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EMBEDDED HARDWARE DESIGN

TI MCU TI MCU TI MCU TI MCU CONTEST CONTEST CONTEST CONTEST 2013 2013 2013 2013
Reported By: Duong Huynh Bao
Mail : duonghuynhbaocr@gmail.com
Date : 10/08/2013
1
Powering an Embedded System
2
Noise and Restrictive Methods
3
Designing PCB and Soldering
4
MCU and Adding Peripherals
5
Some sensors and Modules
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1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System
Low Power Design: Low Power Design: Low Power Design: Low Power Design:
Software (MCU sleep when no task)
Hardware : using lowpower MCU like MSP430 or
Cortex M0,and low power periphrals.
Usually,RISC MCU ( MSP430,ARM,PIC,AVR)
have lowpower comsumption than CISC
MCU(68HC ...)
Some lowpower devices need verry little current can
be powered dirrectly by IO of MCU
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1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System
Choosing Batteries : Choosing Batteries : Choosing Batteries : Choosing Batteries :Can supply enough current at the
right voltage:
Average current consumption of board
Peak current consumption of board
Current supply in one hour(ex 2200mAh..)
Using with Switching regulator
Some Battery charge IC Some Battery charge IC Some Battery charge IC Some Battery charge IC
MCP73832T/ LTC4054ES5-4.2/ TP4056-42
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1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System
Regulator Regulator Regulator Regulator : The greater Quiescent current the more power
(and therefore heat) dissipate on regulator
Switching Regulator
Larger,complex,use many
components
waste less power than
linear IC more
efficient, and less heating
Generate far more noise
than Linear
buc!stepdown and
boost!step up
Linear Regulator
"mall,cheap,easy to use
#he difference $oltage
between In and out drop
on IC waste power%
heat IC low efficient
Low noise
&out'&in
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1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System
Regulator Regulator Regulator Regulator
Switching Regulator
LM2576LM25!6
Linear Regulator
AMS"""7LD"""77#$$
Buck Regulator :LM2576/LM2596/MP2365DN
Buck-Boost Regulator:MC34063/TPS543
Choosing Regulator supply enough at least 1.5 current
consumption of board
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1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System 1.Powering an Embedded System
Design Design Design Design regulator regulator regulator regulator tips tips tips tips
Strictly do not directly connect Switching regulator to uC, it cause uC
not stable ( auto reset or stupid things occur)
Recommend : SWregulator LDO regulator uC power pin
Using LDO linear regulator if the different voltage between the
Input and output is small
If the different voltage between the Input and output isnt small
Using SW regulator
Using Linear regulator with the serial Heating Resistor at the
input : Input Power resistor Linear Regulator Output
Using Diode or Bridge Diode rectifier to avoid confusion DC
Source polarity
1
Powering an Embedded System
2
Noise and Restrictive Methods
3
Designing PCB and Soldering
4
MCU and Adding Peripherals
5
Some sensors and Modules
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2.Noise and 2.Noise and 2.Noise and 2.Noise and Restrictive Methods
Internal noise is caused mostly by signals with high frequency
(e.g.Oscillator of uC) or high currents (e.g. power supply)
Tips and tricks:
1. Minimal current loop Area by using ground plane
2. Subdivide the and use filters for blocking noise at the
boundaries (e.g. supply)
3. Maximize distance to sensitive signals (e.g. measurement
signals), separation analog and digital circuits
4. Recommend no floating input pins
5. Signal line maybe shielded from each others( if needed)
by using ground plane between them
6. Keep power supply smooth and clean by using decoupling
cap between VCC and GND in that block of system
7. Using surface-mount or PLCC to reduce ringing effects
(ground bounce)
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2.Noise and 2.Noise and 2.Noise and 2.Noise and Restrictive Methods
External noise is received mostly through I/O connectors
or electromagnetic waves
Tips and tricks:
1. Shield I/O connectors (or even the cables) and/or use filters for
blocking noise
2. Use a star-topology for ground, i.e. connect all ground lines in a
common point
3. Shield board even with thinner shield ( using metal shield)
4. Create compartments separated with vertical metal strips on the
PCB
1
Powering an Embedded System
2
Noise and Restrictive Methods
3
Designing PCB and Soldering
4
MCU and Adding Peripherals
5
Some sensors and Modules
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Designing Designing Designing Designing PCB PCB PCB PCB
Path to GND : Separate high noise/current lines and
analog/sensitive signals
Separation of Circuits on a PCB:
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Designing Designing Designing Designing PCB PCB PCB PCB
IC Power Decoupling:each of IC have a decoupling Cap to
avoid coupled noise
Bulk Decoupling Capacitor on Power Source
CAP must be low resistor such as
tantan or ceramic
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Designing Designing Designing Designing PCB PCB PCB PCB
Isolate IC from noise using LC or RC filter
Ground layout
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Designing Designing Designing Designing PCB PCB PCB PCB
Digital signal routing
1. The most sensitive signals in an MCU-based system
are the clock, reset, and interrupt lines
2. The oscillator is especially sensitive during startup. Do
not run these lines in parallel with high-current
switching traces
3. place the MCU where the trace lengths of sensitive
signals will be as short as possible.
