT. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis teqnika warmatebiT iqna gamoyenebuli vietnamis omis winaaRmdeg da 1960-70-iani wlebis qalTa moZraobis mier. birTvuli omis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli aqtivistebic aqtiurad mimarTavdnen samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis teqnikas TavianTi miznebis misaRwevad. araZaladobrivi aqciebi sasargeblo aRmoCnda, rodesac isini yofili `varSavis paqtis~ qveynebis disidentebma gamoiyenes. `praRis gazafxuli~ da CexeTis xaverdis revolucia brwyinvale magaliTia imisa, rodesac mosaxleoba masobrivad aRudga win sabWoTa mmarTvelobas. samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba daexmara ferdinand markosis
22

gaZevebas filipinebidan 1968 wels da noriegas diqtaturis winaaRmdeg brZolas panamaSi. mudmiv winaaRmdegobas uwevdnen aseve aparTeids samxreT afrikaSi. samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba gamoyenebul iqna ara mxolod Zaladobrivi mTavrobebis an usamarTlo politikis reformirebisaTvis, aramed man daicva arsebuli demokratiuli mTavrobebi diqtatoruli SemoWris mcdelobebisa da ajanyebebisagan. 1961 wels frangi generlebis mier ganxorcielebuli samxedro diqtaturis damyarebis mcdeloba alJirSi uSedegod dasrulda swored maT winaaRmdeg gamarTuli masobrivi araTanamSromlobis kampaniis Sedegad. 1991 wels rusi generlebis mcdeloba, aeRorZinebinaT sabWoTa diqtatura, aTasobiT prodemokrati mowinaaRmdegis protestiT dasrulda, romelic araZaladobriv xasiaTs atarebda, da xeli SeuSala maT mcdelobas.

23

Tavi 2 samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis Teoria

`daumorCilebloba Tavisuflebis namdvili safuZvelia~. henri devid toro

2.1 samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis ganmarteba 2.1.1 Sesavali sxvadasxva avtorebs gansxvavebuli midgoma aqvT samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis ganmartebisadmi. magaliTad, erT-erTi sakamaTo Tema dakavSirebulia SekiTxvasTan, zneobrivi uaryofa samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis nawilia Tu igi gamoyofilia misgan da calke midgomas da regulirebas saWiroebs. yvelaze gavrcelebuli pozicia is aris, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba ufro filosofiuri cnebaa, vidre iuridiuli, Tumca samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis momxre iseTi moazrovneni, rogorebic arian toro, gandi da kingi, upiratesobas samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis, rogorc iuridiuli cnebis, interpretirebas aniWebdnen da zogierTi iuridiuli dokumentiT cdilobdnen (ganxilulia qvemoT), moexdinaT daumorCileblobis legitimizacia garkveuli pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, magram amgvari legitimizacia sakmaod bundovnad da dauxvewavad gamoiyureba. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis ganmartebis CamoyalibebaSi yvelaze didi wvlili miuZRvis Tanamedrove amerikel politikur moazrovnes jon roulzs, romelic Tavis cnobil naSromSi `samarTlianobis Teoria~ ganixilavs kanonebs, moralsa da moqalaqeTa movaleobebs sxvadasxva pirobebsa da situaciebSi. roulzi samoqalaqo daumorCileblobas Semdegnairad ganmartavs: `kanonis sawinaaRmdego sazogadoebrivi, araZaladobrivi, sindisismieri da mainc politikuri aqti, romelic Cveulebriv xorcieldeba kanonsa Tu mTavrobis politikaSi cvlilebis Setanis mizniT, amgvari qmedebis saSualebiT, romelic ganixilavs sazogadoebis moralurobis samarTlianobas da acxadebs, rom socialuri TanamSromlobis principi Tavisufal da Tanaswor adamianTa Soris ar aris daculi~. daumorCilebloba SeiZleba gamiznuli iyos uSualod kanonebisa da politikis mimarT, romelsac gmobs sazogadoeba an romelic
24

aferxebs usamarTlo kanonebisa da politikis winaaRmdeg mimarTul masobriv saqmianobas. daumorCileblobis naTeli magaliTia iseTi kanonebisa Tu wesebis darRveva, romlebic krZalavs demonstraciebs da laxavs Sekrebis uflebas. daumorCilebloba ara mxolod im aqtebs moicavs, romlebic SeiZleba arakonstituciuri iyos da am gziT amowmebs garkveuli kanonis konstituciurobas, aramed igi aseTive warmatebiT SeiZleba iqnes gamoyenebuli im kanonebis winaaRmdeg, romelTa konstituciurobac sasamarTlom ukve ganixila. rogorc vxedavT, ganmartebidan gamomdinare, roulzi iseve, rogorc kingi da gandi, xazs usvams imas, rom daumorCileblobam unda gardaqmnas arsebuli viTareba, magram ara piradad, aramed umravlesobis upiratesobis gamoyenebiT. aqedan gamomdinare, daumorCilebloba SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes, rogorc iaraRi problemebis warmoCenisa da im jgufis darwmunebisaTvis, romelsac maTi aRmofxvris Zalaufleba aqvs. piter singeri acxadebs, rom daumorCilebloba exmareba kidec umravlesobas, rac imaSi mdgomareobs, rom garkveuli kanonisa Tu politikis SemuSavebisas umravlesobas SeiZleba SemTxveviT mxedvelobidan gamorCes umciresobis interesebi, xolo daumorCilebloba daexmareba mas am Secdomaze yuradRebis miqcevaSi. magram, gansxvavebiT roulzisagan, singeri Tvlis, rom daumorCileblobas SeuZlia ara mxolod mimarTos umravlesobis yuradReba samarTlianobisaken, aramed gaaZlieros kidec igi. kent grinuolts magaliTad mohyavs umravlesobisa da umciresobis urTierToba samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis miznebis TvalsazrisiT. umciresoba mimarTavs umciresobis samarTlianobis grZnobas, magram amgvari mimarTvis warmateba zewolis intensivobazea damokidebuli. grinuolti cdilobs, aawyos ganmarteba mimarTvis xasiaTidan gamomdinare. igi ambobs, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba aris umciresobis aqti, romelic mimarTulia imisaTvis, rom daanaxvos sazogadoebas, pirveli, rom umravlesoba usamarTlod moqmedebs, meore, rom umciresoba seriozulad aris ganwyobili da, mesame, rom umciresobis qmedebebi uxerxul situaciaSi ayenebs umravlesobas. jozef razi samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis odnav ufro vrcel ganmartebas gvTavazobs. igi xazs usvams imas, rom aqtis mizani unda iyos sazogadoebaSi arsebuli Secdomebis saaSkaraoze gamotana da daumorCilebelTa mzadyofna, miiRon sasjeli: unda gamoiyenebodes, rogorc ukanaskneli gamosavali, rodesac yvela sxva saSualeba warumatebeli aRmoCnda dasaxuli miznis misaR25

wevad; igi araZaladobrivi unda iyos; igi Riad unda iyos ganxorcielebuli; da misi monawile unda wardges marTlmsajulebis winaSe da miiRos sasjeli. amgvari aqtebi unda Semoifarglebodes qmedebebiT, romlebic gaTvlilia garkveuli Secdomebisa da saCivrebis saaSkaraoze gamotanisaTvis; igi ar unda gamoiyenebodes daSinebis an Zaldatanebis mizniT. roulzis SemoTavazebisagan gansxvavebiT, razis ganmartebaSi Cven vxedavT moTxovnas imisa, rom samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis gamoyenebamde yvela sxva saSualeba iqnes amowuruli. misi azriT, kanonis darRveva SeiZleba gamarTlebuli iyos mxolod, rogorc ukanaskneli gamosavali eqstremalur situaciaSi. maikl beilesi aRwers samoqalaqo daumorCileblobas, rogorc qmedebaTa jgufs, romlebic marTlac rom ukanonoa, magram moraluri aucileblobis mizeziT xorcieldeba. beilesi warmogvidgens samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis or mxares: viwros da farTos. viwro varianti ganixilavs pirovnebis qmedebebs, romlebic ar aris mimarTuli sazogadoebis sxva wevrebis yuradRebis miqcevisaken, xolo farTo ganmartebaSi igi aerTianebs qmedebebs, romlebic xorcieldeba piradi da individualuri interesebis dasacavad da ar mouwodebs masobrivi reagirebisaken. amis yvelaze naTeli magaliTia sindisieri uaryofa. maikl rendli samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis arsis ufro Rrma xedvas gvawvdis, romlis principis Tanaxmad, samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba emyareba Semdegs: samoqalaqo winaaRmdegoba aris koleqtiuri brZolis meTodi, damyarebuli xedvaze, romlis Tanaxmadac ukanaskneli analizis dros mTavroba damokidebulia TanamSromlobaze an, minimum, Sesabamisobaze, umravlesobis, mosaxleobisa da samxedro pirebis erTgulebaze, policiasa da samoqalaqo mosamsaxureebze. amdenad, igi politikuri Zalauflebis realobas eyrdnoba. mTlianobaSi, igi moqmedebs mosaxleobis mobilizaciis gziT am Tanxmobis mosapoveblad oponentTa Zalauflebis wyaros dasustebisaTvis da mesame mxareTa mxardaWeris mopovebiT. misi meTodebi moicavs protestsa da darwmunebas socialuri, ekonomikuri da samoqalaqo araTanamSromlobis aucileblobaSi. ... samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba araTanamSromlobis erT-erTi meTodia. rogorc zemoT moyvanili abzacidan Cans, samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis ganmartebisas rendli cdilobs, ZiriTadad strategiuli sakiTxebi moicvas, Tumca axasiaTebs misi bunebis mniSvnelovan Tvi26

sebebs. misi azriT, samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba aris mosaxleobis didi nawilis araTanamSromloba Zaladobis gamoyenebis gareSe, romlis mizania gaaZlieros mTavrobis sayrdeni burjebi da am qmedebiT cdilobs miaRwios gardaqmnas winaaRmdegobis gamoxatvis gziT. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis ronald dvorkiniseuli ganmarteba Zalze sainteresoa. igi samoqalaqo daumorCileblobas sam qveganayofad yofs. misi klasifikacia aseTia: 1) daumorCilebloba, romelic erTianobas emyareba; 2) daumorCilebloba, romelic samarTlianobas emyareba; 3) daumorCilebloba, romelic politikas emyareba. daumorCilebloba, romelic erTianobas emyareba, Tavs maSin iCens, rodesac adamianisaTvis kanonis damorCileba absoluturad miuRebelia Sinagani mrwamsidan gamomdinare. amgvari daumorCilebloba sagangeboa da aucilebeli ar aris am qmedebis SesaZlo Sedegebis ganxilva. samarTlianobaze damyarebuli daumorCilebloba Tavs iCens, rodesac wamowyebulia masobrivi protesti usamarTlo kanonisa da politikis winaaRmdeg da igi Sedegobrivi xasiaTisaa, e. i. gaTvlilia garkveul reagirebaze. gansxvavebiT erTianobaze damyarebuli daumorCileblobisagan, romelic individualuri da TavdacviTi xasiaTisaa, samarTlianobaze damyarebul daumorCileblobas arsebuli status-kvos gardaqmnis aqtiuri, strategiulad dagegmili mizani aqvs. Tavis mxriv, dvorkini gamoyofs samarTlianobaze damyarebuli daumorCileblobis damarwmunebel da aradamarwmunebel tipebs. warsuli mcdelobebis mizani iyo, daerwmunebinaT gadawyvetilebis miRebaze pasuxismgebeli pirebi imaSi, rom maT unda mieRoT protestis momxreTa pozicia da SeecvalaT politika masobrivi zewolis saSualebiT, xolo Semdgomi miznebi ara umravlesobis gadarwmuneba, aramed gaprotestebuli politikis faseulobebis mniSvnelovnad gaumjobesebaa daumorCileblobisa da xelovnuri barieris Seqmnis gziT. politikaze damyarebuli daumorCileblobis mimdevrebi Tvlian, rom ukmayofilebis gamomwvevi politika TavisTavad uaryofiTi movlenaa mTeli sazogadoebisaTvis da ara konkretuli jgufisaTvis. aq dvorkins magaliTad mohyavs antibirTvuli moZraoba. rogorc ukve vnaxeT, zemoT moyvanil ganmartebebSi ramdenime msgavsi modeli SeimCneva, magram sxvadasxva avtorebs gansxvavebuli pozicia da midgoma aqvT. maT gansaxilvelad sasurvelia, SemuSavdes ramdenime ZiriTadi Tema, romlebic maTTan iqneba dakavSirebuli. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis TiTqmis yvela Teoria Semdeg sakiTxebs moicavs:
27

1. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis buneba; 2. moqmedi kanonis darRveva; 3. darRveuli kanonebis arsi; 4. araZaladobrivi meTodi; 5. saSualebaTa amowurva; 6. Riad ganxorcieleba; 7. sasjelis winaSe wardgoma. unda aRiniSnos, rom samoqalaqo daumorCileblobaze saubrisas sxvadasxva avtorebi sxvadasxva terminologiiT sargebloben, magaliTad: araZaladobrivi pirdapiri qmedeba, pasiuri daumorCilebloba, samoqalaqo winaaRmdegoba, magram yvela am termins msgavsi arsi da Tezisi aqvs, romelic maT termin `samoqalaqo daumorCileblobaSi~ aerTianebs. 2.2.2. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis buneba 2.2.2.1 politikuri aqti avtorTa umetesoba miuTiTebs, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba politikuri aqtis gamoxatvaa. rogorc roulzi, ise bedo samoqalaqo daumorCileblobas politikur qmedebad Tvlian im TvalsazrisiT, rom igi mimarTavs politikuri Zalauflebis mflobelT da, amave dros, mas Tan axlavs politikuri principebi, romlebic daculia ganviTarebul qveynebSi. Tanamedrove samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis mizania, gavlena iqonios arsebul saxelmwifo politikaze. samoqalaqo winaaRmdegobis rendliseuli ganmarteba naTlad miuTiTebs politikur xasiaTze, rodesac igi acxadebs, rom cdilobs, mospos Zalauflebis wyaroebi da uaryofs garkveuli politikuri mimarTulebebis sayovelTao mxardaWeras. akermani samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis kampaniebs moixseniebs terminiT `xalxis Zalaufleba~, terminiT, romelic, rogorc TviTon miuTiTebs, 1980-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi gaCnda. es aris SesaZlebloba garkveuli qveynebis socialuri kapitalisaTvis, aimaRlos xma iseT sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, rogoricaa `garemos dacva da adamianis uflebebidan saerTaSoriso vaWrobasa da finansur politikamde~. karolin grouse amtkicebs, rom amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis ideis ganviTarebis Tanmimdevrobidan gamomdinare, amgvari moZraobebi xSir SemTxvevaSi politikuri gamoxatvis formas iRebs. sainteresoa, Tu rogor aRwers kingi samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis bunebas. igi acxadebs, rom samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis mizania, Seqmnas gark28

veuli politikuri krizisi, romelic aiZulebs sazogadoebas, eZios sakiTxis gadaWris gzebi, raTa gadairCinos Tavi. es midgoma mkafiod iqna gaSuqebuli amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, saqarTveloSi da axlaxans ukrainaSi, sadac protestis momxreebi Seecadnen, eCvenebinaT TavianTi Zalaufleba da Semdeg aeZulebinaT gadawyvetilebebis miRebaze pasuxismgebeli pirebi, wasuliyvnen molaparakebaze iseTi pirobebiT, romlebic gacilebiT ufro sasurveli iyo daumorCilebelTaTvis. avtorTa umetesoba amtkicebs, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba mimarTavs umravlesobis sindiss, romelic gansazRvravs politikasa da mimarTulebas. toro ganmartavs, rom samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis mizani umravlesobaa, radganac is fizikurad ufro Zlieria da ara imitom, rom umciresoba eTanxmeba politikas. es asea samoqalaqo uflebebis an garemos dacvisa da mwvaneTa (Greenpeace) moZraobebis SemTxvevaSi. magram, rogorc istoriam dagvanaxva, SesaZlebelia sawinaaRmdegoc. bevr SemTxvevaSi umciresoba, elitaruli jgufi Zalauflebas policiisa da samxedro ZalebiT inarCunebs, xolo samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba umravlesobis iaraRia, romlis meSveobiTac igi Zirs uTxris mmarTveli umciresobis sayrdens. gandis damoukideblobis moZraoba, saxalxo moZraobebi aRmosavleT evropaSi sabWoTa kavSiris rolis winaaRmdeg, miloSeviCis gaZeveba serbiaSi da SevardnaZis politikuri wreebi, xolo axlaxans ukrainaSi oligarqi umciresobebis mier usamarTlo politikis Tavs moxvevis winaaRmdegoba aZlierebs zemoT moyvanil arguments. naTelia, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba politikuri qmedebaa, romelsac didi wvlili miuZRvis konkretuli qveynis sazogadoebriv, politikur cxovrebasa da TiToeuli qveynis cxovrebaSi. dReisaTvis man saerTaSoriso masStabi moipova da regionalur politikazec axdens gavlenas. 2.2.2.2 araTanamSromloba uamravi avtori amtkicebs, rom samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis mTavari Zala mdgomareobs mis bunebaSi, ar iTanamSromlos umravlesobasTan da saxelisuflebo wreebTan. aseT dros SeuZlebeli xdeba mmarTvelobis ganxorcieleba da politikosebs poziciebis daTmoba uwevT. XVI saukunis saxelmwifo moRvawe etien de boeti acxadebs, rom Tu adamians surs moipovos Tavisufleba da Tavi daaRwios monobas, man daumorCileblobas unda mimarTos. rodesac daxmarebaze uars ambob, wesebi Zalas kargavs. maikl rendli wers:
29

sazogadoebis funqcionirebisTvis umTavres amocanas TanamSromloba warmoadgens. tomobriv sazogadoebaSi, sadac ar arsebobs xelisuflebis centraluri sistema, TanamSromlobis xelidan gamocla yvelaze mZlavri sanqciaa, romelic mimarTulia damnaSaveebis dasjisa da socialuri erTobis SenarCunebisken. posttomobriv sazogadoebebSi, gansxvavebuli sociopolitikuri interesis jgufebiT, araTanamSromloba efeqturi saSualebaa erTi jgufis moTxovnebis wamosayeneblad sxva jgufis an centraluri xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg. eWgvareSea, rom samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis ganmxorcielebelTaTvis araTanamSromloba yvelaze efeqtiani iaraRia, romelic zewolas axdens maRalCinosnebze. sxva magaliTebs Soris yvelaze gamorCeuli gandis damoukideblobis moZraobaa, romelic umTavresad swored araTanamSromlobas efuZneboda. bolodroindeli samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis moZraobebi evropaSi aseve warmatebiT iyenebdnen araTanamSromlobis meTodebs. 2.2.2.3 gamarTlebuli samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis winapirobebi dResdReobiT kiTxva, romelic mniSvnelovan interess iwvevs, mdgomareobs SemdegSi: ramdenadaa SesaZlebeli da gamarTlebuli, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba diqtatorul saxelmwifoSi daiwyos, Tu samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis idea mxolod demokratiul saxelmwifoebs miesadageba, sadac, rogorc wesi, gansxvavebuli mosazrebebi daSvebulia. es sakiTxi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas meoce saukuneSi iZens. manamde Teoretikosebi yuradRebas ar aqcevdnen damkvidrebul saxelmwifo wyobas. mTavari lozungi iyo, rom adamiani daculi yofiliyo borotebisgan da boroti saxelmwifosgan. es namdvilad gasagebia evropis monarqiebSi da mogvianebiT SezRudul monarqiebSic ki, aseve droebiT saparlamento sistemebSic (kromvelis periodi britaneTSi da robespieris _ safrangeTSi) oponentebis winaaRmdeg samxedro Zalis gamoyenebis didi albaToba arsebobda. zemoaRniSnuli kiTxva xSirad dadis SesaZlo Zaladobisa da sisxlisRvris sakiTxze, ris albaTobac arsebobs daumorCileblobis SemTxvevaSi mkacr policiur saxelmwifoebSi. avtorTa nawili miiCnevs, rom aseT qveynebSi azri ara aqvs saprotesto kampaniebis gamoyenebas, radgan amas SeiZleba uaryofiTi Sedegebi mohyves. amisgan gansxvavebiT, mmarTveli eqstremaluri jgufi ar wava daTmobebze da kampaniis SesazRudad samxedro Zalas gamoiyenebs. am SemTxvevaSi protestan30

tebmac sapasuxo samxedro Zalas unda mimarTon, rac ukve scdeba samoqalaqo daumorCileblobas da ajanyebis saxes iRebs. samoqalaqo uflebebis moZraoba, pacifisturi da garemos damcvelTa moZraobebi gviCvenebs, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba SeiZleba Zalze sasargeblo iyos demokratiul saxelmwifoSi, magram Cven imis magaliTebic mogvepoveba, rom diqtatoruli da avtoritaruli mmarTveloba SeiZleba daemxos samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis Sedegad, magaliTad, aparTeidis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli moZraoba samxreT afrikaSi, CileSi, filipinebSi, tailandSi, samxreT koreasa da serbeTSi. Tumca SeuZlebelia imis uaryofa, rom aseT qveynebSi arsebobs masobrivi sisxlisRvris saSiSroeba, rogorc es moxda CineTSi tiananminis moedanze xocva-Jletisas. rogorc ukanasknel xanebSi gairkva, samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis saSualebebi Zalze warmatebulia nawilobriv demokratiul qveynebSi, sadac elitarul jgufs xelSi aqvs Cagdebuli Zalaufleba da demokratiis iseTi Zireuli principi, rogoricaa marTlmsajuleba, mmarTveli jgufis nebas gamoxatavs, magram sxva institutebi, magaliTad, partiuli sistema da samoqalaqo sazogadoeba, aqtiuria da zogierTi ufleba xorcieldeba, rogorc saqarTveloSi. marTlac, samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba aSkarad sasargebloa demokratiul sazogadoebaSi ama Tu im poziciis win wamosawevad, magram ar arsebobs zusti pasuxi SekiTxvaze, SesaZlebelia Tu ara miznis miRweva samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis gziT iseT qveyanaSi, rogoricaa sadam huseinis erayi. aseT SemTxvevaSi bevri ramea damokidebuli garegan faqtorebze, maT Soris geografiul mdebareobasa da saerTaSoriso daxmarebaze. maSasadame, rogorc maikl rendli acxadebs, mniSvnelovania im pirobebis gaanalizeba, rodesac samoqalaqo daumorCileblobas warmateba elis, da swori taqtikisa da strategiis SerCeva, raTa is ufro efeqturi iyos. aqtivistebis azriT, eqstremalur viTarebaSic ki warmatebis miRweva SesaZlebelia, oRond guldasmiTi saorganizacio samuSaos Sedegad, romelic farulad sruldeba da xangrZliv vadazea gaTvlili. sabolood, samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba SeiZleba gamarTlebuli iyos yvelanairi politikuri wyobis pirobebSi, Tu mas sisxlisRvra ar mohyveba. 2.2.3 kanonis darRveva 2.2.3.1 pirdapiri da arapirdapiri samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba yvela politikuri da samarTlebrivi moazrovne eTanxmeba im mosazrebas, rom samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis mTavari maxasiaTe-

31

belia arsebuli dawerili kanonis, administraciuli aqtis, ZalaSi Sesuli gankargulebis an politikis darRveva. kanonis darRvevas avtorebi pirdapir da arapirdapir kategoriebad yofen, imis mixedviT, Tu rogori saxis iyo darRveva _ adamianma daarRvia kanoni da amis gaprotesteba xdeba, Tu protestis gamoxatva izRudeba. bevri ewinaaRmdegeba arapirdapir daumorCileblobas, rogorc im axalgazrda moqalaqeebis marTvis saSualebas, romlebic ar arian am sakiTxiT dainteresebulni. ervin grisvoldi _ aSS-s generaluri prokurori da mosamarTle fortrasi amtkiceben, rom arapirdapiri daumorCilebloba iwvevs qonebis ganadgurebas; maTi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis xelyofas, visac daumorCileblobis kampaniisadmi araviTari interesi ar aqvs. maTi azriT, pirdapirma samoqalaqo daumorCileblobam zogjer SeiZleba aqtis konstituciurobis gamocdis funqcia Seasrulos, rasac moklebulia arapirdapiri daumorCilebloba. iseTi kanonis darRveva, romelic ar protestdeba, qaossa da areulobas gamoiwvevs. arapirdapiri daumorCilebloba moklebulia saganmanaTleblo daniSnulebas, radgan sxvebs abnevs. am avtorebis azriT, arapirdapiri samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba `ajanyebaa da ara uTanxmoeba~. zemoT moyvanili argumentebi garkveulwilad zedapirulia. roulzma Segnebulad gamotova pirdapiri daumorCileblobis moTxovna da arapirdapiri moqmedebebi aseve gamarTlebulad da xSirad aucilebladac miiCnia. pirveli, samoqalaqo daumorCileblobebis umravlesoba, rogorc joel fainbergi amtkicebs, axorcielebda arapirdapir daumorCileblobas kanonisTvis zianis miyenebiT. bedos azriT, zogierTi kanoni ar eqvemdebareba darRvevas, magaliTad, sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdebloba, romelic gansazRvravs winaswari dakavebis vadas. aragonivruli iqneba danaSaulis Cadena pirdapiri samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis ganxorcielebis mizniT. meore, rogorc mravali moazrovne acxadebda, samoqalaqo daumorCileblobam warmatebis misaRwevad zewola unda moaxdinos saxelisuflebo wreebze. amgvari zewola metwilad iseT arapirdapir protestSi gamoixateba, rogoricaa mjdomare aqcia, piketireba. mesame, rogorc ukanaskneli periodi gviCvenebs, usamarTlobis msxverpli solidarobis miRwevas cdilobs sazogadoebis im nawilSi, romelic piradad ar daSavebula. am SemTxvevaSi arapirdapirma daumorCileblobam SeiZleba mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSos, radgan is protestSi monawileobis saSualebas aZlevs iseT adamianebs, romlebic zegavlenis qveS

32

ar imyofebian. Zneli warmosadgenia, rogor eqnebodaT TeTr amerikelebs segregaciis kanonis darRvevis saSualeba. protestantebis samizne jgufs warmoadgens ara marto xelisufleba, aramed mxardamWerebic, raTa samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis Sedegad meti Zalauflebis moipovon. meoTxe, sadavoa, pirdapiri daumorCilebloba ufro metad maiZulebelia Tu destruqciuli. es ZiriTadad damokidebulia protestantebis ganzraxvaze da arsebul viTarebaze, radganac SeuZlebelia winaswar amtkico, rom arapirdapiri daumorCilebloba aucileblad iwvevs Zaladobas; sruliad samarTlianma moqmedebamac ki, rogoricaa Sekreba, garkveul viTarebaSi SeiZleba Zaladoba gamoiwvios. mexuTe, rodesac protestis subieqti aris ara kanoni, aramed garkveuli politika, umetes SemTxvevaSi arapirdapiri moqmedebebi misaRebia. magaliTad, Tanamedrove epoqaSi, roca evropuli qveynebi mTeli ZaliT cdilobdnen atomuri TavSesafari aegoT. garemos damcvelTa mxridan daumorCileblobis yvelaze efeqturi saSualeba iqneboda am adgilebze ganlageba. roulzi amtkicebs, rom igive SeiZleba iTqvas qveynis sagareo politikis Sesaxeb, romelic aRelvebs meore qveyanas da pirdapir gavlenas axdens protestantze. 2.2.3.2. konstituciurobis Semowmeba samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis TeoriaSi kanonis darRvevasTan dakavSirebuli meore farTod miRebuli tendencia exeba kiTxvas: kanonis moqmedebis romel stadiaze iTvleba darRveva samoqalaqo daumorCileblobad. SeiZleba Tu ara samoqalaqo daumorCileblobad CaiTvalos iseTi kanonis darRveva, romelic savaraudod arakonstituciuria, magram sasamarTlos jer ar gamoutania gadawyvetileba amis Taobaze. SeiZleba Tu ara samoqalaqo daumorCileblobad CaiTvalos iseTi kanondarRveva, romelic konstituciurobis Semowmebis funqcias asrulebs? SesaZloa, arsebobdes savaraudod arakonstituciuri aqtis ganzrax darRvevis SemTxvevebi, raTa misi gasaCivrebis samarTlebrivi meqanizmebi xelmisawvdomi gaxdes moqalaqisTvis, Tu qveynis kanonmdebloba kanonis gasaCivrebis moTxovnad ayenebs piris identificirebas kanonTan dazaralebulis saxiT. kent grinuolti sam situacias aRwers. pirveli, rodesac adamiani darwmunebulia kanonis arakonstituciurobaSi, arsebobs misi baTilad cnobis didi albaToba da am kanonis darRveva misi gamocdis funqcias asrulebs. am SemTxvevaSi grinuolti daumorCileblobas gamarTlebulad miiCnevs. misi azriT, aragonivrulia morCilebis mkacrad moTxovna, Tu konstituciurobis Semowmebis erTaderTi gza

33

TviTon kanonis darRvevaa. meore, rodesac adamians `seriozuli eWvi~ aqvs aqtis konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis Taobaze, magram amave dros `icis, rom samarTlebrivi gansja savaraudod warumatebeli iqneba~. grinuolti am SemTxvevaSic amarTlebs daumorCileblobas, Tu es sakonstitucio ganxilvas miscems biZgs. mesame SemTxvevaSi adamians sjera, rom kanoni arRvevs mis konstituciur interesebs, magram icis, rom sasamarTlo ar miiRebs gadawyvetilebas aqtis arakonstituciurobis Sesaxeb. amgvari kanonis darRveva sazogadoebriv cnobierebaze mniSvnelovan gavlenas ver moaxdens da, amdenad, is gaumarTlebelia, vinaidan stabiluri kanonis uzenaesobis qveyanaSi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebs pativs scemen. grinuolti acxadebs, rom `kanonis farglebSi moqcevis moTxovna morCilebis bunebas mxolod maSin cvlis, roca arsebobs im normis baTilad cnobis realuri perspeqtiva, romelsac ar emorCilebian~. 2.2.4 darRveuli kanonebisa da politikis arsi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxi, romelic samoqalaqo daumorCileblobas gansazRvravs, aris is, Tu romeli kanonisa Tu politikis rogori darRveva SeiZleba miviCnioT gamarTlebulad. samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba ar iTvaliswinebs SeuzRudav uflebamosilebas, daarRvios nebismieri kanoni an politika, radgan es sabolood anarqias gamoiwvevs da diqtatorul reJimamde migviyvans, anu im reJimamde, romelic samoqalaqo daumorCileblobam unda daamarcxos. sadavo dokumenti raime Zireul RirebulebaTa sistemas unda arRvevdes. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis gamarTlebis sakiTxi mWidro kavSirSia kanonis iuridiul ZalasTan samarTlis filosofiaSi. am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema, rogorc fainbergi aRniSnavs, damokidebulia kanonisa da moralis urTierTkavSirze. mosamarTle oliver vendel holmsma ganacxada: `kanoni Cveni moraluri cxovrebis mowme da Senatania~. pozitivistebi da utilitaristebi ki eTanxmebian mosazrebas, rom kanonsa da morals Soris garkveuli kavSiri arsebobs. amoraluroba da usamarTloba samoqalqo daumorCileblobis qomagTaTvis kanonis gabaTilebis ueWveli argumentia. jon roulzi amtkicebs, rom samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis mizanSewoniloba sazogadoebrivi samarTlianobis ideas unda efuZnebodes. misi azriT, adamiani SeiZleba ar daemorCilos kanons, Tu es ukanaskneli ewinaaRmdegeba samarTlianobis aRiarebul cnebas, romelic

34

xazs usvams politikur wyobas da ara moraluri Rirebulebebis individualur gagebas. roulzi miuTiTebs, rom darRveva `arsebiTi da aSkara usamarTlobis dros~ unda moxdes. nebismieri norma da instituti samarTlianobis principebs unda efuZnebodes da es Rirebulebebi xelSeuxebelia TiToeuli adamianisTvis. metic, moraluri principebisgan moniWebuli adamianuri survilebis dakmayofilebiT iseTi kanonis darRvevis gamarTlebac SeiZleba, romelic, Tavis mxriv, arRvevs am principebs. dvorkinis azriT, xalxis ukmayofilebas iwvevs is faqti, rom zogierTi saxis politika arRvevs samarTlis maTeul gagebas. zini amtkicebs, rom raime wesis iuridiuli Zalis Sesamowmeblad moraluri da samarTlianobis kriteriumebi ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre kanoniereba. is mkacrad uaryofs absoluturi kanonisadmi morCilebis princips, radgan mravali kanoni SeiZleba ar imsaxurebdes loialobas. amgvari damokidebuleba xandaxan xalxis dabneulobas iwvevs. swori gadawyvetilebis miReba arc ise iolia, vinaidan sazogadoeba imas eyrdnoba, rac weria da kanoni moraluri principebis gamoxatulebad aRiqmeba. gamoCenilma samarTlis filosofosma gustav radbruxma meore msoflio omis dros kanonierebis saxeliT Cadenili sisastikis Semdeg pozitivisturi poziciebi Seicvala da aRiara, rom kanonisTvis iuridiuli Zalis miniWeba damokidebulia `humanitarul moralze~ da, Sesabamisad, samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis mizanSewoniloba imis mixedviT ganisazRvreba, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba dawerili kanoni am morals. SeerTebul StatebSi samoqalaqo uflebebis moZraobis mTavari devizi iyo daumorCilebloba usamarTlo kanonebs, kanonebs, romlebic ewinaaRmdegeba morals, anu pirovnebasa da bunebas. `araZaladobrivi winaaRmdegobis guli aris kanonisa da xelisuflebisdmi daumorCilebloba usamarTlobis protestis niSnad~. radbruxi ar aRiarebs aseTi kanonebis savaldebulo xasiaTs. es aqtebi ar iTvaliswinebs umciresobaTa interesebs. dasasrul, naTeli xdeba rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba gamiznulia iseT kanondarRvevebze, romlebic mniSvnelovnad zRudavs Tanamedrove sazogadoebis mier mTavar universalur Rirebulebebad aRiarebul principebs, romlebic xels uwyobs demokratiul politikur sistemas, sazogadoebriv keTildReobas da socialur samarTlianobas. istoria gviCvenebs, rom WeSmariti samoqalaqo daumorCi-

35

lebloba icavs fundamentur uflebebs, rogorc es moxda serbeTsa da saqarTveloSi, Tanasworuflebianobas, magaliTad, samoqalaqo uflebaTa moZraobisa da qalTa uflebebis sxvadasxva moZraobebis SemTxvevaSi, mSvidobasa da usafrTxoebas uamravi pacifisturi kampaniis meSveobiT, TviTgamorkvevis uflebas indielTa gaTavisuflebis moZraobis saxiT da 1980-iani wlebis bolos aRmosavleT evropis qveynebSi saxalxo protestis saxiT. termini `samoqalaqoc~ ki miuTiTebs, rom daumorCilebloba sazogadoebisa da demokratiis Rirebulebebis dacvas emsaxureboda da ara romelime Sesabamisi organos mier miRebuli wesis dacvas. 2.2.5 araZaladoba araZaladoba da mSvidobianoba samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis mTavari princebia, rasac am ideis momxre yvela avtori iziarebs da dasZens, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba ar unda iWrebodes moqalaqeTa ZiriTad uflebebSi. rogorc martin luTer kingma ganacxada: Zaladobis sisuste imaSi mdgomareobs, rom is spiraliseburad eSveba da TviTon warmoqmnis iseT rames, ris mospobasac cdilobs. borotebis daTrgunvis nacvlad, is borotebas zrdis... ZaladobiT SeiZleba mokla mteri, magram siZulvils ver aRmofxvri. sinamdvileSi Zaladoba siZulvils aRvivebs... Zaladobis sapasuxo Zaladoba kvlav Zaladobas warmoSobs, isedac uvarskvlavebo Rames sibneles matebs. sibnele ver gandevnis siZulvils; es mxolod siyvaruls SeuZlia. samoqalaqo daumorCileblobaSi araZaladoba pirvelad gandim gamoiyena, rac mis filosofiaSi satiagrahaSi aisaxa. mTavari idea imaSi mdgomareobs, rom WeSmariteba siyvaruliTa da TanagrZnobiT miiRweva. Zaladoba borotebaa, romelic amrudebs WeSmaritebisken mimaval gzas. roulzi gmobs Zaladobas, rogorc sazogadoebis qcevis models. Zaladoba akninebs zogadad samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis princips. samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba gagebul unda iqnes, rogorc gafrTxileba da ara rogorc safrTxe sazogadoebisTvis. roulzis azriT, samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba Tavisi arsiT kanonis uzenaesobis pativiscemisa da `kanonis erTgulebis~ qmedebaa. es principebi absoluturad gamoricxavs yovelgvar Zaldatanebas. araZaladoba protestantTa gulwrfel survilebs gamoxatavs. samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba gamarTlebulia moraluri principebiT, kanonis uzenaesobisa da demokratiis principebiT da Zaladobis an SurisZiebis yovelgvari mcdeloba arRvevs mis safuZvels.

