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Chapter 23 and 24 Change of Phase and Thermodynamics

F 2. The process of changing from a liquid to a gas is condensation.


F 3. The process of changing from a gas to a liquid is evaporation.
T 4. Air is saturated with water when it contains as much water vapor as it can at a given
temperature.
T 5. Sometimes evaporation takes place at the bottom of a liquid. This process is boiling.
T 7. It is possible for a thin wire suspended between heavy weights to pass through a block of
ice.
F 11. When evaporation and condensation have canceling effects, we say that a liquid is in
saturation.
T 12. It is possible for water to boil and freeze at the same time.
F 13. Heat transfer by means of electrons colliding with other electrons in a metal is
convection.
T 14. Materials that are poor heat conductors are insulators.
F 15. Heat transfer by means of atoms moving from place to place is conduction.
F 16. Winds and weather patterns are good examples of radiation currents.
T 17. Heat that is transferred to us from the sun is transferred by radiation.
T 18. All objects above 0 K radiate energy.
F 22. The absorption effect is the name given to the process whereby long-wavelength
radiation enters a house through the windows, is absorbed and reradiated by objects in the house,
and is unable to be retransmitted through the windows
T 23. The average kinetic energy of molecules in a substance is related to temperature.
F 24. A temperature scale that has 100 degrees between the boiling point and the freezing point
of water is the Fahrenheit scale.
T 25. Heat is the energy that moves from one object to another because of a temperature
difference.
F 26. The total of all energies in a substance is its temperature.
T 28. The amount of heat required to change the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by 1
degree is its specific heat capacity.
T 29. Liquids usually expand when heated.
F 30. Gases don't expand very much when heated.
F 31. A bimetallic strip consists of two strips of the same material welded together.
T 32. Water contracts when heated from 0 degrees C to 4 degrees C.
T 33. If you measure the temperature of room air, then the heat absorbed by the thermometer
does not lower the air temperature noticeably.
F 34. A substance at a high temperature is said to contain heat.

1. Steam burns are more damaging than burns caused by boiling water because steam gives up additional
energy when it condenses and has more energy per kilogram than boiling water.

2. We feel uncomfortably warm on a muggy day because water molecules are evaporating and
condensing on our bodies at the same rate.

3. When a gas is changed to a liquid state, the gas releases energy.

4. When a solid is changed to a liquid state, the solid absorbs energy.

5. When liquids change to a solid state, they release energy.

6. When heat is added to boiling water, its temperature does not change.

7. Boiling water does not increase in temperature when additional heat is applied because the increased
heating produces increased boiling, and therefore increased cooling.

8. For increased atmospheric pressure, the boiling temperature of a liquid goes up

9. When bringing water to a boil in the mountains, the time needed to reach the boiling point is less than
at sea level.

10. Food in a pressure cooker is cooked faster because of the higher temperature.

11. On a humid day, water condenses on the outside of a glass of ice water. This phenomenon occurs
mainly because of the saturation of cooled air.

12. The greater the difference in temperature between the input reservoir and the output reservoir for a
heat engine, the greater the efficiency.

13. The first law of thermodynamics is a restatement of the conservation of energy.

14. Systems that are left alone, tend to move toward a state of more entropy.

15. During an adiabatic compression of an ideal gas, no heat is supplied to or removed from the gas.

16. A process which takes place at constant temperature is isothermal process.

17. A quantity of water has more entropy when it is boiling.

18. A heat engine would have 100 percent efficiency if its input reservoir were any finite temperature if
the exhaust sink were at absolute zero.

19. When a volume of air expands against the environment and no heat enters or leaves, the air
temperature will...decrease.

20. If you run a refrigerator in a closed room with the refrigerator door open, the room temperature will
increase.

21. Suppose you rapidly stir some raw eggs with an eggbeater. The temperature of the eggs will increase.

22. Suppose the temperature of the input reservoir in a heat engine doesnt change. As the sink
temperature is lowered, the efficiency of the engine increases.

23. When mechanical work is done in a system, there can be an increase in both temperature and internal
energy.

24. When a system does work and no heat is added to the system, its temperature decreases.

15) Sues refrigerator is built into a wall of her kitchen, so that it exhausts heat to the outdoors rather than
into the room. If Sue tries to cool her kitchen by leaving the refrigerator door open, the room
temperature will decrease at least slightly.

16) On a chilly 10 degree Celsius day, your friend who likes cold weather wishes it were twice as cold
(half as hot). Taken literally, the temperature would be -131.5 degrees Celsius.

