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02 and M = 25

cm.

a. Calculate the critical volume for a bare cylinder with a height to diameter ratio

of one.

b. Calculate the critical volume of a bare sphere.

Which of the two volumes did you expect to be larger? Why?

Let M = B for convenience

Setting k = 1 , k 1.02 and L = 25 cm. in Eq. (7.6), we have

B 2 (1.02 1) / 252 3.2 105 cm 2

1.02

1 252 B 2 or

For a cylinder with a height to diameter ratio of one: 2R=D=H: and thus

2

2

2

2

33.0

2.405

4.810

2

B

2

R D

D

H

D

For the Cylindrical volume Vc

D 2 H 1 4 D 3 822.707 m3

2

2

2

2

For the sphere B ( / R) R / B 5.554m

3

3

4

For the spherical volume Vs 3 R 717.484m

Since the sphere is the most compact shape, you would expect it to have a smaller

leakage than any other object of the same volume.

[7.3] Critical assemblies for studying the properties of fast reactors are sometimes

built in halves as shown in the figure. The two halves are maintained in subcritical

states by separating them with sufficient distance that neutronic coupling between the

two is negligible; they are then brought together for form a critical assembly.

Suppose the core composition under investigation has an infinite medium

multiplication of 1.36, and a migration length of 18.0 cm. The assembly is configured

with a height to diameter ratio of one ( H = D). Neglecting extrapolation distances:

a. Determine the dimensions required to make the assembly exactly critical when

the two halves are brought into contact.

b. Determine the value of k for each of the halves when they are isolated from

each other.

(place problem 7.3 figure here)

Part a. For a cylinder with a height to diameter ratio of one: 2R=D=H: and thus

2

2

2

2

33.0

2.405

4.810

2

B

2

R D

D

H

D

But since we must have

k

1.36

1

2 2

1 M B

1 18.02 33.0 / D 2

182 33

29, 700 cm 2

1.36 1

D H 172 cm = 1.72 m

Part b. The height is now cut in half H H / 2 172 / 2 86 cm

k

k

k

2 2

2

2

1 M B

2 4.81

1 M

D H

1.36

k

0.8068

2

2

2 4.81

1 18

172 86

material. The tank diameter of 0.90 m., and it is surrounded by non-reflecting neutron

absorber. Material with k 1.16 and M = 7.0 cm. is poured into the tank. Neglecting

D2

extrapolation lengths:

a. To what height can the tank be filled before it becomes critical?

b. Estimate the maximum value k permissible (M remaining unchanged) if it

must be guaranteed that criticality will not be reached no matter to what height

the tank is filled.

c. It is decided to reduce the diameter of the tank so that the material in part a.

can never reach criticality. Estimate the reduced diameter.

In this solution , we express migration lengths and dimensions in meters. Since the

reactor is uniform and cylindrical, Eqs. (7.6) and (7.20) are applicable ( with L

replaced by M):

Br2 Bz2 (k / k 1) / M 2

Part a:

Bz2 (k / k 1) / M 2 Br2 (k / k 1) / M 2 (2.405 / R) 2

(with

R=0.9/2=0.45)

Bz / H or H / Bz 3.141/ 4.09 1.55 m

Part b. An infinite height implies that the axial bucking is equal to zero. Thus Eq.

(7.6) becomes:

k 1 M 2 (2405 / R ) 2 1 0.07 2 (2405 / 0.45) 2 1.140

Part c. Again the axial bucking is equal to zero.

(2.405 / R) 2 (k / k 1) / M 2 (1.16 /1.0 1) / .07 2 32.65

Thus

R 2.405 / 32.65 0.421 m or a diameter of 0.842 m

[7.12] Consider the situation when the spherical system discussed in Chapter 6.7 is

critical. Determine the ratio of maximum to average flux in the sphere.

The flux distribution is given by Eq. (6.107), which when combined with Eq. (6.104)

yields

C

( r ) 1 sin( r / R )

r

The maximum flux is at the center of the sphere. For small r, sin( r ) ; r . Thus

(0) C1 / R

The volume-averaged flux is

1

3

3

(r ) dV

(r )4 r 2 dr C1 3 r sin( r )dr

3

V

4 R 0

R 0

We must integrate by parts ( or use an integral table):

d r cos( r ) cos( r ) dr r sin( r ) dr

Hence

R

r cos( r / R) o

R

and

R

r sin( r / R) dr R 2 /

3

C1

R

And the maximum to average ratio is

(0) / 2 / 3 3.29

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