36

grinuolti acxadebs, rom Zaladoba warmoSobs SiSs dazaralebulebsa da maT Soris, vinc Tavs SesaZlo msxverplad Tvlis. jozef razic amtkicebs, rom Zaladobam SesaZloa potenciur mokavSireTa dezintegracia gamoiwvios. maikl rendli ganagrZobs: araZaladobrivma qmedebebma SeiZleba Tavisuflebas miaRwios, ramdenadac is `fataluri xelisuflebisTvis evTanaziis~ funqcias asrulebs. stiuart brauni gvawvdis mniSvnelovan Teoriul masalas samoqalaqo daumorCileblobaSi Zaladobis Temaze msjelobisTvis. mas Zaldatanebis winaaRmdeg sami mosazreba mohyavs. pirveli, Zaladoba TavisTavad borotebaa. sokrates, gandisa da kingis msgavsad isic ugulebelyofs borotebis winaaRmdeg borotebis gamoyenebas da Tu ajanyeba ganzraxuli araa, Zaladoba dauSvebelia. meore, winaaRmdegobis moZraobaSi Zaladoba savaraudod konspiraciis nawils Seadgens. da mesame, Zaladoba xalxs abnevs da aSinebs. TeoriaSi kamaToben imis Sesaxeb, Tu Zalis ra xarisxia dasaSvebi samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis dros. es kiTxva xSirad dadis Zaladobis sazRvrebis sakiTxamde, kerZod: aris Tu ara daumorCileblobis dros miuRebeli Zaladoba mxolod piradi Zaldataneba, romelic fizikur daSavebas iwvevs, Tu is vrceldeba qonebazec da fsiqologiur zewolazec. braian smarTi Semdeg definicias gvTavazobs: `Zaladoba aris Zalis didi odenobiT gamanadgurebeli gamoyeneba adamianebis an maTi qonebis winaaRmdeg, Zalis iseTi gamoyeneba, romelic arRvevs maT uflebebs~. bedo Zaladobis cnebaSi moiazrebs fizikur kavSirs, kerZod `sabotaJs, mkvlelobas, quCaSi Cxubs, sakuTrebis ganzrax dazianebas, sicocxlisTvis safrTxis Seqmnas da areulobis provocirebas~. holmsi ufro Sors midis da aRniSnavs, rom Zaladobis Cadena aris `upativcemulobis gamovlena raime Rirebulis, wmindasa da Rirseulisadmi~. samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba SeiZleba arRvevdes sxvebis iseT uflebas, rogoricaa gadaadgilebis Tavisufleba, Tumca am SemTxvevaSi garkveuli wonasworobis dacvaa saWiro. pirvel rigSi, samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba ar amarTlebs absoluturi uflebebis darRvevas, romelic am uflebaTa arsidan gamomdinareobs. agreTve miuRebelia sityvis an aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis SezRudva, radgan samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba am uflebaTa gamoxatulebaa. faqtobrivad samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba SeiZleba CaiTvalos sagangebo viTarebad, romelic emsaxureba adamianis uflebebisa da fundamenturi Rirebulebebis dacvas. samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba ganzrax ar unda ayenebdes zians kerZo sakuTrebas. rac Seexeba saxelmwifo qonebas, SesaZloa, misi

37

dazianeba zogjer sasurveli iyos, raTa xelisuflebas xeli SeeSalos samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis Zaladobriv CaxSobaSi (magaliTad, policiis manqanis saburavebis daSveba). unda aRiniSnos administraciul Senobebze warwerebis gakeTebis praqtika. am RonisZiebas aqtiurad mimarTavdnen serbeTsa da saqarTveloSi. amgvar damokidebulebas garkveuli moraluri gamarTlebac aqvs. saxelmwifo sakuTreba sazogadoebrivi qonebaa, romelic gadasaxadebis meSveobiT arsebobs. aqedan gamomdinare, ar aris gonivruli Zaladobad Sefasdes sakuTari qonebis dazianeba. dabolos, samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba SeiZleba gamarTlebulad CaiTvalos, roca is safrTxes ar uqmnis adamianis sicocxles, ar arRvevs sxva absolutur uflebebs, aRmsareblobis da sityvis Tavisuflebas da ganzrax zians ar ayenebs kerZo sakuTrebas. is SesaZloa Seicavdes garkveul teqnikur problemebs da iwvevdes mentalur zewolas, magram es faqti ver akninebs samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis mniSvnelobasa da rols. SedarebisTvis SegviZlia moviyvanoT mosamarTle brandeisis sawinaaRmdego azri saqmeSi uitni kaliforniis winaaRmdeg: `is faqti, rom warmoTqmulma sityvam SeiZleba gamoiwvios Zaladoba an qonebis ganadgureba, ar aris misi SezRudvis sakmarisi gamarTleba. unda arsebobdes saxelmwifosTvis seriozuli zianis miyenebis albaToba~. saxelmwifo interesi aq gagebul unda iqnes, rogorc sazogadoebrivi interesi. ra Tqma unda, zogierT adamians SeiZleba Seeqmnas garkveuli problemebi, magram rogorc 1960 -iani wlebis kampaniis monawileebi amtkicebdnen, usamarTlo politikisa da kanonis gauqmeba zog SemTxvevaSi am problemebs gadaWris. 2.2.6. Ria gziT warmarTva mravali avtori amtkicebs, rom gamarTlebuli samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba Riad unda warimarTos da TvalsaCino unda iyos ara marto xelisuflebisTvis, aramed sazogadoebisTvisac. Tumca arsebobs avtorTa nawili, romelic miiCnevs, rom aSkara samoqalaqo daumorCileblobam SeiZleba kampaniis dagegmili miznebis ganxorcieleba Seaferxos. gregori vlastosis hipoTezis Tanaxmad, sokratem imitom Tqva uari patimrobidan gaqcevaze, rom Tavi aarida sanqcias, romelic amgvar saqciels mosyidvad afasebs. gandi da kingic moiTxoven Riad moqmedebas, radgan miaCniaT, rom es aris sazogadoebisTvis mimarTvis saSualeba da usamarTlobis axsna. kingi acxadebda, rom sazogadoebrivi TviTSegnebis amaRlebis erTaderTi gza Riad warmarTuli samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba iyo. roulzi xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba Riad unda warmoebdes da sazogadoebas
38

afrTxilebdes, miuRebelia misi moqmedebebis konfidencialuroba. jozef razis azriT, liberalur saxlemwifoSi samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba dasaSvebia mxolod yvela sxva saSualebis warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi. hugo a. bedo samoqalaqo daumorCileblobas afasebs, rogorc Ria qmedebas. rogor SeZlebs samoqalaqo daumorCilebloba saganmanaTleblo funqciis Sesrulebas, Tu is sajarod ar ganxorcieldeba da sazogadoeba mas ver gaigebs? rogor iqneba is samoqalaqo, Tu zemoqmedebas ver moaxdens umravlesobaze, raTa kanoni an politika Seicvalos? braian smarTi aRniSnavs Ria kampaniis SesaZleblobas, magram es ar miaCnia gamarTlebuli samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis mkacr kriteriumad. ra Tqma unda, sazogadoeba da saTanado organoebi daumorCileblobis saqmis kursSi unda iyvnen, magram aseve SesaZloa arsebobdes garkveul etapze misi gasaidumloebis aucilebloba. amis naTeli magaliTia saqarTveloSi samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis dasawyisSi Senobebze gakeTebuli saprotesto warwerebi, roca aravin icoda, Tu vin akeTebda am warwerebs. kent grinuolti eTanxmeba smarTs, rom usamarTlobis aRmofxvris misia zog SemTxvevaSi konfidencialurobas saWiroebs. magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT SeerTebul StatebSi monebis gaqcevis xelSewyoba. Riad warmoeba ar aris aucilebeli da konfidencialurobis garkveuli done ar moaxdens uaryofiT gavlenas kampaniaze. maikl rendli aRniSnavs, rom samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis Riad warmoeba sasargebloa sazogadoebrivi mxardaWeris mosapoveblad, magram absoluturi sajarooba SesaZloa sazianoc iyos kampaniisTvis. gasaidumloeba mniSvnelovani principia, roca daumorCileblobis qmedebebi xorcieldeba diqtatorul reJimSi, magaliTad nacistur germaniaSi. dResdReobiT samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis sruli sajaroobis moTxovna ararelevanturia, radgan kampania miznad isaxavs politikis Secvlas da ara mxolod mowodebis gakeTebas realuri Sedegebis gareSe. daumorCileblobis strategia SeiZleba Seicavdes farul moqmedebebs. amgvarad, aragonivrulia samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis kampaniidan konfidencialuri moqmedebebis gamoricxva.

39

nawili II
araZaladobrivi brZolis Teoria, strategiuli araZaladobrioba da kampaniebis warmoeba
Tavi 1 politikuri Zalaufleba: formebi da safuZveli
`politikuri Zalaufleba saSualebebis, gavlenebis da zewolebis erTianobas warmoadgens, romelic uflebamosilebas, jildoebs da sanqciebsac Seicavs. da yovelive amas sakuTari miznebis gansaxorcieleblad Zalauflebis mflobelebi iyeneben, iqneba es mTavroba, saxelmwifo Tu opoziciaSi myofi dajgufebebi~. jin Sarpi, araZaladobrivi qmedebis politika

1.1. politikuri Zalauflebis Teoria politikuri Zalauflebis raoba, misi formebi da funqcionirebis gzebi ukve didi xania, politologebis, sociologebis, ekonomistebis, konfliqtologebis, filosofosebis, fsiqologebis da bevri sxva sferos mkvlevaris interesis sagans warmoadgens. Sesabamisad, am sakiTxebis irgvliv uamravi Teoria Tu gansazRvreba arsebobs, da albaT Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom politikuri Zalaufleba _ iseve, rogorc Zalaufleba zogadad _ erT-erT yvelaze rTul da kompleqsur cnebas warmoadgens socialuri da politikuri mecnierebisTvis. yvelaze zogadi ganmartebiT, politikuri Zalaufleba iseTi Zalauflebaa, romelsac konkretuli individi Tu socialuri jgufi flobs. oficialurad politikuri Zalaufleba politikuri lideris xelSia koncentrirebuli, prezidenti iqneba es, premier-ministri Tu monarqi. magram saxelmwifos meTauris mier politikuri Zalauflebis flobas sxva bevri pirobac unda uwyobdes xels, maT Soris sazogadoebaze gavlenis moxdenis da misi kontrolirebis xarisxi, rome-

40

lic mmarTvels marTvis ganxorcielebisTvis esaWiroeba. politikuri mecnierebis warmomadgenlebi politikur Zalauflebas xSirad `sxvebis qcevaze gavlenis moxdenis SesaZleblobad~ saxaven. tradiciulad politikuri Zalaufleba samxedro Zalis, finansebisa da codnis kombinacias eyrdnoba. istorias araerTi SemTxveva axsovs, rodesac politikuri Zalaufleba destruqciuli da represiuli meqanizmi gamxdara. es yvelaze xSirad maSin xdeboda, rodesac uzarmazari Zalaufleba mxolod ramdenime individis xelSi iyo Tavmoyrili da politikuri debatebis, mTavrobis kontrolisa da misi kritikisTvis sivrce aRar rCeboda. aseT reJimebs despoturs, tiranuls, totalitaruls da/an diqtatoruls uwodeben xolme. amgvari marTvis sapirispiro modeli Zalauflebis danawileba (mag., demokratiis dros), individis an jgufis xelSi Tavmoyrili Zalauflebis kontroli da individebis damcveli platformis (mag., adamianis uflebebis) Seqmna da gamyarebaa. winamdebare wignSi Zalauflebisa, da misi formebis Sesaxeb arsebuli uamravi da mravalferovani Teoriidan Cven ZiriTadad socialuri moZraobebis sakiTxs ganvixilavT _ anu farTo politikur gaerTianebebs, romlebic konkretuli sakiTxebis irgvliv arian mobilizebuli da specifikuri miznebis miRwevas cdiloben. Tumca sakuTriv socialuri moZraobebis sakiTxic Zalian farToa da uamravi Teoriisgan Sedgeba, am wignSi ki Cven konkretulad socialuri moZraobebis araZaladobriobis principebTan mimarTeba gvainteresebs. kidev ufro zustad rom ganvsazRvroT, es wigni araZaladobrivi brZolis formebs, strategiebsa da Sinaarss ganixilavs, rac, Tavis mxriv, araZaladobriobis filosofiis mxolod erTi formaa. araZaladobrioba, rogorc filosofia, Zaladobrivi qmedebebis uaryofas emyareba. religiaze, eTikaze Tu principebze damyarebuli araZaladobrioba SesaZlebelia rwmenas, sulierebis sakiTxs an moralur sistemas warmoadgendes, da misi filosofia garemos, sxva adamianebis an sakuTari Tavis mimarT fsiqologiuri an fizikuri zianis miyenebas _ iseve rogorc xSirad `mtris~ cnebas _ uaryofs. filosofiisgan gansxvavebiT, araZaladobrivi brZola politikuri miznebis misaRwevad imarTeba da fizikuri, Zaladobrivi qmedebebis gamoklebiT mraval sxva meTods iyenebs _ iqneba es politikuri, ekonomikuri, sazogadoebrivi Tu fsiqologiuri meTodi. es meTodebi (Tu iaraRebi) sam ZiriTad formad SeiZleba daiyos: protesti da darwmuneba, araTanamSromloba da Careva.
41

araZaladobrivi brZola politikur Zalauflebas pluralistur struqturad moiazrebs, romelic sayrden burjebzea damyarebuli (ix. qvemoT). araZaladobrivi brZolis strategiebs sjeraT, rom Tu am struqturebs kargad gaiazreben da maTze gavlenis moxdenas SeZleben, Zalauflebis gadanawileba, SesaZlebelia, maT sasikeTod Seicvalos. yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT, pirvel rigSi Cven swored im modelebs gavecnobiT, romliTac araZaladobrivi brZolis analitikosebi _ kerZod ki 1973 wels gamocemuli da dRes ukve qrestomaTiad qceuli wignis, `araZaladobrivi qmedebis politikis~ avtori, jin Sarpi _ politikur Zalauflebas gansazRvraven. esenia monoliTuri da pluralisturi modelebi. monoliTuri Zalauflebis Teoria doqtor jin Sarpis mier warmodgenili monoliTuri modeli Zalauflebas myari da ucvleli struqturis mwvervalze koncentrirebulad aRwers. am modelis mixedviT, is pirebi, vinc Zalauflebas uSualod flobs, SeiZleba Seicvalon; magram sakuTriv Zalauflebis struqtura, piramiduli formis warmonaqmni, myari da ucvlelia, rogorc cementisgan gakeTebuli. is ucvleli rCeba imis miuxedavad, Tu ra SefardebiT aris warmodgenili Zalaufleba piramidis SigniT, an ramdenad surT misi Secvla piramidis garedan. am Teoriis mixedviT, adamianebi damokidebuli arian Zalauflebis mflobelis keTilganwyobaze, mxardaWerasa da gadawyvetilebebze, da mmarTveli Tavad gansazRvravs, rogor unda iyos Zalaufleba gamoyenebuli. garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, Zalauflebis monoliTuri modeli im klasikur gansazRvrebas mogvagonebs, romliTac totalitaruli sazogadoebebis aRwera xdeba. rogorc wesi, am gansazRvrebebSi eqvsi maxasiaTebeli gamoiyofa xolme: ideologia, erTi partia, romelsac erTi lideri hyavs, Zlieri policia, komunikaciebis da iaraRis monopolia da centralizebuli ekonomika. aseTi reJimebis samarTliani da Tavisufali arCevnebis gziT Secvla, rogorc wesi, TiTqmis SeuZlebelia _ arCevnebis Sedegi yvelaze xSirad winaswar aris xolme gansazRvruli. aseTi reJimebi Tavs komfortulad maSin grZnoben, rodesac mosaxleoba Zalauflebis monoliTur formas Tanxmobas ucxadebs an zewolas emorCileba. am Tanxmobis SenarCuneba xSirad represiuli da tiranuli gzebiT xdeba. magaliTad, 1930-ian da 1940-ian wlebSi sabWoTa
42

kavSirSi stalinma TiTqmis oci milioni adamiani mxolod imis gamo moakvlevina, rom maT sakuTari reJimisTvis realur an potenciur safrTxed aRiqvamda. es ricxvi daaxloebiT imdenivea, ramdenic meore msoflio omSi daRupulma sabWoTa moqalaqem Seadgina. imisaTvis, rom tirania araZaladobrivi konfliqtis meSveobiT dasustdes an daemxos, aucilebelia am monoliTuri Zalauflebis struqturebis miRma gavideT da Zalauflebis ganawilebis yvela arsebuli forma SevafasoT. monoliTuri modeli efeqtiani analitikuri saSualebaa, raTa gaviazroT, Tu rogor moipoveben, inarCuneben da gadascemen despoturi mmarTvelebi Zalauflebas. magram politikur cvlilebaze fiqris dros am modelis gamoyeneba erTmniSvnelovnad zRudavs cvlilebis miRwevis potenciuri gzebis gaazrebas. cxadia, `cvlilebebze meocnebeTaTvis~ mniSvnelovania Zalauflebis monoliTur modelze warmodgenis qona, magram imisaTvis, rom maTi ocneba qmedebad iqces, maT sxva modelis gamoyeneba gamoadgebaT, modelis, romelic Zalauflebas, mis miRwevasa da dakargvas sruliad sxvagvarad warmoaCens, da romlis mTavari maxasiaTebelic `pluralizmia~. Zalauflebis pluralisturi modeli Zalauflebis bunebis gagebisTvis doqtori jin Sarpi kidev erT efeqtian models gvTavazobs, romelsac `pluralistur models~ uwodebs. monoliTuri modelisgan gansxvavebiT _ romelic ucvlel, myar struqturas warmoadgens, sadac Zalaufleba mwvervalSia koncentrirebuli _ es Teoria Zalauflebas pluralisturad da myifed warmoaCens. Zalauflebis wyaroebad aq sazogadoebaSi arsebuli dajgufebebi moiazreba, xolo mmarTveli mxolod imden Zalauflebas ganagebs, ramdenis uflebasac xalxi aZlevs. sxva sityvebiT, mmarTvels mxolod xalxis mxridan Tanxmobisa da TanamSromlobis pirobebSi SeuZlia ganagos. es Tanxmoba da TanamSromloba ki, Tavis mxriv, SeiZleba rogorc nebayoflobiTi, ise iZulebiTi iyos. Tanxmoba SesaZloa sazogadoebis garkveuli nawilis mxridan gulgrili damokidebulebis an im kulturuli gavlenebis Sedegi iyos, romlebic morCilebas qadageben. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Zalauflebis pluralisturi modelis mniSvnelovani elementi is aris, rom Tu mmarTvels xalxi aZlevs Zalauflebas, maSin amave xalxs SeuZlia uari ganacxados imaze, rom iyos marTuli _ da amiT reJims Zalauflebis is sayrdeni wyaro waarTvas, romelsac TviTonve, koleqtiurad aZlevs.
43

jin Sarpis mixedviT, arsebobs Zalauflebis eqvsi wyaro, romelTa gaazrebac Zalauflebis pluralisturi bunebis gagebis winapirobas warmoadgens. axla Cven eqvsive maTgans ganvixilavT _ da gaxsovdeT, rom swored es danomrili punqtebia Zalauflebis is wyaroebi, sadac adamianebi kontrolirebas, gavlenis moxdenas an neitralizacias eswrafvian. Zalauflebis es wyaroebi, Tavis mxriv, vlindeba organizaciebisa da institutebis saxiT, romlebsac `sayrdeni burjebi~ ewodeba da romlebsac momdevno, meore TavSi ganvixilavT. 1. uflebamosileba uflebamosileba is sayrdenia, romlis meSveobiTac marTvis uflebaze pretenzia cxaddeba da mosaxleobisgan morCilebis moTxovna xdeba. marTvis uflebamosileba xSirad arCevnebis SedegebiT mtkicdeba xolme. swored amitom aris, rom Zalian bevri avtoritaruli reJimi arCevnebis gamarTvas did mniSvnelobas aniWebs, Semdeg ki saarCevno yuTebSi yalb biuletenebs yris, amomrCevlebis daSinebas cdilobs, oponentebis kampanias zRudavs da arCevnebis arasasurveli Sedegebis aRiarebaze uars acxadebs. nebismieri mTavrobisTvis Zalian mniSvnelovania, iyos legitimuri; xolo Tu mas konstituciis farglebs gareT moqmedad aRiqvamen an arakanonierad miiCneven, es SesaZloa seriozuli Sedegebis momtan faqtorad gadaiqces rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis farglebSi. qveynis SigniT aSkara legitimurobis dakargvam SesaZloa mniSvnelovnad Seuwyos xeli politikuri opoziciis legitimurad qcevas. politikurma opoziciam SeiZleba `sazogadoebrivi kontraqtis~ cneba gamoiyenos da ganacxados, rom Tuki mTavrobam konstitucia realurad daarRvia, maSin xalxsa da mTavrobas Soris arsebuli kontraqti darRveulia, rac, Tavis mxriv, reJimis morCilebaze, mis mxardaWerasa da masTan TanamSromlobaze uaris TqmisTvis qmnis safuZvels. qveynis gareT reJimis mier legitimurobis dakargvam SeiZleba saerTaSoriso Tanamegobroba mis winaaRmdeg ekonomikuri da politikuri sanqciebis dawesebisTvis ganawyos. politikur da ekonomikur boikots ki msgavsi reJimebis dasusteba SeuZlia, rogorc es samxreT afrikis aparTeidul reJims da birmis diqtaturas daemarTa. 2002 wels zimbabves gaZevebam britaneTis Tanamegobrobidan naTeli gaxada, rom mugabes reJims ar SeeZlo im demokratiuli mTavrobebis gverdiT yofna, romlebic kolonializmis epoqidan damoukidebel demok44

ratiuli sazogadoebebis gaerTianebad iqca. amasTan, rodesac avtoritaruli reJimis uflebamosileba, marTos qveyana, seriozuli kiTxvis niSnis qveS dgeba, demokratiul opoziciur dajgufebebs qveynis gareT bevrad meti finansuri da moraluri mxardaWeris mopoveba SeuZliaT. Tumca es saerTaSoriso Jestebi, rogorc aseTi, ar aris xolme sakmarisi mmarTvelis damxobisTvis. amave dros, msgavsma sanqciebma SeiZleba sapirispiro Sedegebi moitanos, Tuki isini xalxs ufro met zians miayenebs, vidre sakuTriv reJims. 2. adamianuri resursi reJimis Zalauflebas mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs im adamianebis raodenoba, romlebic mmarTvelTan TanamSromloben, mas mxars uWeren da emorCilebian. es ar niSnavs, rom Tuki xalxis umravlesobas liderebi ar moswons, maSin reJimis Secvla gardauvalia. es mxolod cvlilebis moxdenis potenciur SesaZleblobas aCvenebs. istorias mravali SemTxveva axsovs, rodesac umravlesoba umciresobis mxridan ganicdida Cagvras. meore mxriv ki strategiuli araZaladobrivi qmedeba ver miaRwevs warmatebebs, Tuki umravlesobis mxridan aqtiuri mxardaWera da TanamSromloba ar iarsebebs. demokratiisTvis brZolaSi ricxvebi mniSvnelovania! 3. unarebi da codna dRes marTva bevrad ufro garTulebulia, vidre warsulSi. ocdameerTe saukunis dasawyisSi gavrcelebuli azri amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis prezidents msoflioSi yvelaze Zlier pirad saxavs. Tumca am yvelaze Zlierma mmarTvelma Zalian cota ram an saerTod araferi icis TviTmfrinavebis muSaobis Tu frenis ganrigebis warmoebis rTul amocanebze, sazRvaosno kanonmdeblobis administrirebaze, kriminalis gamoZiebaze, gadasaxadebis akrefaze, saomari gegmebis Sedgenaze, sakvebis ganawilebaze, sakomunikacio qselebis Seqmnasa da ganviTarebaze, da kidev uamrav sxva dargze. amiT imis Tqma gvsurs, rom mosaxleobaSi arsebuli unarebi da codna mTavrobebs yvela doneze funqcionirebis saSualebas aZlevs. amgvari daxmarebis gareSe darCenili mTavroba veRar arsebobs. 4. bundovani (fsiqologiuri da ideologiuri) faqtorebi miuxedavad imisa, rom maTi mniSvnelobis gazomva sakmaod rTulia, iseT bundovan faqtorebs, rogoricaa religia, morCilebis mimarT
45

damokidebuleba, garkveuli misiis qonis SegrZneba da kulturuli normebi, SeuZliaT gavlena moaxdinon mmarTvelisa da sazogadoebis urTierTobaze. magaliTad, arsebobda epoqa, rodesac zogierT sazogadoebaSi bevrs `mefeebis RvTaebrivi uflebis~ sjeroda _ maTTvis mefeebi dedamiwaze RmerTis warmomadgenlebi iyvnen. Sesabamisad, mmarTvelis daumorCilebloba RmerTis daumorCileblobis tolfasi iyo. sxva sazogadoebebSi, magaliTad iaponiaSi, imperatori `RmerTad da mefed~ iyo moazrebuli. amgvar pirobebSi, cxadia, demokratia warmoudgeneli iqneboda. ocdameerTe saukunis dasawyisSi iyo SemTxvevebi, rodesac zogierT mTavrobaSi islamis da tradiciuli politikuri Zalauflebis Serwymis mcdeloba ganxorcielda. marTalia, savsebiT sworia is, rom `keisars keisrisa unda mivceT~, magram pirvel rigSi is unda ganvsazRvroT, konkretulad ra ekuTvnis mas. demokratia xom imis rwmenas emyareba, rom nebismieri Zalaufleba, romelic mmarTvels gaaCnia, mas xalxisgan `nasesxebi~ aqvs. 5. materialuri resursi `vinc fuls ixdis, musikasac is ukveTavs~ _ es gamoTqma zustad esadageba politikas. ekonomikis, sakuTrebis, bunebrivi resursebis, komunikaciebisa da transportis kontroli sazogadoebaze Zalauflebis flobis SezRudvaSi mniSvnelovani aspeqtebia. magaliTad, rodesac saxelmwifo fermebis mTel miwebs flobs, is efeqtianad ganagebs yvela fermeris ojaxis cxovrebas. amis msgavsad, iq, sadac cenzura mZlavria, mTavroba akontrolebs da gavlenas axdens Jurnalistikis sferos nebismier aspeqtSi CarTuli adamianebis cxovrebaze. qveynebi, sadac navTobis industria saxelmwifo mflobelobaSia, naklebad arian damokidebuli mosaxleobaze da maTgan amoRebul sagadasaxado Semosavlebze. es ki, Tavis mxriv, mTavrobaSi Zalauflebis centralizebas iwvevs. 6. sanqciebi mTavrobis kanonebis, misi wesebisa da regulaciebis morCilebisa da mxardaWeris iZulebis SesaZlebloba sazogadoebis mxridan gamovlenili mxardaWeris, TanamSromlobisa da Tanxmobis xarisxiT izRudeba. sanqciebi gamoiyeneba rogorc miuRebeli qmedebebis dasjis, ise maTi Tavidan acilebis mizniT. imisaTvis, rom efeqtiani iyos, ar aris aucilebeli, sanqciebi mkacr da ukidures xasiaTs atarebdes, magaliTad, sikvdilis dasjas an cixeSi Casmas utoldebodes. morCi46

lebis misaRwevad iseTi sanqciebis gamoyenebac SeiZleba, rogoricaa samuSaos micemaze uaris Tqma an samsaxuridan daTxovna, sapensio SeRavaTebis dakargva, ganaTlebis miRebis an dawinaurebis SezRudva, gadaadgilebis SesaZleblobis SezRudva (pasportis gamoyofaze uaris Tqma), sakuTrebis warTmeva Tu wyliT uzrunvelyofis SezRudva. zogierTi avtoritaruli reJimis pirobebSi media TviTcenzuras mimarTavs, vinaidan mTavrobas SeuZlia gamomcemlobebi da axali ambebis organizaciebi sagazeTo qaRaldis ganawilebis an radio da satelevizio licenziebis kontrolis gziT daxuros. msgavsi sanqciebi sakmaod xSirad gvxvdeba. sanqciebi nebismieri mTavrobis iaraRs warmoadgens. yvelaze xSirad isini antisazogadoebrivi qmedebis aRmofxvris mizniT wesdeba xolme. sxva SemTxvevebSi, politikuri miznebidan gamomdinare, sanqciebs mosaxleobis daSinebisa da dasjis gamo iyenebdnen. magaliTad, nacisturi germania koleqtiuri dasjis meTods im iatakqveSa qmedebebis aRmosafxvrelad iyenebda, romlebic germanuli armiis mxridan okupacias uwevda winaaRmdegobas. mimdinare saukunis dasawyisSi israelis mTavroba koleqtiuri dasjis meTods teroristuli aqtebis Tavidan acilebis gzad saxavda da amarTlebda. individebis mier Cadenili qmedebis gamo mTeli jgufis dasja SesaZloa adamianis ZiriTadi uflebebis darRvevis tolfasi iyos; amave dros, am meTodis prevenciuli Zalac kiTxvis niSnis qveS dgas. sinamdvileSi, koleqtiuri dasjis meTodebma da mkvlelobebma, SesaZloa, sasurvelis sapirispiro Sedegebi moitanos. koleqtiurma dasjam SeiZleba araTu potenciuri Zaladobis aqtebi ver SeaCeros, aramed, piriqiT, SurisZiebis survili aRZras. araZaladobrivi moZraobis sawyis stadiaze mniSvnelovania rogorc Zalauflebis struqturebis gaazreba, ise politikuri oponentebis tipis gansazRvra. daimaxsovreT: mCagvrel da usamarTlo reJimebs erTmaneTisgan sami ZiriTadi aspeqti ganasxvavebs: 1. rogor movidnen xelisuflebaSi? a. mmarTveli odesRac samarTlianad iyo arCeuli. b. mmarTvels misi posti `memkvidreobiT gadaeca~. g. reJimi revoluciiT movida. d. reJimi samxedro gadatrialebiT movida. 2. rogor xdeba gadawyvetilebebis miReba? a. erTpirovnulad, diqtatoris mier, romlisac xalxs eSinia.
47

b. avtoritaruli partiuli aparatis mier. g. partiuli umravlesobis mier, umciresobis uflebebis daTrgunvis xarjze. d. sxva qveynis samxedro okupantis an koloniuri mmarTvelis mier. 3. a. b. g. d. ras efuZneba kontrolirebis meqanizmebi? absolutur terors. samxedro da policiur represiebs. devnas da akrZalvebs. iZulebiT instituciur mxardaWeras da samoqalaqo morCilebas.