17) Consider a steaming aluminum soda-pop can that contains a small amount of boiling water. When it
is quickly inverted into a bath of cooler water the can is dramatically crushed by atmospheric
pressure. This occurs because the pressure inside the can is rapidly reduced by condensation of
steam inside.
18) The fact that a thermometer "takes its own temperature" illustrates thermal equilibrium.

19) The moderate temperatures of islands throughout the world has much to do with water's high specific
heat capacity.

20) Ice has a lower density than water because ice is made of open-structured, hexagonal crystals.

21) Before ice can form on a lake, all the water in the lake must be cooled to 4 degrees C.

39) Ice is put in a cooler in order to cool the contents. To speed up the cooling process, the ice can be
crushed.

40) A hot dog pants to help evaporation occur in its mouth and bronchial tract.

9) Pour a liter of water at 40 C into a liter of water at 20 C and the final temperature of the two becomes
at or about 30 C.

7) Some molecules are able to absorb large amounts of energy in the form of internal vibrations and
rotations. Materials composed of such molecules have high specific heat capacities.

14) When a volume of air expands against the environment and no heat enters or leaves, the air
temperature will decrease.

15) Suppose you put a closed, sealed can of air on a hot stove burner. The contained air will undergo an
increase in pressure, temperature, thermal energy.


6) If you run a refrigerator in a closed room with the refrigerator door open, the room temperature will
decrease

17) As a system becomes more disordered, entropy increases

18) As a piece of metal with a hole in it cools, the diameter of the hole decreases.

19) If glass expanded more than mercury, then the column of mercury in a mercury thermometer would
rise when the temperature decreases.

20) Consider a sample of water at 0 C. If the temperature is slightly increased, the volume of water
contracts.

21) During a very cold winter, water pipes sometimes burst. The reason for this is water expands when
freezing

22) Consider a metal ring with a gap cut in it. When the ring is heated, the gap becomes wider

23) The higher the temperature of an object, the shorter the wavelengths it radiates

24) Objects that radiate relatively well absorb radiation relatively well

25) A substance can absorb heat energy by the process of radiation, conduction and convection

26) Hot water will cool to room temperature faster in a black pot.

27) It is commonly thought that a can of beverage will cool faster in the coldest part of a refrigerator.
Knowledge of Newton's law of cooling supports this common knowledge.

28) A water-filled paper cup held in a flame will not catch fire. This is because he paper cup cannot
become appreciably hotter than the water it contains.

29) The silver coating on the glass surfaces of a Thermos bottle reduces energy that is transferred by
radiation

30) When a volume of air is compressed, its temperature increases.

31) The reason the Sun's radiant energy is of shorter wavelengths than the earth's is because the Sun has
a higher temperature than the earth.

32) Suppose you are served coffee at a restaurant before you are ready to drink it. In order for it to be the
hottest when you are ready for it, you should add cream right away.


33) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by radiation

34) When heat is added to boiling water, the water temperature stays the same

35) In the mountains, water boils at a lower temperature than at sea level.

36) Food in a pressure cooker is cooked faster because of the higher temperature.

37) When a gas is changed to a liquid phase, the gas releases energy.