4. Xtal /OSC /RC clock is an RF circuit must be layed out to decrease its emission
levels and susceptibility place that circuit as close to the MCU as possible
5. Keep clock traces, buses, and chip enables separate from I/O lines and
connectors.
6. Keep digital signal lines, especially the clock, as far away from analog input and
voltage reference pins as possible
7. Dont cross digital and analog lines. Route the signals away from each other
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Designing Designing Designing Designing PCB PCB PCB PCB
Place decoupling Capacitor
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Designing Designing Designing Designing PCB PCB PCB PCB
Trace Reflections : the corner of trace should not be 90
0
, be
usually 135
0
or curve to avoid electric signal Reflections
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Designing Designing Designing Designing PCB PCB PCB PCB
Track entering pad of
surface mount IC:
Bad
Bettter
IC track pad enterring
Keep the buses parallel
to minimize skew
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Designing Designing Designing Designing PCB PCB PCB PCB
Avoid stub track ( stub track is a short track leave from
a main track to connect to pad of IC)
Place decoupling cap as close as possible the power
and ground pad of IC
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Designing Designing Designing Designing PCB PCB PCB PCB
Current vs track width
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Soldering Soldering Soldering Soldering PCB PCB PCB PCB
Tool :
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Soldering Soldering Soldering Soldering PCB PCB PCB PCB
Soldering
resistor/diode/
and Led .
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Soldering Soldering Soldering Soldering PCB PCB PCB PCB
Soldering SOIC
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3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering 3.Designing PCB and Soldering
Soldering Soldering Soldering Soldering PCB PCB PCB PCB
Using support tools
1
Powering an Embedded System
2
Noise and Restrictive Methods
3
Designing PCB and Soldering
4
MCU and Adding Peripherals
5
Some sensors and Modules
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1
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4.MCU and Adding Peripherals 4.MCU and Adding Peripherals 4.MCU and Adding Peripherals 4.MCU and Adding Peripherals
MCU MCU MCU MCU
Carefully read the reference design of the MCU
Make sure all power pin are connect
Make sure Rest pin is in correct configuration
Make sure boot mode pin ( if available) is correct configuration
Pay Attention to pin that connect to debugger/loader
To make MCU stable ,please add ceramic cap 100n to all VCC
pin
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4.MCU and Adding Peripherals 4.MCU and Adding Peripherals 4.MCU and Adding Peripherals 4.MCU and Adding Peripherals
Adding peripherals Adding peripherals Adding peripherals Adding peripherals
ADC peripheral
Let the signal pass through analog lowpass filter (which cut
off freq less than half of sample rate) before ADC input to
avoid aliasing signal
Adding Vref IC to supply Reference voltage to Vref pin of
ADC module if need high precision conversion value
Isolate AVCC from noise using low pass filter ( LC) (see slide
14)
Connect AGND to GND of digital system using Star point
connection
If you want to higher Resolution,you can use some external
ADC IC such as ADS1212 and do the same which input
signal
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4.MCU and Adding Peripherals 4.MCU and Adding Peripherals 4.MCU and Adding Peripherals 4.MCU and Adding Peripherals
Adding peripherals Adding peripherals Adding peripherals Adding peripherals
I2C peripheral
The value of the resistors is not critical,anything from 1k8 to 47k used.The
value 1k8, 4k7 and 10k are common values
Two pull up resistor must be connected,if not the peripheral dont
operate
1
Powering an Embedded System
2
Noise and Restrictive Methods
3
Designing PCB and Soldering
4
MCU and Adding Peripherals
5
Some sensors and Modules
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1
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5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules
GSM/GPRS/GPS module GSM/GPRS/GPS module GSM/GPRS/GPS module GSM/GPRS/GPS module
Sim900 : only GSM and GPRS
Sim548C : GSM and GPRS and GPS
GPS 01 : Only GPS
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5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules
Sensors
Programmable Color light-to-frequency converter
MQ-6 LPG Gas Sensor
MQ9 CO and CNG LPG gas sensor
Pressure sensor : HP03SA, MPXH6101,
TCS3200D
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5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules
Sensors : Distance Measuring Sensor
Ultrasonic sensor : SRF04/SRF05/SRF235..
IR Range Sensor : GP2D12,.
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5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules 5.Some Sensors and Modules
Sensors : inertial measurement sensor
Acceleration Sensor : MMA7361L, MMA8450Q,...
Gyroscope MEMS Sensor : L3G4200D,
Magnetic Sensors: HMC1002 (2axis),HMC5843(3 axis)
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