Sejameba pirvel TavSi Zalauflebis ori modeli ganvixileT. monoliTuri modeli Zalauflebas ucvlel da mdgrad struqturad aRwers, sadac xalxi mmarTvelzea damokidebuli. pluralisturi modeli ki Zalauflebas sxvagvarad xedavs _ aq, piriqiT, mmarTveli gvevlineba xalxze damokidebulad. Zalauflebis pluralisturi modeli aSkarad gvaCvenebs, rom xalxs imaze bevrad meti Zala da potenciali aqvs, vidre SeiZleba erTi SexedviT gvegonos. am TavSi agreTve gavaanalizeT Zalauflebis is wyaroebi, romlebic mTavrobas xalxisgan eZleva. da Tuki mmarTvels es wyaroebi gamoecleba, igi marTvas veRar SeZlebs. araZaladobrivi brZolis mawarmoebeli moZraobebi swored Zalauflebis pluralisturi modelis gaazrebas eyrdnobian. Zalauflebis bunebis Seswavlis Semdeg dRis wesrigSi misi funqcionirebis gzebis gaanalizeba dgeba, rac, Tavis mxriv, rogorc mTavrobis SigniT, ise mis gareT arsebul organizaciebs da institutebs ukavSirdeba. organizaciebs, romlebsac Zalauflebis struqturebi efuZneba, `sayrden burjebs~ vuwodebT. aucilebelia gaxsovdeT: rodesac mniSvnelovani sayrdeni burjebi sustdeba, Zalaufleba kraxs ganicdis, daaxloebiT iseve, rogorc saZirkvlis Seryevis SemTxvevaSi Senoba waiqceoda. 1.2. sayrdeni burjebi gaxsovdeT: TviTon mmarTvelebs ar SeuZliaT gadasaxadebis amoReba, kanonebis da regulaciebis amoqmedeba, transportis regulireba, fulis dabeWdva, gzebis SekeTeba, maRaziebis produqtebiT mo48

marageba, policiis da jaris gawvrTna. am yvelafers mmarTvelisTvis xalxi akeTebs sxvadasxva institutebis Tu organizaciebis meSveobiT. da Tu xalxi amis gakeTebas Sewyvets, mmarTveli marTvas veRar SeZlebs! rodesac konkretuli reJimis oponentebi nebismier araZaladobriv strategiaze iwyeben fiqrs, sayrdeni burjebis amocnoba da gaanalizeba Zalian mniSvnelovani xdeba. sanam reJimis mTavari burjebi ar dasustdeba, ar neitralizdeba an ar ganadgurdeba, politikuri reformis an reJimis Secvlis ganxorcielebas Zalze mcire Sansi aqvs. amdenad, avtoritaruli reJimis winaaRmdeg araZaladobrivi brZolis warmoebisas ZiriTad institutebsa da organizaciebs didi yuradReba unda mieqces. policia policia mTavrobisTvis umniSvnelovanes sayrden burjs warmoadgens. policia jarTan erTad wesrigs da kanonierebas amyarebs, mTavrobas da xalxs icavs, da sistemis stabilurobas emsaxureba. lozungi „davicvaT da vemsaxuroT~ im imijs gamoxatavs, romliTac policiis ganyofilebebi mTel msoflioSi cdiloben sazogadoebis winaSe sakuTari saxis warmoCenas. Tumca is, visac isini icaven da emsaxurebian, yovelTvis sazogadoeba ar aris. amis nacvlad mTavrobis es yvelaze xiluli da yvelganmyofi „saxe~ zogjer korumpirebuli da represiuli reJimis dacvas irCevs xolme. saRi azria is, rom sadac korufcia sistemur xasiaTs atarebs, reJimis Secvlis gareSe reforma rTulia da TiTqmis SeuZlebeli. demokratiul sazogadoebebSic ki, Tuki policiis struqturebSi korufcia damkvidrdeba, reforma mxolod im pirebis SecvliT SeiZleba ganxorcieldes, vis winaSec angariSvaldebulia policia. Tu adgilobriv policias adgilobrivad arCeuli oficialuri pirebi ganageben, amis dadebiTi mxare is aris, rom sazogadoebam icis, uSualod vin agebs pasuxs policielebis qmedebebze. rodesac policia erovnul da centralizebul struqturas warmoadgens, maSin adgilobriv doneze policielebis qcevaze gavlenis moxdena bevrad ufro rTulia. imisaTvis, rom policielebis Sexedulebebisa da qmedebebis Secvla daiwyon, sulac ar aris saWiro, moqalaqeebi reJimis Secvlas daelodon. rodesac saubari policiazea, ramdenime faqtori unda gaviTvaliswinoT. pirvel rigSi, pilicielebi, rogorc wesi, im adami49

anebs Soris cxovroben, visac emsaxurebian. maSasadame, maT ojaxebs, naTesavebs, nacnobebs da megobrebs sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis sxvadasxva formebi akavSirebT (mag., skolebis, biznesis, religiuri organizaciebisa Tu sazogadoebrivi jgufebis meSveobiT). aqedan gamomdinare, im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac mTavroba sakuTar mowinaaRmdegeebs kriminalebad, jaSuSebad an teroristebad racxs, policias sxva gzebiTac SeuZlia mTavrobis propagandis Sefaseba. doqtorma jin Sarpma norvegiaSi awarmoa kvleva, romelic meore msoflio omis dros germanelebis mimarT norvegielebis winaaRmdegobas exeboda. igi siamovnebiT ixsenebs imis magaliTebs, Tu rogor „erTgulad~ asrulebda adgilobrivi policia germanelTa brZanebebs. erTxel, magaliTad, policia im piris ojaxs daukavSirda, visi dapatimrebac igegmeboda, da sTxova, eWvmitanilisTvis misi dagegmili dapatimrebis Sesaxeb ecnobebinaT. policiam ojaxs agreTve zustad uTxra is dRe, saaTi da wuTi, rodesac moqalaqis saxlSi policia unda misuliyo. meore gasaTvaliswinebeli faqtoria is, rom policia, romelic diqtatoruli reJimis brZanebebs asrulebs, ar unda Seiracxos xalxis mtrad. isini ubralod im sistemis msaxurebi arian, romelmac imedebi ar gaamarTla. swored sistema unda Seicvalos da ara is aTasobiT wesieri da Rirseuli adamiani, visi gamocdileba da unaric aucilebelia demokratiuli sazogadoebis dasacavad. ra Tqma unda, arseboben calkeuli individebi, romlebic mkvlelobis, wamebis an maradiorobis gamo unda daisajon, magram koncentracia am pirebze unda moxdes da ara yvela im adamianze, vinc policiaSi msaxurobs. jari Zalauflebis SenarCunebis mizniT samxedro Zalis gamoyenebas avtoritaruli reJimebi bolo da mniSvnelovan svlad miiCneven. adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan erTad mcxovrebi da momuSave policielebisgan gansxvavebiT, samxedro danayofebi xSirad gancalkevebulebi arian moqalaqeebisgan: sakuTari sacxovrebeli sivrce, maRaziebi, saavadmyofoebi da skolebi aqvT. sazogadoebisgan aseTi gancalkeveba, Tavis mxriv, samxedro da samoqalaqo ojaxebs Soris adamianuri urTierTobebis Camoyalibebas aferxebs. rodesac Ria politikuri konfliqtebis dros mTavroba samxedro Zalis gamoyenebis gadawyvetilebas iRebs, samxedro danayofebi naklebad cdiloben Zaladobis regulirebas an mis SezRudvas. birmaSi amboxebis dros, 1988 wels _ da erTi wlis Semdeg CineTSi _ mTavrobebma samxedro danayofebi gag50

zavnes konfliqtis arealSi. am situaciebSi mTavrobam jariskacebi bevrad ufro sandod miiCnia, vidre adgilobrivi policia da milicia _ da Sesabamisad, brZanebebis ukeTes Semsruleblad. zogierT qveyanaSi, Tu masobrivi demonstraciebis gamarTvaa mosalodneli, areulobasTan sabrZolvelad specialurad gawvrTnili da SeiaraRebuli danayofebi iqmneba. opozicionerebis winaaRmdeg gamosvlisTvis jarSi arsebuli mzaobis dasusteba imaze bevrad ufro adre unda daiwyos, vidre mTavroba maT moixmobs. nebismieri aseTi gegmis amosavali wertili unda iyos jariskacebis darwmuneba, rom maT da maTi ojaxebis sicocxles araferi emuqreba, da rom profesional jariskacebs demokratiis pirobebSi daculi momavali eqnebaT. brZanebebze samxedro danayofebis reagirebis xasiaTze gavlenas jaris mmarTvelebis Sexedulebebi, faseulobebi da profesionalizmi axdens. rogorc wesi, oficrebi sakuTar Tavs patriotebad, erTgulebad da konservatorebad aRiqvamen. maTi „profesionalizmi~ zogjer imas iwvevs, rom isini brmad uWeren mxars politikur mmarTvelebs. amboben, rom germaniis armiis Semadgenloba ar eTanxmeboda adolf hitleris politikur miznebs, magram fiureris nebis gasatareblad mainc qmnida samxedro gegmebs. es imis gamo xdeboda, rom hitleri, rogorc germaniis raixstagis udidesi partiis lideri da konstituciis mixedviT kanclerad daniSnuli, legitimur mmarTvelad moiazreboda. moqalaqeebis winaaRmdeg jaris destruqciuli Zalis gamoyenebis SezRudvaSi ganmsazRvreli faqtoria samxedro kulturasTan demokratiuli faseulobebis Serwyma. kidev erTi faqtoria samxedro pirebis mxridan imis aRqma, rom demokratiuli mmarTvelobisas maT mniSvnelovani roli eqnebaT. am orive faqtoris Tu ideis gavrcelebis formebs xangrZlivi da frTxili gaazreba sWirdeba. erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mizezi, Tu ratom mohyva serbeTis araZaladobrivi moZraobis mier parlamentis aRebas ase mcirericxovani msxverpli (erTi adamiani gulis SeteviT daiRupa, meore _ avtoavariaSi), iyo jaris gadawyvetileba, ar Careuliyo „politikur~ sakiTxSi. eWvgareSea, am gadawyvetilebaze gavlena im faqtmac moaxdina, rom demokratiuli moZraoba aSkarad igebda, jaris warmomadgenlebis interess ki postmiloSeviCis epoqaSi poziciebis mopoveba warmoadgenda. samoqalaqo mosamsaxureebi samoqalaqo mosamsaxureebs xSirad akritikeben, dascinian da ar afaseben. zogjer am samTavrobo biurokratebs WianWvelebis kolo-

51

niad warmoaCenen xolme _ rogorc aTasobiT usaxelo, usaxur da uWkuo muSas, romlebic TavianT patara davalebebs asruleben da patara derefnebSi moZraoben. miuxedavad amisa, politikur liderebs _ rogorc WianWvelebis koloniaze damokidebul „dedofals~ _ arseboba ar ZaluZT damjeri da profesionali samoqalaqo mosamsaxureebisa da maTi, erTi SexedviT, usaxuri Sromis gareSe. es is adamianebi arian, romlebic brZanebebs qmedebebad aqceven: isini gamoscemen regulaciebs, afaseben da krefen gadasaxadebs, amzadeben biujetebs, amuSaveben skolebs, SeaqvT informacia aTasobiT cxrilSi, akeTeben SenaZenebs mTavrobisTvis, akontroleben sahaero da sazRvao sivrces, akompleqteben saelCoebs, amuSaveben komunikaciebis sitemebs _ asruleben yvela im samuSaos, romelic reJims funqcionirebis saSualebas aZlevs. maT gareSe arc erT mTavrobas ar SeuZlia muSaoba. im opoziciur dajgufebebs, romlebic reJimis Sesacvlelad strategiul araZaladobriv konfliqts mimarTaven, mTavrobaSi momuSave adamianebis mxardaWeris mopovebis mniSvneloba kargad unda esmodeT. magram isic unda gaiTvaliswinoT, rom es adamianebi uSualod arian damokidebuli mTavrobaze _ da Sesabamisad, bevri maTgani ver SeZlebs mTavrobasTan pirdapir dapirispirebas, yovel SemTxvevaSi manam, sanam naTeli gaxdeba, rom maTi mmarTvelis sayrdeni burjebi sakmarisadaa dasustebuli. magram, amis miuxedavad, mTavrobis mier daqiravebuli adamianebis mxridan opoziciuri moZraobisTvis mxardaWeris gamocxadeba _ Tundac Sefaruli, arapirdapiri formiT _ moZraobas miznis miRwevaSi SeiZleba warmoudgeneli intensivobiT daexmaros. media demokratiuli cvlilebisTvis mebrZol moZraobas warmatebis misaRwevad esaWiroeba saSualeba, romlis meSveobiTac sakuTar gzavnilebs samizne auditorias miawvdens. es kargad ician avtoritarulma reJimebma da amitomac cdiloben aseTi SesaZleblobebis SezRudvas, rac, Tavis mxriv, internetuli omis centrebisa da drakonuli kanonebis Seqmnas iwvevs, riTac personaluri kompiuterebisa Tu faqsebis mflobeloba izRudeba. birmaSi, magaliTad, „aralicenzirebuli~ teqnikis mflobelebs didi xniT emuqrebodaT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa. zogjer satelituri telefonebis floba izRudeba, da xandaxan mTavrobebi opoziciuri jgufebis satelevizio da radiogadacemebis daxSobas da informaciis gavrcelebis xelis SeSlas cdiloben. presis da masobrivi komunikaciis sxva adgilobrivi saSualebebis kontroli advili misaRwevia represiuli mTavrobebisTvis. zog Sem52

TxvevaSi efeqtiani aRmoCnda specialuri komisiebis daarseba, romlebic yvela wigns, gazeTs Tu Jurnals gamocemamde da gavrcelebamde ganixilavdnen. rodesac aseTi ganxilva ar xdeba, arsebobs TviTcenzuris mZlavri survili, sanam gamocemis xarjebi mTlianad ar aris amoRebuli. gazeTebs, sxva saxis publikaciebs, satelevizio da radiosadgurebs SeiZleba licenzia CamoarTvan, teqnikis konfiskacia moaxdinon da mflobelebi an redaqtorebi fizikurad daaSinon. msgavsi faqtorebis gadalaxvis gavrcelebuli saSualeba sazRvargareTidan warmoebuli mediis produqciaa, iqneba es birmis radiosadguri, romelic norvegiidan axorcielebs mauwyeblobas, Tu kaliforniaSi arsebuli iranuli televizia, romelic Teiranis auditorias opoziciis liderebTan interviuebs sTavazobs. qveynis sazRvrebs gareT gaCenili masobrivi komunikaciis saSualebis kidev erTi magaliTia serbeTsa prodemokratiuli moZraoba. 2000 wlis arCevnebamde ramdenime dRiT adre qveyanaSi sazRvargareTidan samoc tonaze meti bukleti iqna Setanili da darigebuli. biznesis wreebi biznesis wreebi yvelaze metad centralizebuli, socialisturi da avtoritaruli reJimebis ekonomikaSic ki mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben. isini mosaxleobas im saqonels Tu momsaxurebas sTavazoben, romlebsac mTavroba ar aZlevs. samomxmareblo saqonlis naklebobiT gamowveuli, sazogadoebis politikuri ukmayofilebis Tavidan asacileblad xSirad mTavrobebi irib Tanxmobasac acxadeben aralegaluri, Savi bazris arsebobaze. Tumca biznesis wreebTan muSaobas _ gansakuTrebiT, Tu es ucxouri da transnacionaluri biznesia _ Tavisi naklic aqvs. arsebobs mosazreba, rom saerTaSoriso firmebs saqmis daWera avtoritarul reJimebTan ufro aZlevT xels, vidre Ria da demokratiul mTavrobebTan. rodesac mmarTveli konkretuli SeTanxmebis dadebiT mxareebs gaiazrebs da mas dasTanxmdeba, amis Semdeg SedarebiT naklebi sakiTxi rCeba gasarkvevi. xSirad mmarTveli Cumad da swrafad agvarebs iseT potenciur problemebs, rogoricaa samuSao pirobebis, jamagirebis da profesiuli kavSirebis sakiTxebi. amiT imis Tqma gvsurs, rom SesaZloa saerTaSoriso firmas saerTod ar ainteresebdes, konkretuli mTavroba demokratiulia Tu tiranias warmoadgens. maT mxolod mogeba ainteresebT. demokratiuli moZraobis amocanas am kompaniebis imaSi darwmuneba warmoadgens, rom cvlileba moxdeba
53

da rom SesaZlebelia, samomavlod maTTvis xelsayreli iyos konfliqtis dros, sul cota, neitraluri poziciis dakaveba. pozitiur mxares rac Seexeba, adgilobrivi da ucxouri biznesis wreebs xSirad kontaqtebi aqvT adgilobrivi, regionuli da ucxouri biznesis warmomadgenlebTan. da Tu es maT interesebSi iqneba, isini SeZleben mogawodon mniSvnelovani resursebi _ fuli iqneba es, Suamavlebi Tu mrCevlebi demokratiuli cvlilebis sakiTxebSi. axalgazrdoba avtoritaruli reJimebis erT-erTi mTavari sazrunavi axalgazrdebis politikaSi CarTvis ardaSvebaa, Tuki es CarTuloba mTavrobis kontroliT da misi mxardaWerisTvis ar xdeba. manam, sanam studentebs da sxva axalgazrdebs mTavrobis stabilurobis winaaRmdeg organizebis saSualeba ar eZlevaT, opoziciur dajgufebebs swrafi politikuri cvlilebis tradiciuli avangardis gareSe uwevT yofna. zogierTi meTodi, riTac mTavrobebi studentebs politikur opoziciaSi aqtiur CarTvas uSlian, kargad aris cnobili. magaliTad, maT, vinc Riad upirispirdeba reJims, ar eZlevaT ganaTlebis miRebis saSualeba. garda amisa, mravalricxovani dajgufebebis CamoyalibebisTvis xelis SeSlis mizniT SesaZloa skolebi daxuron, an bevri filiali gaxsnan. im kanonebis darRvevisTvis, romlebic gamoxatvis da Sekrebebis Tavisuflebas zRudaven, SeiZleba xangrZlivi patimroba SemoiRon. SesaZlebelia, mTavrobam mis mierve kontrolirebuli axalgazrduli jgufebi daaarsos, da studentebi opoziciuri politikuri partiebis diskreditaciis sanacvlod fuliT, sakvebiT, tansacmliTa da iaraRiT moamaragos. axalgazrdebi xSirad gamoxataven survils, riskis miuxedavad saTaveSi Caudgnen revoluciur moZraobebs. zogierTi amas imiT xsnis, rom „axalgazrdebs araferi aqvT dasakargi~. rogorc wesi, axalgazrdebs naklebad anaRvlebT samsaxurebrivi movaleobebi, da xSirad arc mniSvnelovani ojaxuri pasuxismgebloba akisriaT. isini sicocxles axalgazrduli enTuziazmiT ekidebian da sakuTari ukvdavebis sjeraT. magram yvela es faqtori axalgazrdebis aqtivobas mxolod nawilobriv xsnis, vinaidan maT sinamdvileSi bevri mniSvnelovani ram aqvT dasakargi, magaliTad sicocxle da momavali. Tumca axalgazrdul moZraobebs yvelaze mZlavrad ara is amoZravebs, Tu ra SeiZleba dakargon, aramed is, Tu ramden rames moipoveben Tavisufal da samarTlian sazogadoebaSi cxovrebiT. axalgazrdebi, rogorc wesi, tira54

niis qveS sakuTar uRels racionalurad ar udgebian; maT arc cvlilebis SeuZleblobis aRiareba surT. cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis naklebobis gamo isini instinqturad da mkafiod asxvaveben simarTles siyalbisgan, marTals mtyuanisgan. da swored es azrobrivi sicxade warmoadgens maT motivacias. rodesac demokratiul moZraobebSi studentebisa da axalgazrdebis CarTvaze fiqrobT, sifrTxile gmarTebT. rogorc jgufi, isini cxovrebis yvela aspeqtSi riskze wamsvlelebi arian. mkafiod gamoxatuli xelmZRvanelobis da disciplinis gareSe maTi qmedebebi SesaZloa gadametebuli gaxdes, da provocirebis SemTxvevaSi maT, SeiZleba, iseTive TavzexelaRebuli Tvisebebi gamoavlinon, rogoric avtoritaruli reJimebis samsaxurSi myof pirebs axasiaTebs. „qcevis normebi~ moZraobis yvela monawilisTvis unda iyos mniSvnelovani, magram es gansakuTrebiT axalgazrdul organizaciebs exeba. zianis momtani qcevis SezRudvisTvis saWiroa ganmsazRvreli qcevis normebis wvrTniT da Zlieri xelmZRvanelobiT ganmtkiceba. muSebi eWvgareSea, rom globalizaciis Tanmdevma procesebma muSebis mdgomareoba mTeli msoflios masStabiT gaarTules. ganviTarebul qveynebSi profesiuli kavSirebi imis gamo dasustda, rom kompaniebi sxva qveynebSi wasvliT daimuqrnen _ sadac muSaxeli ufro iafia. ganviTarebadi qveynebis mTavrobebi ki bevrad ufro dainteresdnen maTTan produqciis gadasvlis ekonomikuri upiratesobebiT, vidre iseTi Zireuli aspeqtebiT, rogoricaa samuSao adgilebis usafrTxoeba, normaluri jamagiri an muSaTa uflebebi. Zalauflebis uTanasworoba muSaTa uflebebis uxeS darRvevebs iwvevs, amis gamosworebis gza ki demokratiaze, kanonis uzenaesobasa da Sekrebis Tavisuflebaze gadis. muSebis organizebis amocana SesaZloa rTuli iyos, magram, Tuki es moxerxdeba, erTianoba SeiZleba swrafad gavrceldes. SegaxsenebT, rom poloneTSi demokratiulma moZraobam qalaq gdanskis gemTsaSeni qarxnis eleqtrikosebis gaficvis Sedegad moipova warmateba. strategiuli araZaladobrivi brZolis damgegmavi pirebisTvis gansakuTrebulad mniSvnelovani transportis seqtori da masTan dakavSirebuli sferoebia. saqonlis, adamianebis Tu momsaxurebis gadaadgilebis nebismierma Seferxebam SeiZleba myisieri ekonomikuri da politikuri zarali moutanos reJims. Tumca, amave dros, stra55

tegiaze momuSave pirebma is gauTvaliswinebeli Sedegebic unda gaiazron, romlebic, SesaZloa, sazogadoebisTvis sakvebis da sxva aucilebeli sagnebis miwodebis SeCerebam moitanos. religiuri organizaciebi organizebul religias tiraniis winaaRmdeg mimarTul brZolebSi mniSvnelovani rolis didi istoria aqvs _ rogorc wesi, is cvlilebis maZiebelTa mxares idga, Tumca yovelTvis ara. xSirad religiur organizaciebs rogorc sulieri, ise finansuri kavSirebi gaaCniaT im sazogadoebebSi, sadac moRvaweoben. es kavSirebi sazogadoebis yvela fenaze vrceldeba _ rogorc SeZlebul elitaze, ise naklebi privilegiis mqone socialur jgufebze. es imis gamoc xdeba, rom religiur liderebs xSirad kargi ganaTleba aqvT miRebuli rogorc religiaSi, ise sazogadoebis funqcionirebaSi. maT pativs scemen rogorc mimdevrebi, ise sxvebic da xSirad maT sxva adamianebis qcevaze gavlenis moxdena moraluri da religiuri swavlebebis miRmac ZaluZT. amave dros, maT SeuZliaT opoziciur moZraobas sulieri aspeqti SesZinon da opoziciis yvelaze kargi oratorebic gaxdnen. Tumca, meore mxriv, isini SeiZleba tiranuli reJimis viwro interesebis samsaxurSi zustad amdenadve gavleniani da aseTive oratorebi gaxdnen. Sesabamisad, moZraobis liderebi religiuri liderebis mxardaWeris mopovebas an maTi mxridan negatiuri gavlenebis moxdenis SezRudvas unda Seecadon. arasamTavrobo organizaciebi (NGO-ebi) nebismieri jgufi an organizacia, romelsac mTavrobis pirdapiri kontrolis miRma SeuZlia funqcionireba, demokratiuli moZraobisTvis potenciur monapovars warmoadgens. saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebs SeuZliaT saxsrebis mozidva, mraval auditoriasTan pirdapiri urTierTobis damyareba, sazRvargareTidan saWiro rCevebis miReba da sxva demokratiuli moZraobebis gamocdilebebis gaziareba. adgilobrivi arasamTavrobo organizaciebi zogjer sakmaod SezRuduli arian rogorc qmedebebSi, romelTa ganxorcielebis saSualeba gaaCniaT, ise dafinansebis wyaroebis mxriv. rogorc saerTaSoriso, ise adgilobriv arasamTavrobo organizaciebSi xSirad mTavrobis mogzavnili pirebi muSaoben xolme, Tumca, umetes SemTxvevebSi, es problema advilad dasaZlevia. araZaladobriv konfliqtSi arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mniSvnelobas isic gansazR56

vravs, rom isini sazogadoebas sxvadasxva samsaxurs sTavazoben da, Sesabamisad, aCveneben, rom ar aris aucilebeli, xalxi mTlianad mTavrobaze iyos damokidebuli. arasamTavrobo organizaciebis qmedebebs im iZulebiTi, magram amavdroulad Semparavi, kavSiris dasusteba SeuZliaT, romelic avtoritarul reJimebs xalxis mxridan morCilebis mopovebisTvis sWirdebaT. arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mxridan avtoritarul reJimze xalxis damokidebulad yofnis dasustebis mkafio magaliTia is, rac birmaSi 1962 wels, general ne vinis xelisuflebaSi mosvlidan Zalian male moxda. qveynis dasavleTiT, arakanSi, mZlavri wyaldidoba moxda. gadmocemis mixedviT, erTi kaTolike misioneri maSinve daukavSirda qveynis sxva nawilebSi da indoeTSi myof misionerebs da Seatyobina, rom daxmareba iyo saWiro. amas swrafi da efeqtiani reagireba mohyva: ramdenime dReSi sakvebi, tansacmeli da samSeneblo masalebi Camovida. rodesac mTavrobam zianis Sesafaseblad iq Tavisi jgufebi miavlina, gairkva, rom xelisuflebis daxmareba aRar iyo saWiro _ xalxs TviTonve moevlo krizisisTvis. amboben, rom aman ne vini imdenad gamoiyvana mdgomareobidan, rom birmidan qristiani misionerebi gandevnes. Tumca demokratiul moZraobebs isic unda SevaxsenoT, rom arasamTavrobo organizaciebs SesaZloa sakuTari miznebi amoZravebdeT. mniSvnelovania am SesaZlo miznebis gaazreba da imis uzrunvelyofa, rom isini demokratiuli moZraobis miznebs da amocanebs emTxveodes. mxardaWera SeiZleba profesiul gaerTianebebSi, politikur partiebSi, ucxour biznesebsa da ucxoeTis mTavrobebSi ipovoT, rogorc individualurad, ise saerTaSoriso organizaciebis SuamavlobiT. yuradRebidan ar gamogrCeT sazogadoebis SigniT arsebuli mcire jgufebi, romlebic konkretuli interesebis gamoa Seqmnili _ magaliTad, kervis jgufebi, monadireebis da meTevzeebis gaerTianebebi, wignis moyvarulTa jgufebi, enis Semswavleli jgufebi, motociklistebis dajgufebebi, sportis moyvarulTa klubebi, koleqcionerebis jgufebi, mebaReebis jgufebi da sxva. strategiuli araZaladobrivi konfliqti saWiroebs rogorc Zalauflebis wyaroebis kontrols, ise mosaxleobis aqtiur CarTulobas. organizaciebi moicaven Zalauflebis wyaroebs da gaaCniaT koleqtiuri qmedebebisTvis saWiro safuZveli.

57

1.3. morCileba „adamiani Tavisufali ibadeba, magram yvelgan borkilebi aqvs dadebuli~. Jan Jak ruso, sazogadoebrivi xelSekrulebis Sesaxeb, wigni 1, Tavi 1 am da msgavsi mosazrebebis sapasuxod doqtorma jin Sarpma Semdegi SekiTxvebi wamoWra: rogor xdeba, rom mmarTveli uamrav qveSevrdomze politikur dominacias moipovebs da inarCunebs? ratom eqvemdebareba da emorCileba mas amdeni adamiani, miuxedavad imisa, rom es aSkarad ar Sedis maT interesebSi? am SekiTxvebis dasmas Sarpis mier xalxis morCilebis gamWriaxi analizi mohyva. es Tavi didwilad am analizs eyrdnoba. Zalauflebis pluralisturi modeli (1-li Tavi), Zalauflebis wyaroebis gamovlineba sayrdeni burjebis meSveobiT (me- 2 Tavi) da morCileba im sameuls Seadgens, romelic mTavaria strategiuli araZaladobrivi brZolis Teoriuli da praqtikuli aspeqtebis gaazrebaSi. amdenad, aucilebelia, kargad gvesmodes, Tu ratom aris xalxi morCili _ zogjer imdenadac ki, rom sakuTar sicocxles swiraven faqtorebs, romlebsac aSkarad ar eTanxmebian. morCileba „politikuri Zalauflebis guls warmoadgens~. Tu xalxi ar emorCileba, mmarTveli ver marTavs. araZaladobrivi brZolis strategiebi swored am mosazrebas emyareba. Tuki Cveni mizani is aris, rom xalxi STavagonoT, diqtatorebs da sxva avtoritarul reJimebs Tanxmoba waarTvan, maSin pirvel rigSi is unda gvesmodes, Tu ratom aris xalxi morCili. Cveva xalxis umravlesobis morCilebis mizezi maT morCilebis CvevaSia. vibadebiT Tu ara, maSinve ufrosebis damjerad yofnas gvaswavlian. umetesi CvenganisTvis pirveli avtoritetuli figurebi mSoblebi, ufrosi da-Zmebi, bebiebi, babuebi da sxva naTesavebi arian, Semdeg es xazi skolis maswavleblebiT, policielebiT da avtoritetuli simboloebiTac ki grZeldeba. magaliTad, Cvevis gamo Cven SuqniSans cariel gzajvaredinebzec ki vemorCilebiT.

58

jarSi wvevamdelebis wvrTnis mTavari amocana morCilebis axleburi Cvevebis SeqmnaSi mdgomareobs. wvevamdeli swrafad swavlobs Tavisi zemdgomis brZanebebze myisier da erTmniSvnelovan reagirebas. saaTobiT gagrZelebul, erTferovan wvrTnas da xelmZRvanelobis damafrTxobel meTodebs araferi aqvT saerTo Tanamedrove omis warmoebisTvis saWiro unarebTan _ yovelive es brZanebebis Sesrulebis Cvevis gamomuSavebisaken mimarTuli qmedebebia. amavdroulad, jariskacis Zireuli unarebi _ rogoricaa, magaliTad, iaraRis gamoyeneba _ imdenadaa gamjdari ganmeorebadi wvrTnebis meSveobiT, rom ukve CvevaSia gadasuli da aranair fiqrs ar saWiroebs. Tambaqoze damokidebulma adamianebma kargad viciT, ras niSnavs Cveva. Cven ar viciT, ramden sigarets veweviT, ver vixsenebT, rodis movwieT, da mowevas Tavs verc maSin vanebebT, rodesac sigaretis fasi absurdamde matulobs. imisaTvis, rom es da nebismieri sxva Cveva _ mmarTvelis morCilebis CaTvliT _ davarRvioT, aucilebelia konkretuli gadawyvetileba miviRoT, mis Sesaxeb sakuTar Tavs mudmivad vaxsenoT da vimeoroT, Tu ratom aris gadaCveva mniSvnelovani. sanqciebis SiSi daumorCileblobis gamo sasjelis SiSi xalxis morCilebis kidev erTi mizezia. rodesac kanons varRvevT, SeiZleba Cven winaaRmdeg saxelmwifos Zala iyos gamoyenebuli. SeiZleba didi TanxiT dagvajarimon. saxelmwifom SesaZloa sakuTreba CamogvarTvas. saxelmwifom SeiZleba cixeSi Cagvsvas. saxelmwifos sikvdiliTac ki SeuZlia dagvsajos, Tuki mis kanonebs davarRvevT. sanqciebis mizani kanonis damrRvevis dasja da/an sxvebis mxridan imave an msgavsi kanonis darRvevis Tavidan acilebaa. morCilebis mosapoveblad sanqciebis SiSs tirani ufro metad eyrdnoba, vidre is mmarTvelebi, romlebsac sazogadoeba sakuTari surviliT uWers mxars. subieqturi interesebi arsebobs bevri iseTi adamiani, romelic acxadebs, rom mTavroba saSinlad ar moswons, magram amis miuxedavad mainc aqtiurad uWers mas mxars. am paradoqsis axsna im subieqturi interesebiT da pirovnuli jildoebiT SeiZleba, romlebic mTavrobis mxardamWerebs gaaCniaT. magaliTisTvis ganvixiloT, ra jildoebi eZlevaT samxedroebs arapopularuli da sastiki politikis erTgulebisTvis; es SeiZleba

59

iyos dawinaureba, ordenebi, prestiJi, socialuri privilegiebi da didi pensiebi. rodesac ekonomikas mTavroba akontrolebs da mosaxleobis umravlesobasac mTavroba qiraobs, pirovnebis subieqtur interesebSi Sedis is, rom ar dakargos samsaxuri, vinaidan SesaZlebelia man sxva adgili ver iSovos. sxvebma reJimis mxardaWeris sanacvlod SesaZloa mniSvnelovani finansuri mogeba naxon. Cven ar unda gavkicxoT yvela is adamiani, romlebic subieqturi interesebidan gamomdinare, arapopularul mTavrobas uWeren mxars. TiToeul maTgans amis sakuTari mizezebi aqvs. bevri fiqrobs, rom alternativa ar arsebobs. Cveni amocanaa, davajeroT es adamianebi, rom daumorCilebloba SesaZloa maTsave interesebSi iyos. moraluri valdebuleba morCilebis moraluri valdebuleba yvela sazogadoebas axasiaTebs. morCilebis am valdebulebas safuZveli sazogadoebis saerTo keTildReobaSi aqvs. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kanoni yvela moqalaqes icavs. zogierTi kanoni Cven sxvebis antisazogadoebrivi saqcielisgan (qurdoba, mkvleloba, gaupatiureba) gvicavs. sxva kanonebi sazogadoebis saerTo keTildReobas uzrunvelyofs (saqonlis da momsaxurebis ganawileba, axalgazrdebis jarSi gawveva, gadasaxadebi). zogjer, SesaZloa, isic ki vifiqroT, rom saerTo keTildReobas yvelaze metad maSin vuwyobT xels, rodesac saZulvel mmarTvels vemorCilebiT, radgan ar gvjera, rom vinme sxva ukeTesi SeiZleba iyos. ioseb stalini aSkara tirani iyo, magram mas milionobiT adamiani emorCileboda, radgan iTvleboda, rom morCileba sazogadoebis saerTo interess Seadgenda. zogierT russ „Zveli dro~ mas Semdegac ki enatreba, rac gaiges, rom stalinis gamo oc milionze meti adamiani iqna mokluli. morCilebis am moraluri valdebulebis kidev erT gamoxatulebad TaobebSi arsebuli mimbaZvelobac SeiZleba miviCnioT. gaxsovdeT, rom am Taobriv fenomens SeuZlia misabaZi gaxados rogorc morCileba, ise daumorCilebloba, amdenad, misi gamoyenebiT qcevis normebis Secvlac SesaZlebelia. zeadamianuri faqtorebi aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac mmarTvels zeadamianuri buneba da RmerTis dari maxasiaTeblebi eniWeba. rodesac mmarTvels yovlisSemZled an religiis personifikaciad aRiqvamen, misi daumorCilebloba praqtikulad warmoudgenelia. vin gabedavda, ar damorCileboda adolf hitlers maSin, rodesac igi mmarTvelobis mwvervalze
60

imyofeboda? liderebis RvTiurad qcevas grZeli istoria aqvs. adamianebi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi uSvebdnen „RmerTi-mefis~ da „mefis RvTiuri uflebis~ cnebebs. RvTaebrivi mmarTvelobis kidev erTi formacia meoce saukunis iranSi religiisa da saxelmwifos Serwymaa. morCilebis am faqtorTan dapirispirebas mxolod simarTlis Tqma SegvaZlebinebs _ adamiani ar aris yovlisSemZle da arc mmarTvelia RmerTis mier movlenili miwaze. mmarTvelebTan fsiqologiuri identifikacia arseboben adamianebi, romlebic mmarTvelebs sakuTari ojaxebis wevrebad aRiqvamen. daaxloebiT iseve, rogorc fexburTis gundis gulSematkivrebi ganicdian sixaruls, rodesac maTi gundi igebs, da mwuxarebas, rodesac is agebs, mmarTveli individis „gagrZelebad~ iqceva xolme. es gansakuTrebiT maSin iCens Tavs, rodesac xalxma da mmarTvelma erTad gamoiares raime rTuli gamocdileba _ magaliTad, damoukideblobisTvis brZola (damoukideblobisTvis mebrZoli ramdenime arcTu Zalian dadebiTi magaliTia xo Si mini, generali ne vini da robert mugabe). Tuki piris morCilebas swored es „ganvrcobili ojaxis~ faqtori ganapirobebs, mniSvnelovania sazogadoebis darwmuneba imaSi, rom mmarTvelTan msgavsi gaigiveba ukve aRar aris gamarTlebuli. gulgriloba zogierTi piri SeiZleba saerTod gulgrili iyos im umetesi, Tu yvela ara, kanonis mimarT, romlebic maT yoveldRiur cxovrebas mxolod Soridan Tu SeiZleba Seexos. isini mxolod imitom arian morCilebi, rom daumorCileblobam SeiZleba zedmeti xifaTi Seqmnas. adamianebis umravlesoba swored amgvarad udgeba umetes kanons. problemebi maSin Cndeba, rodesac ZiriTadi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebis SemzRudavi kanonebi gulgrilobis am komfortul zonaSi iwyeben SeWras. demokratiuli opoziciis amocanaa, sazogadoeba gamoafxizlos da miuTiTos, rom msgavsi SeWris mimarT gulgriloba aRar SeiZleba; rom gulgriloba sazogadoebis damonebas uwyobs xels, vinaidan individualuri Tavisufleba sul ufro metad izRudeba xelisuflebis mier. sakuTari Tavis rwmenis arqona sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo zogierT adamians Tavdajerebuloba aklia da sakuTari gansjis unaris, winaaRmdegobis gawevis an daumorCi-

61

leblobis gamoCenis SesaZleblobis ar sjera. iq, sadac avtoritaruli mmarTveloba aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi arsebobda, sazogadoebas gadawyvetilebebis miRebis mcire gamocdileba da liderebis gamovlenis mwiri SesaZleblobebi hqonda. SesaZlebelia, zogierTi fiqrobs, rom mmarTvelebs maTze ukeTesad SeuZliaT gadawyvetilebebis miReba. da rac Zalian mniSvnelovania winaaRmdegobis moZraobisTvis, isini SesaZloa fiqrobdnen, rom maT ar ZaluZT mTavrobis winaaRmdeg warmatebuli daumorCileblobis gamovlena an gaTavisuflebisTvis brZolaSi monawileoba. araZaladobrivi brZolis warmatebisTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania, xalxs imis rwmena daubrundes, rom mmarTvelebis qmedebebis Sefaseba da Semdeg am Sefasebebidan gamomdinare qmedeba SeuZlia. is, rac Cven SesaZloa `gulgriloba~ gvegonos, zogjer SeiZleba sinamdvileSi sakuTari Tavis rwmenis arqona iyos. Sejameba Cven axla imis ramdenime mizezi ganvixileT, Tu ratom emorCileba xalxi mmarTvelebs. es mizezebi, Tavis mxriv, im mosazrebis uaryofaa, rom morCileba `bunebrivi~ maxasiaTebelia. morCileba adamianebs genetikurad ar mosdgamT _ is Cvevebis, SiSis da interesebis kombinaciis Sedegad Cndeba. xolo Cvevebi da interesebi SeiZleba Seicvalos, SiSi ki _ damarcxdes.

