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# [7.1] The material composition for core of a large reactor yields k 1.

02 and M = 25
cm.
a. Calculate the critical volume for a bare cylinder with a height to diameter ratio
of one.
b. Calculate the critical volume of a bare sphere.
Which of the two volumes did you expect to be larger? Why?
Let M = B for convenience
Setting k = 1 , k 1.02 and L = 25 cm. in Eq. (7.6), we have
B 2 (1.02 1) / 252 3.2 105 cm 2

1.02
1 252 B 2 or

For a cylinder with a height to diameter ratio of one: 2R=D=H: and thus
2
2
2
2
33.0
2.405

4.810
2
B
2

R D
D
H
D
For the Cylindrical volume Vc

D 2 H 1 4 D 3 822.707 m3

2
2
2
2
For the sphere B ( / R) R / B 5.554m
3
3
4
For the spherical volume Vs 3 R 717.484m

Since the sphere is the most compact shape, you would expect it to have a smaller
leakage than any other object of the same volume.

[7.3] Critical assemblies for studying the properties of fast reactors are sometimes
built in halves as shown in the figure. The two halves are maintained in subcritical
states by separating them with sufficient distance that neutronic coupling between the
two is negligible; they are then brought together for form a critical assembly.
Suppose the core composition under investigation has an infinite medium
multiplication of 1.36, and a migration length of 18.0 cm. The assembly is configured
with a height to diameter ratio of one ( H = D). Neglecting extrapolation distances:
a. Determine the dimensions required to make the assembly exactly critical when
the two halves are brought into contact.
b. Determine the value of k for each of the halves when they are isolated from
each other.
(place problem 7.3 figure here)
Part a. For a cylinder with a height to diameter ratio of one: 2R=D=H: and thus
2
2
2
2
33.0
2.405

4.810
2
B
2

R D
D
H
D
But since we must have
k
1.36
1

2 2
1 M B
1 18.02 33.0 / D 2

182 33
29, 700 cm 2
1.36 1
D H 172 cm = 1.72 m
Part b. The height is now cut in half H H / 2 172 / 2 86 cm
k
k
k

2 2
2
2
1 M B

2 4.81
1 M

D H

1.36
k
0.8068
2
2

2 4.81
1 18

172 86

## [7.5] A cylindrical tank is constructed for storage of liquids containing fissionable

material. The tank diameter of 0.90 m., and it is surrounded by non-reflecting neutron
absorber. Material with k 1.16 and M = 7.0 cm. is poured into the tank. Neglecting
D2

extrapolation lengths:
a. To what height can the tank be filled before it becomes critical?
b. Estimate the maximum value k permissible (M remaining unchanged) if it
must be guaranteed that criticality will not be reached no matter to what height
the tank is filled.
c. It is decided to reduce the diameter of the tank so that the material in part a.
can never reach criticality. Estimate the reduced diameter.
In this solution , we express migration lengths and dimensions in meters. Since the
reactor is uniform and cylindrical, Eqs. (7.6) and (7.20) are applicable ( with L
replaced by M):
Br2 Bz2 (k / k 1) / M 2
Part a:
Bz2 (k / k 1) / M 2 Br2 (k / k 1) / M 2 (2.405 / R) 2

## (1.16 /1.0 1) / 0.07 2 (2.405 / 0.45) 2 4.09

(with
R=0.9/2=0.45)
Bz / H or H / Bz 3.141/ 4.09 1.55 m
Part b. An infinite height implies that the axial bucking is equal to zero. Thus Eq.
(7.6) becomes:
k 1 M 2 (2405 / R ) 2 1 0.07 2 (2405 / 0.45) 2 1.140
Part c. Again the axial bucking is equal to zero.
(2.405 / R) 2 (k / k 1) / M 2 (1.16 /1.0 1) / .07 2 32.65
Thus
R 2.405 / 32.65 0.421 m or a diameter of 0.842 m

[7.12] Consider the situation when the spherical system discussed in Chapter 6.7 is
critical. Determine the ratio of maximum to average flux in the sphere.
The flux distribution is given by Eq. (6.107), which when combined with Eq. (6.104)
yields
C
( r ) 1 sin( r / R )
r
The maximum flux is at the center of the sphere. For small r, sin( r ) ; r . Thus

(0) C1 / R
The volume-averaged flux is

1
3
3
(r ) dV
(r )4 r 2 dr C1 3 r sin( r )dr
3

V
4 R 0
R 0
We must integrate by parts ( or use an integral table):
d r cos( r ) cos( r ) dr r sin( r ) dr

Hence
R

r cos( r / R) o
R

## cos( r / R)dr / R r sin( r / R )dr

and
R

r sin( r / R) dr R 2 /

## The volume average is then

3
C1
R
And the maximum to average ratio is
(0) / 2 / 3 3.29