Chapter 27 Light

1. The law of reflection says that the angle of reflection from a mirror equals the angle of
incidence.
2. When a virtual image is created in a plane mirror, the image is upright, located behind the
mirror, and reflected rays diverge.
3. The reason we can read print from any direction is that the white part of the page reflects light
in all directions.
4. An echo occurs when sound is reflected from a distant surface.
5. Diffuse reflection occurs when the size of the irregularities is large compared to the
wavelength of the light used.
6. Refraction is caused by different wave speeds.
7. Refraction occurs when waves change speeds.
8. You can hear noises a long distance away over water at night because of refraction of sound in
air.
9. The average speed of light is greatest in red glass.
10. A penny lies in the bottom of a tea cup filled with water. As you look down on the penny,
compared to its actual depth, it looks closer.
11. A mirage can occur when cooler air is above hotter air, when theres a layer of hot air close
to the ground and on a hot day.
12. When you see a "wet spot" mirage on the road in front of you, you are most likely seeing
sky.
13. The critical angle for a light from the bottom of a swimming pool shining upward toward the
pool's surface is the angle where light is refracted so it just skims the pool surface.
14. A beam of light emerges from water into air at an angle. The beam is bent away from the
normal.
15. The effect that we call a mirage has most to do with refraction
16. Different colors of light travel at different speeds in a transparent medium. In a vacuum,
different colors of light travel at the same speed.
17. If you walk towards a mirror at a certain speed, your relative speed with respect to your
image is twice your actual speed.
18. The shortest plane mirror in which you can see your entire image is half your height.
19. When you look at yourself in a pocket mirror and then hold the 29. mirror farther away, you
see the same amount of yourself.
20. Which of the following is a consequence of the refraction of light? -> Rainbows, mirages and
internal reflection.
21. Stars twinkle when seen from Earth at night. When seen from the moon, stars dont twinkle.
22. A converging lens converges parallel rays of light, refracts parallel rays of light, is thicker in
the center than at the edges, and bends parallel rays of light so they cross at a single point.
23. An image of a distant object formed by a single converging lens is upside down, can be
focused on a screen, is real and can be projected on a wall.
24. An image formed by a single diverging lens is virtual
25. A magnifying glass is a converging lense.
26. In drawing a ray diagram, rays can be drawn from the tip of the object arrow, through the
focal point in front of the lens, parallel to the principal axis of the lens and through the center of
the lens.
27. If an object is located between the focal point and a converging lens, the image will be larger
than the object.
28. If an object is located inside the focal length of a diverging lens, then compared to the object,
the image will be smaller.
29. If an object is located inside the focal length of a converging lens, the image will be right-
side up.
30. Human eye is most similar to a camera.
31. The image your eyes receive is upside down.
32. As you get farther and farther from a point source of waves, the wave fronts appear
straighter.
33. When plane waves pass through an opening, the wave fronts will not change much if the
opening is wide compared to the wavelength.
34. When a wave passes through an opening, some of the wave is bent. This phenomenon is
called diffraction
35. Diffraction occurs for radio waves, x-rays, light and electron beams.
36. FM radio waves are not received as well as AM radio waves are in mountain canyons
because they have a shorter wavelength.
37. Colors seen when gasoline forms a thin film on water are a demonstration of interference.
38. Waves diffract the most when their wavelengths are long.
39. Constructive interference occurs when the crests of two waves overlap.
40. Destructive interference occurs when the crest of one wave meets the trough of another
wave.
41. Interference can be shown by using water waves, light waves, and sound waves.

Chapter 32 Electrostatics & Chapter 33 Electric Fields and Potential

- The gravitational force is slightly stronger than the electrostatic force (False)
-The directions of lines of force shows how large a force will be on a charge placed in an electric
field (False).
-The energy a charge possess by virtue of its location is called electrical potential energy (True)
-The direction of an electric field at any point, by convention, is the direction of the electrical
force on a small negative test charge, placed at the that point (False)
-The SI unit for charge is (Coulombs)
-Like charges (Repel)
-The SI unit measurement for electric potential is the.. (Volt)
-Capacitance is measured in (Farads)
- A 60-hertz current means that the current (Alternates back and forth at 60 cycles per
second)
- An example of a voltage source is (d. All of the above- a dry cell, rubbing a rubber rod with
fur, and a car battery)
- A metal sphere with a charge of negative 6 C is touched to an identical neutral sphere. After
touching, the charge on the second sphere is (c. -3 C)
- When the distance between two charges is halved, the electrical force between
them..(quadruples)
- If you comb your hair and the comb becomes positively charged, your hair becomes
(negatively charged).
- Two charges separated a distance of 1 meter exert a 1 N force on each other. If the charges
are pulled to 2 meters apart, the force on each charge will be (0.25 N)
- A 2 Coulomb charge experiences a force of 20 N. The electric field strength is (10 N/C)

Chapter 35 Electric Circuits
- When resistors are put in parallel with each other their overall resistance is(smaller than the
resistance of any of the resistors)
-As more lamps are put into a series circuit, the overall current in the circuit(decreases).
- As more lamps are put into a parallel circuit, the overall current in the
circuit(increases).
- Compared to the resistance of two resistors connected in series, the same two resistors
connected in parallel have(less resistance).
-When one light bulb in a parallel circuit containing several light bulbs burns out, the other
light bulbs(burn the same as before).
-Electrical devices in our homes are connected in(parallel).
-Two lamps, one with a thick filament and one with a thin filament, are connected in series.
The current is greater in the lamp with the(current is the same in each lamp).
-Two lamps, one with a thick filament and one with a thin filament, are connected in
parallel to a battery. The voltage is greater across the lamp with the(both voltages are
the same).
-Two lamps, one with a thick filament and one with a thin filament, are connected in
parallel to a battery. The current is larger in the lamp with the (thick filament).
-Which of the following is a device used to either cut off or allow electrons to flow in a
circuit? (switch).
-Two electric devices are connected in series. The total resistance to current in the circuit
is (the sum of the individual resistance along the circular path)
-Compared to thin wires, electrical resistance in thick wires is (less).
-For most conductors as their temperature increases, their resistance (increases).