62

Tavi 2 araZaladobrivi brZolis formebi da meTodebi
`me mxolod imas vamtkiceb, rom Cem mier ganxorcielebulma yovelma eqsperimentma ganmimtkica rwmena – araZaladobrioba kacobriobis xelSi arsebul udides Zalas warmoadgens~. mahaTma gandi 2003 wlis movlenebis Semdeg, albaT, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis didi nawilisTvis naTeli gaxda araZaladobrivi brZolisa da xalxis mobilizebis potenciali da Zala. dRes albaT sazogadoebis didi nawili Tanxmdeba, rom maSin ganxorcielebuli reJimis Secvla mosaxleobaSi wlebis manZilze dagrovili ukmayofilebis Sedegi iyo, romelmac kulminacias miaRwia da romlis mobilizebac didwilad axalgazrdobis erTma nawilma da samoqalaqo sazogadoebam iTava. 2003 wlis ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi ganviTarda saxalxo araZaladobrivi moZraoba, romlis erT-erT RerZs studenturi organizacia `kmara~ warmoadgenda. am organizaciis istoria 2000 wels, saxelmwifo universitetSi studenturi jgufis CamoyalibebiT iwyeba, romelic umaRlesi ganaTlebis dawesebulebebSi korufcias aprotestebda. mas Semdeg jgufi gafarTovda da serbeTis identuri moZraobis _ `otporis~ _ gamocdilebis gaziarebiT bevrad gaiRrmava saorganizacio potenciali da araZaladobrivi brZolis Teoriuli codna. am wignis funqcias ar warmoadgens `kmaras~, rogorc organizaciis, qmedebebis safuZvliani da sistematuri analizi. winamdebare teqstis miznebidan gamomdinare, mTavari aspeqti, romelic `kmaras~ aqtualurs xdis, is aris, rom am organizaciam saqarTveloSi deklarirebuli saxiT Semoitana araZaladobrivi, strategiuli brZolis ideebi. es ideebi ki, Tavis mxriv, ukanasknel aTwleulSi gamorCeuli intensivobiT gavrcelda regionul Tu globalur konteqstSi da mravali socialuri moZraobis STagonebis wyaro gaxda. gviandel 1990-ian wlebSi serbebma araZaladobrivi brZolis gamocdileba slovakebisgan gadmoiRes; 2002-2003 wlebSi `kmaram~ serbebisgan iswavla; serbebma da qarTvelebma Semdeg gamocdileba ukrainelebs da yazaxebs gauziares.

63

Tumca, cxadia, sakuTriv araZaladobriv brZolas am magaliTebze bevrad farTo da mravlismomcveli istoria aqvs. miuxedavad imisa, rom msoflio da erovnuli istoriis saxelmZRvaneloebisa da istoriuli wyaroebis didi umravlesoba erebis sidiadis warmoCenis mTavar aqcents omebis rolze akeTebs, warsuls uamravi SemTxveva axsovs, rodesac xalxma konfliqtis mogvarebis saqmeSi Zaladobriv oms sxva meTodebi arCia. araZaladobrivi brZolis erT-erTi yvelaze TvalsaCino da yvelaze xSirad citirebuli magaliTi mahaTma gandis mier indoeTSi aTwleulebis manZilze warmoebuli brZolaa, romelmac bolos britaneTis imperia aiZula, indoeTis okupaciaze uari eTqva. meore msoflio omis dros germanelTa okupacias daniis mosaxleobam araZaladobrivi winaaRmdegoba daupirispira. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi 1960-ian wlebSi masobrivi araZaladobrivi brZola warmoebda samoqalaqo uflebebisTvis, romelmac rasobrivi segregaciis mniSvnelovani dasusteba moitana. 1980 wels poloneTis muSebma gaficvebis meTodi gamoiyenes da socialistur qveynebSi pirvelad miaRwies Tavisufali profesiuli kavSirebis Seqmnis uflebas. 1980-ian wlebSi diqtatorebis Camogdebis mizniT araZaladobriv kampaniebs filipinelma da Cilelma xalxmac mimarTa. samxreT afrikis araZaladobrivma samoqalaqo moZraobam boikotebi da sxva sanqciebi gamoiyena aparTeiduli reJimis dasustebisa da sabolood misi Secvlis mizniT. warmatebuli araZaladobrivi brZolis sxva magaliTebi baltiispireTis qveynebSi warmoebuli damoukideblobis moZraobebi da CexeTisa da slovakeTis `xaverdovani revoluciebia~. istorias warumatebeli araZaladobrivi iniciativebic axsovs: iqneba es palestinis pirveli intifada, CineTis tiananminis moednis moZraoba, birmis politikuri daumorCilebloba Tu kosovos samoqalaqo winaaRmdegoba. yvela am magaliTs aerTianebs araZaladobrivi brZolis principebis gaziareba, Tumca, cxadia, yvela es calkeuli SemTxveva mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan rogorc zogadi kulturuli maxasiaTeblebiT, ise specifikuri strategiisa Tu taqtikis gamoyenebis formebiT. am araZaladobrivi konfliqtebis didi nawili mniSvnelovnad eyrdnoboda spontanurobisa da improvizaciis elementebs, Tumca sxvebi ufro dagegmil xasiaTs atarebda da winaswar gansazRvrul strategias misdevda. araZaladobrivi brZolis forma, romelic serbeTSi gamoiyenes da romelic miloSeviCis CamogdebiT damTavrda, mniSvnelovnad eyrdnoboda jin Sarpis Sromebs (araZaladob64

rivi qmedebis politika/The Politics of Nonviolent action, da diqtaturidan demokratiamde: gaTavisuflebis Teoriuli CarCo/From Dictatorship to Democracy. a Conceptual Framework for Liberation). amasTan, araZaladobrivi brZolis strategiis SemuSavebaSi `otpors~ didad daexmara SeerTebuli Statebis jaris yofili samxedro polkovniki, robert helvi. swored helvim mouwoda otporis wevrebs serbul sazogadoebaSi `Zalauflebis wyaroebisa~ da `sayrdeni burjebis~ gaanalizebisa da maTi TavianTi miznebisTvis gamoyenebisken. SesaZlebelia, zogs araZaladobriv brZolaSi samxedro sqemebisa da azrovnebis gamoyeneba paradoqsulad moeCvenos. magram araZaladobrivi brZola, garkveuli parametrebiT, Zaladobis gareSe warmoebuli omia, romelsac dagegmva, strategia da taqtika esaWiroeba da romelic konkretul meqanizmebs da meTodebs eyrdnoba. winaswar gansazRvruli, gaanalizebuli da sistematurad SemuSavebuli strategia mniSvnelovnad zrdis araZaladobriv konfliqtSi gamarjvebis mopovebis Sanss. winamdebare wignis es nawili im principebs, safuZvlebs da meTodebs ganixilavs, romelTa meSveobiTac araZaladobrivi konfliqti dagegmil da gaazrebul formas iZens. rodesac wignis mesame, praqtikul nawilze gadaxvalT da kampaniis warmoebisTvis konkretuli formebis SerCevas daiwyebT, mniSvnelovania, es Teoriuli safuZvlebi gaiTvaliswinoT. imis miuxedavad, Tqvens mizans zogadad avtoritarul reJimTan brZola warmoadgens Tu calkeuli sakiTxis irgvliv specifikuri kampaniis warmoeba, farTo konteqstis aRqma da gaazrebuli dagegmva yovelTvis aucilebelia. 2.1. strategiuli araZaladobrivi brZolis principebi pirvel rigSi, albaT upriani iqneba, erTianad gaviazroT is ZiriTadi principebi, romelTac strategiuli araZaladobrivi brZola emyareba. piter akermanisa da kristofer krugleris mixedviT, es principebi SeiZleba Tormet ZiriTad punqtad daiyos: ganviTarebis principebi funqciuri miznebis gansazRvra. organizaciuli Zalis ganviTareba. saWiro materialuri resursebis gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba. gareSe mxardaWeris mopoveba. meTodebis/formebis gamravalferovneba.
65

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

brZolis principebi 1. mowinaaRmdegis kontrolis SenarCunebis strategiaze Tavdasxma. 2. mowinaaRmdegis Zaladobrivi iaraRis neitralizacia. 3. mowinaaRmdegisTvis sayrdeni burjebis warTmeva. 4. araZaladobrivi disciplinis SenarCuneba. konceptualuri principebi 1. movlenebisa da SesaZleblobebis Sefaseba strategiul konteqstSi. 2. Setevisa da Tavdacvis operaciebis morgeba mowinaaRmdegis Zalebsa da sisusteebze. 3. meTodebs, formebsa da miznebs Soris erTianobis SenarCuneba. am Tormet princips, Tavis mxriv, sami ZiriTadi SekiTxva aerTianebs. ganviTarebis pirveli xuTi principi miznad isaxavs, gaiazros, ris gakeTeba SeiZleba imisaTvis, rom strategiuli araZaladobrivi konfliqtis warmoebisTvis ukeTesi da ufro metad xelsayreli garemo Seiqmnas. brZolis oTxi principi ukve konfliqtis warmoebis etaps exeba da pasuxobs SekiTxvas, Tu rogor unda moxdes mowinaaRmdegesTan urTierToba ise, rom araZaladobriv meTodebs maqsimaluri Sedegi hqondes. SekiTxva, romelsac sami konceptualuri principi pasuxobs, ase JRers: `rogor SevafasoT is nabijebi, romlebic aqamde gadavdgiT, da kidev ra qmedebebs unda mivmarToT konfliqtis Semdgom etapebze?~. es principebi erTmaneTs mWidrod ukavSirdeba, Tumca SesaZloa zemoT moyvanili Tanamdevroba konkretul miznebs da kampaniebs moergos da sxva forma miiRos. mTavari, rac unda gaxsovdeT, am principebis gaTvaliswinebis aucileblobaa sistematuri da erTiani strategiuli midgomis SemuSavebisTvis. 2.2. araZaladobrivi brZolis meqanizmebi da meTodebi arCeuli gzis miuxedavad, sazogadoebis diqtaturidan demokratiaSi gadayvana yovelTvis rTulia. Tuki opoziciuri moZraoba amisaTvis strategiuli araZaladobriobis gzas irCevs, gaazrebuli unda iqnes is sxvadasxva formebi Tu meqanizmebi, romliTac araZaladobrivi brZola mmarTvelsa da daqvemdebarebulebs Soris urTierTobaSi sasurvel cvlilebebs iwvevs. jin Sarpi `Zalauflebis struq66

turebis Secvlis meqanizmebis~ oTx formaze laparakobs. esenia: gardaqmna, Sewyoba, iZuleba da daSla. es oTxi aspeqti warmoadgens SemecnebiT CarCos, romelSic SegviZlia Zalauflebis struqturebis cvlilebis Sesaxeb informacia ganvixiloT. amave dros, araZaladobrivi qmedebis es gakveTilebi SeiZleba cvlilebis dasaCqarebel meTodebad, an warsulSi ganxorcielebuli araZaladobrivi qmedebebisa Tu kampaniebis Sesafaseblad gamoviyenoT. am TavSi araZaladobrivi qmedebis farTo kategoriebsac ganvixilavT: protestsa da darwmunebas, araTanamSromlobas, intervencias. gardaqmna cvlilebebis moxdenis mizniT oponentis winaaRmdeg gamoyenebuli araZaladobrivi qmedebebis meqanizmebi an procesebi miswrafebebs Tu gavlenebs gansxvavebuli intensivobiT aRweren. SeiZleba Seiqmnas situaciebi, rodesac SeZlebT, reJimi daarwmunoT, rom opoziciuri jgufis rekomendaciebis an moTxovnebis gaTvaliswineba misive interesebSi Sedis. gardaqmnas kampaniis mawarmoebeli jgufisTvis mravali upiratesobis motana SeuZlia. reJimis mxridan daTmobam da cvlilebis saWiroebis aRiarebam SeiZleba opoziciis liderebisTvis ndobis da legitimurobis xarisxi gazardos, saxelmwifosTan pirdapiri dapirispirebis potenciuri riski Seamciros da, rac Zalian mniSvnelovania, datovos is resursebi, romlebsac konfliqtis ufro gviandel etapebze gamoiyenebT. magram es meqanizmi _ romelic, rogorc wesi, mciredi zewolis Semcvel qmedebebs saWiroebs _ radikaluri avtoritaruli reJimebis winaaRmdeg gamosayeneblad xSirad sakmarisi ar aris. amis miuxedavad, ramdenime SemTxvevaSi sakiTxis da misi dayenebis gzebis sworma SerCevam Zalze sastiki reJimebis winaaRmdegac ki moipova warmateba. Tuki gavixsenebT, rom strategiuli araZaladobrivi brZola Zalauflebis wyaroebze axdens Setevas, SesaZlebelia, reJimis sayrdeni burjebis gardaqmnis mcdelobebmac Sedegi gamoiRos. am procesis pirveli safexuri is aris, rom am organizaciebisa da samizne institutebis wevrebi darwmundnen: isini, rogorc individebi, `xalxis mtrebi~ ar arian da sinamdvileSi demokratiuli sazogadoebis dafasebuli da pativcemuli wevrebi gaxdebian. rogorc ki es mizani miRweuli iqneba, samizne institutebis wevrebi maSinve ufro meti yuradRebiT moekidebian politikuri cvlilebebisken, mogvianebiT ki konkretuli aqciebisken, mowodebebs.
67

gardaqmna ZiriTad meqanizms warmoadgens prodemokratiuli Zalebis gafarToebisa da gaZlierebis saqmeSi. gardaqmnis miRwevis mcdelobebSi propagandis is formebi gamogadgebaT, romlebic demokratiuli da avtoritaruli reJimebis pirobebSi cxovrebis kontrasts warmoaCenen, da mTel msoflioSi mimdinare araZaladobrivi aqciebis ambebs hyvebian. demonstraciebis, gaficvebis, boikotebis da protestis sxva formebis Sesaxeb axali ambebi sazogadoebis Sexedulebebze gavlenas axdens. da rac yvelaze mniSvnelovania, sazogadoebas `xvalindeli dRis xedva~ da am xedvis ganxorcielebis gzebi unda miewodos. gardaqmnis mcdelobebSi yvelaze Zlier Zalas, albaT, avtoritarul reJimebTan dapirispirebisTvis gambedaobis demonstrireba warmoadgens. Cagvris winaaRmdeg mimarTuli sazogadoebrivi gambedaobis qmedebebi im stereotips angrevs, romelic araZaladobriv protestSi CarTul adamianebs laCrebad saxavs. simamace universalur pativiscemas aRZravs, sulerTia, mas brZolis velze gasuli jariskacebi gamoxataven Tu isini, vinc mCagvreli reJimis winaaRmdeg araZaladobrivad ibrZvis. zogierT SemTxvevaSi, opoziciuri dajgufebis wevrebis mier gadatanil tanjvas didi gavlenis moxdena SeuZlia rogorc mCagvrelebis, ise Cagrulebis Sexedulebebze. simamace yovelTvis miznis misaRwevad daRvrili sisxliT ar izomeba. gambedaobis WeSmarit sazoms qmedebis mZime Sedegebis mimarT gamovlenili mzaoba warmoadgens. magaliTad, isini, vinc 1776 wels amerikis damoukideblobis aqts moaweres xeli, inglisis mefis daumorCileblobiT simamacis didebul magaliTs iZleodnen. igive SeiZleba iTqvas im samoqalaqo uflebebisTvis mebrZol aqtivistebze, romlebic 1950-ian da 1960-ian wlebSi segregaciis aRmosafxvrelad mjdomare aqciebs mimarTavdnen. daumorCileblobis am orive magaliTma da riskze wasvlis mzaobam gamoiwvia is, rom sazogadoeba am moZraobebis monawileTa miznebis samarTlianobaze dafiqrda. Sewyoba zogjer isec xdeba, rom reJimi prodemokratiuli Zalebis Txovnas Tu moTxovnebs miiRebs da maTTan Sewyobas Seecdeba. es pativiscemisa da Tavazianobis gamo ki ar xdeba, aramed imis gamo, rom reJims SesaZloa socialuri daZabulobebis ganeitraleba, ucxoeTis mTavrobebis damokidebulebaze gavlenis moxdena, xalxze zrunviT moqalaqeebze STabeWdilebis moxdena an sakiTxis daxurva surdes. reJimis68

Tvis es iZuleba ar aris _ is ubralod gadawyvets, rom uSualod mis interesebs araferi emuqreba da opoziciasTan konkretul sakiTxze daTmobaze wasvla mas ar daasustebs. sinamdvileSi reJimis mxridan Zalauflebis absoluturi floba ukve dasustebulia, vinaidan is im sakiTxebis mimarT iCens yuradRebas, romlebmac SesaZloa mTavrobis mimarT xalxis ukmayofileba gazardos. `axali ambebi~ regularulad gadmoscemen totalitaruli mTavrobebis mxridan moTxovnebis simboluri miRebis ambebs. politikuri reformebis moTxovnis nawilobrivi miRebis mizniT rangunis politikuri reJimi da komunisturi CineTis liderebi xSirad aTavisufleben ramdenime patimars maSin, rodesac dasavleTis mniSvnelovani pirebi maTTan vizitad Cadian. israelis mTavrobac regularulad axorcielebs simbolur Jestebs, raTa palestinelebisadmi humanuri mopyrobis Sesaxeb SeerTebuli Statebis mTavrobis moTxovna daakmayofilos. sakiTxebi, romelTa dakmayofilebasac mTavrobebi irCeven, rogorc wesi, gamaRizianebel faqtorebad miiCneva, xolo daTanxmebiT maT xelisuflebaSi yofnas araferi emuqreba. sxva sityvebiT, es maTTvis iseTi gadawyvetilebaa, romelsac minimaluri riski axlavs Tan. mTavrobebis mxridan opoziciuri jgufebis mimarT daTmobebze wasvlis bolodroindeli magaliTebi simboluri Jestebidan erTi SexedviT Tavisufali arCevnebis gamarTvamde meryeobs. litvaSi, magaliTad, komunisturi reJimis mimarT sazogadoebaSi mzardi protestis sapasuxod uzenaesma sabWom 1988 wels demokratiuli moZraobis moTxovnebis dakmayofileba scada, rac sakonstitucio cvlilebebiT litvuri enisTvis oficialuri statusis miniWebas da erT-erT istoriul adgilas erovnuli droSis aRmarTvas gulisxmobda. im droisaTvis demokratiuli moZraoba _ romelsac `TanasabWo~, `saiudisi~ da sxva jgufebi edgnen saTaveSi _ imdenad farTo da warmatebuli iyo, rom reJimis mxridan mxolod simboluri daTmobebi aRar iyo sakmarisi. amis Sedegad gaizarda opoziciis, rogorc demokratiuli cvlilebis momxdeni Zalis, mimarT ndoba. sadam huseinis 2002 wlis gadawyvetileba, neba daerTo religiuri ritualebis SesrulebisTvis, Cveni drois Sewyobis kidev erTi magaliTia. miuxedavad imisa, rom sadam huseini erayis sazogadoebis absolutur kontrols axorcielebda, igi mainc dasTanxmda Siitebis moTxovnas baRdadis gareubanSi arsebul salocavSi aTasobiT adamianis msvlelobis gamarTvaze. huseins SeeZlo, am moTxovnaze uari ganecxadebina, da mas, cxadia, gaaCnda is samxedro da policiuri Zala,
69

riTac am akrZalvas ganamtkicebda. magram igi mainc wavida daTmobaze _ SeiZleba imis imediT, rom opoziciis kidev erTxel gaRizianebas da Ria da Zaladobriv dapirispirebas Tavidan aicilebda. erT-erTi yvelaze radikaluri daTmoba, romelzedac SeiZleba reJimi wavides, Ria arCevnebis moTxovnis miRebaa. magram aseTi arCevnebis gamarTva TiTqmis yovelTvis kiTxvis niSnis qveS dgas. meoce saukunis bolo ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi uamravi SemTxveva iyo, rodesac arademokratiuli reJimebi sakuTar sazRvrebSi `Tavisufali~ arCevnebis gamarTvas daTanxmden. saqarTvelos xalxs mTavrobis mier arCevnebis gayalbebis da amis Sedegad gamowveuli masobrivi amboxebis gamocdileba albaT kargad axsovs. rodesac jgufebi im sakiTxebs arCeven, romelTan `Sewyobac~ SeiZleba mTavrobam isurvos, mniSvnelovania, rom Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi mTavrobas xalxis winaSe `kargad gamoCenis~ saSualeba mieces. amave dros, sazogadoebam unda gaigos, rom reJimis mxridan daTmobaze wasvla araZaladobrivi moZraobis mzard Zalas asaxavs, da rom sazogadoebis gaumjobesebisTvis ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebi sulac ar saWiroeben sisxlisRvras. gardaqmnis da Sewyobis erTiani efeqtianoba sazogadoebas aZlierebs da mas kidev ufro mZlavri qmedebebisTvis amzadebs. avtoritaruli reJimebi arCevnebs xSirad iyeneben imisaTvis, rom opoziciis mxridan politikuri cvlilebebis moTxovnebs `Seewyon~. sazogadoebisTvis samwuxarod, opoziciis liderebi xSirad fiqroben, rom arCevnebi Tavisufali da samarTliani iqneba, rom xalxs mTavrobis mxridan daSinebebis gaZleba SeuZlia, an rom saerTaSoriso damkvirveblebi xmebis daTvlis procesis samarTlianad Catarebas uzrunvelyofen. serbeTis 2000 wlisa da zimbabves 2002 wlis arCevnebi im gansxvavebuli Sedegebis magaliTebia, romlebic SeiZleba gayalbebul arCevnebs mohyves. serbeTSi politikurma opoziciam arCevnebis monitoringis sistema Seqmna saarCevno ubnebidan belgradis centralur ofisamde. maT kompetenturi da organizebuli kampaniis (GOTV) monawileebi hyavdaT da samoqmedo gegmac gaaCndaT im SemTxvevisTvis, Tuki mTavroba saarCevno xmebis moparvas Seecdeboda. xmis daTvlis adgilebidan mosuli opoziciuri jgufebis pirveladi monacemebiT, gamarjveba demokratiulma Zalebma moipoves, da es oficialuri Sedegebis gamovlenamde gamocxadda. rodesac mTavrobam ganacxada, rom misi monacemebiT opoziciam ver gaimarjva, xalxi quCaSi gavida da sakuTari ga70

marjveba mTeli qveynis masStabiT gamarTuli masobrivi demonstraciebiT gamoxata. es demonstraciebi parlamentisken msvlelobiT dasrulda. yvelaferi imdenad momzadebuli iyo, rom axali mTavrobis gamocxadebis procesSi arc policia da arc jari ar Careula. 2002 wlis martSi zimbabveSi gamarTul arCevnebs gansxvavebuli Sedegi hqonda. zimbabves demokratiuli gardaqmnis opoziciurma moZraobam (MDC) sakuTari strategia serbiis moZraobisa da Tavisufali da samarTliani arCevnebis gamarTvisTvis saerTaSoriso organizaciebis rekomendaciebis mixedviT ganaviTara. naklebi yuradReba moeqca `saTadarigo~ gegmas im SemTxvevisTvis, Tuki robert mugabe saarCevno xmebs moiparavda. Tumca imis niSnebi, rom mugabe Zalauflebaze uaris Tqmas ar apirebda, adreve gamoCnda. Seiqmna axalgazrduli dajgufebebi, romlebic xeljoxebiT da danebiT SeaiaraRes da romlebsac opoziciuri partiebis muSakebze Tavdasxmis sanacvlod sakvebs da fuls dahpirdnen. opoziciuri moZraobis mxardamWerebs da im adamianebs, romlebzec eWvobdnen, rom general mugabesTvis xmis micemas ar apirebdnen, scemdnen da aSinebdnen. opoziciis saprezidento kandidati Ralatis braldebiT daapatimres. policia da uSiSroebis agentebi xalxis daSinebas Seudgnen. rogorc ambobdnen, uSualod arCevnebis dResac ki rigSi mdgar adamianebs saerTaSoriso damkvirveblebis Tvalwin scemdnen. zogierTi evropuli qveynis damkvirvebeli qveynidan gaaZeves. arCevnebis dRes saarCevno ubnebi gadaaadgiles, rac amomrCevlebis dasabnevad gamiznuli mTavrobis strategia iyo. Sedegebis Tvlis procesSi aTasobiT amomrCeveli ar iqna gaTvaliswinebuli. mugabem sakuTari gamarjvebis Sesaxeb ganacxada. vinaidan arc gegma hqonda da arc imis SesaZlebloba, sxva gzebiT mieRwia xalxis nebis aRsrulebisTvis, MDC-s sxva aRaraferi darCenoda imis gamocxadebis garda, rom arCevnebi Tavisufali da samarTliani ar iyo. maT arCevnebis Tavidan gamarTva moiTxoves, Tumca imis garantia, rom axali arCevnebi sxva SedegiT dasruldeboda, aravis hqonda. am yvelaferSi mTavari is aris, rom arCevnebi mTavrobebisTvis Zalian mniSvnelovani faqtoria, vinaidan damarcxeba maTi legitimurobis dakargvis tolfasia rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise saerTaSoriso konteqstSi. amave mizezTa gamo arCevnebi da maTSi gamarjveba aranakleb mniSvnelovania demokratiuli opoziciisTvis. aucilebelia imisTvis momzadeba, rom adamianebi mzad iyvnen arCevnebSi sakuTari nebis gamovlenisTvis, agreTve saWiroa iseTi frTxili da gonivruli gegmis qona, romliTac reJimis mxridan saarCevno xmebis gayalbebas daupirispirdebiT.
71

iZuleba gardaqmna da Sewyoba mCagvrels saSualebas aZlevs, araZaladobrivi oponentebis Txovnebi an moTxovnebi miiRos an uaryos ise, rom amas myisieri Sedegebi ar mohyves. iZulebas ki SeuZlia, mTavrobisTvis wayenebuli moTxovnebis mimarT damorCileba gamoiwvios. maSin, rodesac iZuleba efeqtiani xdeba, reJimis realuri Zala ukve mniSvnelovnad Seryeulia. opoziciur jgufebs unda esmodeT, rom naadrevad ganxorcielebulma iZulebis mcdelobebma SesaZloa sazogadoebis TvalSi maTive diskreditacia moaxdinon. iZulebiTi moTxovnebis dayeneba, romlebic mCagvreli mTavrobis arsebobas uSualod ayeneben kiTxvis niSnis qveS, mxolod frTxili dagegmvisa da warmatebis Sansis obieqturi gaanalizebis Semdeg unda moxdes. Tuki iZulebis Sedegad moTxovnebis dakmayofileba realuri ar aris, maSin am meqanizmis gamoyenebis samomavlod gadadebaze an moTxovnebis formulirebis Secvlaze unda dafiqrdeT. politikuri partiebi da studenturi jgufebi zogjer iseT `moTxovnebs~ ayeneben, romelTa dakmayofileba ar aris SesaZlebeli. ufro upriani iqneba, reJims organizaciuli miznebis Sesaxeb acnoboT da mxolod sazogadoebis mobilizebis Semdeg ganaviTaroT jgufis strategiuli dagegmvis SesaZleblobebi. reJimis sayrdeni burjebis dasustebis mcdeloba maSin unda ganaxorcieloT, rodesac es miznebi konkretul moTxovnebad iqceva. Tu, magaliTad, arsebobs `moTxovna~ `Tavisufali da samarTliani arCevnebis~ Catarebaze, am moTxovnis uaryofis SemTxvevaSi ra zomebi gatardeba reJimis winaaRmdeg? iZuleba warmatebulia maSin, rodesac, reJimis survilis sawinaaRmdegod, opoziciis moTxovnebi miRweulia. 2000 wlis oqtomberSi serbeTSi gamarTuli arCevnebis dros opoziciurma jgufebma gamarjveba gamoacxades imis miuxedavad, rom miloSeviCis reJimma arCevnebis gameorebis aucileblobaze ganacxada. vinaidan reJimis mxridan arCevnebis gayalbeba iyo mosalodneli, strategiuli araZaladobrivi brZoliT Zalauflebis mopovebis dagegmvis vrceli procesi arCevnebamde iyo dasrulebuli. parlamentis Senobisken svla asobiT aTasma serbma ganaxorciela da diqtatori erTiani, mtkice gadawyvetilebiT Camoagdo. miloSeviCs ar SeeZlo sakuTari marcxisTvis winaaRmdegobis gaweva. misi mTavari sayrdeni burjebi gamqraliyo. policiam uari ganacxada samoqalaqo protestis monawileebis belgradSi arSemosaSvebad gzebis gadaketvaze, jarma ki uari miloSeviCis saxeliT Carevaze Tqva, vinaidan arCevnebi politikuri sakiTxi iyo, romelic
72

samxedro Carevas ar saWiroebda. am ori sayrdeni burjis gamocla Tveebis ganmavlobaSi warmoebuli procesis Sedegi iyo, rodesac jaris, policiisa da mTavrobis wevrebs arwmunebdnen, rom demokratiuli cvlileba maT poziciebs ar Seamcirebda da ar gamoiwvevda xelisuflebis wevrebis devnas. miloSeviCi swrafad mixvda, rom mas Zala gamoecala. imis miuxedavad, rom arsebobs SemTxvevebi, rodesac araZaladobrivi iZulebis gamoyeneba opoziciuri jgufebisTvis warmatebiT dasrulda, qmedebis realuri SesaZleblobis gareSe ganxorcielebuli muqara nebismier moZraobas zians ayenebs. ase moxda 2002 wels zimbabveSi, rodesac saerTo gaficvisken ori mowodeba mowodebad darCa da ar ganxorcielda. kidev erTi, amjerad warmatebuli, gaficvis mowyobas Tveebis manZilze warmoebuli dagegmva da koordinireba dasWirda. dapirebuli sanqciebis sisruleSi moyvanis SesaZleblobis gareSe ganxorcielebul iZulebis mcdelobebs SeuZliaT demokratiisTvis brZola daasuston; sazogadoebis aqtiuri mxardaWera SesaZloa ganeldes; saerTaSoriso mxardamWerebs SesaZlebelia moZraobis SesaZleblobebis mimarT eWvebi gauCndeT. moZraobisTvis amgvari negatiuri Sedegebis Tavidan asacileblad Zalian mniSvnelovania rom, farTomasStabiani araZaladobrivi kampaniebis dagegmvas da gamarTvas Tan SesaZleblobebis Sefaseba erTvodes. daSla rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, opoziciuri jgufebis mxridan mmarTvelebis iZulebis SesaZlebloba imaze miuTiTebs, rom Zalauflebis mniSvnelovani gadanawileba ukve momxdaria. da rodesac opozicia gaiazrebs, rom Zalauflebis balansi mis sasargeblodaa Secvlili, reJimze Seteva ufro farTo frontze unda ganxorcieldes, TanamSromlobaze uaris Tqmisa da Carevis ufro Zlieri meTodebis gamoyenebiT. Tu es Setevebi mdgradia, reJimi daiSleba, vinaidan misi mmarTvelobisTvis aucilebeli sayrdeni burjebi aRar iarsebebs. Tuki opozicia reJimis daSlas aucileblobad miiCnevs, maSin araZaladobrivi qmedebebis intensivoba da masStabi ar unda Semcirdes manam, sanam reJimis ngreva miRweulia. Tuki opozicia nebismieri mizezis gamo Zalas kargavs, reJimma es SeiZleba sakuTari Zalauflebis gasamyareblad gamoiyenos. rogorc samxedro kampaniis `eqspluataciisa da devnis~ (Exploitation and Pursiut) fazis dros, romelic maSin dgeba, rodesac Tavdacvis poziciebi dasustebulia da mteri ukan
73

daxevas cdilobs, Seteva yvelaze didi intensivobiT unda ganxorcieldes. amave dros, unda iyos im riskis miRebis mzaoba, romelic SeiZleba kampaniis adre dasrulebas axldes Tan. strategiuli gegmis gareSe jarma SesaZloa ver SeZlos swrafi reagireba da wyvetis gamyareba. igive xdeba araZaladobrivi brZolis SemTxvevaSic. araZaladobrivi qmedebis meTodebi araZaladobrivi qmedeba araZaladobrivi cvlilebis meqanizmebs asaxavs da amyarebs. arsebobs uamravi gansxvavebuli meTodi, romlebic opozicias SeuZlia oponentis winaaRmdeg gamoiyenos. araZaladobrivi qmedebis politikaSi Sarpi orasamde meTodze wers da amatebs, rom es sia yovlismomcveli ar aris. konkretuli situaciebisTvis Sesaferisi meTodebis dasadgenad SemoqmedebiTi midgomaa saWiro. mCagvreli reJimis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli araZaladobrivi qmedeba xSirad pasuxad Zaladobriv mogeriebas miiRebs. mosalodnelia cema, wameba, dapatimreba da sxva sanqciebi (Zaladobrivi, ekonomikuri da socialuri). magram rodesac mTavroba aseTi gzebiT reagirebs, msgavsi aqtebis farTod gaxmaureba opozicias SeuZlia gamoiyenos demokratiuli moZraobis mimarT sazogadoebrivi mxardaWeris gaZlierebisTvis, sisastikis gamo reJimis dasustebisTvis da misi legitimurobis Sesaxeb SekiTxvebis wamoWrisTvis. gasuli saukunis movlenebis dros dapatimreba da cixeSi Casma Rirsebis maCvenebeli iyo. araZaladobrivi qmedebisTvis Sesaferisi meTodebis SerCeva maTi gamoyenebiT misaRwev miznebzea damokidebuli. zogjer moZraobebi an organizaciebi meTods mowonebis an gamocdilebis gamo irCeven da Semdeg adgenen araZaladobrivi qmedebis mizans, an ar adgenen. aseTi midgoma `cxenis etlis win dayenebas~ hgavs. idealur SemTxvevaSi jer miznebi unda gaanalizdes da mxolod amis Semdeg unda iqnes fiqri dawyebuli meTodebis meniuze, raTa strategiuli da taqtikuri miznebis misaRwevad yvelaze Sesaferisi meTodebi iqnes arCeuli. ganxilvis gasamartiveblad meTodebi sam farTo kategoriad SeiZleba daiyos. esenia: protesti da darwmuneba, araTanamSromloba, Careva (intervencia). protesti da darwmuneba saprotesto aqciebi da darwmunebis mcdelobebi reJimisTvis warmoadgens gafrTxilebas, rom prodemokratiul Zalebs mTavrobis
74

konkretul qmedebebTan Tu politikasTan mimarTebiT seriozuli uTanxmoebebi da pretenziebi aqvT. es protesti umTavresad simboluri xasiaTisaa. amave dros, imave aqciebma, SesaZloa, sazogadoebis yuradReba imaze miapyros, rom araZaladobrivi opoziciis moZraoba mTavrobas konkretuli darRvevebis gamo iwvevs. araZaladobrivi saprotesto aqciebi da darwmunebis mcdelobebi strategiuli araZaladobrivi moZraobis nebismier stadiaze SeiZleba warmatebiT iyos gamoyenebuli; magram, rogorc wesi, maT mainc adreul etapebze mimarTaven xolme, Tundac es sazogadoebisTvis moZraobis gacnobis stadia iyos. protestisa da darwmunebis rogori formac ar unda iyos SerCeuli, am aqciebma farTo asaxva unda povon mediaSi. demonstraciebs da saprotesto werilebs mcire an saerTod aranairi gavlena ar gaaCniaT, Tuki maT Sesaxeb aravin icis. protestisa da darwmunebis TvalSi sacemi magaliTi, romelmac mTeli msoflios yuradReba miipyro, 60iani wlebis vietnamSi gvqonda _ iq ramdenime berma Tavi daiwva amerikelebis mier mxardaWerili saigonis mTavrobis winaaRmdeg. TviTmkvlelobis am aqtebma bevri adamiani daafiqra imaze, Tu ratom airCies maT protestis niSnad aseTi tanjviT sikvdili. msxverplis gaRebis mizani didwilad miRweuli iyo imis gamo, rom organizatorebma aqciis gasaSuqeblad da gadasaRebad axali ambebis saerTaSoriso saagentoebi miiwvies. es meTodebi ar warmoadgens pirdapir Setevas oponentis Zalauflebis im wyaroebze, romlebic pirvel TavSi ganvixileT. isini iribad uteven da miznad reJimis qmedebebis sazogadoebisTvis gacnobas da cvlilebebis aucileblobaSi reJimis warmomadgenlebisa da sxvebis darwmunebas isaxaven. araZaladobrivi brZola ukmayofilebis gamomxatvel demonstraciebze bevrad metia. araTanamSromloba araTanamSromloba yvelaze Zlieri kategoriaa im araZaladobriv meTodebs Soris, romelTa gamoyenebac opoziciur moZraobebs SeuZliaT. qmedebebis am kategoriis gonivruli arCeva da strategiaSi CarTva reJimisTvis Zalauflebis wyaroebis gamoclis albaTobas zrdis. reJimis Zalauflebis wyaroebze (uflebamosileba, adamianuri resursi, unarebi da codna, materialuri resursi, bundovani faqtorebi da sanqciebi) Setevis ganxorcieleba ara mxolod samxedro asakis mamakacebs, aramed mTel mosaxleobas SeuZlia. xalxis TanamS75

romlobis gareSe verc erTi mTavroba ver gaZlebs. TanamSromlobaze uaris Tqmis aqciis gzavnili is aris, rom `Cven, xalxi, aRar davexmarebiT mTavrobas Tavisi moqalaqeebis Cagvris saqmeSi~. mizani ki mTavrobisTvis funqcionirebis garTulebaa. araTanamSromloba yvelaze did gavlenas maSin axdens, rodesac arCeuli aqciebi araZaladobriv strategias emTxveva, da rodesac kargad SeTanxmebulia da ara qaosuri. reJimis sayrdeni burjebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli adgilobrivi araTanamSromlobis kampaniebis paralelurad sanqciebis dawesebaze saerTaSoriso mxardaWeris mosapoveblad koncentrirebuli mcdelobebi unda xorcieldebodes. es sanqciebic TanamSromlobaze uaris Tqmas unda iTvaliswinebdes. rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise saerTaSoriso doneze warmoebul araTanamSromlobas SeuZlia politikuri cvlilebis momxreebs didi daxmareba gauwios. saerTaSoriso mxardaWeris SesaCereblad warmoebuli kampaniebi moicavs investiciebisa da importis SezRudvas an akrZalvas, reJimis politikis gakritikebas saerTaSoriso forumebze, oficialuri pirebisTvis savizo SezRudvebis dawesebas, mCagvrel reJimebSi moqalaqeebis mogzaurobis SezRudvas da ucxouri dafinansebis limitirebas iseTi proeqtebisTvis, romlebsac arasamTavrobo organizaciebi uSualod humanitaruli miznebisTvis axorcieleben. socialuri araTanamSromloba socialuri araTanamSromlobis ganxorcieleba nebismier adamians SeuZlia. reJimis konkretul warmomadgenlebTan sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis Tavis aridebas, SesaZlebelia, gamanadgurebeli gavlena hqondes oficialuri pirebisa da maTi ojaxebisTvis. sazogadoebrivi elitis warmomadgenlebs SeuZliaT, Sewyviton sazogadoebriv Sexvedrebze reJimis warmomadgenlebis dapatiJeba da aRar iaron im samTavrobo Tu kerZo miRebebze, romlebsac oficialuri pirebic unda daeswron. SesaZlebelia reJimis warmomadgenlebis garemocvis amoReba im sazogadoebriv Sexvedrebze dasapatiJebeli pirebis siebidan, romlebsac mezoblebi an arasamTavrobo organizaciebi awyoben. Tavis aridebis aseTi gamoxatuleba imis niSania, rom xalxs ar SeuZlia imaTTan erTad yofna, vinc reJims uWers mxars. magram aseTi qmedebebi frTxilad da faqizad unda ganxorcieldes. arasworma gamoyenebam SesaZloa reJimis momxreebis opoziciaSi gadayvanis procesi Seaferxos. im sazogadoebriv da sportul movlenebs, romlebic prestiJu76

lia reJimisTvis, SesaZlebelia boikoti gamoecxados. araTanamSromlobaa reJimis mimarT protestis gamomxatveli tansacmlis tarebac ki. isini, vinc aseTi aqciebis samiznes warmoadgenen, swrafad xvdebian im gzavnils, romelsac aseTi araTanamSromloba gulisxmobs. amerikis koloniuri periodis dros masaCusetsis mmarTvelma erTxel daiCivla, rom inglisis imperiis warmomadgenlad yofnis miuxedavad, igi arafriT iyo patimarze meti. mas aravin emorCileboda, adgilobrivi wesrigis damcvelebi ignorirebas ukeTebdnen, misi brZanebebi da miTiTebebi ar sruldeboda da eklesiuri gaerTianebebi Tavs aridebdnen. ekonomikuri araTanamSromloba imisaTvis, rom socialuri pirobebi Seasrulos, mTavrobas, cxadia, Semosavlebi esaWiroeba. amdenad, ekonomikuri araTanamSromlobis meTodi imisTvisaa gamiznuli, rom mTavrobis mxardaWeraze ganaxorcielos Seteva da reJimis momxreebis ekonomikuri daintereseba moSalos an Seamciros. politikis ganxorcielebisTvis aucilebeli saqonlis da momsaxurebis SeZenisTvis saWiro pirobebis warTmeviT an SemcirebiT ekonomikuri araTanamSromloba mTavrobas mxardamWerTa erTgulebis SenarCunebis saSualebas usustebs. ekonomikuri araTanamSromlobis erTi magaliTi gadasaxadebis gadauxdeloba an nawilobriv gadaxdaa. sxva magaliTebia myidvelTa boikotebi im produqciis an momsaxurebis winaaRmdeg, saidanac mTavrobas Semosavali aqvs; gaficvebi, romlebic ekonomikis destabilizacias iwveven; an sabanko depozitebis gatana, rac iseT fiskalur kriziss iwvevs, romlis ignorirebac ar SeuZliaT ucxoel investorebs. amavdroulad, zogjer SesaZlebelia saerTaSoriso korporaciebis, savaWro organizaciebisa da saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebis darwmuneba, rom samizne mTavrobebTan ekonomikuri TanamSromloba SeaCeron, rac maT ekonomikur mdgomareobas kidev ufro metad daasustebs. ekonomikis destabilizacia ara mxolod mTavrobis sayrdeni burjebis dasustebas iwvevs, aramed reJims opoziciis araTanamSromlobaze reagirebis saSualebasac uzRudavs. es ki araZaladobrivi brZolis mTliani strategiuli miznebisTvis sakmaod mniSvnelovani faqtoria. strategiuli araZaladobrivi brZolis warmoebisas mniSvnelovania, Tvali adevnoT mTavrobis mimoqcevaSi arsebul myar valutas. es im sferoebis amocnobisTvis aris saWiro, romlebzec ekonomikuri
77

araTanamSromlobis meTodebiT Seteva yvelaze efeqtian Sedegebs gamoiRebs. zogjer myari valuta bunebrivi resursebis gayidvidan Semodis, an saqoneli da momsaxureba iyideba muSaxelis siiafis Sedegad. rac Seexeba eqsports, ekonomikuri araTanamSromlobis gamoyenebisTvis yvelaze efeqtiani samizne aq gayidvis wertilebia. importis mxriv Setevas yvelaze naklebad warmomavlobis wertilebi uZleben. politikuri araTanamSromloba miuxedavad imisa, rom araTanamSromlobis nebismieri (da yvela) aqti, romelic strategiul araZaladobriv moZraobaSi gamoiyeneba, bunebiT `politikuria~, jin Sarpma 198 meTodidan mxolod ocdaTvramets mianiWa specifikurad politikuris statusi. es qmedebebi ZiriTadad gamiznulia uflebamosilebis uaryofaze _ romelic mTavrobisTvis Zalauflebis mTavar wyaros warmoadgens. politikuri araTanamSromlobis Tanmdevi dadebiTi faqtoria is, rom is samoqalaqo sazogadoebas aZlierebs. organizaciebi gamocdilebas iZenen da ematebaT rwmena reJimis winaaRmdeg moqmedebis sakuTar SesaZleblobebSi, iqneba es calke Tu Tanamoazre jgufebTan erTad ganxorcielebuli moqmedeba. politikuri araTanamSromloba mTavrobaze pirdapir Tavdasxmas warmoadgens. deklaraciebma, manifestebma da sxva dokumentebma, romlebic reJimis uflebamosilebas da legitimurobas uaryofs, SeiZleba sazogadoeba daarwmunon _ reJims ar gaaCnia uflebamosileba da funqcionirebis ufleba. aseT saprotesto aqciebs, Tavis mxriv, mosdevs samTavrobo institutebis boikotebi, samoqalaqo mosamsaxureebis muSaobaSi Seferxebebi da mTeli mosaxleobisTvis samoqalaqo daumorCileblobis uamravi SesaZlebloba, romlebic, Tu farTod da meTodurad ganxorcieldeba, avtoritaruli reJimis Zalas gaaneitralebs da SesaZloa daSalos kidevac. Careva (intervencia) araZaladobrivi aqciebi, romelTa Sinaarsi an gavlenebi arsebul qcevis normebs, politikas, urTierTobebs da instituciebs arRvevs, intervenciuli aqtebia. amave dros, SesaZlebelia, maT qcevis axali normebis, axali urTierTobebisa da axali instituciebis Seqmnac ki gamoiwvion. imis gamo, rom es meTodebi uSualod ZalTa gadanawilebis arsebul mdgomareobas uqmnian problemebs, isini dayenebul sakiTxs
78

ufro swrafad aqceven sazogadoebis yuradRebis centrSi, ufro pirdapir ugzavnian mTavrobas gamowvevas da, SesaZlebelia, problemis ufro swrafad gadawyvetis saSualebasac qmnian. Tumca, meore mxriv, intervenciul aqciebs SesaZlebelia myisieri da ufro mkacri represiebi mohyves, vidre aqciebs, romlebic saprotesto xasiaTs atarebs an araTanamSromlobas warmoadgens. SeerTebuli Statebis uaxlesi istoria moicavs magaliTebs, Tu ramdenad efeqtiani SeiZleba gaxdes mesame Zalis Careva arsebuli qcevis normebisa da sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis Secvlis saqmeSi. samoqalaqo uflebebisTvis moZraobis dros sasadiloebSi ganxorcielebuli mjdomare aqciebi mkveTri da efeqtiani aqciebi iyo, romlebmac pirdapir Seuties da swrafad mouRes bolo restornebSi rasobriv segregacias. amave dros, am kampaniebma rasobrivi segregaciis sakiTxis ufro farTod, kanonmdeblobis WrilSi ganxilvisTvis saWiro xilvadoba da aucilebloba Seqmnes. am aqciebis ganxorcielebidan ukve aTwleulebia gasuli da dRes zogjer ignorirebuli xdeba is Zaladoba, romelic bevr aseT mjdomare aqcias mohyva. es iyo cemis uamravi SemTxveva, policielebis mxridan gawvrTnili ZaRlebiT ganxorcielebuli Seteva da sxva Zaladobrivi qmedebebi. am Zaladobam, romelic xSirad mTavrobis mxridan modioda, politikur jiujicus misca dasabami, vinaidan mSvidobiani saprotesto aqciebis monawileTa mimarT Zaladobis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobam samarTlianobis momxre da rasobrivi segregaciis dasrulebis momTxovni Zalebi kidev ufro gaamZlavra. avtoritaruli reJimis winaaRmdeg warmoebul strategiul araZaladobriv brZolaSi xalxis interesebisTvis samarTlianobis momTxovni Zala SesaZlebelia erovnuli mTavroba ar iyos da es funqcia SeiZleba saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobam aiRos. saerTaSoriso Carevis magaliTi 2002 wlis dekemberSi indoneziis aCes provinciaSi saerTaSoriso samSvidobo brigadebis gagzavna iyo. maT im adamianebis Tanxleba evalebodaT, vinc adamianis uflebebze awarmoebda dakvirvebas, da humanitarul daxmarebas warmoadgenda, vinaidan isini aCes politikuri statusis cvlilebis momTxovni Zalebis mowinaaRmdegeTa mxridan Zaladobrivi Tavdasxmebis ganxorcielebis riskis qveS imyofebodnen. amave dros, saerTaSoriso damkvirveblebis iq yofna avtonomiis Tu damoukideblobis momTxovni jgufebis mxridan indoneziis mTavrobis warmomadgenlebis winaaRmdeg Zaladobas uSlida xels. saerTaSoriso intervenciis kidev erTi magaliTi iyo ucxoeTis moqalaqeebis mier palestineli fermerebisa
79

da sxva mcxovreblebis araZaladobrivi formiT dacva israelis axalmosaxleebisa da israelis Tavdacvis Zalebisgan. intervenciul aqtebs SeuZliaT reJimis sayrdeni burjebi daasuston an maTi ngreva daaCqaron. kargad SemuSavebuli strategiis SemTxvevaSi damatebiTi gegmebi SeiZleba swrafad moergos arsebul SesaZleblobebs. Tu strategia da gegma morgebis SesaZleblobas ar iTvaliswinebs, SesaZlebelia moZraobam inercia dakargos, rac oponents reagirebisa da gadanawilebis dros miscems. meore mxriv, Tuki mTavrobis institutebi CaTvlian, rom intervenciis aqtebi maT gadarCenas pirdapir safrTxes uqadis, savsebiT SesaZlebelia, am institutebis wevrebi lideris irgvliv gaerTiandnen da `ukanaskneli brZolisTvis~ moemzadon. imisaTvis, rom Tavidan aiciloT reJimis momxreTa mxridan alyis Semortymis SesaZlo impulsis riski da gavlena, Zalauflebis am wyaroebis mimarT adreve unda gaswioT propagandistuli samuSaoebi. 2.3. problemebis gadaWra nebismieri konfliqtis warmatebulad ganviTarebisTvis saWiroa mkafio miznebis, stretegiisa da saTadarigo gegmebis qona. araZaladobrivi brZolis mTavari strategiis miznebi da xasiaTi im politikuri gadawyvetilebebis Sedegi iqneba, romlebsac opoziciuri moZraobis liderebi miiReben. rodesac am gadawyvetilebebis realurad gansaxorcielebel saTadarigo gegmebad qcevis dro dadgeba, an rodesac Tqvens mizans strategiuli miznebis dayeneba da gegmebis SemuSaveba warmoadgens, SesaZloa, mravali problemis gadaWra mogiwioT. im qveynebis gamocdileba, sadac avtoritaruli reJimebi mkacrad akontroleben sazogadoebas, da sadac mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebis miReba mxolod reJimis mxardamWerTa mcire wris prerogativaa, aCvenebs, rom prodemokratiul Zalebs problemebis gadaWris unari naklebad aqvT. magaliTad, ukidures SemTxvevebSi mTavroba iseT gadawyvetilebebsac ki iRebs, rogoricaa individis arCevani, sad icxovros, ra iswavlos universitetSi, sad imuSaos da riT ikvebos. SiSis Tu kulturuli normebis gavlenis Sedegad zogjer daqvemdebarebuli adamianebi Tavs ikaveben rekomendaciebis micemisgan da mxolod sxvebis mier miRebul gadawyvetilebebs asruleben. imisaTvis, rom problemebis cnoba, maTi gamomwvevi mizezebis amocnoba da qmediTi rCevebis micema SeeZloT, adamianebs ukve unda hqondeT patara Tu didi problemebis gadaWris gamocdileba.
80

sinamdvileSi adamianebi cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi aTasobiT gadawyvetilebas iReben problemebis gadaWris mizniT. am problemebis umetesoba sakmaod mcirea (ra Cavicva, ra viyido an vin davpatiJo patara bavSvisTvis gadaxdil dabadebis dRis wveulebaze). gvxvdeba ufro mniSvnelovani problemebic, magaliTad, profesiis arCevis sakiTxi. am gadawyvetilebebidan bevri imdenad umniSvneloa, rom saboloo arCevani gansakuTrebuls arafers warmoadgens, vinaidan im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tuki optimalur gamosavals ar virCevT, didi problemebi mainc ar gveqmneba. Tumca arsebobs iseTi arCevanic, romlis Sesaxebac amas ver vityviT. magaliTad, gadawyvetilebas, Tu visze davqorwindeT, SeuZlia Cveni darCenili cxovrebis yovel calkeul dReze iqonios gavlena. individebis msgavsad problemebis gadaWra organizaciebsac uwevT. vinaidan organizaciebis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi bevr adamianze axdens gavlenas rogorc sakuTriv organizaciaSi, ise mis gareT, da mas SesaZloa mniSvnelovani Sedegebi mohyves, gadawyvetilebis mimRebi maqsimalurad obieqtur rekomendaciebs da sarwmuno informacias unda daeyrdnos. imis gamo, rom garemo, sadac araZaladobrivi brZolis dros gadawyvetilebis miReba xdeba, Zalian hgavs imave garemos samxedro konteqstebSi, problemebis gadaWris samxedro meTodologia SesaZloa gamosadegi magaliTi iyos maTTvis, vinc gadawyvetilebebs uSualod iRebs an gadawyvetilebis mimRebisTvis rekomendaciebis miwodeba aqvs davalebuli. problemebis gadaWris meTodologia administraciul da menejerul sakiTxebSi SesaZlebelia farTod iyos gamoyenebuli. is lakonuri da amavdroulad detaluria da moZraobis nebismier stadiaze SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT. mniSvnelovania, rom formatis qvemoT moyvanili Tanamimdevroba daculi iyos. problemis Seswavlis formati: problemis formulireba. varaudebi. problemasTan dakavSirebuli faqtebi. faqtebis ganxilva. daskvnebi. rekomendaciebi.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

81

abzaci 1: problemis formulireba imis gamo, rom yuradRebis koncentrirebas problemaze vaxdenT, misi formulireba pirvelive abzacSi xdeba. am abzacSi Sesatani sityvebis povna SeiZleba ise advili ar aRmoCndes, rogorc erTi SexedviT Cans. arsebobs SesaZlebloba, rom pirvel abzacSi SecdomiT simptomebze isaubroT da ara uSualod problemaze. ganmeorebadi Tavis tkivilis gamo aspirinis ori abis mimRebi adamianis nacnob suraTs am Secdomis msgavsi logika aqvs. man Tavis tkivilis simptomebi Seimsubuqa, magram mTavari problema _ tkivilis gamomwvevi mizezi _ xeluxlebeli datova. abzaci 2: varaudebi problemis SeswavlaSi varaudebi misaReb mosazrebebs warmoadgens, romlebic faqtebis nacvladac gamoiyeneba. rogorc wesi, es varaudebi momavalSi mosaxdeni movlenebis, pirobebisa da arsebuli resursebis Sesaxeb iqneba gamoTqmuli. varaudebi codnaSi arsebuli garRvevebis Sesavsebi xelovnuri meqanizmebia. idealur SemTxvevaSi, sasurvelia, varaudebis gamoTqmis saWiroeba ar dadges. varaudebs formatSi maSin vrTavT, rodesac es dayenebuli problemis gadaWrisTvis aucilebelia. amis gamo varaudebis safuZvlianoba frTxilad da gonivrulad unda Sefasdes. amave dros, arsebobs imis saSiSroebac, rom gaCndeba aradeklarirebuli, magram nagulisxmevi varaudebi procesSi CarTuli jgufebis SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb. abzaci 3: problemasTan dakavSirebuli faqtebi problemebis gadaWris procesSi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani stadia problemasTan dakavSirebuli faqtebis Segrovebaa. Tuki isev Tavatkivebuli kacis magaliTs davubrundebiT, am abzacSi mis cxovrebis wesTan dakavSirebuli faqtebi unda iyos CamoTvlili: misi kveba, mxedveloba, samuSao Cvevebi, stresis doneebi da uamravi sxva. abzaci 4: faqtebis ganxilva am abzacSi problemasTan dakavSirebuli varaudebi da faqtebi ganixileba. amasTan, am procesis mimdinareobis dros SesaZleblobebis ganviTareba da gaanalizebac xdeba. am proceduris mniSvnelobis gaazrebaSi kvlav Tavatkivebuli kaci dagvexmareba. eqimma, romelic misi ganmeorebadi Tavis tkivilis gankurnebas cdilobs, SeiZleba pacientze Tavis tkivilis yvela SesaZlo gamomwvevi mizezis gavlena
82

ganixilos. pacients SesaZlebelia kargi Zili hqondes, kargad umklavdebodes stress, SeiZleba igi ar cxovrobdes malariis gavrcelebis zonaSi da ar iyos Sepyrobili gripis virusiT, magram igi SesaZloa bevrs kiTxulobdes, iyos ormoci wlis da 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi mxedveloba ar hqondes gamokvleuli. abzaci 5: daskvnebi problemasTan uSualod dakavSirebuli faqtebisa da varaudebis ganxilvis Semdeg am abzacSi optimaluri da saukeTeso gamosavlis formulireba xdeba. magaliTad, Tvalebis daZabva SeiZleba is daskvna iyos, romelic Tavatkivebuli pacientis eqims gamoaqvs. abzaci 6: rekomendaciebi am abzacSi daskvnebi konkretul rCevebad iqceva, romlebic gadawyvetilebis mimRebs miewodeba. man Tavis mxriv rekomendaciebi qmedebad unda aqcios problemis gadasaWrelad. isev Cvens magaliTs Tu gamoviyenebT, Tavis tkivilis gankurnebisTvis rekomendacia mxedvelobis gamokleva iqneboda. rekomendaciebis martivi Sefaseba sami sazomis mixedviT SeiZleba moaxdinoT: 1. Sesaferisoba. namdvilad gadaWrian es rekomendaciebi dasmul problemas? 2. ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba. ramdenad realuria am rekomendaciebis amoqmedeba? 3. misaRebobis xarisxi. mzad aris gadawyvetilebis mimRebi saWiro resursebis dasaxarjad (politikuri, finansuri da adamianuri TvalsazrisiT)? gadawyvetilebas arsebuli resursebis gamoyeneba an axali resursebis mopoveba dasWirdeba. problemebis gadaWris am meTodis gamoyenebis kidev erTi upiratesoba is aris, rom gadawyvetilebis mimRebs SeuZlia, rekomendaciebis SemuSavebis process gaecnos. amave dros, SesaZlebelia, gadawyvetilebis mimRebebs damatebiTi informacia hqondeT, romelic rekomendaciebis SemuSavebisas ar iyo gaTvaliswinebuli. am axali informaciis gamo formatis gadaxedvac SesaZlebelia. Sejameba problemebis gadaWrisTvis problemis Semswavleli formatis gamoyeneba bunebrivi gaxdeba. rogorc seifs gaaRebT cifrebis konkre83

tuli kombinaciiT, formatSi mocemuli abzacebis Tanmimdevrobac aseve dagexmarebaT problemebis gadaWris gzebis dadgenaSi.

2.4. strategiuli Sefaseba `amitom vacxadeb: icnobdeT Tqvens mters da icnobdeT sakuTar Tavs; Tqvens gamarjvebas safrTxe arasodes daemuqreba.~ san cu, brZolis xelovneba (Zv. w. 500 w.) strategiuli Sefaseba Seucvleli iaraRia strategiis dagegmarebis procesSi. amiT sistematuri midgoma geZlevaT imisaTvis, rom miznis misaRwevad yvelaze efeqtiani gza airCioT. es iseTi mniSvnelovani faqtorebis dadgeniT da analiziT miiRweva, rogoricaa garemo (fizikuri, samxedro, politikuri) da monawileebis SesaZleblobebi (rogorc megobruli Zalebis, ise oponentebis). amave dros, moqmedebis gzebis Sedgenis procesSi Zlieri da susti mxareebis Sedareba xorcieldeba. Semdeg saukeTeso gzis arCeva xdeba. imis gamo, rom strategiuli samoqmedo gegmebi didwilad strategiul SefasebaSi mocemul informacias emyareba, warmatebis Sansebze mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens analizis xarisxi da moyvanili informaciis raodenoba. strategiuli Sefaseba aseve gamosadegia politikis SemuSavebisas, krizisul situaciebze reagirebisas da maSinac, rodesac demokratiuli moZraobis wevr organizaciebs sarwmuno da Rrma analizisgan da faqtebisgan Semdgar informacias awvdiT. maT, vinc adgilobriv kampaniebSia CarTuli, SeuZliaT qvemoT moyvanili formati Seamciron da is TavianT miznebs miusadagon. informacia, romelsac strategiuli Sefaseba Seicavs, mudmivad unda ganaxldes. amiT damgegmavebs SesaZlebloba miecemaT, axal amocanebs upasuxon da im SemTxvevaSi, Tu samoqmedo garemoSi an SesaZleblobebSi cvlilebebi moxdeba, gegmebi SesabamisobaSi moiyvanon. amis uzrunvelsayofad erTi adamiani mxolod monacemTa ganaxlebaze unda muSaobdes. sasurvelia, rom es adamiani is piri iyos, vinc strategiuli Sefasebis momzadebas Tavidanve uwevda koordinirebas. Tumca informaciis Segrovebis, Sefasebisa da miwodebis procesebSi sxva adamianebic unda iyvnen CarTuli.

84

usafrTxoebis miznebidan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia, strategiuli Sefasebis garkveuli segmentebis erT ganyofilebaSi Tavmoyra dagWirdeT. es ganyofileba mxolod im pirebisTvis iqneba xelmisawvdomi, visac mocemuli informaciis codna namdvilad esaWiroeba. magaliTad, iseTi informacia, rogoricaa organizaciis wevrTa Zalebis Sefaseba, kurierebis marSrutebi an garkveuli pirebis koordinatebi SeiZleba frTxilad mopyrobas saWiroebdes da opoziciuri jgufebis wevrTa umetesobisTvis gamosadegi ar iyos. strategiuli Sefasebis im detalur formats, romelic qvemoT iqneba moyvanili da romelic, Tavis mxriv, `situaciis samxedro Sefasebas~ emyareba, SesaZlebelia, sruli formiT arc erTi konkretuli opoziciuri dajgufeba ar iyenebdes. magram arCeul strategiasTan da dasaxul miznebTan dakavSirebuli informaciis Segrovebis, analizisa da erTad TavmoyrisTvis mniSvnelovania erTiani, sistematuri midgomis SemuSaveba. strategiuli Sefaseba an misi msgavsi formati informaciis im saxeobebs aerTianebs, romlebic SeiZleba Zalian mniSvnelovani iyos, magram aseTi formatis arqonis SemTxvevaSi advili SesaZlebelia, gamogrCeT. miznobrivi gancxadebis SemuSavebis procesSi gasaTvaliswinebeli faqtorebi strategiul SefasebaSi sawyisi wertili miznobrivi gancxadebaa (anu is, Tu rogor ayalibeben moZraobis liderebi misaRwev miznebs, ra tipis brZolaa arCeuli da zogadad rogor iwarmoebs is). Sesabamisad, saWiroa imis codna, Tu rogor unda SemuSavdes miznobrivi gancxadeba strategiuli araZaladobrivi moZraobisTvis. Tu moZraoba avtoritaruli mTavrobis pirobebSi da mis Sedegad Seiqmna, maSin misi miznebi mCagvreli Zalebis xelisuflebidan CamoSoreba iqneba. magram moZraobam agreTve unda ganacxados, ra gzebiT Seicvleba arsebuli mTavroba da ra formis mTavroba Secvlis mas. mTavroba, romelic unda movides, sazogadoebrivi SeTanxmebiT unda airCes da im sazogadoebis saxes unda daeyrdnos, romlis miRebac moqalaqeebs brZolis dasrulebis Semdeg surT, e. i. `xvalindeli dRis xedvas~. Tu moqalaqeebi ar dafiqrdebian, ram unda Secvalos mCagvreli reJimi, maT SesaZloa erTi tirania mxolod imis gamo Camoagdon, rom xelisuflebaSi sxva, kidev ufro despoturi reJimi movides. amdenad, aucilebelia, rom `xvalindeli dRis xedva~ konkretul miznebsa da pragmatul cvlilebebSi gamovlindes.
85

magaliTad, Tuki qveyanaSi erovnuli policia moqmedebs _ romelic xSirad mTavrobis is erTaderTi `saxea~, rasac moqalaqeebi yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi xvdebian _ da am policias adgilobrivi mosaxleoba veranairad ver akontrolebs, xalxs, SesaZloa, surdes, rom adgilobrivi policia adgilobrivad arCeul oficialur pirebs dauqvemdebaros. SesaZlebelia, mosaxleobas undodes, rom politikuri da ekonomikuri prioritetebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebzec aseve adgilobriv doneze moaxdinos gavlena _ imis nacvlad, rom yvela es gadawyvetileba mxolod qveynis dedaqalaqSi iyos miRebuli. mokled, SeiZleba sazogadoebaSi Zalauflebis decentralizaciis, centridan misi adgilobriv mmarTvelobebze gadacemis saWiroebis Sesaxeb konsensusi arsebobdes. es ki, Tavis mxriv, `xvalindeli dRis xedvam~ unda gaiTvaliswinos da miznebSi federalizmis garkveuli formis miRweva unda Caidos. `xvalindeli dRis xedvam~ unda gaiTvaliswinos religiur niadagze Seqmnili daZabuloba ganurCevlad imisa, es mTavrobis mier mxardaWerili diskriminaciis Sedegadaa Seqmnili, Tu erTi jgufis mier meoris CagvriT. religiisa da politikis Serwymis praqtikas yovelTvis axlavs demokratiisTvis safrTxis Seqmnis garkveuli riski. am or faqtors Soris kompromisi ki yovelTvis iwvevs daukmayofileblobis gancdas im adamianebSi, visac demokratiis damyareba surs, da maTSic, vinc demokratiad SeniRbul Teokratias eswrafvis. magram iqneb SesaZlebelia iseTi zogadi CarCos Seqmna, romelic mTavrobasac aukrZalavs moqalaqeebisTvis religiuri movaleobebis iZulebas da arc religiuri jgufebis wevrTa umravlesobis mxridan iqneba aRqmuli kompromisad. aseTi SeTanxmeba SeiZleba im terminologiis bazisi iyos, romelic konstituciaSi Seva. es SeTanxmebiT miRweuli xedva Semdeg SeiZleba moZraobis miznebad da politikur amocanebad gadaiqces, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, ufro konkretuli strategiuli miznebis saxes miiRebs. es konkretuli miznebi SeiZleba moZraobis liderebma miawodon damgegmavebs; an SeiZleba TviTon damgegmavebma `gadaakeTon~ politikuri miznebi da gancxadebebi strategiuli dagegmvis miznebad. ganzogadebebi, romlebsac `xedva~ Seicavs, sakmarisi ar aris dagegmvis saqmeSi. magaliTad, Tu `yvelasaTvis ukeTesi cxovrebis~ idea nebismieri opoziciuri moZraobisTvis namdvilad Rirebuli mizania, strategiuli gegmis TematikisTvis es zedmetad zogadia. Sesabamisad, yuradReba unda gamaxvildes im ZiriTadi sakiTxebis gansazRvraze, romlebic mTavro86

bis politikas, qmedebebs an marTvis stils gamoxataven da `yvelasTvis ukeTesi cxovrebis~ perspeqtivaze negatiur gavlenas axdenen. rodesac gadasaWreli problemebi mkafiodaa gansazRvruli, maSin maTi gadawyvetisTvis saWiro resursebsac ufro gonivrulad gaanawilebT. miznobrivi gancxadebis sxva mniSvnelovani elementebia mTlian gegmasa da koordinirebaze, agreTve gegmis dokumentis gamocemaze pasuxismgebeli aparatis daniSvna. miznobrivi gancxadeba unda daiwyos `vin?~ SekiTxvaze pasuxiT, anu imis axsniT, Tu vin aris mTeli qveynis masStabiT dagegmili araZaladobrivi brZolis iniciatori. araZaladobriv moZraobebs _ iseve, rogorc SeiaraRebul konfliqtebs _ iSviaTad aqvT mkafio ierarqiuli struqtura. opoziciuri jgufebis gansxvavebuli interesebis, SesaZleblobebisa da pirovnebebis gaerTianebisTvis farTod gamoyenebuli praqtika erTgvari `qolgaorganizaciis~ Seqmnaa brZolis sawarmoeblad. aq konsensusis Sedegad dagegmvisa da koordinaciis saqmeSi erT jgufs lideris funqciis Sesruleba daevaleba. dagegmvis ganxorcielebis alternatiuli varianti qolgaorganizaciis mier sakuTari personalis Seqmnaa, romelic wevri jgufebis warmomadgenlebisgan iqneba dakompleqtebuli. sawyis stadiaze upriani iqneba wevri organizaciebis sakiTxebis irgvliv mobilizeba da ara sakuTriv organizaciebis gaerTianeba. sasurveli iqneba, am qolgaorganizaciaSi qveynidan gandevnili pirebic CarToT da saSualeba misceT, brZolas dafinansebis mopovebiT, kvlevebis warmoebiT, saerTaSoriso doneze lobirebiT an mediis mxridan interesis aRZvriT daexmaron. mas Semdeg, rac damgegmavebi samizne gancxadebisTvis saWiro yvela elements ganixilaven, iwyeba sakuTriv gancxadebis SemuSavebis, koordinirebisa da `qolgaorganizaciis~ wevrebis Tanxmobis mosapoveblad misi wardgenis procesi. gancxadeba SeiZleba daaxloebiT aseTi formis iyos: (qveynis saxelwodeba) xalxi demokratiuli aliansis (an nebismieri sxva organizaciis) winamZRolobiT iwyebs strategiul araZaladobriv Setevas samxedro diqtaturis (reJimis zusti saxelwodeba) damxobis, demokratiuli gziT arCeuli mTavrobis moyvanis, mTavrobis federaluri reformis ganxorcielebisa da mTavrobis samxedro gadatrialebisgan dacvis mizniT. Tavdapirvelad strategiuli Sefaseba SesaZlebelia iseTi specializebuli dokumenti iyos, romlis Sedgenac mxolod gamocdil ada87

mianebs SeeZlebaT. Tu aq SemoTavazebul formats gamoiyenebT, SegiZliaT strategiuli Sefasebis calkeuli segmentebis momzadeba bevr adamians daavaloT da amiT praqtikulad nebismier pirs misceT procesSi monawileobis saSualeba. ufro da ufro meti segmentis dasrulebis Sedegad, dokumentSi moyvanil detalebze dayrdnobiT, damgegmavebi `sruli suraTis~ aRqmas daiwyeben. rac ufro gamocdilia analitikosi, miT ufro swrafad da mkafiod moxdeba `sruli suraTis~ danaxva. strategiuli Sefasebisa da misi Semadgeneli elementebis, konkretuli magaliTis analizi mis Rirebulebas warmoaCens da gvaCvenebs, rom msgavsi formatis Sedgena TiTqmis yvela jgufs SeuZlia. strategiuli Sefasebis formati, romelsac qvemoT moviyvanT, zogadi sqemaa, romelic praqtikaSi SegiZliaT SeamciroT, gazardoT da Tqvens konkretul miznebsa Tu amocanebs miusadagoT. Sejameba am TavSi is Temebi da procesebi ganvixileT, romlebic strategiuli Sefasebis SemuSavebis dros aris aqtualuri. strategiuli omis damgegmavisTvis strategiuli Sefaseba umniSvnelovanes dokuments warmoadgens. es dokumenti swrafad ar mzaddeba, magram misi SemuSaveba namdvilad gamoadgebaT opoziciur politikur jgufebs. kargad momzadebuli Sefaseba marcxis SesaZleblobas amcirebs, vinaidan miznis misaRwevad saukeTeso samoqmedo gzas iZleva. strategiuli Sefaseba `cocxali~ dokumentia, Tuki misi ganaxleba mudmivad xdeba. iseve, rogorc problemis Seswavlis dros, formatis dacva da intensiuri koncentracia aqac aucilebeli pirobebia. formatis dacva mkafiod azrovnebis saSualebas iZleva maSinac ki, rodesac zewolis qveS imyofebiT.

88

nawili III
praqtikuli rCevebi

3.1. sakiTxis SerCeva sakiTxis sworad SerCeva da gasagebad formulireba nebismieri kampaniis warmatebiT dagegmvisa da Catarebis erT-erTi mTavari elementia. pirvel rigSi, saWiroa, erTmaneTisgan gavarCioT farTo problemuri sfero da konkretuli sakiTxi. magaliTad, Zviri an uxarisxo samedicino momsaxureba, garemos dabinZureba, diskriminacia da umuSevroba farTo problemebia; sakiTxi ki maTi gadaWris an nawilobriv gadaWris gzebSi mdgomareobs, rogoricaa am SemTxvevaSi samedicino momsaxurebis xarisxis amaRleba da misiT yvela socialuri fenis uzrunvelyofa, mwvane politika, umciresobebis sazogadoebaSi integrireba da umuSevrobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli saxelmwifo programebi. problemis gadaWris gza pirveli nabiji, rac unda gadaidgas, problemis analizi da misi gadaWris iseTi gzis moZebnaa, romliskenac mimarTuli iqneba Tqveni qmedeba. rig SemTxvevaSi adamianebs problemis amorCevis fufuneba aqvT; sxva dros problema `irCevs~ maT, e. i. is maT uSualod exebaT da, Sesabamisad, misi gadaWra pirdapir moqmedebs maTi cxovrebis gaumjobesebaze. narkomania, garemos dabinZureba, eTnikuri da religiuri diskriminacia swored iseTi problemebis magaliTebia, romlebic TviTon `irCeven~ adamianebs. magram nebismier SemTxvevaSi organizaciebs da individebs mainc uwevT farTo problemidan konkretuli sakiTxis amorCeva, rac, Tavis mxriv, problemis gadaWris gzis formulirebas niSnavs. nebismier problemas gadaWris ramdenime gza aqvs da yoveli maTgani frTxil da Rrma gaazrebas saWiroebs. sakmarisi ar aris mxolod imis gaTvaliswineba, Tu romeli problemaa yvelaze seriozuli da misi gadaWris romel gzas eqneba yvelaze grZelvadiani efeqti.

89

sakiTxis dasma problemis gadaWris gzis SerCevaze aranakleb mniSvnelovania imis gaazreba, Tu rogor unda daisvas sakiTxi maqsimaluri mxardaWeris mopovebis mizniT. magaliTad, erTi organizacia municipalitetis mier mcire Semosavlis mqone socialuri jgufebis sacxovrebeli farTiT uzrunvelyofaze muSaobda. organizaciis wevrebi mixvdnen, rom Tuki maTi moTxovna mxolod ukiduresad Raribi mosaxleobis binebiT uzrunvelyofiT Semoifargleboda, es saWiro politikur mxardaWeras ar motanda. amitom isini `xelmisawvdom binebze~ alaparakdnen da SeTavazebul kanonproeqtSi ukiduresad Rarib fenasTan erTad mcire Semosavlis mqone dasaqmebuli adamianebic CarTes. amasTan, maT gaiTvaliswines is aspeqtic, rom saxlebis mSeneblobiT axali samuSao adgilebi Seiqmneboda da kampanias `xelmisawvdomi binebisa da samuSao adgilebis kampania~ uwodes. am kampaniiT maT 75 000 amerikuli dolaris mopoveba SeZles da programa warmatebiT ganxorcielda. sakiTxis sworad dasmiT mopovebuli warmatebis kidev erTi magaliTia amerikis erT-erT konservatorul StatSi arsebuli organizacia, romelic eleqtroenergiis qaris ZaliT gamomuSavebis ganviTarebaze muSaobda. am organizaciis wevrebs SeeZloT mxolod garemos dacvis sakiTxebze gaemaxvilebinaT yuradReba da naklebi qvanaxSiris dawviT haeris gaumjobesebul xarisxze esaubraT. magram sakiTxi amgvarad bevr sxva jgufsac hqonda dasmuli da maT kampanias warmateba ar mohyolia. amitom am organizaciam gadawyvita im ekonomikur upiratesobaze elaparaka, romelsac importirebuli qvanaxSiris nacvlad qaris gamoyeneba moitanda. maT ganacxades, rom qaris Zalaze gadasvliT qvanaxSiris importze daxarjuli Tanxebi adgilobriv ekonomikas moxmardeboda da xazi gausves im mogebas, romelsac fermerebi qaris turbinebis dadgmis mizniT miwis gaqiravebiT naxavdnen. im StatSi pirveli komerciuli qaris turbinebi ukve muSaobs. sakiTxze muSaobis SesaZlo gavlenebi organizaciaze kidev erTi mniSvnelovani aspeqti, romelic unda gaiTvaliswinoT, Tqven mier arCeul sakiTxze muSaobis paralelurad organizaciaze zrunvaa. dafiqrdiT, ra gavlenas moaxdens konkretul sakiTxze muSaoba Tqvens organizaciaze, an ras moutans organizacias ama Tu im sakiTxis ignorireba. nu ifiqrebT mxolod problemebze da maTi gadaWris gzebze. liderebis organizaciuli azrovnebis SesaZlebloba _ sakiTxebze fiqris paralelurad _ mniSvnelovani faqtoria jgufis ganviTare-

90

bisTvis. es faqtori xandaxan am ori sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT moazrovne jgufis wevrebis konfliqtis sawindaric xdeba. rogorc wesi, axali wevrebi organizaciaSi sakiTxebis gamo modian da naklebad erkvevian organizaciis struqturasa da misi muSaobis dinamikaSi. aseTi wevrebi xSirad Riziandebian, rodesac xedaven, ramdeni dro da energia ixarjeba organizaciul sakiTxebze. magram kampaniebis warmatebiT warmarTva da organizaciis Seneba erTi da imave procesis ori damoukidebeli mxarea da orive saTanado yuradRebas saWiroebs. amdenad, konkretuli sakiTxis socialuri mniSvnelobis ganxilvasTan erTad aucileblad unda gaiazroT is SesaZlo gavlenebi, rac am sakiTxze muSaobam SeiZleba moaxdinos organizaciis Semdgom muSaobaze. nebismieri organizaciisTvis, misi ganviTarebis yvela safexurze, zogierTi sakiTxi ufro ukeTesi da iolad misaRwevi iqneba, vidre sxvebi. amitom Tqveni organizaciis gaZlierebaze zrunva ama Tu im sakiTxze muSaobis paralelurad unda mimdinareobdes. sakiTxebis Sefaseba kampaniis efeqturad warmarTvisTvis sasurvelia, pirvel etapze, sakiTxis SerCevisas, aqtivistebis jgufma Tavs Semdegi SekiTxva dausvas: ra kriteriumiT varCevT sakiTxebs Cveni organizaciisTvis? SegiZliaT, dafaze an did qaRaldze CamoweroT yvelaferi, rasac diskusiis dros Tqveni jgufis wevrebi ityvian. amiT erTiani da da yvelasTvis misaRebi kriteriumis Camoyalibeba gaxdeba SesaZlebeli. Rirebulma da mniSvnelovanma sakiTxma qvemoT moyvanili pirobebis umetesobas unda upasuxos: 1. man adamianebis cxovreba realurad unda gaaumjobesos. situaciis gaumjobesebas mxolod maSin dainaxavT da igrZnobT, rodesac darwmundebiT, rom kampaniam warmatebiT Caiara. Tu Tqveni kampania ama Tu im sazogadoebrivi momsaxurebis zogadi gaumjobesebisken (mag., sazogadoebrivi transportis mdgomareobis Semowmeba) aris mimarTuli, realuri da grZelvadiani Sedegebis gansazRvra ufro rTuli iqneba, vidre konkretuli moTxovnebis SemTxvevaSi (mag., matareblebis ganrigis dabeWdva). 2. adamianebs maTive Zalauflebis gaazrebaSi unda daexmaros. xalxi kampaniebidan im ganwyobiT unda dabrundes, rom gamarjveba maT moipoves da ara eqspertebma, advokatebma an politikosebma. es maT Tavdajerebas Sematebs, sxva, ufro farTo sakiTxebze muSaobis-

91

Tvis ganawyobs da organizaciisadmi maTi erTgulebis xarisxs gazrdis. mocemul situaciaSi moqalaqeebs an aqvT Zalaufleba, an ara. pirvel SemTxvevaSi maT es Zalaufleba unda gamoiyenon; meore SemTxvevaSi ki misi mopovebisTvis unda ibrZolon. 3. Zalauflebis arsebuli gadanawileba unda Secvalos. moqalaqeebs da gadawyvetilebebis mimRebebs Soris arsebuli Zalauflebis struqturebis Secvla sami formiT SeiZleba moxdes: _ Zlieri organizaciis SeqmniT, romelic Zalauflebis axali centri gaxdeba da gadawyvetilebis mimRebze moaxdens gavlenas; _ kanonebis da regulaciebis SecvliT da am gziT Cveni Zalauflebis gazrdiT meore mxaris Zalauflebis Sesustebis xarjze; _ xelisuflebaSi iseTi pirovnebebis arCeviT, romlebic mxars uWeren da eTanxmebian Cvens poziciebs. 4. unda aRiqmebodes, rogorc Rirebuli da mniSvnelovani. jgufis wevrebi unda grZnobdnen, rom is, risTvisac isini ibrZvian, maT marTla aRelvebT. umjobesia, kampaniis damTavrebisas imaze naklebs miaRwioT, vidre Tavidan gqondaT miznad dasaxuli, magram ar SecvaloT da ar SeamciroT Tavdapirveli moTxovnebi. 5. unda Seicavdes warmatebis SesaZleblobas. Tqven mier arCeuli problema da misi gadaWris gza zedmetad farTo da abstraqtuli ar unda iyos. jgufis wevrebs Tavidanve unda hqondeT gancda, rom kampanias warmatebis kargi Sansi da sworad dagegmili strategia gaaCnia. ecadeT, gaigoT, vin da rogor miaRwia warmatebas msgavs kampaniaSi. Semdeg daukavSirdiT gamocdilebis mqone adamianebs da hkiTxeT, ra strategias da taqtikas iyenebdnen. 6. unda iyos sazogadoebis mier farTod da Rrmad gancdili. sasurvelia, bevri Tanamoazre naxoT, vinc dageTanxmebaT, rom SerCeuli problema marTlac mniSvnelovania da aucilebelia misi gadaWrisTvis raimes gakeTeba. aseve sasurvelia, problemis gadaWris Tqven mier dasaxuli gza bevrma CaTvalos efeqtianad. 7. advilad gasagebi unda iyos. rogorc wesi, Rirebul sakiTxs ar unda sWirdebodes detaluri da grZeli axsna-ganmarteba. ubralod unda SegeZloT, TqvaT: `naxeT, rogori dabinZurebulia es mdinare. is aseTi ar iyo, sanam masSi qarxnebis gadamuSavebul masalas ar CaRvridnen~.

92

8. unda hqondes mkafio samizne da hyavdes konkretuli gadawyvetilebis mimRebi. gadawyvetilebis mimRebi is adamiania, visac TqvenTvis sasurveli Sedegis mocema SeuZlia. ufro rTul kampaniebs SeiZleba ramdenime gadawyvetilebis mimRebi hyavdes. Tu konkretuli gadawyvetilebis mimRebis dasaxeleba giWirT, SesaZloa, araswor sakiTxze muSaobT an sulac konkretuli sakiTxis nacvlad farTo problemaze fiqrobT. gaxsovdeT, rom gadawyvetilebis mimRebi yovelTvis pirovnebaa _ magaliTad, qalaqis meri _ da ara instituti, korporacia an arCeviTi organo. sazogadoeba arasodes warmoadgens samiznes. Tqveni moTxovnebis dakmayofileba mers SeuZlia da ara sazogadoebas. 9. droSi kargad unda iyos ganawilebuli. sakiTxze koncentrirebul kampanias gaaCnia dasawyisi, Sua stadia da dasasruli. Tqven unda gqondeT miaxloebiTi warmodgena TariRebze, romlebzec es sami stadia gadanawildeba. sasurvelia, Tqveni kampania ar daamTxvioT sazogadoebriv dResaswaulebs an Svebulebebis sezons, Tu, ra Tqma unda, konkretuli dResaswaulebis simboluri datvirTvis gamoyeneba Tqvens uSualo miznebSi ar Sedis. maSinac ki, rodesac Tqvens kampania ar ukavSirdeba arCevnebs, saarCevno kalendris gaTvaliswineba mainc sasurvelia, radgan kampanias warmatebis bevrad meti Sansi aqvs arCevnebis wina periodSi, vidre mis Semdeg. 10. ar unda iwvevdes Tqveni jgufis dayofas. Tavi aarideT iseT sakiTxebs, romlebic Tqveni organizaciis wevrebis gaxleCas gamoiwvevs. ar daupirispiroT erTmaneTs mezoblebi, axalgazrdebi da asakovnebi, sxvadasxva eTnosis warmomadgenlebi. ar dakmayofildeT imiT, rom Tqveni ubnis narkotikebis gamsaRebels sxva ubanSi gandevniT. ecadeT, grZelvadiani perspeqtiva gqondeT; dafiqrdiT, visi mozidva gindaT organizaciaSi da gansajeT, mocemuli sakiTxi amaSi xels SegiwyobT Tu, piriqiT, SegiSliT. 11. unda pasuxobdes jgufSi arsebuli resursebisa da liderebis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas. kampaniam jgufis wevrebs mravalferovani da konkretuli rolebi unda SesTavazos. 12. unda Seicavdes samomavlo kampaniebis SesaZleblobas. kampanias, romelic momsaxure personalisTvis samedicino dazRvevis gacemas isaxavs miznad, janmrTelobis da/an personalis sxva uf-

93

lebebis dacvis kampaniasTan mivyavarT. meore mxriv, kampanias, romelic mawanwala ZaRlebis daWeras da daxocvas moiTxovs, rogorc wesi, isev mawanwala ZaRlebis daWerasTan mivyavarT. adamianebs, romlebsac janmrTelobis dazRvevis yidvis saSualeba ar aqvT, rogorc wesi, sxva saerTo ekonomikuri problemebic gaaCniaT; magram adamianebs, romlebsac mxolod mawanwala ZaRlebis siZulvili aerTianebT, SeiZleba sxva araferi hqondeT saerTo. momavali kampaniebis SesaZleblobebze fiqris paralelurad ecadeT, gaaanalizoT is Cvevebi da kontaqtebi, romlebsac jgufi ukve dagegmili kampaniiT SeiZens da momavalSic gamoiyenebs. 13. unda SeeZlos dafinansebis mozidva. mniSvnelovania imis gansazRvrac, ramdenad SeZleben da moisurveben jgufis wevrebi kampaniis dafinansebaSi wvlilis Setanas. agreTve ecadeT, Tvali adevnoT fondebis samyaroSi prioritetul sakiTxebs. 14. unda emTxveodes Tqvens zogad Rirebulebebs da faseulobebs. sakiTxi, romlis gamoc kampaniis warmarTvas gadawyvetT, Tqveni zogadi Rirebulebebisa da faseulobebis amsaxveli unda iyos. magaliTad, cxadia, rom yovel Cvengans surs kriminalis SemTxvevebis Semcireba. magram aris Tu ara policiis rigebisa da cixeebis raodenobis masobrivi zrda is mimarTuleba, saiTac gvinda, rom Cveni sazogadoeba ganviTardes? am zogadi pirobebis gaTvaliswinebasTan erTad mniSvnelovania Tqveni organizaciis specifikurobisa da xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebac. magaliTad, Tu Tqvens ubanSi eTnikuri umciresobis mWidro dasaxleba arsebobs da isini ar arian saTanadod warmodgenili Tqvens organizaciaSi, sakiTxis gansazRvris damatebiTi piroba SeiZleba is mniSvneloba gaxdes, romelsac sakiTxi am eTnikuri umciresobisTvis atarebs. 3.2. strategiis SemuSaveba kampaniis strategiis SemuSavebisas mniSvnelovania `strategiisa~ da `taqtikis~ erTmaneTisgan gamijvna. `taqtika~ kampaniaSi gamoyenebul konkretul qmedebebs niSnavs: peticiebis gavrcelebas, werilebis weras, saprotesto aqciis organizebas. `strategia~ ufro farTo cnebaa. strategiis dasaxva Tqveni amJamindeli situaciis, dasaxuli miznebisa da maTi miRwevis gzebis erToblivad gaazrebas niSnavs.

94

efeqtiani strategiis dasaxva cxra ZiriTadi sakiTxis gaazrebas moicavs: 1. miznebi: ris miRweva gindaT? nebismieri kampania miznebis gaazrebiT unda daiwyos. mniSvnelovania miznebis erTmaneTisgan gamoyofa: ra moklevadian, Sualedur da grZelvadian miznebs emsaxureba Tqveni kampania? miznebi Sinaarsobriv sakiTxebs exeba (magaliTad, kanonmdeblobis Secvlas) Tu procesis dawyebas an gaZlierebas (magaliTad, kampaniis monawileTa Soris solidarobisa da mWidro TanamSromlobis damyarebas)? es miznebi Tavidanve mkveTrad unda ganisazRvros, raTa SesaZlebeli gaxdes maT misaRwevad konkretuli qmedebebis ganxorcieleba da amaSi xalxis CarTva. 2. auditoria: vis SeuZlia miznebis miRwevaSi dagexmaroT? romeli pirebisTvis an organizaciebisTvis gindaT xmis miwvdena? es SeiZleba iyvnen rogorc zemoT xsenebuli `gadawyvetilebis mimRebebi~, mag., kanonmdeblebi (radgan maT Tqveni miznebis ganxorcielebis formaluri ufleba da saSualeba gaaCniaT), ise mediis warmomadgenlebi da amomrCevlebi (vinaidan maT formaluri Zalauflebis mqone pirebze gavlenis moxdena SeuZliaT). orive SemTxvevaSi saWiroa kampaniis ZiriTadi auditoriis winaswari gansazRvra da im formebis gaazreba, riTac maTTan dakavSirebas da maTze zewolis moxdenas SesZlebT. 3. gzavnili: ra unda gaigonos auditoriam? am gansxvavebul auditoriebTan urTierToba mkafio da damajerebeli gzavnilebis, anu mesijebis, Sedgenas moiTxovs. es gzavnilebi yovelTvis marTal da realur movlenebze iqneba dafuZnebuli; magram maTi miwodebis forma Seicvleba konkretuli auditoriidan gamomdinare. umetes SemTxvevebSi gzavnilebi or ZiriTad komponents unda Seicavdes: mtkicebas, rom, rasac Tqven moiTxovT, swori da marTebulia; da auditoriis interesebis gaTvaliswinebas. 4. warmgzavnelebi: vin `gaaxmovanebs~ mesijebs? erTsa da imave gzavnils sruliad gansxvavebuli gavlenis moxdena SeuZlia imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu vin axdens mis `gaJRerebas~. rig SemTxvevaSi es `eqspertebia~, vis mimarTac sazogadoeba formaluri
95

ndobiT aris gamwyobili. sxva dros SesaZloa `Cveulebrivi xmebis~ gamoyeneba dagvWirdes _ adamianebis, romlebic uSualod sakuTar gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT isaubreben. nebismier SemTxvevaSi unda gaviazroT, Tu ris gakeTeba SegviZlia imisTvis, rom es `warmgzavnelebi~ informirebulebi da daculebi iyvnen. 5. miwodebis formebi: rogor mivawvdinoT xma auditorias? gzavnilebis, anu mesijebis, auditoriisTvis miwodebis mravalferovani formebi arsebobs. es SeiZleba iyos `darbaisluri~ meTodebi (mag., lobireba); an radikaluri formebi (mag., pirdapiri qmedeba). is, Tu romeli forma iqneba efeqtiani, konkretuli situaciis specifikurobazea damokidebuli. mTavaria, arsebuli formebi SevafasoT da sworad gamoviyenoT. bevr SemTxvevaSi maTi SeTavsebiT gamoyeneba SeiZleba warmatebis sawindari gaxdes. 6. resursebi: ra gvaqvs? efeqtiani kampania Tqvens xelT arsebuli resursebis srul gaazrebas moiTxovs. es Seicavs warsulSi mopovebuli gamocdilebis gaanalizebas, kontaqtebis gamoyenebas, jgufis wevrebisa da kampaniaSi CarTuli sxva pirebis SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswinebas, Tqvens xelT arsebuli informaciis Sejamebas. mokled rom iTqvas, kampanias nulidan ar iwyebT; Tqveni sawyisi wertili ukve arsebuli resursebis gamoyenebaa. 7. garRvevebi: ra unda ganaviTaroT? resursebis gaazrebis Semdeg saWiroa arsebuli garRvevebis gaanalizeba. daukvirdiT, ra gakliaT da rogor SegiZliaT danaklisis Sevseba. iqneb ufro meti kontaqtebis damyareba an meti informaciis mopoveba gWirdebaT; an meti adamianebis mozidva kampaniaSi CasarTavad. 8. pirveli nabijebi: rogor daviwyoT? rogor `davZraT~ strategia efeqturi formiT? ra aris Cveni potenciuri moklevadiani miznebi an proeqtebi, romlebic moizidavs adamianebs, gamokveTs ufro farTo samomavlo samuSaos da Semdegi nabijis sawindars Seqmnis? 9. Sefaseba: rogor ganvsazRvroT, efeqtiani Tu ara kampania? strategia kampaniis procesSive unda daeqvemdebaros Sefasebas. gaiazreT, akmayofilebs Tu ara praqtikaSi ganxorcielebuli stra96

tegia zemoT moyvanil pirobebs (mag., gvyavs Tu ara swori auditoria; vaxerxebT Tu ara maTTvis xmis miwvdenas da a. S.). SesaZloa, praqtikam daganaxoT, rom Tavdapirvelad dasaxuli strategiis garkveuli elementebi efeqtiani ar aRmoCndeba. aseT SemTxvevebSi saWiroa am elementebis uaryofa da efeqtiani aspeqtebis gaZliereba. 3.3. taqtikis arCeva taqtika im konkretul nabijebs moicavs, romlebic mTliani gegmisa da strategiis ganxorcielebas emsaxureba. taqtikis meSveobiT Tqven uSualod axdenT gavlenas Tqvens samizne auditoriaze da gadawyvetilebis mimRebebze. kampaniis dagegmvisas taqtika bolo stadiaze unda SemuSavdes, raTa Tavidan aiciloT xSirad daSvebuli Secdoma _ sakiTxis dakonkretebisTanave taqtikis arCevaze gadasvla (mag., modi, yvelani wavideT oqruaSvilis ofisTan, Tan oqros Tevziani akvariumi waviRoT da plakati – `rac brwyinavs, yvelaferi oqro ar aris~). taqtika farTo strategiisgan gancalkevebiT arasodes ar unda gaiazroT. nebismier taqtikas unda gaaCndes: _ Semsrulebeli; _ samizne auditoria da konkretuli `gadawyvetilebis mimRebi~; _ mizezi, ratomac `gadawyvetilebis mimRebs~ ar aZlevs xels es kampania da mzad aris, kampaniis Sesawyvetad daTmobaze wamovides. sxvadasxva taqtikas gansxvavebuli organizaciuli simZlavre da gamocdileba sWirdeba. amitom garkveuli taqtika kampaniis dasawyisSia efeqtiani, sxva ki mogvianebiT, rodesac kampanias ukve garkveuli Zala gaaCnia. taqtikis arCeva da urTierTSefardeba konkretuli kampaniis specifikuri moTxovnebidan unda gamomdinareobdes. amasTan, arCeuli taqtika siamovnebas unda aniWebdes kampaniis organizatorebs da monawileebs. is mxolod simboluri mniSvnelobis matarebeli ar unda iyos da mTliani strategiis organul da gaazrebul nawils unda warmoadgendes. kampaniis organizatorebis mier erT-erTi yvelaze xSirad Cadenili Secdoma mxolod taqtikaze koncentrirebaa mTliani strategiis gaazrebis nacvlad. sasurvelia, Tqven mier arCeuli taqtika xuT ZiriTad pirobas akmayofilebdes: 1. unda iyos kampaniis miznebze, uSualod gadawyvetilebis mimRebsa da Tqvens auditoriaze mimarTuli.
97

es umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria taqtikis gansazRvrisas. 2. unda hqondes konkretuli moTxovna da am moTxovnis miRma realuri Zalis demonstrirebas unda axdendes. yvelaze susti taqtika is aris, romelsac arc uSualo samizne (gadawyvetilebis mimRebi) gaaCnia da arc konkretuli moTxovna. magaliTad, anTebuli sanTlebiT xelSi gadaSenebis gzaze mdgari cxovelis jiSis gadarCenis saxeliT gamarTuli TavSeyra, romelic konkretulad aravisgan moiTxovs raime qmedebis ganxorcielebas (aseTi zogadi moqmedeba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba iyos efeqtiani, Tu Tqven aTeulobiT aTasi adamianis mozidvas SeZlebT. aman SesaZloa romelime politikoss ubiZgos sakuTari reitingis asamaRleblad cxovelis am jiSis gadarCenisTvis raime zomis miRebisken). 3. unda iyos rogorc Tqveni organizaciuli miznebis, ise uSualod kampaniis miznebis Sesatyvisi. sxva sityvebiT, taqtika unda dagexmaroT rogorc organizaciis gaZlierebaSi, ise konkretuli kampaniis warmatebiT CatarebaSi. magaliTad, rogorc cnobilia, `bostonuri Cais smis~ aqciam moaxdina gadasaxadebis problemis aqcentireba, magram organizaciis SeqmnaSi aranairi roli ar Seusrulebia. vinaidan aralegaluri iyo, am aqciam arc erT jgufs araferi Semata. mas Semdeg bevrma organizaciam gamoiyena `Cais smis~ taqtika raimes wyalSi gadagdebis gziT; magram axla, rogorc wesi, am aqciebze mediasac patiJeben da aqciis momwyobi organizaciac Riad asaxelebs vinaobas. es niSnavs, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi am taqtikis gamoyenebis praqtika ufro efeqtiani gaxda. 4. taqtika ucnobi unda iyos Tqveni kampaniis samizne `gadawyvetilebis mimRebisaTvis~. magaliTad, erT-erTi sastumros axalma mflobelma TanamSromlebi samsaxuridan daiTxova da profesiul kavSirebTan dadebuli kontraqti ugulebelyo. TanamSromlebma daxmarebisTvis religiur muSaTa koalicias mimarTes. koaliciam iseTi taqtika airCia, romelic namdvilad ucxo da molodneli iyo sastumros menejmentisaTvis: isini movidnen da sastumros vestibiulSi koleqtiuri locva daiwyes. oTxdRiani locvis Semdeg maT sastumros menejeri Sexvda da hkiTxa, Sewyvetda Tu ara kavSiris kontraqtis dacva koleqtiur locvs. koaliciam gaimarjva _ samsaxuridan daTxovnili TanamSromlebi TavianT postebze aRadgines. 5. taqtika ar unda iyos ucxo Tqveni jgufis wevrebisTvis. isini taqtikis ganxorcielebis procesSi Tavs komfortulad unda grZnobdnen.

98

erTma samoqalaqo organizaciam ramdenime aseuli wevri moiyvana Sexvedraze eklesiaSi, saidanac isini erT-erTi oficialuri piris ofisisken unda daZruliyvnen. magram ofisisken erToblivi svlis idea wevrebisTvis miuRebeli aRmoCnda. es maTSi `saprotesto aqciis~ asociacias iwvevda. maT eklesiis datovebaze uari ganacxades. Sexvedris organizatorebs ukeT rom scodnodaT wevrTa Sexedulebebi, SesaZloa, maT ofisisken erToblivi svlis moTxovnis nacvlad is oficialuri piri moeyvanaT eklesiaSi wevrebTan Sesaxvedrad. momdevno qveTavebi taqtikis yvelaze xSirad gamoyenebul formebs gagacnobT. esenia: peticiebi, werilebis weris kampania, oficialur pirTan Sexvedra, satelefono kampania, mediis gamoyeneba, saganmanaTleblo aqciebi, demonstraciebis mowyoba da SemoqmedebiTi aqciebi. 3.4. peticiebi sazogadoebrivi aqtivobis dawyebis Semdeg albaT Zalian male gaicnobT politikoss, romelic getyviT: `nu momitanT peticiebs. mirCevnia, miviRo erTi an ori kargad gaazrebuli, spontanuri xelnaweri werili, vidre organizebuli jgufis mier gakeTebuli gancxadeba Tundac aTasi xelmoweriT~. aseTia realoba. sinamdvileSi, politikosebs Tavis Wkuaze undaT moqmedeba da arc xelmowerebis, arc xelnaweri werilebis da arc organizebuli jgufebis danaxva ar surT. da, ra Tqma unda, maT urCevniaT, rom Tqven erT an or moazrovne adamians daelaparakoT aTasebis nacvlad. sworad gamoyenebuli peticiebi SeiZleba mZlavr iaraRad iqces; xelmowerebis Segroveba ki organizaciis Semdgomi gaZlierebis sawindaria. yvelaze mZlavria is peticiebi da werilebi, romlebSic aTasobiT adamiani Tqveni kampaniis mxardaWeras gamoxatavs da Tqveni moTxovnebis Semsrulebel politikoss xmis micemas hpirdeba, gansakuTrebiT maSin, Tu am peticias adamianebis didi jgufi mediis TanxlebiT waradgens. bevrad naklebad efeqtiania peticiebi, romlebic ubralod fostiT egzavneba politikoss. peticiebis Zala Semdeg pirobebSia: 1. xelmomwerTa raodenobaSi; 2. droisa da sivrcis strategiul mniSvnelobaSi; 3. organizebul Semdgom qmedebebSi. amasTan: xelmowerebs, romlebic mTeli raionis masStabiT grovdeba da romlebic SemdgomSi sakanonmdeblo Cinovniks egzavneba, arcTu
99

ise didi gavlenis moxdena SeuZliaT, Tu maTi ricxvi marTla Zalian didi ar aris. xelmowerebs, romlebic iseT ubanSi grovdeba, sadac konkretulma deputatma mciredi gansxvavebiT moipova gamarjveba, didi gavlenis moxdena SeuZliaT am deputatis qmedebebze. xelmowerebs bevrad meti gavlenis moxdena SeuZliaT arCeul oficialur pirze, vidre daniSnulze (garda im SemTxvevebisa, rodesac daniSnuli piri momavalSi apirebs, kenWi iyaros; an misi uSualod damniSnavi piria arCeuli). xelmowerebs, romlebic servisis an maRaziis mflobels waredginebaT, didi gavlenis moxdena SeuZliaT im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini uSualod klientebs ekuTvniT. arCevnebamde erTi TviT adre warmodgenil peticiebs bevrad meti Zala aqvT, vidre arCevnebidan erTi Tvis Semdeg _ Tundac orjer meti xelmowera iyos Segrovebuli. nebismieri oficialuri piri, visac peticia waredgineba, informirebuli iyos unda, rom xelmomwerebi kargad organizebuli jgufis wevrebi arian, da rom isini aucileblad Seityoben peticiaze oficialuri piris reagirebis Sedegebs. ramdenime rCeva peticiis SedgenisTvis: saTqmeli mokled da martivad CamoayalibeT. ramdenime winadadeba da Semdeg ori an sami ZiriTadi punqtis CamonaTvali sruliad sakmarisia. mTavaria, peticia advili aRsaqmeli gaxadoT. ar aris saWiro yvela detalis dawvrilebiT axsna. es SeiZleba calke werilSi gaakeToT. erT gverdze nu SeitanT aTi xelmoweris grafaze mets. es Tqvens peticias vizualurad `gaasqelebs~, agreTve SesaZlebels gaxdis yvela xelmomweris sakontaqto detalebis advilad garCevas. vinc peticiaze xels mogiwerT, SeekiTxeT, isurveben Tu ara kampaniaSi moxalised muSaobas. CaiwereT maTi telefonis nomrebi da imeili (mzad iyaviT, rom realurad albaT aTidan erTi adamiani mova kampaniaSi monawileobis misaRebad). ecadeT, yvelas miawodoT informacia bukletis saxiT. SegiZliaT, mcire finansuri daxmarebac iTxovoT. xazi gausviT raodenobas da ara sakiTxis Sinaarss. Tqven xelmomwerebis ricxvis gazrdiT xarT dainteresebuli; nu dakargavT dros erTi adamianis sakiTxSi `ganaTlebis~ mcdelobiT.
100

xelmowerebis Segrovebisas jgufurad iareT. ase saqme ufro saxaliso iqneba. organizebuli peticiebis dRe bevrad ukeTesia, vidre yvelasgan xelmowerebis individualuri Segrovebis moTxovna maT ubnebSi. SegiZliaT, erTmaneTs daTqmul adgilas SexvdeT, mokled moilaparakoT dRis gegmaze, gansazRvruli droiT waxvideT xelmowerebis Sesagroveblad da Semdeg ukan dabrundeT yavis dasalevad da erTmaneTisTvis gamocdilebis gasaziareblad. arasodes gagzavnoT an gadasceT xelmowerili peticiebi qseroaslebis TqvenTan datovebis gareSe. xelmowerebi Semdgomi qmedebebisa da satelefono zarebisTvis dagWirdebaT. erTi da igive peticia SeiZleba sxva dros da gadawyvetilebis sxva mimRebze gavlenis mosaxdenadac gamoiyenoT. 3.5. werilebis weris kampania werilebis weris taqtikas da peticiebis Zalas erTi da igive wyaro ganapirobebs. oRond individualuri werilis dawera kampaniis monawileTagan met dros da energias moiTxovs, vidre peticiaze xelis mowera. Tu oficialur pirTan Sexvedraze midixarT, manamde organizeba gaukeTeT ramdenime aTeuli werilis daweras. werilebis naxevari Sexvedramde ramdenime kviriT adre fostiT gagzavneT, danarCeni Sexvedraze Tan waiReT. es yovelTvis STambeWdavia xolme. magram gaxsovdeT, rom oficialurma pirma SesaZloa TqvenTan Sexvedramde Tqveni mxardamWerebisgan miRebul werilebs upasuxos, an werilebis avtorebi gaicnos. amiT SesaZlebelia, mas TqvenTan sakamaTo argumentebi daugrovdes. Tu kampaniis mocemul etapze auditoria mSvid da wynar garemoSi gismenT, peticiaze xelis moweris nacvlad umjobesia, maT werilebis daweris TxovniT mimarToT. werilebis daweras yvelgan SeZlebT, iqneba es jgufuri Sekreba Tu gakveTilis an leqciis dasasruli. werilebis sawer sivrced xmauriani quCac ki SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT, Tu quCis kuTxeSi magidas dadgamT. SesaZlebelia, werilis teqsti standartuli da winaswar dabeWdili iyos da adamianebs maTze ubralod xelis mowera sTxovoT (rasac peticiebis msgavsi gavlena eqneba). magram individualuri, xelnaweri werilebi avtorisgan sakiTxiT bevrad met dainteresebas gamoxatavs.

101

ramdenime rCeva werilebis werisTvis: mimarTeT uSualod Tqveni kampaniis mTavar samiznes _ gadawyvetilebis mimRebs _ da werili swori tituliT daiwyeT (b-no, q-no, pativcemulo qalaqis mero da a. S.). SeadgineT lakonuri da zrdilobiani werilis teqsti. bevri efeqturi werili mxolod 4 an 5 winadadebisgan Sedgeba. Tu SesaZlebelia, werilis dasawyisSi adresat deputats an oficialur pirs bolodroindeli qmedebis (gamosvlis da a. S.) gamo madloba gadauxadeT. iyaviT maqsimalurad konkretuli. gansazRvreT is sakanonmdeblo iniciativa an sxva raime sakiTxi, romlis Sesaxebac mimarTavT adresats da axseniT, ratom gindaT, rom man am iniciativas mxari dauWiros an ar dauWiros. Tqven TviTon dawereT werili da moawereT xeli. gaxsovdeT, adamianebis Sexedulebebze mxolod mSrali, standartuli an mecnierulad dasabuTebuli faqtebi ar axdens gavlenas; ama Tu im problemiT Sewuxebuli adamianis individualur gamocdilebas da dakvirvebebsac SeuZlia nebismier Cvenganze zemoqmedeba. werilSi sakiTxi Tqveni piradi perspeqtividan aRwereT. rogorc werils, ise konverts Tqveni misamarTi daawereT. SesaZlebelia, Tqvenma adresatma gipasuxoT. Tqveni misamarTi deputats an sxva oficialur pirs Tqveni, rogorc amomrCevlis, Sesaxeb awvdis informacias (sacxovrebeli ubnis mixedviT) da gamoxmaurebis SesaZleblobas aZlevs. gTavazobT amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis erT-erTi universitetis studentebis rCevebs werilebis weris kampaniis organizebisTvis: werilebis weris kampanias Cven daaxloebiT erTi TviT adre vgegmavT, mas Semdeg, rac Cveni jgufi mocemul sakiTxze informaciis mokvlevas daasrulebs. werilebis werisTvis gankuTvnil magidas sami dRis ganmavlobaSi vdgamT, ZiriTadad erTi da imave kviris orSabaTs, samSabaTs da oTxSabaTs. magidasTan yoveldRe daaxloebiT oTx saaTs vatarebT da am saaTebs im dros vamTxvevT, rodesac universitetis SenobaSi yvelaze meti studentia. magidaze yovelTvis gviwyvia bevri qaRaldi, kalami, konverti, werilis savaraudo teqsti (romelic mxolod erT an or abzacs Seadgens) da Cveni samizne gadawyvetilebis mimRebebis (deputatebis,
102

oficialuri pirebis, universitetis administraciis) sia. faqtebs didi formatis plakatebze vwerT da am plakatebs _ werilis savaraudo teqstTan erTad _ kedlebze vakravT yuradRebis misaqcevad. mTavaria, veravin SeZlos magidasTan Cavla kedelze gakruli plakatebis SemCnevis gareSe. magidis ukan yovelTvis ori moxalise dgas, romlebic masalebs arigeben da gamvlelebis kiTxvebs pasuxoben. es moxaliseebi werilebis weris kampaniis mSvid da organizebul viTarebaSi Catarebas uwyoben xels. Cveni jgufis minimum ori an sami warmomadgeneli magidis win dgas da xalxs esaubreba. es moxaliseebi gadamwyvet rols asruleben imaSi, rom kampaniam bevri werilis Segroveba SeZlos. Tu xalxs werilis daweras uSualod ar sTxovT, isini albaT arc SegekiTxebian, Tu ra xdeba. maTi dainteresebis gza kontaqtis pirdapiri damyarebaa. miuaxlovdiT gamvlelebs, gauRimeT, mokled auxseniT situacia da SeekiTxeT, isurveben Tu ara erTi an ori wuTis gamoyofas werilis dasawerad. Cven yvela gamvlels individualurad vuxsniT, rom maT werils didi gavlenis moxdena SeuZlia adamianebis cxovrebis gaumjobesebaSi. dabolos, werilebis weris kampaniis msvlelobisas SeecadeT, ar dasxdeT. kampaniis organizatorebi energiiT savse unda iyvnen, mxolod maSin SeZleben isini sxva adamianebSi dainteresebis gamowvevas. 3.6. oficialur pirTan Sexvedra oficialur pirebTan pirispir Sexvedra erT-erTi yvelaze efeqturi taqtikaa. aseT Sexvedrebze TxuTmetidan ocdaxuT mxardamWeramde SegiZliaT miiyvanoT. Tu SesaZlebelia, Sexvedraze waiReT winaswar momzadebuli werilebi da peticiebi _ amiT mxardamWerTa ufro maRali raodenobis demonstrirebas moaxdenT. Sexvedrebi, rogorc wesi, oficialuri piris ofisSi ewyoba. miuxedavad imisa, rom arCeul oficialur pirTa umravlesobas ar uyvars aseTi Sexvedrebi, Tu aCvenebT, rom Tqvens kampanias bevri mxardamWeri hyavs, isini iZulebuli iqnebian, Sexvedraze dagTanxmdnen. gaiTvaliswineT, rom oficialuri pirebi yvelaze xSirad aseTi, sicrueze damyarebuli, argumentebiT Seecdebian Tavidan mogiSoron: `me TviTon vapirebdi imis gakeTebas, rasac Tqven iTxovT Cemgan; magram imis gamo, rom ase iqceviT, amas aRar gavakeTeb~. `Cemze zewola arasodes axdens gavlenas. me mudam TviTon vwyvet, rogor moviqce~.
103

`raSi gWirdebaT Cemze zewolis moxdena? me xom Tqveniani, Tqveni megobari var~. `me ar SemiZlia, Tqveni interesebis/moTxovnebis dakmayofilebisTvis parlaments biujetidan Tanxebis gamoyofa vTxovo. amisTvis kompetenturi (mag., samedicino, uflebadamcveli da a. S.) organizaciebi arsebobs”. ramdenime rCeva oficialur pirebTan Sexvedrebis organizebisTvis: Sexvedris drois dasaniSnad daurekeT oficialuri piris mdivans. uTxariT, ra sakiTxis (an sakiTxebis) ganxilva gsurT Sexvedraze da aucileblad axseneT Sexvedraze mimsvleli adamianebis raodenoba. Tu didi jgufiT midixarT, SesaZlebelia, oficialuri piris ofisma ver dagitioT da SexvedrisTvis specialuri oTaxis gamoyofa gaxdes saWiro. gaxsovdeT, rom Sexvedrebze masobrivi warmomadgenlobiT gamocxadeba namdvilad ar aris aucilebeli, mcire jgufiT misvla savsebiT normaluria. gaxsovdeT, rom arCeul pirebTan pirispir Sexvedra SesaZloa ufro efeqturi iyos, vidre daniSnulebTan. rodesac oficialur pirTan Sesaxvedrad jgufis Sedgenas daiwyebT, SeecadeT, is erTi mxriv mravalferovani warmomadgenlobiT da meore mxriv nacnobi adamianebiT daabalansoT. gaaanalizeT, ras SeuZlia oficialur pirze gavlenis moxdena. magaliTad, Tu mas gamokveTili religiuri mrwamsi aqvs, SeecadeT, Sexvedraze misi religiis warmomadgeneli sasuliero piri waiyvanoT. amasTan, gaxsovdeT, rom Sexvedraze wardgenili jgufi erTsa da imave programas unda iziarebdes; jgufSi nu CarTavT iseT adamianebs, visac ar icnobT. jgufSi gamoyaviT erTi adamiani, romelic Tqvens moTxovnebs waradgens da jgufis kidev erT an or warmomadgenels miscems mokle sityvas. jgufis danarCeni wevrebi oficialur pirs unda warudginoT da TqvaT, Tu romel organizacias an interesTa jgufs warmoadgens TiToeuli maTgani. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tqven eqspertis poziciaSi yofnas aravin mogTxovT, aucilebelia, Sexvedraze kargad momzadebulebi mixvideT. imisaTvis, rom Tavidan aiciloT kamaTi da garCeva, Zalian kargad unda icnobdeT Sexvedraze garCeuli kanonmdeblobis ZiriTad punqtebs. winaswar moamzadeT is ramdenime punqti, romlebic mniSvnelovania Tqven mier ganxiluli sakiTxisTvis.
104

ecadeT, oficialur pirs specifikuri moTxovniT mimarToT da konkretuli nabijebis gadadgma mosTxovoT (mag., mocemuli kanonmdeblobis mxardaWera). SesaZlebelia, Tqven erTbaSad ramdenime sakiTxis dasma SegeZloT, magram Tqveni Sexvedra bevrad ufro efeqtian iqneba, Tu erT an or ZiriTad sakiTxze gaakeTebT aqcents. Tu uSualod oficialur pirTan ver axerxebT mocemul etapze Sexvedras, SegiZliaT mis mrCevels (an moadgiles) SexvdeT. es adamianebi, rogorc wesi, kargad informirebulebi arian da SeuZliaT Tqveni moTxovnebis TavianT ufrosebamde rCevis saxiT mitana. SesaZlebelia, oficialurma pirma (an misma mrCevelma/moadgilem) SexvedrisTvis mxolod ramdenime wuTi gamogiyoT, amitom ecadeT, saTqmeli rac SeiZleba mokled TqvaT da maqsimalurad daeyrdnoT Tqven mier winaswar momzadebul ZiriTad punqtebs. Tu meti dro geqnebaT, SegiZliaT, sakiTxi gaSaloT da mis Sesaxeb ofocialuri piris mosazrebebic moisminoT. SeecadeT, oficialur pirTan konkretul SeTanxmebas miaRwioT. Tu es ar xerxdeba, mas kidev SexvdiT. Sexvedris Semdeg oficialur pirTan kontaqti gaagrZeleT. Tu Sexvedram kargad Caiara, mas baraTi gaugzavneT da madloba gadauxadeT. Tu man damatebiTi informaciis da masalebis miwodeba gTxovaT, mokle droSi gaugzavneT. Tu oficialuri piri konkretuli qmedebebis gatarebas dagpirdaT, Tvali adevneT, rogor Seasrulebs amas. 3.7. satelefono kampania zog SemTxvevaSi situacia gadaudebel reagirebas moiTxovs da werilebis werisTvis an oficialur pirebTan SexvedrisTvis dro ar rCeba. aseT dros satelefono kampaniis warmarTvaa SesaZlebeli. satelefono kampania SesaZleblobas mogcemT, piradad da uSualod gamoxatoT Tqveni azri. ramdenime rCeva satelefono kampaniis organizebisTvis: daukavSirdiT TqvenTvis saWiro oficialur pirs ofisSi. waradgineT sakuTari Tavi da Tqveni organizacia (skolis an universitetis saxeli, sainiciativo jgufi, arasamTavrobo organizacia da a. S.)
105

moiTxoveT TqvenTvis saWiro oficialur pirTan uSualod saubari. Tu es ar xerxdeba, maSin SeiZleba, mis moadgilesTan scadoT dakavSireba. magram Tu arc es gamova, mdivans Tqveni telefonis nomeri, saxeli da misamarTi dautoveT da sTxoveT, maTTan mogvianebiT dagakavSiroT. Tu Tqveni kampania bevri satelefono zaris organizebas gulisxmobs, maSin umjobesia, es zarebi ara uSualod oficialurma pirma, aramed misma mdivanma miiRos, vinaidan zedmetad bevri zaris miRebam SesaZloa TqvenTvis saWiro oficialur pirze negatiuri gavlena iqonios da TanamSromloba gaarTulos. datoveT mdivanTan Setyobinebebi da sTxoveT, ufross gadasces, xolo uSualod ufross SeiZleba ramdenime Tqvengani daukavSirdes da uTxras, rom mocemuli sakiTxis Sesaxeb bevri Setyobinebaa datovebuli mdivanTan. Setyobinebebi maqsimalurad mokle unda iyos. rogorc efeqtiani werilebis weris SemTxvevaSi, aqac aucilebelia konkretuli da Camoyalibebuli moTxovnis qona. mzad iyaviT sakiTxis irgvliv informaciis gasacemad _ es, SesaZloa, mogTxovon. satelefono kampaniis dawyebamde daukavSirdiT im (arasamTavrobo) organizaciebs, romlebic TqvenTvis saintereso sakiTxze muSaoben da moipoveT informacia. satelefono qseli satelefono zarebis STambeWdavi raodenobis miRwevaSi aqtivistebisgan Semdgari qselis Camoyalibeba dagexmarebaT, romelic xis gantotebis principiT imoqmedebs. qselis TiToeuli wevri piradad urekavs oficialur pirs da erTsa da imave mosazrebas gadascems. aseTi qseli gansakuTrebiT efeqturia maSin, rodesac deputati an oficialuri piri, romelsac urekavT, sakanonmdeblo an dadgenilebis miRebis procesSi monawileobs da mocemul sakiTxze sazogadoebrivi azri ainteresebs. satelefono qseli ase SeiZleba Seiqmnas: 1. airCieT koordinatori, romelic qselis SenarCunebaze da saWiro dros mis gaaqtiurebaze izrunebs. satelefono kampaniis dawyebisas es pirovneba ramdenime wevrs daukavSirdeba, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, kidev sxva monawileebs gadascemen informacias.

106

2. SeadgineT Tqveni organizaciis wevrebisa da satelefono kampaniis potenciuri monawileebis telefonis nomrebis sia. 3. SearCieT qselis ramdenime wevri da 10 monawilesTan dakavSireba daavaleT. 4. gadaeciT maT dasakavSirebeli wevrebis telefonebi. 5. Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom gzavnili, romelsac avrcelebT, mokled da mkafiod iyos Camoyalibebuli. es gzavnili jer qselSi vrceldeba, Semdeg ki qselis wevrebi da kampaniis monawileebi mas oficialur pirs gadascemen. amdenad, is gasagebad da martivad Camoyalibebuli unda iyos, rom kampaniis yvela monawilem misi Cawera da Semdeg sworad gameoreba SeZlos. 6. SeinarCuneT da xSirad amuSaveT satelefono qseli. SeecadeT, organizeba gaukeToT imas, rom kampaniis dawyebisa da qselis gaaqtiurebis dros gzavnilis mimRebma bolo monawilem qselis koordinators daurekos da Seatyobinos, rom qselis mTliani informireba da amoqmedeba moxerxda. satelefono qselis amuSavebis magaliTi: koordinatori qselis sam wevrs urekavs; TiToeuli wevri, Tavis mxriv, 5 monawiles ukavSirdeba da yovel mexuTes (mTlianobaSi sam wevrs) gzavnilis Semdgom gavrcelebas sTxovs (ukve 18 monawilea informirebuli); samive wevri kidev 5 monawiles ukavSirdeba da yovel mexuTes (mTlianobaSi isev sam wevrs) gzavnilis Semdgom gavrcelebas sTxovs (ukve 33 monawilea informirebuli); samive wevri kidev 5 monawiles ukavSirdeba (mTlianobaSi qselis 48 monawilea informirebuli). 3.8. mediis gamoyeneba masobrivi komunikaciis saSualebebis swori da efeqturi gamoyeneba Zalian mniSvnelovania organizebisa da kampaniis warmatebulad warmarTvisTvis. mediis gamoyeneba Tqveni organizaciis gaZlierebas Seuwyobs xels; es agreTve erT-erTi efeqtiani gzaa Tqvens samizne pirze, anu gadawyvetilebis mimRebze, gavlenis mosaxdenad da zewolis gasaZliereblad. cxadia, amaSi is ar igulisxmeba, rom mediaSi

107

yoveli gamoCenis dros konkretuli gadawyvetilebis mimRebis saxeli unda dasaxeldes. zewola SeiZleba mocemul sakiTxze SemuSavebuli samecniero an sxva saxis daskvnis gamoqveynebamac gaaZlieros, romelic kampaniis samizne pirs uSualod ar daasaxelebs, magram mis pozicias mcdarad da usamarTlod warmoaCens. mediasTan muSaoba mTliani strategiis nawili unda iyos da maSin unda gamoiyenoT, rodesac is maqsimalurad efeqturi iqneba. zog SemTxvevaSi aqtivistebis jgufebi mediasTan kampaniis dasawyisSive iwyeben TanamSromlobas _ magaliTad, rodesac saqme sakanonmdeblo iniciativas exeba da farTo mxardaWeris mopovebas saWiroebs. sxva SemTxvevebSi _ magaliTad, konkretuli politikuri Zalis an oficialuri piris diskreditaciis mizniT mediis gamoyeneba kampaniis Sualedur fazaSi igegmeba, rodesac amisTvis sakmarisi informacia da gamocdileba arsebobs. yvela SemTxvevaSi mediasTan Tqveni urTierToba gaazrebuli da dagegmili unda iyos. nebismieri didi korporaciis msgavsad rogorc samauwyeblo, ise beWdviT medias xSirad ori ZiriTadi mizani aqvs; maT surT fulis keTeba da iseTi politikuri klimatis xelSewyoba, romelic kidev ufro meti fulis Seuferxeblad gakeTebis saSualebas miscems. medias xSirad reklamis Semomtani msxvili kompaniebis interesebic amoZravebs. es kompaniebi, da sakuTriv mediac, im konkretuli politikuri pirebis karieraze arian damokidebuli, romlebic sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo maT mfarveloben. cxadia, media ar warmoadgens yoveldRiuri cxovrebis im obieqtur da miukerZoebel `gamSuqebels~, rogoradac is xSirad Tavis gasaRebas cdilobs. mediis formebis umetesoba konkretul politikur da ekonomikur interesebs atarebs. magram am yvelafris miuxedavad, media mainc SeiZleba Tqvens sasargeblod gamoiyenoT. yvelaze advili iqneba, rom mediasTan TanamSromlobis ar- an verdamyareba mediis politikur an korporaciul kontrols davabraloT. amiT Tavi mxolod maSin SeiZleba gaimarTloT, rodesac JurnalistebTan da reportiorebTan urTierTobis damyareba yvela saWiro meTodiT scadeT, magram Tqveni kampania mainc ar Suqdeba mediaSi. aqtivistebsa da sainiciativo jgufebs SeuZliaT, kampaniis mediaSi efeqtur gaSuqebas miaRwion, da isini xSirad aRweven kidec amas. mTavari, rac unda gaxsovdeT, is aris, rom medias erTi ZiriTadi interesi _ auditoriis gazrda _ amoZravebs. Tu Tqveni qmedeba gazeTebis gayidvas an ufro meti mayureblis/msmenelis mozidvas gamoiwvevs da
108

amavdroulad mediis kerZo interesebs ar emuqreba, Tqveni kampaniis saqmianoba aucileblad gaSuqdeba mediis mier. ZiriTadi, rac mediasTan muSaobis dros unda gaiTvaliswinoT, Semdegia: SeadgineT `mediis sia~, romelSic Jurnalistebis saxeli, telefoni, misamarTi, eleqtronuli fosta da faqsis nomeri iqneba Setanili. SeecadeT, siaSi rac SeiZleba mravalferovani mediis warmomadgenlebi SeiyvanoT (samauwyeblo, beWdviTi, sazogadoebrivi, saxelmwifo, kerZo da a. S.). Tu did qalaqSi cxovrobT, iq albaT mediis saagentoebi iarsebebs; isinic SeiyvaneT siaSi. dagegmili aqciis Sesaxeb mokle gancxadeba (ix. qvemoT) medias aqciamde samiode dRiT adre miawodeT; aqciis wina dRes mediis warmomadgenlebs uSualod daukavSirdiT. piradad SexvdiT Jurnalistebs, tok-Souebisa da sxva gadacemebis wamyvanebs, dijeebs da gazeTebis redaqtorebs. daamyareT da SeinarCuneT maTTan urTierToba, da gaigeT maTi interesebi. Tvali adevneT axal ambebs, gadacemebs da statiebs. daukavSirdiT avtorebs da gamoTqviT Tqveni azri. maT muSaobaze dakvirveba saSualebas mogcemT, sworad gansazRvroT, vin dainteresdeba Tqven mier warmoebuli konkretuli kampaniiT. mzad iyaviT JurnalistebisTvis faqtebis, lakonuri informaciis, citatebis, istoriuli informaciis gadasacemaT. Tu saSualeba gaqvT, maT `eqskluziuri informacia~ SesTavazeT, rac imas niSnavs, rom maT mier gakeTebuli reportaJi mocemul Temas pirveli gaaJRerebs mediaSi. rac SeiZleba swrafad moaxdinoT reagireba Jurnalistis satelefono zarze an imeilze. gamoiyeneT mediasTan urTierTobis yvela ufaso saSualeba: miswereT werilebi gazeTebis redaqtorebs, daukavSirdiT radiosadgurebs da televiziebs. mediis gamoyenebis gzebi nebismierma organizaciam mediis yuradReba ramdenime gziT SeiZleba miipyros _ es konkretuli sakiTxisa da konkretuli strategiis mixedviT unda gansazRvroT. rodesac Tqveni organizacia sakiTxze orientirebuli kampaniis dagegmvas daiwyebs, moifiqreT, ra gziT gamoiyenoT media imisaTvis, rom kampania warmatebulad ganaxorci109

eloT, gaaZlieroT Tqveni organizacia da organizaciis wevrebs Soris liderebi gamoyoT. mediamovlenebi kampaniis organizatrebi da sainiciativo jgufebi xSirad gegmaven da awyoben specialurad mediisTvis gankuTvnil qmedebebs/movlenebs. sxva SemTxvevebSi mediis warmomadgenlebs aqciebis an sxva Sexvedrebis gasaSuqeblad patiJeben, sadac gadawyvetilebis mimRebis mimarT konkretuli moTxovnebi iqneba gamoTqmuli. rogori tipisac ar unda iyos, mediamovlenebi yovelTvis dagexmarebaT Tqveni organizaciisa da misi poziciis farTo sazogadoebisTvis gacnobaSi. meti informacia mediamovlenebis Sesaxeb ixileT qvemoT mocemul qveTavSi `ramdenime rCeva mediasTan muSaobisTvis~. preskonferenciebi preskonferenciebi erT-erTi efeqturi `movlenaa~, romelic mediam SeiZleba gaaSuqos. magram isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom preskonferenciaze mediis warmomadgenlebis moyvana SeiZleba gagiWirdeT, Tu namdvilad mniSvnelovan axal ambavs an raime cnobili movlenis Tanamdev saintereso ambavs ar sTavazobT. preskonferenciis warmateba SeiZleba gamomsvlelebis pirovnebamac gansazRvros, Tuki isini sazogadoebisTvis nacnobi da cnobili adamianebi arian. konferenciis formati saSualebas gaZlevT, medias ara mxolod swrafi informacia SesTavazoT, aramed misi saSualebiT sazogadoebas warudginoT kvlevebi, romlebic mocemuli problemis detalur analizs an vizualur masalas moicaven. SeecadeT preskonferenciaze mxolod ramdenime ZiriTadi gamomsvleli iyos, da ar SeexoT sam sakiTxze mets. sakiTxis arsi pirvelma da mTavarma gamomsvlelma Camoayalibos, Semdeg danarCeni gamomsvlelebi waradginos. Tu politikuri mosazrebebis gamo damatebiTi adamianebis daswreba gesaWiroebaT, sTxoveT maT, gamomsvlelebis ukan dadgnen fotosuraTebze da videomasalaSi gamoCenis mizniT. presrelizebis momzadeba presrelizi ambis an movlenis mTlian da amomwurav gadmocemas emsaxureba. is, rogorc wesi, ori gverdisgan Sedgeba da axali ambis monaTxrobis formatSia dawerili. zogierTma gazeTma Tqveni presrelizi SeiZleba ucvleli saxiTac ki dabeWdos. bevri organizacia
110

amgvar presrelizebs yovelTviurad uSvebs, vinaidan mediaSi moxvedris garda, am gziT Jurnalistebs mudmivad axsenebs organizaciis arsebobis faqts. amis Sedegad Jurnalistebma ician, rom mocemul sakiTxze komentaris mosapoveblad SesaZlebelia organizaciis warmomadgenlebTan dakavSireba. presrelizis savaraudo struqtura aseTia: pirveli paragrafi sakiTxs waradgens. is erTidan sam winadadebas moicavs da ZiriTad SekiTxvebs _ vin? ra? rodis? sad? ratom? da rogor? pasuxobs. pirvelma paragrafma redaqtoris yuradRebis mipyroba unda SeZlos. meore paragrafi wardginebidan detalur informirebaze gadasvlis erTgvari xidis funqcias asrulebs. mesame paragrafi teqstis ZiriTadi nawili unda iyos. wardginebaSi mocemuli informacia aq detalurad unda axsnaT. gamoiyeneT citatebi, faqtebi, romlebic pirvel paragrafSi ar Sevida, da zogadi informacia Tqveni organizaciis Sesaxeb. yuradRebis mipyrobis mizniT daurTeT foto. presrelizis redaqciaSi gagzavnis Semdeg redaqtors telefoniT daukavSirdiT an redaqciaSi midiT. aman SeiZleba Tqven mimarT redaqtoris interesi gazardos. presrelizi blankze dabeWdeT. striqonebs Soris erTnaxevari xazi gamotoveT da gverdebze farTo carieli adgilebi datoveT. gverdis TavSi sakontaqto piris saxeli da koordinatebi moaTavseT, aRniSneT TariRi da daurTeT mokle saTauri. Tu presrelizi erT gverdze mets moicavs, ar dagaviwydeT gverdebis danomvra. relizi nacnob Jurnalists an redaqtors faqsiT an imeiliT gaugzavneT. interviuebi da tok-Souebi rogorc radio, ise satelevizio tok-Souebi yovelTvis eZeben saintereso da axal perspeqtivebs, adamianebs da sakiTxebs. gaicaniT aseTi gadacemebis prodiuserebi da maTi asistentebi, Tundac mxolod telefoniT. Tu saintereso stumrebs gaugzavniT da saintereso masalebs gadascemT, SesaZlebelia, aseT gadacemebSi regularulad migiwvion xolme. SeecadeT, iseTi urTierToba daamyaroT maTTan, rom Tu mimdinare sakiTxebze `moqalaqeebis~ an `arasamTavrobo seqtoris~ mosazreba dasWirdebaT, Tqven dagikavSirdnen. xSirad medias ama Tu
111

im sakiTxis mimarTeba ainteresebs `adamianebis interesebTan~; esec xelsayreli momenti iqneba imisaTvis, rom Tqveni Tavi warmoaCinoT. (mTavar) redaqtorebTan gagzavnili werilebi (mTavar) redaqtorebTan gagzavnili werilebi adgilobriv presaSi Tqvens mosazrebas warmoaCens da SeiZleba im statiebis kontrargumenti iyos, romelTac Tqven ar eTanxmebiT. maT farTo auditoria kiTxulobs, maT Soris arCeuli oficialuri pirebi da gadawyvetilebis sxva mimRebebi. presaSi gamoqveynebuli werilebiT agreTve iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, rom mocemul sakiTxs farTo mxardaWera gaaCnia. werilebi kampaniis msvlelobisas Tqveni organizaciis liderebTan erTad dawereT. es meTodi gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria Tqveni organizaciis an kampaniis/sakiTxis Sesaxeb gamoqveynebuli statiebis sapasuxod. SeecadeT, Tqveni werili maqsimalurad mokle iyos, rom redaqtorebma raime ar amoWran. iyaviT pirdapiri. werilSi erTi (an maqsimum ori) mosazreba gamoTqviT. gaxsovdeT, rom werilebs xSirad amokleben, amitom mosazreba mokled da gasagebad CamoayalibeT pirvelive paragrafSi. SeecadeT werilis pirvelive frazidan miipyroT mkiTxvelis yuradReba. iyaviT drouli. upasuxeT konkretul statias, romelic mocemul gazeTSi gamoqveynda, an konkretul movlenas, romelic axlo warsulSi moxda. moiyvaneT im statiis saTauri, avtori da gamoqveynebis dRe, romelsac eTanxmebiT an ar eTanxmebiT. moiyvaneT argumentirebuli faqtebi. Tu sakiTxi, romelsac exebiT, sakamaToa, SegiZliaT, werils sxva sabuTebic daurToT. magram nurc zedmetad bevri masaliT datvirTavT redaqtors. uaryaviT an daeTanxmeT konkretul mosazrebebs, daumateT is faqtebi, romlebic ignorirebuli iyo, magram moerideT redaqtorebisa da Jurnalistebis Seuracxyofas. gaiTvaliswineT Tqveni auditoria. SeecadeT, werili profesionalis poziciidan daweroT _ gaxsovdeT, rom megobars ar swerT. gaiTvaliswineT is auditoria, romelic gazeTs kiTxulobs. ar gamoiyenoT zedmetad bevri teqnikuri termini _ werili damajerebeli da advilad gasagebi unda iyos yvela mkiTxvelisTvis.

112

socialuri reklama socialuri reklama efeqturi gzaa sazogadoebis informirebisTvis adamianisa da samoqalaqo uflebebis Sesaxeb. mediis bevri forma socialur reklamas ufasod aTavsebs eTerSi. daukavSirdiT adgilobrivi mediis warmomadgenlebs da socialuri reklamis ganTavsebis zusti pirobebi gaigeT. SeiZleba maT reklamis SeqmnaSi daxmarebac ki SemogTavazon. socialuri reklama farTo auditoriazea gaTvlili. man mniSvnelovani da yuradsaRebi ambis STabeWdileba unda moaxdinos. SeecadeT, reklama advilad dasamaxsovrebeli iyos. msmenels/mayurebels miawodeT Tqvens organizaciasTan dasakavSirebeli koordinatebi: telefonis nomeri, eleqtronuli fostis da vebgverdis misamarTebi. mzad iyaviT satelefono zarebis gazrdili raodenobis misaRebad. gamoiyeneT zusti faqtebi, TariRebi da saxelebi. upasuxeT SekiTxvebs: vin? ra? ratom? rodis? sad? da rogor? Caweramde teqsti xmamaRla waikiTxeT da darwmundiT, rom advilad da uproblemod ikiTxeba. gaiTvaliswineT da CaetieT drois gansazRvrul limitSi. rodesac Tqveni socialuri reklama eTerSi moxvdeba, redaqtors (an wamyvans) daukavSirdiT da madloba gadauxadeT. ramdenime rCeva mediasTan muSaobisTvis am qveTavSi mocemuli rCevebi dagexmarebaT rogorc mediamovlenebisa da preskonferenciebis dagegmvaSi, ise mediis yuradRebis mipyrobaSi sxva qmedebebis dros. ecadeT, mkafiod ganasxvaoT erTmaneTisgan sxvadasxva movlenebisa Tu qmedebebis mediasTan mimarTeba. mediamovlenebi da preskonferenciebi sagangebod mediisTvis imarTeba; maT auditorias mediis warmomadgenlebi Sedgenen, mizani ki mediaSi gaSuqebaa. Tu sagangebod mediisTvis gamarTuli movlena mediis mier ar gaSuqdeba, maSin is yvelanair azrs kargavs. sxva saxis movlenebs, magaliTad, saprotesto aqciebs, piketebs, ralis da/an donorebisTvis gamarTul pikniks mediisgan damoukidebeli funqcia gaaCniaT, romelic mediaSi gaSuqebiT SeiZleba mxolod gaizardos da gaZlierdes. cxadia, es ar niSnavs, rom sagangebod mediisTvis gamarTuli movlena mxolod Tqveni jgufis warmomadgenlebis mier gancxadebis gakeTebiT SeiZleba Semoifarglos. yovelTvis ukeTesia, Tu
113

movlenaSi Tqveni gadawyvetilebis mimRebis CarTvas SeZlebT _ magaliTad, misi ofisis win aqciis gamarTviT da Semdeg peticiebiT an moTxovnebiT uSualod masTan (an mis mdivanTan) SesvliT. rogorc wesi, am etapze gamarjvebas ar unda elodeT. es gza ufro gadawyvetilebis mimRebze zewolis gaZlierebaSi dagexmarebaT, vinaidan sajarod amxelT mis araswor, usamarTlo an arapopularul pozicias/ nabijs. mediamovlenis dagegmva mkveTri frazis mofiqrebiT daiwyeT, romelsac Tqveni aqciis erTgvar saTaurad gamoiyenebT. mkafiod CamoayalibeT Tqveni moTxovna da auditorias daskvnebis gakeTebis saSualeba mieciT. mediis warmomadgenlebs dagegmili aqciis Taobaze mokle gancxadebiT SeatyobineT. upasuxeT ZiriTad SekiTxvebs: vin? ra? sad? rodis? da ratom? dasawyisSive aRniSneT, rom mediis warmomadgenlebs aqciaze foto- da videogadaRebis saSualeba eqnebaT. aqtivistebi xSirad Secdomas uSveben da am teqstSi zedmetad bevr informacias aTavseben xolme. yofila SemTxvevebi, rodesac jgufi raime kvlevis Sedegebis gamosacxadebel aqcias awyobda da kvlevis mTel teqsts winaswar urigebda medias. Tu aqciaze mosvlamde Jurnalistebs siuJetis gakeTebisTvis an statiis dawerisTvis sakmaris informacias miawvdiT, SegiZliaT, ivaraudoT, rom isini aqciaze marTlac ar gamocxaddebian. maT SeiZleba Tqven mier werilobiT miwodebuli informacia _ Tqveni komentarebisa da vizualuri mxaris gareSe – mosawyenadac CaTvalon da saerTod ar gaaSuqon. ase rom, ecadeT, gancxadeba mokle da mkafio iyos da damatebiTi informaciis mopovebis survils aRZravdes. SeecadeT, Tqven mier dagegmil da Catarebul aqcias Rirebuli axali ambis mniSvneloba misceT. Tu prezidenti, rok-varskvlavi an mafiis bosi ar xarT, mxolod Tqveni mosazrebis gamoTqmis aqti ar SeiZleba axal ambavad CaiTvalos. mediamovlenas mxolod imis gamo ver moawyobT, rom xalxs ama Tu im sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. Tqveni ukmayofilebis Sesaxeb mouTxroT. aseTi movlena axali ambavi unda iyos, e. i. erT-erT Semdeg punqts unda akmayofilebdes: adamianebis didi raodenoba eswreba da monawileobs aqciaSi. mediis TvalsazrisiT, Tu movlenam amdeni xalxi ise daainteresa, rom isini uSualod gamocxaddnen, maSin kidev ufro bevri adamiani waikiTxavs mis Sesaxeb.
114

Tqveni aqcia `axali ambebis momxden~, cnobil pirovnebas mihyavs. magram gaiTvaliswineT, rom e. w. `cnobili saxeebis~ xSirma gamoyenebam SeiZleba Tqveni organizaciis SigniT liderebis gamokveTas SeuSalos xeli. Tqven dainteresebuli unda iyoT organizaciis liderebis adgilobriv `cnobil saxeebad~ qcevaSi, romlebic uSualod moizidaven medias. amdenad, aqciis wamyvanebad cnobili adamianebis garedan dapatiJeba TqvenTvis iSviaTi praqtika unda gaxdes. aqciis wamyvanebi acxadeben axali qmedebis dasawyiss, _ mag., `Cven qalaqis meris gadayenebisTvis xelowerebis Segrovebas viwyebT~. realuri gadayenebis safrTxis Seqmnis SesaZlebloba Tqvens aqcias axali ambebisTvis Sesaferis movlenad aqcevs. es ase ar iqneboda, Tqven rom ubralod amdgariyaviT da geTqvaT: `Cveni azriT, meri unda gadadges~. mimdinare da nacnob ambavs axali informacia emateba. magaliTad, aqciaze cxaddeba, rom samSeneblo kompania, romelic qrTamis micemaSia mxilebuli, cnobil politikoss ekuTvnis. aqciaze yvelasTvis moulodneli informaciis gamocxadeba axali ambis Seqmnis erT-erTi meTodia. axali ambavi SegiZliaT Zveli an mimdinare problemis axleburi gadawyvetiTac SeqmnaT. Tqven mier organizebuli aqcia bevrad advilad moxvdeba sainformacio gamoSvebebSi, Tu sakiTxi, romelsac aqcia eZRvneba, qveyanaSi momdinare movlenas ukavSirdeba, magaliTad, Tu Tqveni aqcia im dRes parlamentSi ganxilul sakiTxs eZRvneba. aseT SemTxvevebSi SeecadeT, aqcia parlamentis sxdomis drois gaTvaliswinebiT dagegmoT, rom mediis warmomadgenlebma am ori movlenis gaSuqeba da erTmaneTTan dakavSireba SeZlon. izruneT aqciis vizualur mxareze. dRes ara mxolod samauwyeblo, aramed beWdviTi mediac mniSvnelovnad aris orientirebuli vizualur mxareze. ecadeT, gaiazroT, rogor gamoCndeba Tqveni aqcia. medias ar uyvars `molaparake Tavebi~, ase rom, aqcia Senobis gareT gamarTeT da SeecadeT, medias saintereso `suraTebi~ da adamianebi SesTavazoT. maSinac ki, rodesac statias foto ar axlavs, teqstis nawili Jurnalistis mier aqciaze nanaxi scenebi iqneba. SeecadeT, rom Tqveni organizaciis saxelwodebis aRmniSvneli niSnebi yvelgan iyos. gamomsvlelebis fonad plakatebi gamoitaneT. aqciaze mosul adamianebs plakatebisa da lozunge115

bis daWera sTxoveT. urigo ar iqneba, Tu Tqveni organizacia mudmivi daniSnulebis plakatis Seqmnaze izrunebs, romelic Tqveni saxelisa da, Tu SesaZlebelia, logos gamomxatveli iqneba da romelsac yvela aqciaze scenis an magidis Tavze aRmarTavT. gamomsvlelebs aseve SeuZliaT Tqveni organizaciis gamomxatveli samagrebis an Rilebis gakeTeba. Tu aseTebi ar mogepovebaT, organizaciis saxeli qaRaldis furclebze dawereT da warmomadgenlebs gaukeTeT, raTa isini advili SesamCnevi iyvnen kamerebis mier. efeqtur vizualur mxares warmoadgens agreTve didi zomis lozungi an mTavari mosazrebis sailustracio cxrili. rac ar unda airCioT, gaxsovdeT, rom vizualuri gaformeba fotoze dafiqsirebis funqcias emsaxureba _ is ar SeiZleba droSi gawelili procesi iyos. preskonferenciis an aqciis dawyebamde Tvalebi daxuWeT da warmoidgineT, rom kamera gaqvT. darwmundiT, rom Tqven mier dagegmili movlenis vizualuri mxare efeqturia: mkafiod warmoaCens aqciis Sinaarss da dasamaxsovrebels xdis Tqveni organizaciis saxelwodebas. SeimuSaveT `xmovani citata~, romelic mTeli aqciis Tanmdevi fraza iqneba da vizualur mxareSic aisaxeba. es citata yvela gamomsvlelma unda gamoiyenos. daexmareT Jurnalistebs. rogorc nebismieri Cvengani, Jurnalistebi xSirad daRlilebi an samuSaoTi ukmayofiloni arian. miawodeT maT mkafiod Camoyalibebuli informacia da SeecadeT, rom am informacias mSrali faqtebis nacvlad garkveuli ambis forma hqondes. es mediis warmomadgenlebs Tqveni aqciis gaSuqebas gauadvilebs. icnobdeT mediis warmomadgenlebs. JurnalistebTan da redaqtorebTan piradi urTierTobebis damyareba ramdenime aspeqtis gamo aris Tqvens interesebSi. SeecadeT, gaigoT, vin aSuqebs Tqvens Tematikas da piradad gaicnoT is. pativi eciT Jurnalistebis patiosnebas da profesias. gaxsovdeT, rom maT uSualod axali ambebis gaSuqeba evalebaT da ara xelovnurad dadgmuli movlenebisa, romelsac Tqven mxolod mediaSi gaSuqebisTvis awyobT. maSinac ki, rodesac JurnalistebTan axlo urTierToba gaqvT, gaxsovdeT, rom araferi ar SeiZleba saidumlod darCes. Tu ar gsurT, rom raime daibeWdos, ar TqvaT; Tu ar gsurT, rom raime televiziiT gadaices, ar gaakeToT. Cven, rogorc wesi, vTvliT, rom informacias Jurnalistebs Cven vawvdiT. magram Tu megobruli urTier116

Tobebis damyarebas SeZlebT da Jurnalistebs Tqveni daxmareba moundebaT, isini informaciis SesaniSnav wyarod gadaiqcevian TqvenTvis. gaxsovdeT aseve, rom piradi urTierTobis damyarebis SemTxvevaSi Jurnalistebi, romlebic Tqvens Tematikas regularulad aSuqeben, xSirad mogakiTxaven xolme komentarisTvis. informaciaSi CarTeT `adamianis perspeqtiva~. adamianebze radioaqtiuri narCenebis gavlenis kvleva SeiZleba mosawyenad JRerdes, magram narCenebTan axlos mcxovrebi ojaxis gancxadebiT sakiTxs adamianuri perspeqtiva da gamocdileba daemateba. aseTi `adamianis perspeqtiva~, sasurvelia, yvela mediamovlenas gaaCndes, sadac Cveulebrivi adamianebi TavianT uSualo gamocdilebas mohyvebian. movlena, romelzec mxolod eqspertebi an politikosebi laparakoben, SeiZleba mediam gaaSuqos, magram savaraudod mosawyeni da zedmetad oficialuri gamova. gaiTvaliswineT gamarTlebis mniSvneloba. rogorc yovelTvis, karg an cud beds mediamovlenebis organizebaSic didi mniSvneloba aqvs. SesaZloa, Tqven marTlac Zalian mniSvnelovani axali ambavi an SesaniSnavad dagegmili aqcia gqondeT, magram Tu qveyanaSi miwisZvra moxdeba an prezidentis irgvliv raime skandali agordeba, im dRes media Tqven ar gagaSuqebT. meore mxriv, SesaZloa, Tqveni aqcia arafriT gamorCeul dRes daemTxves da saRamos sainformacio gamoSvebebis varskvlavad iqceT. es kanonzomieria. aqcia mudmivad akontroleT. imisaTvis, rom profesionalurad gamoiyurebodeT, ar aris saWiro sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis specialisti iyoT. gamoyaviT magida mediis warmomadgenlebisTvis, sadac isini monacemebs datoveben (Tqven ki amas mediis sias daumatebT). daarigeT mediisTvis gankuTvnili saqaRaldeebi, romlebSic uSualod am movlenisTvis momzadebuli Tqveni gancxadeba da Tqveni organizaciisa da sakiTxis Sesaxeb damatebiTi informacia iqneba moTavsebuli. gamoyaviT erT-erTi wevri, romelic mediis warmomadgenlebs Sexvdeba da aqciaze gamomsvlelebs gaacnobs. daarigeT gamomsvlelebis saxelebis sia (im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini sxva organizacias warmoadgenen, miuTiTeT misi saxelwodeba). gaiTvaliswineT Jurnalistebis muSaobis stili. zogierT karg Jurnalists wera bevrad ukeT exerxeba, vidre uSualo urTierToba. ar ganawyendeT, Tuki isini laparaks Segawyvetineben da axal SekiTxvas dagisvamen.
117

SeqmeniT mediisTvis saintereso vebgverdi. rac ufro aqtiuri iqneba Tqveni organizacia, miT ufro meti Jurnalisti naxavs Tqvens vebgverds organizaciis istoriisa da qmedebebis gasacnobad. veb-gverdi mediasTan Tqveni muSaobis zogadi strategiis aucilebeli komponentia. Tavi aarideT sasamarTloSi Civilis SesaZleblobas. yvelaze martivi, rac SeiZleba gaakeToT imisaTvis, rom ar giCivlon, frazebis `viRacis mixedviT~, `rogorc amboben~ gamoyenebaa maSin, rodesac iciT, rom marTals ambobT, magram isic iciT, rom amis damtkiceba rTuli iqneba. arasodes TqvaT iseTi ram, rac SeiZleba araswori an Wori iyos. gamomsvlelebis momzadeba mediamovlenebisTvis rogorc wesi, adamianebs uyvarT, rodesac maTi saxeli presaSi ibeWdeba; da gansakuTrebiT siamovnebT, rodesac sakuTar fotosuraTebs an gamosaxulebas xedaven gazeTebsa Tu televizorSi. aqtivistebs da liderebs sakuTari Tavis mediaSi warmoCenis msgavsad araferi aniWebT Tavdajerebulobasa da Rirebuli saqmis keTebis gancdas. mniSvnelovani faqtoria is, Tu vin iZleva interviuebs da vis uReben mediis warmomadgenlebi fotosuraTebs. mediis winaSe Tqveni organizaciis liderebi unda wardgnen xolme _ adamianebi, romlebic realur saqmes akeTeben da mxolod gamarTuli laparakis niWiT ar gamoirCevian. mediis winaSe nu gamoiyvanT iseT `moxaliseebs~, romlebic kampaniaSi arc ise bevr saqmes akeTeben. SesaZlebelia, zogierT liders Tavdapirvelad eridebodes an rcxvenodes mediis winaSe gamosvla. aseT SemTxvevebSi maT sakuTar Tavze muSaoba da varjiSi mouwevT, SesaZlebelia, videokameris winaSec. gaxsovdeT, rom TiTqmis yvela pirovnebas, visac kargad gamosdis mediasTan urTierToba, Tavdapirvelad rcxvenoda da eSinoda amis. aqciis dawyebamde sasurvelia, gamomsvlelebTan repeticia gaiaroT. romelime Tqvenganma Jurnalistis roli iTamaSos da gamomsvlels SekiTxvebi dausvas. CamoayalibeT mokle da mkafio pasuxebi, romlebSic aqciis mTavar lozungebs da sakiTxebs gaimeorebT. mediis winaSe gamomsvlelebs auxseniT, rom isini organizaciis saxeliT ilaparakeben da, Sesabamisad, mxolod organizaciis pozicia unda `gaaxmovanon~. Tu maTTvis es pozicia bolomde misaRebi ar aris, maSin gamomsvlelis funqciaze uari unda Tqvan. repeticiis dros SeecadeT, yvela mosalodneli SekiTxva dasvaT, rom gamomsvlelebma winaswar SeZlon
118

maTze pasuxebis Camoyalibeba. magram isic gaxsovdeT, rom ar aris aucilebeli, gamomsvlelma yvela SekiTxvas gasces amomwuravi pasuxi. Tu konkretul SekiTxvaze pasuxi ar aqvT, dasaSvebia, ase upasuxon: `ar vici, am sakiTxis Taobaze mogvianebiT gagcemT pasuxs~; an `Cvens organizacias am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT jer ar SeumuSavebia pozicia~. sasurvelia, Tu liderebis pasuxebi aqciis ZiriTad sakiTxebze koncentrirebuli darCeba iseT SemTxvevebSic, roca Jurnalistis SekiTxva sxva mimarTulebiT aris dasmuli. yvela mzad unda iyos, rom pasuxebSi organizaciis saxelwodeba iyos naxsenebi. SekiTxvaze `ratom xarT aq?~ organizaciis yvela gamomsvlelma unda upasuxos: `(mag.) `mravalferovani saqarTvelo~ dRes aq imisTvis aris, rom...~ organizaciis saxelwodebis xSiri xseneba amcirebs imis SesaZleblobas, rom aqciis Sesaxeb statiebsa Tu siuJetebSi Tqven `erT-erT arasamTavrobo organizaciad~ mogixsenion. 3.9. saganmanaTleblo aqciebi araformaluri leqciebi da saubrebi kampaniis erT-erT formad yvelaze aqtiurad 1960-iani wlebis amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi gamoiyeneboda, rodesac eklesiebsa Tu klubebSi Sekrebili axalgazrdebi hovard Turmanisa da martin luTer king-umcrosisgan rasobrivi diskriminaciis sakiTxebsa da rasizmis winaaRmdeg organizebis gzebs swavlobdnen. es, SeiZleba iTqvas, gasul saukuneSi ganxorcielebuli yvelaze warmatebuli araformaluri leqciebis cikli iyo. es forma Tqvenc SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT. gansazRvreT, ris gakeTeba gsurT. es Tqvens auditoriaze da Tqveni aqciis masStaburobaze iqneba damokidebuli. SegiZliaT, aCvenoT filmi, moiwvioT gamomsvleli, moawyoT studentebisa da leqtorebis forumi, CaataroT vorkSopi konkretuli sakiTxisa Tu meTodis irgvliv. Tqven am yvelafris erTad ganxorcielebac da movlenisTvis konferenciis darqmevac SegiZliaT. zogierTi studenturi dajgufeba ori nawilisgan Semdgar saganmanaTleblo aqciebs awyobs: jer films uCvenebs, Semdeg ki interaqtiur seminars awyobs aqtivizmis praqtikis Sesaxeb. dajavSneT oTaxi, SeipireT gamomsvlelebi (iqonieT alternatiuli gegma im SemTxvevisTvis, Tu gamomsvlelebi ar gamocxaddebian), SeamowmeT, rom Tqveni aqcia koncerts, fexburTis matCs an sxva raime popularul movlenas ar emTxveodes, moiZieT vizualu119

ri masalis aparatura (televizori, video), moamzadeT an iSoveT saganmanaTleblo broSurebi da moimarageT sasmeli da sakvebi. leqciis Tu seminaris Sesaxeb informacia farTod gaavrceleT. Tqveni saganmanaTleblo aqcia azrs dakargavs, Tu msmenelebis moyvanas ver SeZlebT. skolebSi, institutebSi, universitetebSi Tu sxva axalgazrdul dawesebulebebSi gaakariT plakatebi saganmanaTleblo aqciis Sesaxeb. Tu amis saSualeba ar gaqvT, SegiZliaT informacia dafebze carciT daweroT. SeatyobineT megobrebs da amxanagebs; daeswariT sxva aqciebs da potenciurad dainteresebul adamianebs Tqven mier dagegmili movlenis Sesaxeb uTxariT. leqcia Tu seminari winaswar dagegmeT da SeecadeT, rom mxiaruli da interaqtiuri iyos. moifiqreT saxaliso dasawyisi, rom auditoriam Tavidanve kargad igrZnos Tavi. saganmanaTleblo aqciis dasrulebis Semdeg SeecadeT, mas gagrZeleba misceT. damswre auditorias sakontaqto monacemebi gamoarTviT da Semdgomi nabijebis Sesaxeb informacia miawodeT. SeecadeT, maT myisieri qmedebis saSualebac misceT, magaliTad, saganmanaTleblo aqciaze garCeul sakiTxTan dakavSirebul werilebis weris kampaniaSi CarTva SesTavazeT. saganmanaTleblo aqciebis efeqturi formebia agreTve araformaluri debatebisa Tu diskusiebis mowyoba. es axalgazrdebs sakamaTo sakiTxebze sakuTari poziciis gamovlenas aswavlis da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis uflebis gamoyenebaSi daexmareba. amisaTvis universitetis kafe, baRi an sxva saerTo sivrce SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT. SeecadeT, diskusiebSi mravalferovani da gansxvavebuli xmebi CarToT. moiwvieT sxvadasxva interesebis, miswrafebebisa Tu Sexedulebebis mqone adamianebi. gaxsovdeT, rom aseT SemTxvevebSi aucilebelia problemis mkafiod dasma; winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi diskusia SesaZloa ukontrolo da zogadi gamovides. gaiTvaliswineT, rom aseTi Sekrebebi xmauriani iqneba da darwmundiT, rom amiT xels aravis uSliT. 3.10. demonstraciebis mowyoba axalgazrdebs masobrivi demonstraciebis organizebasa da CatarebaSi mniSvnelovani rolis TamaSi SeuZliaT. dasavleTis qveynebis universitetebSi TiTqmis yoveldRiurad imarTeba SedarebiT mciremasStabiani studenturi aqciebi. demonstraciis forma imis mixedviT unda gansazRvroT, Tu ra aris Tqveni mTavari mizani _ raimes emxro120

biT Tu protests gamoxatavT. demonstraciis ZiriTadi formebi ki Semdegia: sanTlebi: rogorc wesi, es forma wynari saRamos demonstraciisas gamoiyeneba, romelic, Tavis mxriv, daRupuli adamianebis an raime tragikuli movlenis xsovnas eZRvneba. mjdomare aqcia: es forma sazogadoebrivi an kerZo sivrcis dakavebas gulisxmobs _ romelic, rogorc wesi, gadawyvetilebis mimRebis ofisia xolme. aqciis monawileebi moTxovniT gamodian da sivrces manamde ar toveben, sanam maTi moTxovna ar dakmayofildeba an mis Sesaxeb molaparakebebi ar daiwyeba. msvleloba: es forma gulisxmobs jgufs, romlis wevrebsac plakatebi moaqvT da xmamaRali SeZaxilebiT modian. msvleloba konkretul adgilas iwyeba da sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobis adgilas mTavrdeba. igi miznad gzavnilis sazogadoebamde da gadawyvetilebis mimRebebamde mitanas isaxavs. piketireba: aq igulisxmeba jgufi, romelic konkretuli Senobis an ofisis irgvliv moZraobs da SigniT myof adamianebs gadaadgilebis saSualebas ar aZlevs konkretuli moTxovnis dakmayofilebamde an molaparakebebis dawyebamde. demonstraciis yvela forma winaswar Catarebul did samuSaos _ dagegmvas, administrirebas da organizebas _ moiTxovs. demonstracia yovelTvis farTo strategiis erT-erTi komponenti unda iyos. ramdenime rCeva demonstraciebis organizebisTvis: CamoayalibeT organizatorebis birTvi. kampaniis monawileebs konkretuli funqciebi mianiWeT, rogoricaa mediasTan urTierToba, informaciis gavrceleba, nebarTvebis koordinireba Tu sxv. izruneT demonstraciaze mosuli xalxis ricxvze. es mniSvnelovani sakiTxia, vinaidan sazogadoebac da mediac Tqven mier mobilizebuli adamianebis ricxvs Tqveni kampaniis popularobasTan aigivebs. SeimuSaveT demonstraciis Sesaxeb informaciis gavrcelebis gegma da SeecadeT maqsimalurad bevri adamiani moizidoT. moipoveT nebarTvebi. gaarkvieT, gesaWiroebaT Tu ara oficialuri nebarTva Tqven mier arCeul adgilas demonstraciis gasamarTavad da SeecadeT mis mopovebas. es Tavidan agacilebT unebarTvobis sababiT demonstraciis daSlis SesaZleblobas. Tu Tqveni aqcia dapatimrebis risks gulisxmobs, demonstraciaze gamocdili iuristebi moiwvieT damkvirveblebad. icodeT Tqveni uflebebi da movaleobebi.
121

moimarageT saWiro aRWurviloba. darwmundiT, rom yvelaferi gaqvT, rac SeiZleba dagWirdeT (mikrofonebi, megafonebi, plakatebi, broSurebi, sawvimari gadasafareblebi da pirveli samedicino daxmarebis sagnebi). Tan iqonieT mediisTvis gankuTvnili informacia. erTad moaTavseT faqtebis monacemebi, Tqveni jgufis mier mTavari redaqtorebisTvis miwerili werilebi, presrelizebi da Tqven mier dasmuli sakiTxis gadaWris rekomendirebuli gzebi. moifiqreT lozungebi da SeZaxilebi. SeadgineT advilad dasamaxsovrebeli lozungi da demonstraciaze xmamaRla iyvireT. gaxsovdeT: Tqveni lozungi TviTmiznurad agresiulad da zedmetad gamomwvevad ar unda JRerdes, vinaidan es xalxis gaucxovebas gamoiwvevs. Tqveni mTavari mizani ki maTi informireba da mxardaWeris mopovebaa. SeadgineT plakatebi da bairaRebi. SeecadeT, isini maqsimalurad mkafio iyos da rac SeiZleba didi asoebiT eweros. quCaSi gamvlelebis umetesobas arc survili eqneba da arc dro imisaTvis, rom demonstrantebs uSualod gamoelaparakos. amitom maTi yuradReba swored plakatebiT unda miipyroT. gaakeTebineT da gamoiyeneT didi Tojinebi. adamianis zomis Tojinebs Tqven mier dasmuli sakiTxis kidev ufro mwvaved warmoCena da mediisTvis SesaniSnavi vizualuri masalis miwodeba SeuZliaT. SeecadeT, gamoiyenoT isini. SekribeT gamomsvlelebi. SeadgineT demonstraciaze gamomsvleli adamianebis mravalferovani jgufi. sxvebTan erTad am jgufSi, ecadeT, aucileblad SeiyvanoT adamianebi, romlebzec Tqven mier dasmuli sakiTxi uSualo gavlenas axdens. SeecadeT, gamomsvlelebi sxvadasxva socialur, asakobriv Tu eTnikur jgufs ekuTvnodnen. TiToeul gamomsvlels drois mokle reglamenti dauweseT, vinaidan es demonstraciaa da ara saganmanaTleblo aqcia. gaiTvaliswineT drois faqtori. demonstracia iseT dros daamTxvieT, rodesac gadawyvetilebis mimRebebi axlos iqnebian, magaliTad, Sekrebaze an sxdomaze. gaiTvaliswineT amindi. Tu demonstracia Ria cis qveS ewyoba, SesaZlebelia, wvimam SegiSaloT xeli. sasurvelia, aseTi SemTxvevebisTvis an raime sivrce gagaCndeT, an darigebul broSurebze daweroT wvimis gamo gadadebuli demonstraciis xelaxali gamarTvis TariRi.
122

maqsimalurad ecadeT, CandeT. demonstracia iseT adgilas gamarTeT, sadac didi moZraoba iqneba (rogorc manqanebis, ise fexiT mosiaruleebis). 3.11. SemoqmedebiTi aqciebi Cveni dRevandeli cxovreba mudmiv stressa da drois naklebobas ukavSirdeba, rac sakmaod arTulebs Tqveni kampaniisadmi adamianebis yuradRebis mopovebas. SemoqmedebiTi aqciebis mowyoba erT-erTi yvelaze efeqturi gzaa ara marto yuradRebis miqcevisTvis, aramed adamianebis informirebisTvis ama Tu im sakiTxze. SemoqmedebiTi aqciebis mowyobisas, sasurvelia, Semdegi rCevebi gaiTvaliswinoT: aqcia konkretul mizans an sakiTxs miuZRveniT. aucilebeli ar aris, Teatralizebuli sanaxaoba moawyoT. SegiZliaT, didi zomis plakati an sxva vizualuri nivTi moamzadoT da am process SemoqmedebiTad miudgeT. gaecaniT istorias _ samoqalaqo uflebebisTvis brZolas (martin luTer king-umcrosi), araZaladobriv aqciebs (gandi), aparTeidis winaaRmdeg mimarTul aqciebs (samxreTi afrika) da sxva. SeiswavleT warsulSi gamoyenebuli meTodebi da gaiTvaliswineT rogorc maTi warmateba, ise sirTuleebi. gTavazobT SemoqmedebiTi aqciis ramdenime magaliTs: 100 skami SeerTebuli Statebis mosaxleobas Soris ekonomikuri mdgomareobis uTanasworobis demonstrirebisTvis erT-erTma jgufma aqcia moawyo. universitetis ezoSi, xalxmraval adgilas, 100 skami dadges; aTi adamiani 70 skamze wamowva, danarCeni 90 ki 30 skamze cdilobda moTavsebas. amiT jgufs statistikuri monacemebis Cveneba surda, romlis mixedviTac, amerikis mosaxleobis 10 procenti simdidris 70 procents flobda, rodesac yvela danarCens (90 procents) mxolod 30 procenti gaaCnda. SegiZliaT, es modeli SecvaloT da asis magivrad aTi skami da aTi monawile gamoiyenoT; an imave modeliT sxva statistikuri monacemebi gadmosceT.

123

adamianebis diagrama erT kuTxeSi asi aqtivisti dgas, meoreSi ki mxolod erTi. plakati an aqciaze gamomsvleli aqtivisti gvixsnis, rom asi adamiani ministris xelfasis simboloa, xolo erTi _ pensioneris Semosavlis. interaqtiuri Teatri moifiqreT mokle, xuTwuTiani sketCi raime sakiTxze (magaliTad, SimSilze, usaxlkarobaze, Seuwynareblobaze, qsenofobiaze). SeecadeT, sketCi provokaciuli iyos. auditorias sketCi mTlianad aCveneT. mere Tavidan daiwyeT da mayurebels saSualeba mieciT, nebismier momentSi gagaCeroT. is, vinc sketCs gaaCerebs, misi monawile xdeba da Sinaarss ucvlis. aqciis bolos diskusia gamarTeT da sketCis warmodgenili variantebi gaaanalizeT. partizanuli Teatri moifiqreT dadgma, romelic Tqvens sakiTxs dramatulad warmoaCens, da `warmodgena~ moulodnel adgilas moawyveT. 1980-ian wlebSi es meTodi SeerTebul StatebSi xSirad gamoiyeneboda da sadamsjelo razmebis mier centralur amerikaSi ganxorcielebuli adamianebis gatacebebisa da mkvlelobebis winaaRmdeg protestis gamoxatvas isaxavda miznad. studentebi `gatacebis~ inscenirebas universitetis kafeebSi awyobdnen da scenis dasrulebis Semdeg auditorias mis mniSvnelobas uxsnidnen. am sanaxaobam bevri studenti CarTo centraluri amerikis solidarobis moZraobaSi.

124

gamoyenebuli masalebi
1. Ackerman, Peter and Kruegler, Christopher (1994) Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: The Dynamics of People Power in the Twentieth Century, Westport: Praeger 2. Bobo, Kim, Kendall, Jackie and Max, Steve (1991/2001) Organizing for Social Change: Midwest academy Manual for activists, Santa ana: Seven Locks Press 3. Helvey, Robert (2004) On Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: Thinking about the Fundamentals, 2004, Boston: The albert Einstein Institution 4. Miller, Chris (2005) Understanding Strategic Nonviolent Struggle: Case analysis of the Georgian “Rose Revolution”, unpublished paper 5. Sharp, Gene (1973/2000) The Politics of Nonviolent action, Boston: Porter Sargent Publishers 6. Just add Consciousness: a Guide to Social activism, document created by Oxfam, Campus Outreach Opportunity, and Bread for the World, at http://www.oxfamamerica.org/newsandpublications/publications/fast_materials/ add_consciousness 7. “Political Power” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_power 8. Materials provided by CANVAS, Centre for applied Non Violent action and Strategies, Belgrade, at http://www.canvasopedia.org

125

www.liberty.ge
Tavisuflebis instituti
Tbilisi 0108, griboedovis 23 / tel.: 93 66 15, faqsi: 93 67 84 / el-fosta: liberty@liberty.ge

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful