Assignment Problems
Paul Dawkins
Calculus I
Table of Contents
Preface ........................................................................................................................................... iii
Outline ........................................................................................................................................... iii
Review............................................................................................................................................. 2
Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 2
Review : Functions ................................................................................................................................... 2
Review : Inverse Functions ...................................................................................................................... 7
Review : Trig Functions ........................................................................................................................... 8
Review : Solving Trig Equations .............................................................................................................. 9
Review : Solving Trig Equations with Calculators, Part I .....................................................................10
Review : Solving Trig Equations with Calculators, Part II ....................................................................12
Review : Exponential Functions .............................................................................................................13
Review : Logarithm Functions ................................................................................................................13
Review : Exponential and Logarithm Equations ...................................................................................14
Review : Common Graphs .......................................................................................................................17
Limits ............................................................................................................................................ 19
Introduction .............................................................................................................................................19
Rates of Change and Tangent Lines........................................................................................................20
The Limit ..................................................................................................................................................23
OneSided Limits .....................................................................................................................................26
Limit Properties .......................................................................................................................................28
Computing Limits ....................................................................................................................................29
Infinite Limits ..........................................................................................................................................33
Limits At Infinity, Part I ...........................................................................................................................34
Limits At Infinity, Part II .........................................................................................................................36
Continuity .................................................................................................................................................37
The Definition of the Limit ......................................................................................................................42
Derivatives .................................................................................................................................... 42
Introduction .............................................................................................................................................42
The Definition of the Derivative .............................................................................................................43
Interpretations of the Derivative ...........................................................................................................44
Differentiation Formulas ........................................................................................................................48
Product and Quotient Rule .....................................................................................................................51
Derivatives of Trig Functions .................................................................................................................53
Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions ..........................................................................55
Derivatives of Inverse Trig Functions ....................................................................................................57
Derivatives of Hyperbolic Functions ......................................................................................................57
Chain Rule ................................................................................................................................................58
Implicit Differentiation ...........................................................................................................................62
Related Rates ...........................................................................................................................................64
Higher Order Derivatives ........................................................................................................................68
Logarithmic Differentiation ....................................................................................................................70
Applications of Derivatives ......................................................................................................... 71
Introduction .............................................................................................................................................71
Rates of Change........................................................................................................................................72
Critical Points ...........................................................................................................................................72
Minimum and Maximum Values .............................................................................................................76
Finding Absolute Extrema ......................................................................................................................80
The Shape of a Graph, Part I....................................................................................................................82
The Shape of a Graph, Part II ..................................................................................................................88
The Mean Value Theorem .......................................................................................................................93
Optimization ............................................................................................................................................95
More Optimization Problems .................................................................................................................97
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Calculus I
Indeterminate Forms and LHospitals Rule ..........................................................................................99
Linear Approximations .........................................................................................................................101
Differentials ...........................................................................................................................................101
Newtons Method ...................................................................................................................................103
Business Applications ...........................................................................................................................104
Integrals ...................................................................................................................................... 106
Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................106
Indefinite Integrals ................................................................................................................................106
Computing Indefinite Integrals ............................................................................................................108
Substitution Rule for Indefinite Integrals ............................................................................................111
More Substitution Rule .........................................................................................................................114
Area Problem .........................................................................................................................................116
The Definition of the Definite Integral .................................................................................................117
Computing Definite Integrals ...............................................................................................................119
Substitution Rule for Definite Integrals ...............................................................................................122
Applications of Integrals ........................................................................................................... 124
Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................124
Average Function Value ........................................................................................................................124
Area Between Curves ............................................................................................................................125
Volumes of Solids of Revolution / Method of Rings ............................................................................127
Volumes of Solids of Revolution / Method of Cylinders .....................................................................129
More Volume Problems .........................................................................................................................131
Work .......................................................................................................................................................133
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Calculus I
Preface
Here are a set of problems for my Calculus I notes. These problems do not have any solutions
available on this site. These are intended mostly for instructors who might want a set of problems
to assign for turning in. I try to put up both practice problems (with solutions available) and these
problems at the same time so that both will be available to anyone who wishes to use them.
Outline
Here is a list of sections for which problems have been written.
Review
Review : Functions
Review : Inverse Functions
Review : Trig Functions
Review : Solving Trig Equations
Review : Solving Trig Equations with Calculators, Part I
Review : Solving Trig Equations with Calculators, Part II
Review : Exponential Functions
Review : Logarithm Functions
Review : Exponential and Logarithm Equations
Review : Common Graphs
Limits
Tangent Lines and Rates of Change
The Limit
OneSided Limits
Limit Properties
Computing Limits
Infinite Limits
Limits At Infinity, Part I
Limits At Infinity, Part II
Continuity
The Definition of the Limit No problems written yet.
Derivatives
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Calculus I
The Definition of the Derivative
Interpretation of the Derivative
Differentiation Formulas
Product and Quotient Rule
Derivatives of Trig Functions
Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions
Derivatives of Inverse Trig Functions
Derivatives of Hyperbolic Functions
Chain Rule
Implicit Differentiation
Related Rates
Higher Order Derivatives
Logarithmic Differentiation
Applications of Derivatives
Rates of Change
Critical Points
Minimum and Maximum Values
Finding Absolute Extrema
The Shape of a Graph, Part I
The Shape of a Graph, Part II
The Mean Value Theorem
Optimization Problems
More Optimization Problems
LHospitals Rule and Indeterminate Forms
Linear Approximations
Differentials
Newtons Method
Business Applications
Integrals
Indefinite Integrals
Computing Indefinite Integrals
Substitution Rule for Indefinite Integrals
More Substitution Rule
Area Problem
Definition of the Definite Integral
Computing Definite Integrals
Substitution Rule for Definite Integrals
Applications of Integrals
Average Function Value
Area Between Two Curves
Volumes of Solids of Revolution / Method of Rings
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Calculus I
Volumes of Solids of Revolution / Method of Cylinders
More Volume Problems
Work
2007 Paul Dawkins v http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
2007 Paul Dawkins 1 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
Review
Introduction
Here are a set of problems for which no solutions are available. The main intent of these
problems is to have a set of problems available for any instructors who are looking for some extra
problems.
Note that some sections will have more problems than others and some will have more or less of
a variety of problems. Most sections should have a range of difficulty levels in the problems
although this will vary from section to section.
Here is a list of topics in this chapter that have problems written for them.
Review : Functions
Review : Inverse Functions
Review : Trig Functions
Review : Solving Trig Equations
Review : Solving Trig Equations with Calculators, Part I
Review : Solving Trig Equations with Calculators, Part II
Review : Exponential Functions
Review : Logarithm Functions
Review : Exponential and Logarithm Equations
Review : Common Graphs
Review : Functions
For problems 1 6 the given functions perform the indicated function evaluations.
1. ( ) 10 3 f x x =
(a) ( ) 5 f (b) ( ) 0 f (c) ( ) 7 f
(d)
( )
2
2 f t + (e) ( ) 12 f x (f) ( ) f x h +
2. ( )
2
4 7 1 h y y y = +
(a) ( ) 0 h (b) ( ) 3 h (c) ( ) 5 h
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Calculus I
(d) ( ) 6 h z (e) ( ) 1 3 h y (f) ( ) h y k +
3.
( )
5
1
t
g t
t
+
=
(a) ( ) 0 g (b) ( ) 4 g (c) ( ) 7 g
(d)
( )
2
5 g x (e) ( ) g t h + (f)
( )
4 9 g t +
4. ( ) 4 5 f z z = +
(a) ( ) 0 f (b) ( ) 1 f (c) ( ) 2 f
(d) ( ) 5 12 h y (e)
( )
2
2 8 f z + (f) ( ) f z h +
5. ( )
2
9
4 8
x
z x
x
+
=
+
(a) ( ) 4 z (b) ( ) 4 z (c) ( ) 1 z
(d) ( ) 2 7 z x (e)
( )
3 4 z x + (f) ( ) z x h +
6.
( ) 3
2 5
t
Y t t
t
=
+
(a) ( ) 0 Y (b) ( ) 7 Y (c) ( ) 4 Y
(d) ( ) 5 Y t (e)
( )
2
10 Y t (f)
( )
2
6 Y t t
The difference quotient of a function ( ) f x is defined to be,
( ) ( ) f x h f x
h
+
For problems 7 13 compute the difference quotient of the given function.
7. ( ) 4 7 Q t t =
8. ( ) 42 g t =
9. ( )
2
2 9 H x x = +
10. ( )
2
3 8 z y y y =
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Calculus I
11. ( ) 4 3 g z z = +
12.
( )
4
1 2
y x
x
13. ( )
2
7
t
f t
t
=
+
For problems 14 21 determine all the roots of the given function.
14. ( )
2
40 3 y t t t = +
15. ( )
4 3 2
6 5 4 f x x x x =
16. ( )
2
6 11 Z p p p =
17. ( )
6 5 4
4 10 h y y y y = + +
18. ( )
7 4
6 16 g z z z z = +
19. ( )
1 1
2 4
8 15 f t t t =
20.
( )
3
4 5 8
w w
h w
w w
= +
+
21.
( )
2
3 4 1
w w
g w
w w
+
=
+
For problems 22 30 find the domain and range of the given function.
22. ( )
2
8 3 f x x x = +
23. ( )
2
4 7 z w w w =
24. ( )
2
3 2 3 g t t t = +
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Calculus I
25. ( ) 5 2 g x x =
26. ( )
2
10 9 7 B z x = + +
27. ( ) 1 6 7 h y y = +
28. ( ) 12 5 2 9 f x y = +
29. ( ) 65 V t t =
30.
( )
2
12 9 1 y x x = +
For problems 31 51 find the domain of the given function.
31. ( )
2
4 12 8
16 9
t t
f t
t
+
=
+
32. ( )
3
27
4 17
y
v y
y
33.
( )
2
3 1
5 3 2
x
g x
x x
+
=
34. ( )
3 2
3 4 5
1 1
35 2
t t
h t
t t t
+
=
+
35. ( )
2
3 2
9 2
z z
f z
z z z
+
=
+
36. ( )
4
2
3
4 10 2
p
V p
p p
=
+ +
37. ( )
2
15 g z z =
38. ( )
2
36 9 f t t =
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Calculus I
39. ( )
2 3
15 2 A x x x x =
40. ( )
3 2
4 4 Q y y y y = +
41. ( )
2
2
7
6
t
P t
t t
+
=
42. ( )
2
2
5 3
t
h t
t t
=
+
43.
( )
2
6
7 3
h x
x x
=
+
44.
( )
4 3 2
1
6 9
z
f z
z z z
+
=
+
45. ( ) 8 2 S t t t = +
46. ( ) 5 8 2 9 g x x x = +
47. ( )
2
49
4 12
y
h y y
y
=
48.
( )
2
1
4 10 9
4
x
A x x x
x
+
= + + +
49.
( )
2
2
8 3
3 4
12 7 3
f t
t t
t t
= +
50.
( )
5 2
4 2
3
6 R x x x
x x
= +
+
51. ( )
4 3 6 2
C z z z z = +
For problems 52 55 compute ( )( ) f g x and ( )( ) g f x for each of the given pair of
functions.
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Calculus I
52. ( ) 5 2 f x x = + , ( ) 8 23 g x x =
53. ( ) 2 f x x = , ( )
2
2 9 g x x =
54. ( )
2
2 4 f x x x = + , ( )
2
7 g x x x =
55.
( )
3 2
x
f x
x
=
+
, ( ) 8 5 g x x = +
Review : Inverse Functions
For each of the following functions find the inverse of the function. Verify your inverse by
computing one or both of the composition as discussed in this section.
1. ( ) 11 8 f x x =
2. ( ) 4 10 g x x =
3. ( )
7
2 9 Z x x =
4. ( ) ( )
3
7 2 1 h x x = + +
5. ( )
7
15 2 W x x = +
6. ( )
3
6 18 h x x =
7.
( )
2 14
6 1
x
R x
x
+
=
+
8.
( )
1
9 12
x
g x
x
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Calculus I
Review : Trig Functions
Determine the exact value of each of the following without using a calculator.
Note that the point of these problems is not really to learn how to find the value of trig functions
but instead to get you comfortable with the unit circle since that is a very important skill that will
be needed in solving trig equations.
1.
3
tan
4
 

\ .
2.
7
sin
6
 

\ .
3.
3
sin
4
 

\ .
4.
4
cos
3
 

\ .
5.
5
cot
4
 

\ .
6.
5
sin
6
 

\ .
7. sec
6
 

\ .
8.
5
cos
4
 

\ .
9.
11
cos
6
 

\ .
10.
11
csc
6
 

\ .
11.
4
cot
3
 

\ .
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Calculus I
12. cos
4
 

\ .
13.
2
csc
3
 

\ .
14.
17
sec
6
 

\ .
15.
23
sin
3
 

\ .
16.
31
tan
6
 

\ .
17.
15
cos
4
 

\ .
18.
23
sec
4
 

\ .
19.
11
cot
4
 

\ .
Review : Solving Trig Equations
Without using a calculator find the solution(s) to the following equations. If an interval is given
then find only those solutions that are in the interval. If no interval is given then find all solutions
to the equation.
1. ( ) 10cos 8 5 t =
2. ( ) 10cos 8 5 t = in ,
4 4
(
(
3. 2sin 3
4
z  
=

\ .
2007 Paul Dawkins 9 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
4. 2sin 3
4
z  
=

\ .
in   0,16
5.
2
2sin 2 0
3
t  
+ =

\ .
in   0,5
6. ( ) 6 8cos 3x = in
5
0,
3
(
(
7. ( ) 10 7tan 4 3 x + = in   ,0
8. 0 2cos 2
2
y  
=

\ .
in   4 ,5
9. ( ) 3cos 5 1 7 z = in   ,
10. ( ) 7 3 7cot 2 0 w + = in ,2
3
(
(
11. 2csc 8 0
3
x  
+ =

\ .
in   0,2
12. ( ) 3 4sin 4 5 t = in
3
,
2 2
(
(
13. 3sec 9 15
5
y  
+ =

\ .
in   3 ,20
14. ( ) ( ) 12cos 2 2sin 2 0 z z = in
3
,2
2
(
(
Review : Solving Trig Equations with Calculators, Part I
Find the solution(s) to the following equations. If an interval is given then find only those
solutions that are in the interval. If no interval is given then find all solutions to the equation.
2007 Paul Dawkins 10 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
1. 2 14sin 5
3
t  
=

\ .
2. ( ) ( ) 4cos 4 8 10 cos 4 x x + =
3. ( ) 2tan 3 3 25 w + =
4.
3 7 1
2sin
5 5 5
x  
=

\ .
in   0,15
5. 1 3 8cos
2
w  
= +

\ .
in   20,5
6. 45sin 9 7sin 17
2 2
x x    
= +
 
\ . \ .
in   10,20
7.
( )
2
4 3sec 11
3
x = in   0,1
8. ( ) ( ) 3sin 4 18cos 4 0 v v + = in   2,5
9.
2 2
2 cos 3 7cos 6
7 7
t t      
+ = +
  
\ . \ . \ .
in   10,30
10.
1 10 3
csc
2 3 7 14
y  
=

\ .
in   0,32
11. 31 1 40cos
8
t  
= +

\ .
in   50,60
12. ( ) ( ) 15csc 15 14 20 12csc 15 x x + = in   1,2
13.
( ) ( )
1 1
cos 6 3 1 cos 6
2 3
t t + = + in   0,5
14. 4 1 2sec 12
5
z    
=
 
\ . \ .
in   0,15
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Calculus I
15.
2 2
11 7sin 23 19sin
13 13
x x    
=
 
\ . \ .
in   60,60
Review : Solving Trig Equations with Calculators, Part II
Find all the solution(s) to the following equations. These will require the use of a calculator so
use at least 4 decimal places in your work.
1. ( ) 22cos 8 10 0 x + =
2. ( ) 10tan 4 10 7 31 x + =
3.
( ) 4tan sin 2 tan 0
3 3
w w
w
   
=
 
\ . \ .
4. ( ) ( ) ( ) 3tan 4 sec 2 1 sec 2 1 0 z z z + =
5. ( ) ( )
2
2 sin 2 3sin 2 y y =
6. ( ) ( )
2
4cos 2 5 4cos 2 5 1 t t + + =
7.
2
6 5sin 7sin
4 4
x x    
=
 
\ . \ .
8. ( ) ( )
2
2 2tan 8 3tan 8 t t = +
9. ( ) ( )
3
35csc 4 csc 4 z z z =
10. ( ) 3 8 cos 5 t t t = +
11.
( )
6
5 1 sin 25 5 0
2
y
x x
 
+ + + =

\ .
12.
( )
2 2
4
5 20 8 2 sec
9
w
w w
 
=

\ .
2007 Paul Dawkins 12 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
Review : Exponential Functions
Sketch the graphs of each of the following functions.
1. ( )
3
2
7
t
g t
=
2. ( )
4 1
3 5
x
f x
+
=
3. ( )
2 1
6 3
x
h x
= e
4. ( )
3
2
5
7 9
t
f t
= + e
Review : Logarithm Functions
Without using a calculator determine the exact value of each of the following.
1.
7
log 343
2.
4
log 1024
3.
3
8
27
log
512
4.
11
1
log
121
5.
0.1
log 0.0001
6.
16
log 4
7. log10000
8.
5
1
ln
e
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Calculus I
Write each of the following in terms of simpler logarithms
9.
( )
7 3 8
7
log 10a b c
10.
( )
3
2 2
log 4 z x
(
+
(
11.
2 3 4
ln
w t
t w
 


+
\ .
Combine each of the following into a single logarithm with a coefficient of one.
12. 7ln 6ln 5ln t s w +
13.
( )
1
log 1 2log 4log 3log
2
z x y z +
14.
( )
3 3
1
2log 6log
3
x y x + +
Use the change of base formula and a calculator to find the value of each of the following.
15.
7
log 100
16.
5
7
1
log
8
Review : Exponential and Logarithm Equations
For problems 1 14 find all the solutions to the given equation. If there is no solution to the
equation clearly explain why.
1.
10 7
15 12 5
w
= + e
2.
2
2
4 7 2
x x +
= e
3.
4 9
8 3 1
z
+ = e
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Calculus I
4.
2 2 2
4 3 0
t
t t
= e
5.
3
5
7 16 0
x x
x x
+ = e
6.
7 8 5
3 12 0
t t +
= e e
7.
2
1 5
2 7 0
y y
y y
= e e
8. ( ) 16 4ln 2 7 x + + =
9. 3 11ln 1
3
z
z
 
=

\ .
10. ( ) ( ) 2log log 3 7 1 w w + =
11. ( ) ( ) ln 3 1 ln 2 x x + =
12. ( ) ( )
2
log 6 1 3 log 6 1 0 t t t t + + =
13.
( ) ( )
2
2log log 4 1 0 z z z + + =
14. ( ) ( ) ln ln 2 3 x x + =
15.
9 1
11 5 3
w
=
16.
7 2
12 20 50
t
+ =
17.
2
2
1 3 5
z
+ =
Compound Interest. If we put P dollars into an account that earns interest at a rate of r (written
as a decimal as opposed to the standard percent) for t years then,
a. if interest is compounded m times per year we will have,
1
t m
r
A P
m
 
= +

\ .
dollars after t years.
b. if interest is compounded continuously we will have,
2007 Paul Dawkins 15 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
rt
A P = e
dollars after t years.
18. We have $2,500 to invest and 80 months. How much money will we have if we put the
money into an account that has an annual interest rate of 9% and interest is compounded
(a) quarterly (b) monthly (c) continuously
19. We are starting with $60,000 and were going to put it into an account that earns an annual
interest rate of 7.5%. How long will it take for the money in the account to reach $100,000 if the
interest is compounded
(a) quarterly (b) monthly (c) continuously
20. Suppose that we put some money in an account that has an annual interest rate of 10.25%.
How long will it take to triple our money if the interest is compounded
(a) twice a year (b) 8 times a year (c) continuously
Exponential Growth/Decay. Many quantities in the world can be modeled (at least for a short
time) by the exponential growth/decay equation.
0
k t
Q Q = e
If k is positive then we will get exponential growth and if k is negative we will get exponential
decay.
21. A population of bacteria initially has 90,000 present and in 2 weeks there will be 200,000
bacteria present.
(a) Determine the exponential growth equation for this population.
(b) How long will it take for the population to grow from its initial population of 90,000
to a population of 150,000?
22. We initially have 2 kg grams of some radioactive element and in 7250 years there will be 1.5
kg left.
(a) Determine the exponential decay equation for this element.
(b) How long will it take for half of the element to decay?
(c) How long will it take until there is 250 grams of the element left?
23. For a particular radioactive element the value of k in the exponential decay equation is given
by 0.000825 k = .
(a) How long will it take for a quarter of the element to decay?
(b) How long will it take for half of the element to decay?
(c) How long will it take 90% of the element to decay?
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Calculus I
Review : Common Graphs
Without using a graphing calculator sketch the graph of each of the following.
1. 2 7 y x = +
2. ( ) 4 f x x = +
3. ( ) 5 g x x =
4.
( ) tan
3
g x x
 
= +

\ .
5. ( ) ( ) sec 2 f x x = +
6. ( ) 2 4 h x x = +
7. ( )
3
6
x
Q x
= + e
8. ( ) 6 3 V x x = +
9.
( ) sin 1
6
g x x
 
= +

\ .
10. ( ) ( )
2
6 8 h x x = +
11. ( ) ( )
2
5 3 W y y = + +
12. ( ) ( )
2
9 2 f y y =
13. ( ) ( )
2
1 6 f x x = +
14. ( ) ( ) ln R x x =
15. ( ) ( ) ln g x x =
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Calculus I
16. ( )
2
8 1 h x x x = +
17. ( )
2
3 6 5 Y x x x = +
18. ( )
2
4 2 f y y y =
19. ( )
2
2 2 3 h y y y = +
20.
2 2
6 8 24 0 x x y y + + + =
21.
2 2
10 9 x y y + + =
22.
( ) ( )
2 2
4 2
1
25 25
x y + +
+ =
23.
2 2
2 4 16 16 0 x x y y + + =
24.
( )
( )
2
2
6
16 5 1
4
x
y
+
+ =
25.
( ) ( )
2 2
1 3
1
25 4
y x
=
26. ( ) ( )
2 2
4 9 7 1 x y + =
2007 Paul Dawkins 18 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
Limits
Introduction
Here are a set of problems for which no solutions are available. The main intent of these
problems is to have a set of problems available for any instructors who are looking for some extra
problems.
Note that some sections will have more problems than others and some will have more or less of
a variety of problems. Most sections should have a range of difficulty levels in the problems
although this will vary from section to section.
Here is a list of topics in this chapter that have problems written for them.
Tangent Lines and Rates of Change
The Limit
OneSided Limits
Limit Properties
Computing Limits
Infinite Limits
Limits At Infinity, Part I
Limits At Infinity, Part II
Continuity
The Definition of the Limit No problems have been written for this section yet.
2007 Paul Dawkins 19 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
Rates of Change and Tangent Lines
1. For the function ( )
3 2
3 f x x x = and the point P given by 3 x = answer each of the
following questions.
(a) For the points Q given by the following values of x compute (accurate to at least 8
decimal places) the slope,
PQ
m , of the secant line through points P and Q.
(i) 3.5 (ii) 3.1 (iii) 3.01 (iv) 3.001 (v) 3.0001
(vi) 2.5 (vii) 2.9 (viii) 2.99 (ix) 2.999 (x) 2.9999
(b) Use the information from (a) to estimate the slope of the tangent line to ( ) f x at 3 x =
and write down the equation of the tangent line.
2. For the function
( )
2
4
x
g x
x
=
+
and the point P given by 0 x = answer each of the following
questions.
(a) For the points Q given by the following values of x compute (accurate to at least 8
decimal places) the slope,
PQ
m , of the secant line through points P and Q.
(i) 1 (ii) 0.5 (iii) 0.1 (iv) 0.01 (v) 0.001
(vi) 1 (vii) 0.5 (viii) 0.1 (ix) 0.01 (x) 0.001
(b) Use the information from (a) to estimate the slope of the tangent line to ( ) g x at 0 x =
and write down the equation of the tangent line.
3. For the function ( ) ( )
2
2 2 h x x = + and the point P given by 2 x = answer each of the
following questions.
(a) For the points Q given by the following values of x compute (accurate to at least 8
decimal places) the slope,
PQ
m , of the secant line through points P and Q.
(i) 2.5 (ii) 2.1 (iii) 2.01 (iv) 2.001 (v) 2.0001
(vi) 1.5 (vii) 1.9 (viii) 1.99 (ix) 1.999 (x) 1.9999
(b) Use the information from (a) to estimate the slope of the tangent line to ( ) h x at 2 x =
and write down the equation of the tangent line.
2007 Paul Dawkins 20 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
4. For the function ( )
2
2 8x
P x
= e and the point P given by 0.5 x = answer each of the following
questions.
(a) For the points Q given by the following values of x compute (accurate to at least 8
decimal places) the slope,
PQ
m , of the secant line through points P and Q.
(i) 1 (ii) 0.51 (iii) 0.501 (iv) 0.5001 (v) 0.50001
(vi) 0 (vii) 0.49 (viii) 0.499 (ix) 0.4999 (x) 0.49999
(b) Use the information from (a) to estimate the slope of the tangent line to ( ) h x at 0.5 x =
and write down the equation of the tangent line.
5. The amount of grain in a bin is given by
( )
11 4
4
t
V t
t
+
=
+
answer each of the following
questions.
(a) Compute (accurate to at least 8 decimal places) the average rate of change of the amount
of grain in the bin between 6 t = and the following values of t.
(i) 6.5 (ii) 6.1 (iii) 6.01 (iv) 6.001 (v) 6.0001
(vi) 5.5 (vii) 5.9 (viii) 5.99 (ix) 5.999 (x) 5.9999
(b) Use the information from (a) to estimate the instantaneous rate of change of the volume
of air in the balloon at 6 t = .
6. The population (in thousands) of insects is given by
( ) ( )
1
2 cos 3 sin
2
t
P t t
 
=

\ .
answer
each of the following questions.
(a) Compute (accurate to at least 8 decimal places) the average rate of change of the
population of insects between 4 t = and the following values of t. Make sure your calculator
is set to radians for the computations.
(i) 4.5 (ii) 4.1 (iii) 4.01 (iv) 4.001 (v) 4.0001
(vi) 3.5 (vii) 3.9 (viii) 3.99 (ix) 3.999 (x) 3.9999
(b) Use the information from (a) to estimate the instantaneous rate of change of the
population of the insects at 4 t = .
7. The amount of water in a holding tank is given by ( )
4 2
8 7 V t t t = + answer each of the
following questions.
(a) Compute (accurate to at least 8 decimal places) the average rate of change of the amount
of grain in the bin between 0.25 t = and the following values of t.
2007 Paul Dawkins 21 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
(i) 1 (ii) 0.5 (iii) 0.251 (iv) 0.2501 (v) 0.25001
(vi) 0 (vii) 0.1 (viii) 0.249 (ix) 0.2499 (x) 0.24999
(b) Use the information from (a) to estimate the instantaneous rate of change of the volume
of water in the tank at 0.25 t = .
8. The position of an object is given by
( )
2
72
1
s t x
x
= +
+
answer each of the following
questions.
(a) Compute (accurate to at least 8 decimal places) the average velocity of the object between
5 t = and the following values of t.
(i) 5.5 (ii) 5.1 (iii) 5.01 (iv) 5.001 (v) 5.0001
(vi) 4.5 (vii) 4.9 (viii) 4.99 (ix) 4.999 (x) 4.9999
(b) Use the information from (a) to estimate the instantaneous velocity of the object at 5 t =
and determine if the object is moving to the right (i.e. the instantaneous velocity is positive),
moving to the left (i.e. the instantaneous velocity is negative), or not moving (i.e. the
instantaneous velocity is zero).
9. The position of an object is given by ( ) ( ) ( ) 2cos 4 7sin s t t t = . Note that a negative
position here simply means that the position is to the left of the zero position and is perfectly
acceptable. Answer each of the following questions.
(a) Compute (accurate to at least 8 decimal places) the average velocity of the object between
0 t = and the following values of t. Make sure your calculator is set to radians for the
computations.
(i) 2.5 (ii) 2.1 (iii) 2.01 (iv) 2.001 (v) 2.0001
(vi) 1.5 (vii) 1.9 (viii) 1.99 (ix) 1.999 (x) 1.9999
(b) Use the information from (a) to estimate the instantaneous velocity of the object at 0 t =
and determine if the object is moving to the right (i.e. the instantaneous velocity is positive),
moving to the left (i.e. the instantaneous velocity is negative), or not moving (i.e. the
instantaneous velocity is zero).
10. The position of an object is given by ( )
2
10 11 s t t t = + . Note that a negative position here
simply means that the position is to the left of the zero position and is perfectly acceptable.
Answer each of the following questions.
(a) Determine the time(s) in which the position of the object is at 5 s =
2007 Paul Dawkins 22 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
(b) Estimate the instantaneous velocity of the object at each of the time(s) found in part (a)
using the method discussed in this section.
The Limit
1. For the function ( )
2
2
6 9
3
x x
g x
x x
+ +
=
+
answer each of the following questions.
(a) Evaluate the function the following values of x compute (accurate to at least 8 decimal
places).
(i) 2.5 (ii) 2.9 (iii) 2.99 (iv) 2.999 (v) 2.9999
(vi) 3.5 (vii) 3.1 (viii) 3.01 (ix) 3.001 (x) 3.0001
(b) Use the information from (a) to estimate the value of
2
2
3
6 9
lim
3
x
x x
x x
+ +
+
.
2. For the function ( )
2
2
10 9
1
z z
f z
z
=
.
3. For the function
( )
2 4 2t
h t
t
+
= answer each of the following questions.
(a) Evaluate the function the following values of compute (accurate to at least 8 decimal
places). Make sure your calculator is set to radians for the computations.
(i) 0.5 (ii) 0.1 (iii) 0.01 (iv) 0.001 (v) 0.0001
(vi) 0.5 (vii) 0.1 (viii) 0.01 (ix) 0.001 (x) 0.0001
(b) Use the information from (a) to estimate the value of
0
2 4 2
lim
t
t
t
+
.
2007 Paul Dawkins 23 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
4. For the function ( )
( ) cos 4 1
2 8
g
.
5. Below is the graph of ( ) f x . For each of the given points determine the value of ( ) f a and
( ) lim
x a
f x
=
9. Suppose we know that ( )
7
lim 18
x
f x
, ( ) lim
x a
f x
+
, and ( ) lim
x a
f x
, ( ) lim
x a
f x
+
, and ( ) lim
x a
f x
, ( ) lim
x a
f x
+
, and ( ) lim
x a
f x
= = =
=
7. Explain in your own words what each of the following equations mean.
( ) ( )
8 8
lim 3 lim 1
x x
f x f x
+
= =
8. Suppose we know that ( )
7
lim 18
x
f x
and
the value of
( )
7
lim
x
f x
+
and the
value of
( )
6
lim
x
f x
+
= , ( )
0
lim 1
x
g x
= and ( )
0
lim 3
x
h x
+ (
(b) ( ) ( )
0
lim 6 4 10
x
g x h x
(
(c) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
lim 4 12 3
x
g x f x h x
+ (
(d) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
lim 1 2
x
g x f x
( +
2. Given ( )
12
lim 2
x
f x
= , ( )
12
lim 6
x
g x
= and ( )
12
lim 9
x
h x
( +
+
(
(b) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
12
lim 3 1 2
x
f x g x
( +
(c)
( )
( ) ( )
12
1
lim
3 2
x
f x
g x h x
(d)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
12
2
lim
7
x
f x g x
h x f x
+
3. Given ( )
1
lim 0
x
f x
= , ( )
1
lim 9
x
g x
= and ( )
1
lim 7
x
h x
(b)
( ) ( )
1
lim 3 6
x
f x h x
+
(c) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
lim
x
f x g x h x
(d)
( )
( )
4
1
2
lim
1 10
x
g x
h x
For each of the following limits use the limit properties given in this section to compute the limit.
At each step clearly indicate the property being used. If it is not possible to compute any of the
limits clearly explain why not.
4.
( )
2
4
lim 3 9 2
x
x x
+
2007 Paul Dawkins 28 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
5.
( )
( )
2
2
1
lim 3
w
w w
+
6.
( )
4 2
0
lim 4 12 8
t
t t t
+
7.
2
2
10
lim
3 4
z
z
z
8.
2
7
8
lim
14 49
x
x
x x
+
9.
3
2
3
20 4
lim
8 1
y
y y
y y
+
+
10.
3
6
lim 8 7
w
w
+
11.
( )
2
1
lim 4 8 1
t
t t
+
12.
( )
4
8
lim 3 8 9 2
x
x x
+ +
Computing Limits
For problems 1 20 evaluate the limit, if it exists.
1.
( )
3
9
lim 1 4
x
x
2.
( )
4 3
1
lim 6 7 12 25
y
y y y
+ +
3.
2
2
0
6
lim
3
t
t
t
4.
2
4
6
lim
2 3
z
z
z
+
5.
2
2
2
lim
6 16
w
w
w w
+
2007 Paul Dawkins 29 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
6.
2
2
5
6 5
lim
2 15
t
t t
t t
+ +
+
7.
2
2
3
5 16 3
lim
9
x
x x
x
8.
2
2
1
10 9
lim
3 4 7
z
z z
z z
+
9.
3
2
2
8
lim
8 12
x
x
x x
+
+ +
10.
( )
2
8
5 24
lim
8
t
t t
t t
11.
( )( )
2
4
16
lim
2 3 6
w
w
w w
+
12.
( )
3
0
2 8
lim
h
h
h
+
13.
( )
4
0
1 1
lim
h
h
h
+
14.
25
5
lim
25
t
t
t
15.
2
2
lim
2
x
x
x
16.
6
6
lim
3 2 4
z
z
z
17.
2
3 1 4
lim
2 4
z
z
z
+
2007 Paul Dawkins 30 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
18.
3
3
lim
1 5 11
t
t
t t
+
19.
7
1 1
7
lim
7
x
x
x
20.
1
1 1
4 3
lim
1
y
y y
y
+
+
+
21. Given the function
( )
15 4
6 2 4
x
f x
x x
<
=
Evaluate the following limits, if they exist.
(a) ( )
7
lim
x
f x
(b) ( )
4
lim
x
f x
22. Given the function
( )
2 3
2
5 14 2
t t t
g t
t t
<
=
Evaluate the following limits, if they exist.
(a) ( )
3
lim
t
g t
(b) ( )
2
lim
t
g t
23. Given the function
( )
2
2 6
8 6
w w
h w
w w
=
>
Evaluate the following limits, if they exist.
(a) ( )
6
lim
w
h w
(b) ( )
2
lim
w
h w
24. Given the function
( )
2
5 24 3
3 4
1 2 4
x x
g x x x
x x
+ <
= <
Evaluate the following limits, if they exist.
2007 Paul Dawkins 31 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
(a) ( )
3
lim
x
g x
(b) ( )
0
lim
x
g x
(c) ( )
4
lim
x
g x
(d) ( )
12
lim
x
g x
For problems 25 30 evaluate the limit, if it exists.
25.
( )
10
lim 10 3
z
t
+ +
26.
( )
4
lim 9 8 2
x
x
+
27.
0
lim
h
h
h
28.
2
2
lim
2
t
t
t
29.
5
2 10
lim
5
w
w
w
+
+
30.
2
4
4
lim
16
x
x
x
31. Given that ( ) 3 2 1 x f x x + for all x determine the value of
( )
4
lim
x
f x
.
32. Given that ( )
1
7
2
x
x f x
+ for all x determine the value of
( )
9
lim
x
f x
.
33. Use the Squeeze Theorem to determine the value of
4
0
3
lim cos
x
x
x
 

\ .
.
34. Use the Squeeze Theorem to determine the value of
0
1
lim cos
x
x
x
 

\ .
.
35. Use the Squeeze Theorem to determine the value of
( )
2
1
1
lim 1 cos
1
x
x
x
 
\ .
.
2007 Paul Dawkins 32 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
Infinite Limits
For problems 1 8 evaluate the indicated limits, if they exist.
1. For
( )
( )
2
4
1
g x
x
evaluate,
(a) ( )
1
lim
x
g x
(b) ( )
1
lim
x
g x
+
(c) ( )
1
lim
x
g x
2. For
( )
( )
3
17
4
h z
z
=
evaluate,
(a)
( )
4
lim
z
h z
(b)
( )
4
lim
z
h z
+
(c) ( )
4
lim
z
h z
3. For ( )
( )
2
7
4
3
t
g t
t
=
+
evaluate,
(a)
( )
3
lim
t
g t
(b)
( )
3
lim
t
g t
+
(c) ( )
3
lim
t
g t
4. For
( )
3
1
8
x
f x
x
+
=
+
evaluate,
(a) ( )
2
lim
x
f x
(b) ( )
2
lim
x
f x
+
(c) ( )
2
lim
x
f x
5. For
( )
( )
4
2
1
9
x
f x
x
evaluate,
(a) ( )
3
lim
x
f x
(b) ( )
3
lim
x
f x
+
(c) ( )
3
lim
x
f x
6. For ( ) ( ) ln 8 W t t = + evaluate,
(a) ( )
8
lim
w
W t
(b) ( )
8
lim
w
W t
+
(c) ( )
8
lim
w
W t
7. For ( ) ln h z z = evaluate,
(a) ( )
0
lim
z
h z
(b) ( )
0
lim
z
h z
+
(c) ( )
0
lim
z
h z
8. For ( ) ( ) cot R y y = evaluate,
(a) ( ) lim
y
R y
(b) ( ) lim
y
R y
(c) ( ) lim
y
R y
2007 Paul Dawkins 33 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
For problems 9 12 find all the vertical asymptotes of the given function.
9.
( )
6
9
h x
x
10.
( )
( )
3
2
8
5 2
x
f x
x x
+
=
11. ( )
( )( )
5
7 12
t
g t
x x x
=
+
12. ( )
( ) ( )
2
5
6
2
1
1 15
z
g z
z z
+
=
+
Limits At Infinity, Part I
1. For ( )
3 5
8 9 11 f x x x x = + evaluate each of the following limits.
(a) ( ) lim
x
f x
(b) ( ) lim
x
f x
2. For ( )
2 4
10 6 2 h t t t t = + + evaluate each of the following limits.
(a) ( ) lim
t
h t
(b) ( ) lim
t
h t
3. For ( )
3 4
7 8 g z z z = + + evaluate each of the following limits.
(a) ( ) lim
z
g z
(b) ( ) lim
z
g z
For problems 4 17 answer each of the following questions.
(a) Evaluate ( ) lim
x
f x
(b) Evaluate ( ) lim
x
f x
(c) Write down the equation(s) of any horizontal asymptotes for the function.
4. ( )
3
3
10 6
7 9
x x
f x
x
=
+
2007 Paul Dawkins 34 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
5.
( )
2
12
3 8 23
x
f x
x x
+
=
+
6. ( )
8
3 5 8
5 9
10 3
x
f x
x x x
=
+
7. ( )
2
2
2 6 9
15 4
x x
f x
x x
=
+
8. ( )
4
2
5 7
4
x x
f x
x
+
=
9. ( )
3 2
3
4 3 2 1
10 5
x x x
f x
x x
+
=
+
10. ( )
8
3
5
2 7 1
x
f x
x x
=
+
11. ( )
3 2
1 4
9 10
x
f x
x
+
=
+
12. ( )
2
25 7
5 2
x
f x
x
+
=
+
13.
( )
2
8 11
9
x
f x
x
+
=
14. ( )
4 2
2
9 2 3
5 2
x x
f x
x x
+ +
=
15. ( )
3
6
6
8 4
x
f x
x
+
=
+
16. ( )
3 3
2 8
4 7
x
f x
x
=
+
2007 Paul Dawkins 35 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
17.
( )
4 4
1
5 2
x
f x
x
+
=
+
Limits At Infinity, Part II
For problems 1 11 evaluate (a) ( ) lim
x
f x
.
1. ( )
4
8 x x
f x
+
= e
2. ( )
2 5
2 4 2 x x x
f x
+ +
= e
3. ( )
3
2
3 x
x x
f x
+
= e
4. ( )
5 9
7 3
x
x
f x
+
= e
5. ( )
6
4
5 2
8
x
x x
f x
+
= e
6. ( )
3 10
12 2
x x x
f x
= + e e e
7. ( )
2 14
9 7
x x x
f x
= e e e
8. ( )
8 7 5 2
20 3
x x x x
f x
= + e e e e
9. ( )
15
15
4
4
6
11 6
x x
x x
f x
+
=
+
e e
e e
10. ( )
3 10
7
9 4
2
x x x
x x
f x
+
=
e e e
e e
11. ( )
14 18
20 9
3
2
x x
x x x
f x
=
e e
e e e
For problems 12 20 evaluate the given limit.
2007 Paul Dawkins 36 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
12.
( )
2
limln 5 12 6
x
x x
+
13.
( )
5
limln 5 7
y
y
14.
3
3
limln
1 5
x
x
x
+  

+
\ .
15.
3
2
2 5
limln
4 3
t
t t
t
 

+
\ .
16.
2
2
10 8
limln
1
z
z z
z
  +

\ .
17.
( )
1 3
limtan 7 4
x
x x
+
18.
( )
1 2 6
limtan 4
w
w w
18.
3 2
1
4
limtan
1 3
t
t t
t
  +

+
\ .
19.
4
1
2 3
4
limtan
3 5
z
z
z z
  +

+
\ .
Continuity
1. The graph of ( ) f x is given below. Based on this graph determine where the function is
discontinuous.
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Calculus I
2. The graph of ( ) f x is given below. Based on this graph determine where the function is
discontinuous.
3. The graph of ( ) f x is given below. Based on this graph determine where the function is
discontinuous.
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Calculus I
For problems 4 13 using only Properties 1 9 from the Limit Properties section, onesided limit
properties (if needed) and the definition of continuity determine if the given function is
continuous or discontinuous at the indicated points.
4.
( )
6 2
7 14
x
f x
x
+
=
(a) 3 x = , (b) 0 x = , (c) 2 x = ?
5. ( )
2
2
25
y
R y
y
=
(a) 5 y = , (b) 1 y = , (c) 3 y = ?
6.
( )
2
5 20
12
z
g z
z z
(a) 1 z = , (b) 0 z = , (c) 4 z = ?
7.
( )
2
2
6 7
x
W x
x x
+
=
+
(a) 7 x = , (b) 0 x = , (c) 1 x = ?
8. ( )
2
2 1
4 6 1
z z
h z
z z
<
=
+
(a) 6 z = , (b) 1 z = ?
9. ( )
2
0
0
x
x x
g x
x x
+ <
=
e
(a) 0 x = , (b) 4 x = ?
10. ( )
8 5
1 6 5
t
Z t
t t
<
=
(a) 0 t = , (b) 5 t = ?
11. ( )
2
2 4
0 4
18 4
z z
h z z
z z
+ <
= =
>
(a) 4 z = , (b) 2 z = ?
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Calculus I
12. ( )
2
2
1 2
3 2
2 7 2 7
0 7
7
x x
x
f x x x
x
x x
<
= < <
>
(a) 2 x = , (b) 7 x = ?
13. ( )
3 0
0 0
6 0 8
14 8
22 8
w w
w
g w w w
w
w w
<
= + < <
>
(a) 0 w = , (b) 8 w = ?
For problems 14 22 determine where the given function is discontinuous.
14.
( )
2
11 2
2 13 7
x
f x
x x
=
15.
( )
2
3
2 3 4
Q z
z z
=
+
16. ( )
2
3 2
1
6
t
h t
t t t
=
+ +
17. ( )
( )
2
4 1
5cos 1
z
z
f z
+
=
+
18. ( )
( )
1
sin 1
x
h x
x x
19.
( )
7
3
4 1
x
f x
=
e
20.
( )
2
1
1
2
w
w w
R w
+
=
e
e e
21. ( ) ( ) cot 4 g x x =
2007 Paul Dawkins 40 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
22. ( )
( )
sec f t t =
For problems 23 27 use the Intermediate Value Theorem to show that the given equation has at
least one solution in the indicated interval. Note that you are NOT asked to find the solution only
show that at least one must exist in the indicated interval.
23.
3 4
1 7 0 x x + = on   4,8
24.
2
11 3 z z + = on   15, 5
25.
2
15
0
8
t t
t
+
=
on   5,1
26.
( ) ( )
2 2
ln 2 1 ln 4 0 t t + = on   1,2
27.
3 2
10 5
w
w w
= + e on   0,4
For problems 28 33 assume that ( ) f x is continuous everywhere unless otherwise indicated in
some way. From the given information is it possible to determine if there is a root of ( ) f x in
the given interval?
If it is possible to determine that there is a root in the given interval clearly explain how you
know that a root must exist. If it is not possible to determine if there is a root in the interval
sketch a graph of two functions each of which meets the given information and one will have a
root in the given interval and the other will not have a root in the given interval.
28. ( ) 5 12 f = and ( ) 0 3 f = on the interval   5,0 .
29. ( ) 1 30 f = and ( ) 9 6 f = on the interval   1,9 .
30. ( ) 20 100 f = and ( ) 40 100 f = on the interval   20,40 .
31. ( ) 4 10 f = , ( ) 5 17 f = ,
( )
1
lim 2
x
f x
= , and
( )
1
lim 4
x
f x
+
= , and
( )
4
lim 1
x
f x
+
= , and
( )
2
lim 3
x
f x
+
14.
( )
2
1
x
g x
x
+
=
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Calculus I
15. ( )
2
2
t
Q t
t
=
+
16. ( ) 8 f w w = +
17. ( ) 14 3 V t t = +
18. ( ) 2 5 G x x =
19. ( ) 1 4 Q t t = +
20. ( )
2
1 f x x = +
21. ( )
1
W t
t
=
22. ( )
4
1
g x
x
=
23. ( ) f x x x = +
24.
( )
1
f x x
x
= +
Interpretations of the Derivative
For problems 1 3 use the graph of the function, ( ) f x , estimate the value of ( ) f a for the
given values of a.
1. (a) 5 a = (b) 1 a =
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Calculus I
2. (a) 2 a = (b) 3 a =
3. (a) 3 a = (b) 4 a =
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Calculus I
For problems 4 6 sketch the graph of a function that satisfies the given conditions.
4. ( ) 7 5 f = , ( ) 7 3 f = , ( ) 4 1 f = , ( ) 4 1 f =
5. ( ) 1 2 f = , ( ) 1 4 f = , ( ) 6 2 f = , ( ) 6 3 f =
6. ( ) 1 9 f = , ( ) 1 0 f = , ( ) 2 1 f = , ( ) 2 3 f = , ( ) 5 4 f = , ( ) 5 1 f =
For problems 7 9 the graph of a function, ( ) f x , is given. Use this to sketch the graph of the
derivative, ( ) f x .
7.
8.
9.
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Calculus I
10. Answer the following questions about the function ( )
2
1 10 7 g z z z = + .
(a) Is the function increasing or decreasing at 0 z = ?
(b) Is the function increasing or decreasing at 2 z = ?
(c) Does the function ever stop changing? If yes, at what value(s) of z does the
function stop changing?
11. What is the equation of the tangent line to ( )
3
5 f x x x = at 1 x = .
12. The position of an object at any time t is given by
( )
2
2 8 10 s t t t = + .
(a) Determine the velocity of the object at any time t.
(b) Is the object moving to the right or left at 1 t = ?
(c) Is the object moving to the right or left at 4 t = ?
(d) Does the object ever stop moving? If so, at what time(s) does the object stop
moving?
13. Does the function ( )
2
8 20 R w w w = + ever stop changing? If yes, at what value(s)
of w does the function stop changing?
14. Suppose that the volume of air in a balloon for0 6 t is given by ( )
2
6 V t t t = .
(a) Is the volume of air increasing or decreasing at 2 t = ?
(b) Is the volume of air increasing or decreasing at 5 t = ?
(c) Does the volume of air ever stop changing? If yes, at what times(s) does the
volume stop changing?
15. What is the equation of the tangent line to
( ) 5 7 f x x = + at 4 x = ?
16. Answer the following questions about the function ( )
3 2
2 Z x x x x = .
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Calculus I
(a) Is the function increasing or decreasing at 1 x = ?
(b) Is the function increasing or decreasing at 2 x = ?
(c) Does the function ever stop changing? If yes, at what value(s) of x does the
function stop changing?
17. Determine if the function ( ) 14 3 V t t = + increasing or decreasing at the given points.
(a) 0 t =
(b) 5 t =
(c) 100 t =
18. Suppose that the volume of water in a tank for 0 t is given by ( )
2
2
t
Q t
t
=
+
.
(a) Is the volume of water increasing or decreasing at 0 t = ?
(b) Is the volume of water increasing or decreasing at 3 t = ?
(c) Does the volume of water ever stop changing? If so, at what times(s) does the
volume stop changing?
19. What is the equation of the tangent line to
( ) 10 g x = at 16 x = ?
20. The position of an object at any time t is given by ( ) 1 4 Q t t = + .
(a) Determine the velocity of the object at any time t.
(b) Does the object ever stop moving? If so, at what time(s) does the object stop
moving?
21. Does the function ( )
3
2 9 5 Y t t t = + + ever stop changing? If yes, at what value(s)
of t does the function stop changing?
Differentiation Formulas
For problems 1 20 find the derivative of the given function.
1. ( )
3 8
8 4 2 g x x x = +
2. ( )
10 5 3 2
7 2 f z z z z z = +
3.
4 3
8 10 9 4 y x x x = +
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Calculus I
4. ( )
4 4
3 3 f x x x x
= +
5. ( )
10 10
9 8 12 R t t t
= + +
6. ( )
6 3 1
3 8 9 h y y y y
= +
7. ( )
7 3 2 4
2 6 8 1 g t t t t t
= + +
8.
6 4
7 3 z x x x = +
9. ( )
9 3 4 7 4 2
7 2 f x x x x = +
10.
( )
5
6
2
9
7
6 h y y y
y
= + +
11.
( )
2 5
4 1 1
7 2
g z
z z z
= +
12.
2 3
9 3
2 1
9
3 7
y t t
t t
= +
13.
( )
3
6
5 2
1 1
W x x
x
x
= +
14.
( ) ( )( )
2
5 1 g w w w = +
15.
( ) ( )
3
1 9 h x x x =
16. ( ) ( )
2
3
3 2 f t t =
17.
( ) ( )( )
2
1 2 2 g t x x x = + +
18.
2
4 8 2 x x
y
x
+
=
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Calculus I
19. ( )
4 2
3
2 7 t t t
Y t
t
+
=
20.
( )
( )
2 5
2
3
w w w
S w
w
+
=
For problems 21 26 determine where, if anywhere, the function is not changing.
21. ( )
3 2
2 9 108 14 f x x x x = +
22. ( )
2 3 4
45 300 20 3 u t t t t = + +
23. ( )
3 2
9 10 Q t t t t = +
24. ( )
3 2
2 3 4 5 h w w w w = + + +
25. ( )
2 3 4
9 8 3 g x x x x = + +
26. ( ) ( )
2
2
1 G z z z =
27. Find the tangent line to ( )
5 2
3 4 9 12 f x x x x = + at 1 x = .
28. Find the tangent line to ( )
2
1 x
g x
x
+
= at 2 x = .
29. Find the tangent line to ( )
4
2 8 h x x x = at 16 x = .
30. The position of an object at any time t is given by ( )
4 3 2
3 44 108 20 s t t t t = + + .
(a) Determine the velocity of the object at any time t.
(b) Does the object ever stop changing?
(c) When is the object moving to the right and when is the object moving to the left?
31. The position of an object at any time t is given by ( )
3 4 5
1 150 45 2 s t t t t = + .
(a) Determine the velocity of the object at any time t.
(b) Does the object ever stop changing?
(c) When is the object moving to the right and when is the object moving to the left?
32. Determine where the function ( )
3 2
4 18 336 27 f x x x x = + is increasing and decreasing.
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Calculus I
33. Determine where the function ( )
4 3 2
2 15 9 g w w w w = + is increasing and decreasing.
34. Determine where the function ( )
3 2
24 192 50 V t t t t = + is increasing and decreasing.
35. Determine the percentage of the interval   6,4 on which ( )
3 4 5
7 10 5 2 f x x x x = + is
increasing.
36. Determine the percentage of the interval   5,2 on which ( )
4 3 2
3 8 144 f x x x x = is
decreasing.
37. Is ( )
2 3
3 2 h z x x x = + + increasing or decreasing more on the interval   1,1 ?
38. Determine where, if anywhere, the tangent line to ( )
2
12 9 3 f x x x = + is parallel to the
line 1 7 y x = .
39. Determine where, if anywhere, the tangent line to ( )
2 3
8 4 2 f x x x x = + + is perpendicular
to the line
1 8
4 3
y x = + .
40. Determine where, if anywhere, the tangent line to ( )
3
8 f x x x = is perpendicular to the
line 2 11 y x = .
41. Determine where, if anywhere, the tangent line to ( )
13 1
9
x
f x
x
= + is parallel to the line
y x = .
Product and Quotient Rule
For problems 1 7 use the Product Rule or the Quotient Rule to find the derivative of the given
function.
1.
( )
( )( )
3 2
2 3 8 h z z z = +
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Calculus I
2.
( ) ( )
3
2
7 2 f x x x
x
 
=

\ .
3.
( )( )
2 3
5 1 12 2 y x x x x = + +
4.
( )
3
2
1
x
g x
x
=
+
5. ( )
2
4
6
y y
Z y
y
6. ( )
2
3
1 10
5 2
t t
V t
t t
+
=
+
7. ( )
( )( ) 1 4 2
3 9
w w
f w
w
+
=
+
For problems 8 12 use the fact that ( ) 3 12 f = , ( ) 3 9 f = , ( ) 3 4 g = , ( ) 3 7 g = ,
( ) 3 2 h = and ( ) 3 5 h = determine the value of the indicated derivative.
8. ( ) ( ) 3 f g
9. ( ) 3
h
g
 

\ .
10. ( ) 3
f g
h
 

\ .
11. If
( ) ( ) y x f x h x = (
determine
3 x
dy
dx
=
.
12. If
( ) ( )
( )
1 g x h x
y
x f x
=
+
determine
3 x
dy
dx
=
.
13. Find the equation of the tangent line to
( ) ( )( )
2 2
8 1 f x x x x = + + at 2 x = .
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Calculus I
14. Find the equation of the tangent line to ( )
3
2
4
2
x
f x
x x
=
+
at 1 x = .
15. Determine where
( )
2
2
12
z
g z
z
=
+
is increasing and decreasing.
16. Determine where
( ) ( )( )
2
3 1 2 R x x x x = + is increasing and decreasing.
17. Determine where ( )
2
2
7
1 2
t t
h t
t
=
+
is increasing and decreasing.
18. Determine where
( )
1
1
x
f x
x
+
=
= + +
Derivatives of Trig Functions
For problems 1 6 evaluate the given limit.
1.
( )
0
3
lim
sin
t
t
t
2.
( )
0
sin 9
lim
10
w
w
w
3.
( )
( )
0
sin 2
lim
sin 17
4.
( )
0
sin 4
lim
3 12
x
x
x
+
+
5.
( )
0
cos 1
lim
9
x
x
x
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Calculus I
6.
( )
0
cos 8 1
lim
2
z
z
z
For problems 6 10 differentiate the given function.
6. ( ) ( ) ( )
4
9sin 2tan h x x x x = +
7. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 8sec cos 4csc g t t t t = +
8. ( ) ( ) 6cot 8cos 9 y w w = +
9. ( ) ( ) ( ) 8sec csc f x x x =
10. ( ) ( )
9
8 tan h t t t =
11. ( ) ( )
5 2
6 8 sin R x x x x = +
12. ( )
( )
3
cos
3
z
h z z
z
=
13. ( )
( )
( )
1 cos
1 sin
x
Y x
x
+
=
14. ( )
( )
( )
sec
3
1 9tan
w
f w w
w
=
+
15. ( )
( )
2
cot
1
t t
g t
t
=
+
16. Find the tangent line to ( ) ( ) 2tan 4 f x x x = at 0 x = .
17. Find the tangent line to ( ) ( ) sec f x x x = at 2 x = .
18. Find the tangent line to ( ) ( ) ( ) cos sec f x x x = + at x = .
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Calculus I
19. The position of an object is given by ( ) ( ) ( ) 9sin 2cos 7 s t t t = + determine all the points
where the object is not changing.
20. The position of an object is given by ( ) ( ) 8 10sin s t t t = + determine where in the interval
  0,12 the object is moving to the right and moving to the left.
21. Where in the range   6,6 is the function ( ) ( ) 3 8cos f z z z = is increasing and
decreasing.
22. Where in the range   3,5 is the function ( ) ( ) ( ) 7cos sin 3 R w w w = + is increasing and
decreasing.
23. Where in the range   0,10 is the function ( ) ( ) 9 15sin h t t = + is increasing and decreasing.
24. Using the definition of the derivative prove that
( ) ( ) ( ) cos sin
d
x x
dx
= .
25. Prove that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) sec sec tan
d
x x x
dx
= .
26. Prove that
( ) ( ) ( )
2
cot csc
d
x x
dx
= .
27. Prove that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) csc csc cot
d
x x x
dx
= .
Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions
For problems 1 12 differentiate the given function.
1. ( ) 10 9
z z
g z =
2. ( ) ( ) ( )
4 11
9log 12log f x x x = +
3. ( ) 6 4
t t
h t = e
4. ( ) ( ) ( )
123
20ln log R x x x = +
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Calculus I
5. ( ) ( )
2
6 3
t
Q t t t = + e
6. 8 9
v v
y v = +
7.
( ) ( ) ( )
6
4
log ln U z z z z =
8. ( ) ( ) ( )
3
log log h x x x =
9. ( )
1
1 7
w
w
f w
=
+
e
e
10. ( )
( )
3
1 4ln
5
t
f t
t
+
=
11.
( )
( )
2
7
log
7
r
r r
g r
+
=
12.
( )
( )
4
ln
t
t
V t
t
=
e
13. Find the tangent line to ( ) ( ) 1 8
x
f x x = e at 1 x = .
14. Find the tangent line to ( ) ( )
2
3 ln f x x x = at 1 x = .
15. Find the tangent line to ( ) ( ) 3 8ln
x
f x x = + e at 2 x = .
16. Determine if
( ) 4 3
y y
U y = e is increasing or decreasing at the following points.
(a) 2 y = (b) 0 y = (c) 3 y =
17. Determine if ( )
( )
2
ln
z
y z
z
= is increasing or decreasing at the following points.
(a)
1
2
z = (b) 2 z = (c) 6 z =
18. Determine if ( )
2 x
h x x = e is increasing or decreasing at the following points.
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Calculus I
(a) 1 x = (b) 0 x = (c) 2 x =
Derivatives of Inverse Trig Functions
For each of the following problems differentiate the given function.
1. ( ) ( ) ( )
1
sin 9sin f x x x
= +
2. ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
5sin cos C t t t
=
3. ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
tan 4cos g z z z
= +
4. ( ) ( ) ( )
1 3 1
sec cos h t t t t
=
5.
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
sin f w w w w
=
6.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
cot 1 csc y x x x
= +
7. ( )
( )
1
1
tan
z
Q z
z
+
=
8. ( )
( )
( )
1
1
1 sin
1 cos
t
A t
t
+
=
Derivatives of Hyperbolic Functions
For each of the following problems differentiate the given function.
1. ( ) ( )
2
3sinh h w w w =
2. ( ) ( ) ( ) cos cosh g x x x = +
3. ( ) ( ) ( ) 3csch 7sinh H t t t = +
4. ( ) ( ) ( ) tan tanh A r r r =
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Calculus I
5. ( ) ( ) cosh
x
f x x = e
6. ( )
( ) sech 1
1
z
f z
z
+
=
7.
( )
( )
( )
coth
sinh
w
Q w
w w
=
+
Chain Rule
For problems 1 46 differentiate the given function.
1. ( ) ( )
11
3 8 g x x =
2. ( )
7 3
9 g z z =
3. ( ) ( )
6
3
9 2 h t t t = +
4.
3 2
8 y w w = +
5. ( ) ( )
2
2
14 3 R v v v
=
6.
( )
( )
8
2
6 5
H w
w
=
7.
( ) ( )
4
sin 4 7 f x x x = +
8.
( ) ( )
tan 1 2
x
T x = e
9.
( ) ( ) ( )
2
cos sin g z z z = +
10.
( ) ( )
2
sec h u u u =
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Calculus I
11. ( ) ( )
cot 1 cot y x = +
12. ( )
2
1 t
f t
= e
13. ( )
6
12z z
J z
= e
14. ( )
( ) ln z z
f z
+
= e
15. ( )
( ) cos
7
x
B x =
16.
2
9
3
x x
z
=
17.
( ) ( )
ln 6
z
R z z = +e
18.
( ) ( )
7 5 3
ln h w w w w w = +
19. ( ) ( ) ( )
ln 1 csc g t t =
20. ( ) ( )
1
tan 3 2 f v v
=
21. ( ) ( )
1
sin 9 h t t
=
22. ( ) ( ) ( )
6
cos 1 sin A t t t =
23. ( ) ( ) ( ) ln 6 4sec H z z z =
24.
( ) ( ) ( )
4 4
tan tan f x x x = +
25. ( )
2
4 8
6 7
u u u u
f u
= + e e e
26.
( ) ( ) ( )
8 8
sec sec g z z z = +
27. ( ) ( )
5
4
1 2 9 k w w w = + +
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Calculus I
28. ( ) ( )
7
3 2
5 1 9 4 h x x x x
= + + +
29. ( ) ( ) ( )
5
4
3
2 1 5 3 T x x x =
30.
( ) ( )
2
4 sin 1 2 w z z z = +
31. ( ) ( )
8 4
cos Y t t t =
32. ( ) ( )
4
6 ln 10 3 f x x x = +
33.
( ) ( ) ( )
2
sec 4 tan A z z z =
34.
( ) ( )
4 6 9
5 ln
v
h v v v
+
= + e
35. ( )
2
8
4
7
x x
f x
x
+
=
+
e
36. ( )
( )
( )
3
6
2
4 1 x
g x
x x
+
=
37. ( )
( ) csc 1
1
t
t
g t
=
+e
38.
( )
( )
( )
2
2
sin
1 cos
z
V z
z
=
+
39.
( ) ( ) ( )
ln cos
w
U w w = e
40. ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
tan 5 ln h t t t =
41.
2
3
ln
2
x
z
x
+  
=

\ .
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Calculus I
42. ( )
7 2
v
g v
v
=
+
e
43. ( )
2
1 4 f x x x = + +
44. ( ) ( )
5
6 cos 8 u w = +
45. ( )
( )
2
4
2 5
7
z z
h z z z
+
= +e
46.
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
ln 7 sin A y y y = +
47. ( ) ( )
6
csc 8 g x x =
48. ( ) ( ) ( )
2
4
cos 9 ln 6 5 V w w w = + +
49.
( ) ( )
3 6
sin
t
h t t
= e
50. ( )
( )
( ) ( )
8
sin
sin
r r
B r = e e
51.
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
cos 1 cos f z z = +
52. Find the tangent line to ( ) ( )
5
2
2 4 f x x = at 0 x = .
53. Find the tangent line to
( ) ( )
2 4 2
8ln 3
x
f x x
+
= e at 2 x = .
54. Determine where ( ) ( )
4
3
9 A t t t = is increasing and decreasing.
55. Is ( ) ( ) ( )
4 5
2 1 2 h x x x = + increasing or decreasing more in the interval   2,3 ?
56. Determine where
( ) 3cos 3
2
w
U w w
 
= +

\ .
is increasing and decreasing in the interval
  10,10 .
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Calculus I
57. If the position of an object is given by ( ) ( ) 4sin 3 10 7 s t t = + . Determine where, if
anywhere, the object is not moving in the interval   0,4 .
58. Determine where ( ) ( ) ( ) 6sin 2 7cos 3 3 f x x x = is increasing and decreasing in the
interval   3,2 .
59. Determine where ( ) ( )
2
2 2
1
w
H w w
= e is increasing and decreasing.
60. What percentage of   3,5 is the function ( )
2 2
8 1 2
3
z z
g z
= + e e decreasing?
61. The position of an object is given by
( ) ( )
3 2
ln 2 21 36 200 s t t t t = + + . During the first 10
hours of motion (assuming the motion starts at 0 t = ) what percentage of the time is the object
moving to the right?
62. For the function ( ) ( )
2
1 ln 2 9
2
x
f x x x = + determine each of the following.
(a) The interval on which the function is defined.
(b) Where the function is increasing and decreasing.
Implicit Differentiation
For problems 1 6 do each of the following.
(a) Find y by solving the equation for y and differentiating directly.
(b) Find y by implicit differentiation.
(c) Check that the derivatives in (a) and (b) are the same.
1.
2 9
2 x y =
2.
7
6
4
x
y
=
3.
4 3
1 5 x y = +
4.
2
8 3 x y =
5.
2 2
4 6 x y xy =
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Calculus I
6. ( ) ln x y x =
For problems 7 21 find y by implicit differentiation.
7.
2 3
12 8 y x y =
8.
7 10 2 3
3 6 2 y x y x
+ = +
9.
3 1 1
4 8 y x y
+ =
10.
4 6 3 3
10 7 4 x y y x
= +
11. ( ) ( )
4
sin cos
y
x y + = e
12. ( ) ( ) ln sec x y y + =
13.
( )
2 2 7
4 9 y x y x = +
14.
2 3 2
6 4 0 x x y x
+ =
15.
4 3 3
8 2 xy x y x
+ =
16. ( ) ( )
3
cos sin 7 yx x y x =
17. ( ) ( ) cos sin 9
x
y xy + = e
18.
2 3 2
2 x x y y + + =
19. ( )
1
tan 3 7 6 4 x y x
+ =
20.
2 2 2 2
1
x y x y +
= + e e
21.
3 4
sin 2
x
x y
y
 
+ =

\ .
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Calculus I
For problems 22  24 find the equation of the tangent line at the given point.
22.
2
3 1 x y x + = + at ( ) 4,3
23.
2 2
6 x y y x = at ( ) 2,6
24. ( ) ( ) 2sin cos 1 x y = at ,0
6
 

\ .
For problems 25 27 determine if the function is increasing, decreasing or not changing at the
given point.
25.
2 3
4 9 x y y = + at ( ) 2, 1
26.
2
1 3 x y
x y
= + e e at ( ) 1,0
27. ( ) ( )
2
sin cos x y x y + = at ,1
2
 

\ .
For problems 28  31 assume that ( ) x x t = , ( ) y y t = and ( ) z z t = and differentiate the given
equation with respect to t.
28.
4 2
6 3 x z y =
29.
4 2 3
x y y z =
30.
( )
10
7 6 2 4
8
y
z y x z
= + e
31.
( )
2 3 2 2
cos 0 z x y x + + =
Related Rates
1. In the following assume that x and y are both functions of t. Given 3 x = , 2 y = and 7 y =
determine x for the following equation.
3 4 2
7 x y x y =
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Calculus I
2. In the following assume that x and y are both functions of t. Given
6
x
= , 4 y = and
12 x = determine x for the following equation.
( ) ( )
2 2
16 6cos 2 1 x y x y = +
3. In the following assume that x, y and z are all functions of t. Given 1 x = , 8 y = , 2 z = ,
4 x = and 7 y = determine z for the following equation.
4 2 2
2 3
y
x x z
z
+ =
4. In the following assume that x, y and z are all functions of t. Given 2 x = , 3 y = , 4 z = ,
6 y = and 0 z = determine x for the following equation.
2 2 3 4
8 x y z x z y =
5. The sides of a square are increasing at a rate of 10 cm/sec. How fast is the area enclosed by the
square increasing when the area is 150 cm
2
.
6. The sides of an equilateral triangle are decreasing at a rate of 3 in/hr. How fast is the area
enclosed by the triangle decreasing when the sides are 2 feet long?
7. A spherical balloon is being filled in such a way that the surface area is increasing at a rate of
20 cm
2
/sec when the radius is 2 meters. At what rate is air being pumped in the balloon when the
radius is 2 meters?
8. A cylindrical tank of radius 2.5 feet is being drained of water at a rate of 0.25 ft
3
/sec. How fast
is the height of the water decreasing?
9. A hot air balloon is attached to a spool of rope that is 125 feet away from the balloon when it is
on the ground. The hot air balloon rises straight up in such a way that the length of rope increases
at a rate of 15 ft/sec. How fast is the hot air balloon rising 20 seconds after is lifts off? See the
(probably bad) sketch below to help visualize the problem.
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Calculus I
10. A rock is dropped straight off a bridge that is 50 meters above the ground. Another person is
7 meters away on the same bridge. At what rate is the distance between the rock and the second
person increasing just as the rock hits the ground?
11. A person is 8 meters away from a road and there is a car that is initially 800 meters away
approaching the person at a speed of 45 m/sec. At what rate is the distance between the person
and the car changing (a) 5 seconds after the start, (b) when the car is directly in front of the
person and (c) 10 seconds after the car has passed the person. See the (probably bad) sketch
below to help visualize the problem.
12. Two cars are initially 1200 miles apart. At the same time Car A starts driving at 35 mph to
the east while Car B starts driving at 55 mph to the north (see sketch below for this initial setup).
At what rate is the distance between the two cars changing after (a) 2 hours of travel, (b) 20 hours
of travel and (c) 40 hours of travel?
13. Repeat problem 12 above except for this problem assume that Car A starts traveling 4 hours
after Car B starts traveling. For parts (a), (b) and (c) assume that these are travel times for Car B.
14. Two people are on a city block. See the sketch below for placement and distances. Person A
is on the northeast corner and Person B is on the southwest corner. Person A starts walking
towards the southeast corner at a rate of 3 ft/sec. Four seconds later Person B starts walking
towards the southeast corner at a rate of 2 ft/sec. At what rate is the distance between them
changing (a) 3 seconds after Person A starts walking and (b) after Person A has covered half the
distance?
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Calculus I
15. A person is standing 75 meters away from a kite and has a spool of string attached to the kite.
The kite starts to rise straight up in the air at a rate of 2 m/sec and at the same time the person
starts to move towards the kites launch point at a rate of 0.75 m/sec. Is the length string
increasing or decreasing after (a) 4 seconds and (b) 20 seconds.
16. A person lights the fuse on a model rocket and starts to move away from the rocket at a rate of
3 ft/sec. Five seconds after lighting the fuse the rocket launches straight up into the air at a rate of
10 ft/sec. Is the distance between the person and the rocket increasing or decreasing (a) 5
seconds after launch and (b) 10 seconds after launch?
17. A light is suspended above the ground and is being lowered towards the ground at a rate of 9
in/sec. A 6 foot tall person is on the ground and 8 feet away from the light. At what rate is the
persons shadow increasing then the light is 15 feet above the ground?
18. A light is fixed on a wall 10 meters above the floor. Twelve meters away from the wall a pole
is being raised straight up at a rate of 45 cm/sec. When the pole is 6 meters tall at what rate is the
tip of the shadow moving (a) away from the pole and (b) away from the wall?
19. A light is on the top of a 15 foot tall pole. A 5 foot tall person moves away from the pole at a
rate of 2.5 ft/sec. After moving for 8 seconds at what rate is the tip of the shadow moving (a)
away from the person and (b) away from the pole?
20. A tank of water is in the shape of a cone and is leaking water at a rate of 35 cm
3
/sec. The
base radius of the tank is 1 meter and the height of the tank is 2.5 meters. When the depth of the
water is 1.25 meters at what rate is the (a) depth changing and (b) the radius of the top of the
water changing?
21. A trough of water is 20 meters long and its ends are in the shape of an isosceles triangle
whose width is 7 meters and height is 10 meters. Assume that the two equal length sides of the
triangle are the sides of the water tank and the other side of the triangle is the top of the tank and
is parallel to the ground. Water is being pumped into the tank at a rate of 2 m
3
/min. When the
water is 6 meters deep at what rate is (a) depth changing and (b) the width of the top of the water
changing?
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Calculus I
22. A trough of water is 9 feet long and its ends are in the shape of an equilateral triangle whose
sides are 1.5 feet long. Assume that the top of the tank is parallel to the ground. If water is being
pumped out of the tank at what rate is the depth of the water changing when the depth is 0.75
feet?
23. The angle of elevation (depression) is the angle formed by a horizontal line and a line joining
the observers eye to an object above (below) the horizontal line. Two people are on the roof of
buildings separated by at 25 foot wide road. Person A is 100 feet above Person B and drops a
rock off the roof of their building and it falls at a rate of 3 ft/sec.
(a) At what rate is the angle of elevation changing as Person B watches the rock fall when the
rock is 25 feet above Person B?
(b) At what rate is the angle of depression changing as Person B watches the rock fall when the
rock is 65 feet below Person B?
24. The angle of elevation is the angle formed by a horizontal line and a line joining the
observers eye to an object above the horizontal line. A person is standing 15 meters away from a
building and watching an outside elevator move down the face of the building. When the angle
of elevation is 1 radians it is changing at a rate of 0.15 radians/sec. At this point in time what is
the speed of the elevator?
25. The angle of elevation is the angle formed by a horizontal line and a line joining the
observers eye to an object above the horizontal line. A person is 24 feet away from a building
and watching an outside elevator move up the face of the building. The elevator is moving up at
a rate of 4 ft/sec and the person is moving towards the building at a rate of 0.75 ft/sec. Assuming
that the elevator started moving from the ground at the same time that the person started walking
is the angle of elevation increasing or decreasing after 10 seconds?
Higher Order Derivatives
For problems 1 9 determine the fourth derivative of the given function.
1. ( )
8 6 4 2
2 7 20 3 f z z z z z = + +
2.
4 3 2
6 5 4 3 2 y t t t t = + +
3. ( )
2 3 4
6 7 V t t t t
= +
4.
( )
3 5
3 1 3
4 2
g x
x x x
= +
5.
( )
9 4 3
8 5 h x x x x = +
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Calculus I
6.
( )
2
3
5 4
32 1
3
h y y
y
y
= +
7. ( ) ( ) ( )
2
3
9sin sin 4 7cos
z
y z z = +
8.
( ) ( )
1 8
2 3 9ln 6
x x
R x x
+
= + e e
9.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
6 7
ln cos 4 9sin 2
t
f t t t t = + +e
For problems 10 20 determine the second derivative of the given function.
10.
( ) ( )
2
cos 2 7 Q w w =
11.
( ) ( )
2
sin 1
x
f z = +e
12.
( ) tan 3 y x =
13. ( ) csc 8 z w =
14. ( )
2
4 9 u u
f u
+
= e
15.
( ) ( )
2
ln 3 h x x x =
16. ( ) ( ) ( )
ln 3 cos g z z = +
17.
( )
4
1
6
f x
x x
=
+
18. ( ) ( ) ( )
3
3sin 8cos 2 f x x x
= + (
19. ( ) ( )
3
sin 2 f t t =
20. ( ) ( )
4
tan A w w =
For problems 21 23 determine the third derivative of the given function.
2007 Paul Dawkins 69 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
21. ( ) ( ) sec 3 g x x =
22.
3
1 2t
y
= e
23.
( ) ( )
2
cos h w w w =
For problems 24  27 determine the second derivative of the given function.
24.
2 4
6 3 9 y y x x = +
25.
3 2 2
4 11 2 y x x y =
26.
3
4 1
y
x y + = e
27. ( )
2
cos 3 4 y x y = +
Logarithmic Differentiation
For problems 1 6 use logarithmic differentiation to find the first derivative of the given
function.
1. ( ) ( )( )
4
8 2
cos 3 6 3 h x x x x = +
2. ( )
5 2 3 5
4 2 9 7 2 f w w w w w w = + + +
3. ( )
( )
( )
3
2
4
2
1 7
2 3 4
z
h z
z z
+
=
+ +
4. ( )
( )
( )
1 sin 2
2 tan
x
g x
x x
+
=
5. ( )
( )
( )
10
2
9 3
sin 7
t
h t
t t
=
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Calculus I
6.
( )
( )
( )
4 7
2 2
cos 1
3 8
1 2 5
x
x
y
x x x
+
=
+ +
For problems 6 9 find the first derivative of the given function.
6.
( ) ln x
y x =
7. ( ) ( )
6
sin 4
t
R t t = (
8. ( ) ( )
3
2 8
2
6
w w
h w w
+ +
=
9. ( )  
2
1
2
3
z
g z z z
= +
Applications of Derivatives
Introduction
Here are a set of problems for which no solutions are available. The main intent of these
problems is to have a set of problems available for any instructors who are looking for some extra
problems.
Note that some sections will have more problems than others and some will have more or less of
a variety of problems. Most sections should have a range of difficulty levels in the problems
although this will vary from section to section.
Here is a list of topics in this chapter that have problems written for them.
Rates of Change
Critical Points
Minimum and Maximum Values
Finding Absolute Extrema
The Shape of a Graph, Part I
The Shape of a Graph, Part II
The Mean Value Theorem
Optimization Problems
More Optimization Problems
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Calculus I
LHospitals Rule and Indeterminate Forms
Linear Approximations
Differentials
Newtons Method
Business Applications
Rates of Change
As noted in the text for this section the purpose of this section is only to remind you of certain
types of applications that were discussed in the previous chapter. As such there arent any
problems written for this section. Instead here is a list of links (note that these will only be active
links in the web version and not the pdf version) to problems from the relevant sections from the
previous chapter.
Each of the following sections has a selection of increasing/decreasing problems towards the
bottom of the problem set.
Differentiation Formulas
Product & Quotient Rules
Derivatives of Trig Functions
Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithm Functions
Chain Rule
Related Rates problems are in the Related Rates section.
Critical Points
Determine the critical points of each of the following functions. Note that a couple of the
problems involve equations that may not be easily solved by hand and as such may require some
computational aids. These are marked are noted below.
1. ( )
3 2
8 18 240 2 R x x x x = +
2. ( )
4 3 2
2 16 20 7 f z z z z = +
3. ( )
5 6 7
90
7
8 12 25 g z z z z = +
4. ( )
4 3 2
3 20 132 672 4 g t t t t t = +
Note : Depending upon your factoring skills this may require some computational aids.
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Calculus I
5. ( )
2 3 4 5
15
2
10 15 h x x x x x = +
Note : Depending upon your factoring skills this may require some computational aids.
6. ( )
3 2
4 7 1 P w w w w =
7. ( )
3 2
7 3 15 A t t t t = +
8. ( )
2 3 4
4 2 6 3 a t t t t =
9. ( )
4 3 2
3 20 6 120 5 f x x x x x = + + +
Note : This problem will require some computational aids.
10. ( )
5 4 3
10 15 h v v v v = + +
11. ( ) ( ) ( )
5 4
3 2 1 g z z z = +
12. ( ) ( ) ( )
2
4
2
2 8 R q q q = +
13. ( ) ( ) ( )
2
3
2
2 1 f t t t = +
14. ( )
2
2 1
3 5
w w
f w
w
+ +
=
15.
( )
2
3 4
1
t
h t
t
=
+
16. ( )
2
2
3 8
y y
R y
y y
=
+ +
17. ( )
3
7 Y x x =
18. ( ) ( )
2
3
3
25 f t t t =
19. ( ) ( )
2
5
2 8 h x x x = +
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Calculus I
20. ( ) ( )
3 2 2
6 4 Q w w w =
21. ( ) ( )
4
7sin 2
t
Q t =
22. ( ) ( ) 3cos 2 5 g x x x =
23. ( ) ( ) 7cos 2 f x x x = +
24. ( ) ( ) 6sin 2 12 h t t t = +
25. ( ) ( )
3
5
cos
z
w z =
26. ( ) ( ) tan 4 U z z z =
27. ( ) ( ) ( ) cos sin h x x x x =
28. ( ) ( ) ( ) 2cos cos 2 h x x x =
29. ( ) ( ) ( )
2 4
cos cos f w w w =
30. ( )
14 3 w
F w
+
= e
31. ( )
2 1 z
g z z
= e
32. ( ) ( )
2
3 2
x
A x x = e
33. ( ) ( )
2
8
6 1
t t
P t t
= + e
34. ( )
2 2
3 2 4 x x
f x
+
= e e
35. ( )
2 2
4 8 2 z z z z
f z
= + e e
36. ( )
3 2
6 8 y y
h y
= e
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Calculus I
37. ( )
3 2
2 4 t t t
g t
+
= e
38.
( ) ( )
2
ln 3 Z t t t = + +
39.
( ) ( )
2
ln 1 G r r r = +
40. ( ) ( ) 2 6 ln 8 1 A z z z = + +
41.
( ) ( )
2
4ln 2 f x x x x = + +
42. ( ) ( ) ( ) ln 4 2 ln 4 g x x x = + +
43.
( ) ( ) ( )
2
ln 1 ln 4 h t t t t = + +
44. The graph of some function, ( ) f x , is shown. Based on the graph, estimate the location of
all the critical points of the function.
45. The graph of some function, ( ) f x , is shown. Based on the graph, estimate the location of
all the critical points of the function.
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Calculus I
46. The graph of some function, ( ) f x , is shown. Based on the graph, estimate the location of
all the critical points of the function.
Minimum and Maximum Values
1. Below is the graph of some function, ( ) f x . Identify all of the relative extrema and absolute
extrema of the function.
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Calculus I
2. Below is the graph of some function, ( ) f x . Identify all of the relative extrema and absolute
extrema of the function.
3. Below is the graph of some function, ( ) f x . Identify all of the relative extrema and absolute
extrema of the function.
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Calculus I
4. Below is the graph of some function, ( ) f x . Identify all of the relative extrema and absolute
extrema of the function.
4. Sketch the graph of ( )
1
2
3 f x x = and identify all the relative extrema and absolute extrema
of the function on each of the following intervals.
(a) ( ) ,
(b)   3,2
(c)  ) 4,1
(d) ( ) 0,5
5. Sketch the graph of ( ) ( )
2
2 1 g x x = + and identify all the relative extrema and absolute
extrema of the function on each of the following intervals.
(a) ( ) ,
(b)   0,3
(c)   1,5
(d)   1,1
(e)  ) 1,3
(f) ( ) 2,4
6. Sketch the graph of ( )
3 x
h x
= e and identify all the relative extrema and absolute extrema of
the function on each of the following intervals.
(a) ( ) ,
(b)   1,3
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Calculus I
(c)   6, 1
(d) (  1,4
7. Sketch the graph of ( ) ( ) cos 2 h x x = + and identify all the relative extrema and absolute
extrema of the function on each of the following intervals. Do, all work for this problem in
radians.
(a) ( ) ,
(b) ,
3 4
(
(
(c) ,2
2
(
(d)
1
,1
2
(
(
8. Sketch the graph of a function on the interval   3,9 that has an absolute maximum at 5 x =
and an absolute minimum at 4 x = .
9. Sketch the graph of a function on the interval   0,10 that has an absolute minimum at 5 x =
and an absolute maximums at 0 x = and 10 x = .
10. Sketch the graph of a function on the interval ( ) , that has a relative minimum at
7 x = , a relative maximum at 2 x = and no absolute extrema.
11. Sketch the graph of a function that meets the following conditions :
(a) Has at least one absolute maximum.
(b) Has one relative minimum.
(c) Has no absolute minimum.
12. Sketch the graph of a function that meets the following conditions :
(a) Graphed on the interval   2,9 .
(b) Has a discontinuity at some point interior to the interval.
(c) Has an absolute maximum at the discontinuity in part (b).
(d) Has an absolute minimum at the discontinuity in part (b).
13. Sketch the graph of a function that meets the following conditions :
(a) Graphed on the interval   4,10 .
(b) Has no relative extrema.
(c) Has an absolute maximum at one end point.
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(d) Has an absolute minimum at the other end point.
14. Sketch the graph of a function that meets the following conditions :
(a) Has a discontinuity at some point.
(b) Has an absolute maximum and an absolute minimum.
(c) Neither absolute extrema occurs at the discontinuity.
Finding Absolute Extrema
For each of the following problems determine the absolute extrema of the given function on the
specified interval.
1. ( )
4 3 2
2 16 20 7 f z z z z = + on   2,6
2. ( )
4 3 2
2 16 20 7 f z z z z = + on   2,4
3. ( )
4 3 2
2 16 20 7 f z z z z = + on   0,2
4. ( )
3 4 5
20 280 75 12 Q w w w w = + + on   3,2
5. ( )
3 4 5
20 280 75 12 Q w w w w = + + on   1,8
6. ( )
5 6 7
90
7
8 12 25 g z z z z = + on   1,1
7. ( )
4 3 2
3 20 132 672 4 g t t t t t = + on   5,8
Note : Depending upon your factoring skills this may require some computational aids.
8. ( )
4 3 2
3 20 132 672 4 g t t t t t = + on   2,8
Note : Depending upon your factoring skills this may require some computational aids.
9. ( )
3 2
14 11 4 3 V x x x x = + + on   1,1
10. ( )
2 3 4
4 2 6 3 a t t t t = on   2,1
11. ( )
2 3
8 3 7 h x x x x = + + on   1,5
12. ( )
4 3 2
3 20 6 120 5 f x x x x x = + + + on   1,5
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Note : This problem will require some computational aids.
13. ( )
5 4 3
10 15 h v v v v = + + on   3,2
14. ( ) ( ) ( )
5 4
3 2 1 g z z z = + on   1,3
15. ( ) ( ) ( )
2
4
2
2 8 R q q q = + on   4,1
16.
( )
2
3 4
1
t
h t
t
=
+
on   2,4
17. ( )
2
2
6 9
1
x x
g x
x x
+ +
=
+ +
on   6,0
18. ( ) ( )
2
3
3
25 f t t t = on   2,6
19. ( ) ( )
2
2
5
2 1 F x t t t = + + + on   2,1
20. ( ) ( )
3 2 2
6 4 Q w w w = on  
1
2
5,
21. ( ) ( ) 3cos 2 5 g x x x = on   0,6
22. ( ) ( )
3
3 10sin
w
s w w = on   10,38
23. ( ) ( ) 7cos 2 f x x x = + on   5,4
24. ( ) ( ) ( ) cos sin h x x x x = on   15, 5
25. ( )
2 1 z
g z z
= e on
5 1
2 2
, (
26. ( ) ( )
2
8
6 1
t t
P t t
= + e on   1,3
27. ( )
5 9 1 3
6
x x
f x
+
= + + e e on   1,0
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28. ( )
3 2
6 8 y y
h y
= e on  
1
2
,1
29.
( ) ( )
2
ln 3 Z t t t = + + on   2,2
30.
( ) ( )
2
4ln 2 f x x x x = + + on   1,9
31.
( ) ( ) ( )
2
ln 1 ln 4 h t t t t = + + on   1,3
The Shape of a Graph, Part I
For problems 1 4 the graph of a function is given. Determine the open intervals on which the
function increases and decreases.
1.
2.
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3.
4.
For problems 5 7 the graph of the derivative of a function is given. From this graph determine
the open intervals in which the function increases and decreases.
5.
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6.
7.
For problems 8 10 The known information about the derivative of a function is given. From this
information answer each of the following questions.
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(a) Identify the critical points of the function.
(b) Determine the open intervals on which the function increases and decreases.
(c) Classify the critical points as relative maximums, relative minimums or neither.
8.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 0 3 0 8 0
0 on ,1 , 3,8 0 on 1,3 , 8,
f f f
f x f x
= = =
< >
9.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 0 0 0 3 0 6 0
0 on 0,3 , 6, 0 on , 2 , 2,0 , 3,6
g g g g
g x g x
= = = =
< >
10.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 0 2 0 5 0
0 on , 1 , 1,2 0 on 2,5 , 5,
h h h
h x h x
= = =
< >
For problems 11 28 answer each of the following.
(a) Identify the critical points of the function.
(b) Determine the open intervals on which the function increases and decreases.
(c) Classify the critical points as relative maximums, relative minimums or neither.
11. ( )
3 2
15 63 3 f t t t t = + +
12. ( )
2 3 4
20 8 4 g x x x x = + +
13. ( )
3 2
8 18 24 10 Q w w w w =
14. ( )
5 4 3
5
4
20 7 f x x x x = +
15. ( )
2 3
5 4 9 3 P x x x x =
16. ( )
5 4 3
6 5 R z z z z = + +
17. ( )
2 3 4
1 12 9 2 h z z z z =
18. ( ) ( ) 7 sin 4 Q t t t = + on
3 3
2 2
, (
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19. ( ) ( )
2
6 20cos
z
f z z = on   0,22
20. ( ) ( )
3
24cos 8 2
x
g x x = + + on   30,25
21. ( ) ( ) 9 5sin 2 h w w w = on   5,0
22. ( ) ( )
5
7 h x x x = +
23. ( ) ( )( )
2
2
3
10 2 W z w w = +
24. ( ) ( )
3 2 2
8 4 f t t t =
25. ( )
3 2 1
3
3 x x x
f x
= e
26.
( ) ( )
2 3
8
z
h z z
= e
27.
( ) ( )
2
ln 5 8 A t t t = + +
28.
( ) ( )
2
3 ln 1 g x x x x = + + +
29. Answer each of the following questions.
(a) What is the minimum degree of a polynomial that has exactly one relative extrema?
(b) What is the minimum degree of a polynomial that has exactly two relative extrema?
(c) What is the minimum degree of a polynomial that has exactly three relative extrema?
(d) What is the minimum degree of a polynomial that has exactly n relative extrema?
30. For some function, ( ) f x , it is known that there is a relative minimum at 4 x = . Answer
each of the following questions about this function.
(a) What is the simplest form that the derivative of this function? Note : There really are many
possible forms of the derivative so to make the rest of this problem as simple as possible you will
want to use the simplest form of the derivative.
(b) Using your answer from (a) determine the most general form that the function itself can
take.
(c) Given that ( ) 4 6 f = find a function that will have a relative minimum at 4 x = . Note
: There are many possible answers here so just give one of them.
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31. For some function, ( ) f x , it is known that there is a relative maximum at 1 x = . Answer
each of the following questions about this function.
(a) What is the simplest form that the derivative of this function? Note : There really are many
possible forms of the derivative so to make the rest of this problem as simple as possible you will
want to use the simplest form of the derivative.
(b) Using your answer from (a) determine the most general form that the function itself can
take.
(c) Given that ( ) 1 3 f = find a function that will have a relative maximum at 1 x = . Note
: There are many possible answers here so just give one of them.
32. For some function, ( ) f x , it is known that there is a critical point at 3 x = that is neither a
relative minimum or a relative maximum. Answer each of the following questions about this
function.
(a) What is the simplest form that the derivative of this function? Note : There really are many
possible forms of the derivative so to make the rest of this problem as simple as possible you will
want to use the simplest form of the derivative.
(b) Using your answer from (a) determine the most general form that the function itself can
take.
(c) Given that ( ) 3 2 f = find a function that will have a critical point at 3 x = that is neither
a relative minimum or a relative maximum. Note : There are many possible answers here so
just give one of them.
33. For some function, ( ) f x , it is known that there is a relative maximum at 1 x = and a
relative minimum at 4 x = . Answer each of the following questions about this function.
(a) What is the simplest form that the derivative of this function? Note : There really are many
possible forms of the derivative so to make the rest of this problem as simple as possible you will
want to use the simplest form of the derivative.
(b) Using your answer from (a) determine the most general form that the function itself can
take.
(c) Given that ( ) 1 6 f = and ( ) 4 2 f = find a function that will have a relative maximum
at 1 x = and a relative minimum at 4 x = . Note : There are many possible answers here so
just give one of them.
34. Given that ( ) f x and ( ) g x are increasing functions will ( ) ( ) ( ) h x f x g x = always be
an increasing function? If so, prove that ( ) h x will be an increasing function. If not, find
increasing functions, ( ) f x and ( ) g x , so that ( ) h x will be a decreasing function and find a
different set of increasing functions so that ( ) h x will be an increasing function.
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35. Given that ( ) f x is an increasing function. There are several possible conditions that we can
impose on ( ) g x so that ( ) ( ) ( ) h x f x g x = will be an increasing function. Determine as
many of these possible conditions as you can.
36. For a function ( ) f x determine a set of conditions on ( ) f x , different from those given in
#15 in the practice problems, for which ( ) ( )
2
h x f x = (
will be an increasing function.
37. For a function ( ) f x determine a single condition on ( ) f x for which ( ) ( )
3
h x f x = (
will
be an increasing function.
38. Given that ( ) f x and ( ) g x are positive functions. Determine a set of conditions on them
for which ( ) ( ) ( ) h x f x g x = will be an increasing function. Note that there are several
possible sets of conditions here, but try to determine the simplest set of conditions.
39. Repeat #38 for
( )
( )
( )
f x
h x
g x
= .
40. Given that ( ) f x and ( ) g x are increasing functions prove that ( ) ( ) ( )
h x f g x = will also
be an increasing function.
The Shape of a Graph, Part II
For problems 1 & 2 the graph of a function is given. Determine the open intervals on which the
function is concave up and concave down.
1.
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2.
For problems 3 5 the graph of the 2
nd
derivative of a function is given. From this graph
determine the open intervals in which the function is concave up and concave down.
3.
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4.
5.
For problems 6 18 answer each of the following.
(a) Determine the open intervals on which the function is concave up and concave down.
(b) Determine the inflection points of the function.
6. ( )
3 2
9 24 6 f x x x x = + +
7. ( )
4 3 2
2 120 84 35 Q t t t t t = +
8. ( )
5 4 3
3 20 40 h z z z z = +
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9. ( )
4 3 2
5 2 18 108 12 g w w w w w = +
10. ( )
4 5 6
10 360 20 3 g x x x x x = + + +
11. ( ) ( )
2
4
9 3 160sin
x
A x x x = on   20,10
12. ( ) ( )
2
3cos 2 14 f x x x = on   0,6
13. ( ) ( )
2
1 2 sin 2 h t t t = + on   2,4
14. ( ) ( )
1
3
8 R v v v =
15. ( ) ( )( )
2
5
1 3 g x x x = +
16. ( )
4x x
f x
= e e
17. ( )
2 w
h w w
= e
18.
( ) ( )
2 2
ln 1 A w w w = +
For problems 19 33 answer each of the following.
(a) Identify the critical points of the function.
(b) Determine the open intervals on which the function increases and decreases.
(c) Classify the critical points as relative maximums, relative minimums or neither.
(d) Determine the open intervals on which the function is concave up and concave down.
(e) Determine the inflection points of the function.
(f) Use the information from steps (a) (e) to sketch the graph of the function.
19. ( )
2 3
10 30 2 f x x x = +
20. ( )
3 3
14 4 G t t t = +
21. ( )
4 3 2
4 18 9 h w w w w = +
22. ( )
3 4 5
10 10 3 g z z z z = + +
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23. ( )
6 5 4
9 20 10 f z z z z = + +
24. ( ) ( ) 3 5sin 2 Q t t t = on   1,4
25. ( ) ( )
1 1
2 3
cos g x x x = + on   25,0
26. ( ) ( )
1
3
4 h x x x =
27. ( )
2
1 f t t t = +
28. ( ) ( )
4
5
27 A z z z =
29. ( )
4 6 w w
g w = e e
30. ( )
2 1
4
1
3
t
P t t
= e
31. ( ) ( )
3
1
x
g x x
= + e
32.
( ) ( )
2
ln 1 h z z z = + +
33.
( ) ( )
2
2 8ln 4 f w w w = +
34. Answer each of the following questions.
(a) What is the minimum degree of a polynomial that has exactly two inflection points.
(b) What is the minimum degree of a polynomial that has exactly three inflection points.
(c) What is the minimum degree of a polynomial that has exactly n inflection points.
35. For some function, ( ) f x , it is known that there is an inflection point at 3 x = . Answer each
of the following questions about this function.
(a) What is the simplest form that the 2
nd
derivative of this function? .
(b) Using your answer from (a) determine the most general form that the function itself can
take.
(c) Given that ( ) 0 6 f = and ( ) 3 1 f = find a function that will have an inflection point at
3 x = .
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For problems 36 39 ( ) f x is a polynomial. Given the 2
nd
derivative of the function classify, if
possible, each of the given critical points as relative minimums or relative maximum. If it is not
possible to classify the critical point(s) clearly explain why they cannot be classified.
36. ( )
2
3 4 15 f x x x = . The critical points are : 3 x = , 0 x = and 5 x = .
37. ( )
3 2
4 21 24 68 f x x x x = + . The critical points are : 2 x = , 4 x = and 7 x = .
38. ( )
2 3
23 18 9 4 f x x x x = + . The critical points are : 4 x = , 1 x = and 3 x = .
39. ( )
2 3 4
216 410 249 60 5 f x x x x x = + + . The critical points are : 1 x = , 4 x = and
5 x = .
40. Use ( ) ( ) ( )
3 4
1 1 f x x x = + for this problem.
(a) Determine the critical points for the function.
(b) Use the 2
nd
derivative test to classify the critical points as relative minimums or relative
maximums. If it is not possible to classify the critical point(s) clearly explain why they
cannot be classified.
(c) Use the 1
st
derivative test to classify the critical points as relative minimums, relative
maximums or neither.
41. Given that ( ) f x and ( ) g x are concave down functions. If we define
( ) ( ) ( ) h x f x g x = + show that ( ) h x is a concave down function.
42. Given that ( ) f x is a concave up function. Determine a condition on ( ) g x for which
( ) ( ) ( ) h x f x g x = + will be a concave up function.
43. For a function ( ) f x determine conditions on ( ) f x for which ( ) ( )
2
h x f x = (
will be a
concave up function. Note that there are several sets of conditions that can be used here. How
many of them can you find?
The Mean Value Theorem
For problems 1 4 determine all the number(s) c which satisfy the conclusion of Rolles
Theorem for the given function and interval.
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1. ( )
3 2
4 3 f x x x = + on   0,4
2. ( )
2
15 2 Q z z z = + on   2,4
3. ( )
2
9
1
t
h t
= e on   3,3
4. ( )   1 cos g w w = + on   5,9
For problems 5 8 determine all the number(s) c which satisfy the conclusion of the Mean Value
Theorem for the given function and interval.
5. ( )
3 2
8 f x x x x = + + on   3,4
6. ( )
3 2
2 7 1 g t t t t = + + on   1,6
7. ( )
2
6 3
t
P t t = e
8. ( ) ( )
2
9 8sin
x
h x x = on   3, 1
9. Suppose we know that ( ) f x is continuous and differentiable on the interval   2,5 , that
( ) 5 14 f = and that ( ) 10 f x . What is the smallest possible value for ( ) 2 f ?
10. Suppose we know that ( ) f x is continuous and differentiable on the interval   6, 1 , that
( ) 6 23 f = and that ( ) 4 f x . What is the smallest possible value for ( ) 1 f ?
11. Suppose we know that ( ) f x is continuous and differentiable on the interval   3,4 , that
( ) 3 7 f = and that ( ) 17 f x . What is the largest possible value for ( ) 4 f ?
12. Suppose we know that ( ) f x is continuous and differentiable on the interval   1,9 , that
( ) 9 0 f = and that ( ) 8 f x . What is the largest possible value for ( ) 1 f ?
13. Show that ( )
7 5 3
2 3 14 1 f x x x x x = + + + + has exactly one real root.
14. Show that ( )
3 2
6 2 4 3 f x x x x = + has exactly one real root.
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15. Show that ( )
4
20
x
f x x
= e has exactly one real root.
Optimization
1. Find two positive numbers whose sum of six times one of them and the second is 250 and
whose product is a maximum.
2. Find two positive numbers whose sum of twice the first and seven times the second is 600 and
whose product is a maximum.
3. Let x and y be two positive numbers such the sum is 175 and ( )( ) 3 4 x y + + is a maximum.
4. Find two positive numbers such that the sum of one and the square of the other is 200 and
whose product is a maximum.
5. Find two positive numbers whose product is 400 and such that the sum of twice the first and
three times the second is a minimum.
6. Find two positive numbers whose product is 250 and such that the sum of the first and four
times the second is a minimum.
7. Let x and y be two positive numbers such that ( ) 2 100 y x + = and whose sum is a minimum.
8. Find a positive number such that the sum of the number and its reciprocal is a minimum.
9. We are going to fence in a rectangular field and have 200 feet of material to construct the
fence. Determine the dimensions of the field that will enclose the maximum area.
10. We are going to fence in a rectangular field. The cost of material of each side is $6/ft, $9/ft,
$12/ft and $14/ft respectively. If we have $1000 to buy fencing material determine the
dimensions of the field that will maximize the enclosed area.
11. We are going to fence in a rectangular field that encloses 75 ft
2
. Determine the dimensions
of the field that will require the least amount of fencing material to be used.
12. We are going to fence in a rectangular field that encloses 200 m
2
. If the cost of the material
for of one pair of parallel sides is $3/ft and cost of the material for the other pair of parallel sides
is $8/ft determine the dimensions of the field that will minimize the cost to build the fence around
the field.
13. Show that a rectangle with a fixed area and minimum perimeter is a square.
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14. Show that a rectangle with a fixed perimeter and a maximum area is a square.
15. We have 350 m
2
of material to build a box whose base width is four times the base length.
Determine the dimensions of the box that will maximize the enclosed volume.
16. We have $1000 to buy the materials to build a box whose base length is seven times the base
width and has no top. If the material for the sides cost $10/cm
2
and the material for the bottom
cost $15/cm
2
determine the dimensions of the box that will maximize the enclosed volume.
17. We want to build a box whose base length is twice the base width and the box will enclose 80
ft
3
. The cost of the material of the sides is $0.5/ft
2
and the cost of the top/bottom is $3/ft
2
.
Determine the dimensions of the box that will minimize the cost.
18. We want to build a box whose base is a square, has no top and will enclose 100 m
3
.
Determine the dimensions of the box that will minimize the amount of material needed to
construct the box.
19. We want to construct a cylindrical can with a bottom but no top that will have a volume of 65
in
3
. Determine the dimensions of the can that will minimize the amount of material needed to
construct the can.
20. We want to construct a cylindrical can whose volume is 105 mm
3
. The material for the wall
of the can costs $3/mm
2
, the material for the bottom of the can costs $7/mm
2
and the material for
the top of the can costs $2/mm
2
. Determine the dimensions of the can that will minimize the cost
of the materials needed to construct the can.
21. We have a piece of cardboard that is 30 cm by 16 cm and we are going to cut out the corners
and fold up the sides to form a box. Determine the height of the box that will give a maximum
volume.
22. We have a piece of cardboard that is 5 in by 20 in and we are going to cut out the corners and
fold up the sides to form a box. Determine the height of the box that will give a maximum
volume.
23. A printer needs to make a poster that will have a total of 500 cm
2
that will have 3 cm margins
on the sides and 2 cm margins on the top and bottom. What dimensions of the poser will give the
largest printed area?
24. A printer needs to make a poster that will have a total of 125 in
2
that will have inch margin
on the bottom, 1 inch margin on the right, 2 inch margin on the left and 4 inch margin on the top.
What dimensions of the poser will give the largest printed area?
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More Optimization Problems
1. We want to construct a window whose bottom is a rectangle and the top of the window is an
equilateral triangle. If we have 75 inches of framing material what are the dimensions of the
window that will let in the most light?
2. We want to construct a window whose middle is a rectangle and the top and bottom of the
window are equilateral triangles. If we have 4 feet of framing material what are the dimensions
of the window that will let in the most light?
3. We want to construct a window whose middle is a rectangle, the top of the window is a
semicircle and the bottom of the window is an equilateral triangle. If we have 1500 cm of
framing material what are the dimensions of the window that will let in the most light?
4. Determine the area of the largest rectangle that can be inscribed in a circle of radius 5.
5. Determine the area of the largest rectangle whose base is on the xaxis and the top two corners
lie on semicircle of radius 16.
6. Determine the area of the largest rectangle whose base is on the xaxis and the top two corners
lie
2
4 y x = .
7. Find the point(s) on
2 2
1
4 36
x y
+ = that are closest to ( ) 0,1 .
8. Find the point(s) on
2
8 x y = that are closest to ( ) 5,0 .
9. Find the point(s) on
2
2 y x = that are closest to ( ) 0, 3 .
10. A 6 ft piece of wire is cut into two pieces. One piece is bent into an equilateral triangle and
the other will be bent into a rectangle with one side twice the length of the other side. Determine
where, if anywhere, the wire should be cut to minimize the area enclosed by the two figures.
11. A 250 cm piece of wire is cut into two pieces. One piece is bent into an equilateral triangle
and the other will be bent into circle. Determine where, if anywhere, the wire should be cut to
maximize the area enclosed by the two figures.
12. A 250 cm piece of wire is cut into two pieces. One piece is bent into an equilateral triangle
and the other will be bent into circle. Determine where, if anywhere, the wire should be cut to
minimize the area enclosed by the two figures.
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Calculus I
13. A 4 m piece of wire is cut into two pieces. One piece is bent into a circle and the other will be
bent into a rectangle with one side three times the length of the other side. Determine where, if
anywhere, the wire should be cut to maximize the area enclosed by the two figures.
14. A line through the point ( ) 4,1 forms a right triangle with the xaxis and yaxis in the 2
nd
quadrant. Determine the equation of the line that will minimize the area of this triangle.
15. A line through the point ( ) 3,3 forms a right triangle with the xaxis and yaxis in the 1
st
quadrant. Determine the equation of the line that will minimize the area of this triangle.
16. A piece of pipe is being carried down a hallway that is 14 feet wide. At the end of the
hallway there is a rightangled turn and the hallway narrows down to 6 feet wide. What is the
longest pipe (always keeping it horizontal) that can be carried around the turn in the hallway?
17. A piece of pipe is being carried down a hallway that is 9 feet wide. At the end of the hallway
there is a rightangled turn and the hallway widens up to 21 feet wide. What is the longest pipe
(always keeping it horizontal) that can be carried around the turn in the hallway?
18. Two poles, one 15 meters tall and one 10 meters tall, are 40 meters apart. A length of wire is
attached to the top of each pole and it is staked to the ground somewhere between the two poles.
Where should the wire be staked so that the minimum amount of wire is used?
19. Two poles, one 2 feet tall and one 5 feet tall, are 3 feet apart. A length of wire is attached to
the top of each pole and it is staked to the ground somewhere between the two poles. Where
should the wire be staked so that the minimum amount of wire is used.?
20. Two poles, one 15 meters tall and one 10 meters tall, are 40 meters apart. A length of wire is
attached to the top of each pole and it is staked to the ground somewhere between the two poles.
Where should the wire be staked so that the angle formed by the two pieces of wire at the stake is
a maximum?
21. Two poles, one 34 inches tall and one 17 inches tall, are 3 feet apart. A length of wire is
attached to the top of each pole and it is staked to the ground somewhere between the two poles.
Where should the wire be staked so that the angle formed by the two pieces of wire at the stake is
a maximum?
22. A trough for holding water is to be formed as shown in the figure below. Determine the angle
that will maximize the amount of water that the trough can hold.
2007 Paul Dawkins 98 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
23. A trough for holding water is to be formed as shown in the figure below. Determine the angle
that will maximize the amount of water that the trough can hold.
Indeterminate Forms and LHospitals Rule
Use LHospitals Rule to evaluate each of the following limits.
1.
3 2
3 2
4
6 32
lim
5 4
x
x x
x x x
+
+ +
2.
6
3
lim
4
w
w
w
+
e
e
3.
( )
( )
0
sin 6
lim
sin 11
t
t
t
4.
2
3 2
1
8 9
lim
2 5 6
x
x x
x x x
+
+
5.
3 2
4 3 2
2
7 16 12
lim
4 4
t
t t t
t t t
+
+
6.
2
2
4 1
lim
3 7 4
w
w w
w w
+
+
7.
2 6
2 7
lim
4
y
y
y
y
y
+
e
e
8.
( )
( )
2
2
0
2cos 4 4 2
lim
sin 2 2
x
x x
x x x
9.
2 6 2
3 2
3
3 12
lim
6 9
x
x
x
x x x
+
+
+ +
e
2007 Paul Dawkins 99 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
10.
( )
( )
6
sin
lim
ln 5
z
z
z
11.
2
0
0
lim
x
x
t
dt
x
e
12.
2
lim ln 1
3
w
w
w
(  
 (
\ .
13. ( ) ( )
0
lim ln sin
t
t t
+
(
14.
2
lim
z
z
z
e
15.
7
lim sin
x
x
x
(  
 (
\ .
16. ( )
2
2
0
lim ln
z
z z
+
(
17.
1
0
lim
x
x
x
+
18.
1
0
lim
t
t t
t
+
( +
e
19.
1
2
lim 3
x
x x
x
(
e
20. Suppose that we know that ( ) f x is a continuous function. Use LHospitals Rule to show
that,
( ) ( )
( )
0
lim
2
h
f x h f x h
f x
h
+
=
21. Suppose that we know that ( ) f x is a continuous function. Use LHospitals Rule to show
that,
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
0
2
lim
h
f x h f x f x h
f x
h
+ +
=
2007 Paul Dawkins 100 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
Linear Approximations
For problems 1 4 find a linear approximation to the function at the given point.
1. ( ) ( ) cos 2 f x x = at x =
2. ( ) ( )
2
ln 5 h z z = + at 2 z =
3. ( )
2 3
2 9 3 g x x x x = at 1 x =
4. ( )
( ) sin t
g t = e at 4 t =
5. Find the linear approximation to ( ) ( ) sin 1 h y y = + at 0 y = . Use the linear approximation to
approximate the value of ( ) sin 2 and ( ) sin 15 . Compare the approximated values to the exact
values.
6. Find the linear approximation to ( )
5
R t t = at 32 t = . Use the linear approximation to
approximate the value of
5
31 and
5
3. Compare the approximated values to the exact values.
7. Find the linear approximation to ( )
1 x
h x
= e at 1 x = . Use the linear approximation to
approximate the value of e and
4
e . Compare the approximated values to the exact values.
For problems 8 10 estimate the given value using a linear approximation and without using any
kind of computational aid.
8. ( ) ln 1.1
9. 8.9
10. ( ) sec 0.1
Differentials
For problems 1 5 compute the differential of the given function.
2007 Paul Dawkins 101 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
1. ( )
6 3 2
3 8 9 4 f x x x x x = +
2. ( )
2
cos 2 u t t =
3.
( ) cos z
y = e
4. ( ) ( ) ( ) sin 3 cos 1 g z z z =
5. ( )
4
6
x
R x x
= +e
5. Compute dy and y for ( ) sin y x = as x changes from 6 radians to 6.05 radians.
6. Compute dy and y for
( )
2
ln 1 y x = + as x changes from 2 to 2.1.
7. Compute dy and y for
1
2
y
x
=
= e
12. ( ) ( ) ln 2cos x x =
2007 Paul Dawkins 103 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
13. Suppose that we want to find the root to
3 2
7 8 3 0 x x x + = . Is it possible to use
0
4 x =
as the initial point? What can you conclude about using Newtons Method to approximate roots
from this example?
14. Use the function ( ) ( ) ( )
2
cos sin f x x x = for this problem.
(a) Plot the function on the interval   0,9 .
(b) Use
0
4 x = to find one of the roots of this function to six decimal places. Did you get the
root you expected to?
(c) Use
0
5 x = to find one of the roots of this function to six decimal places. Did you get the
root you expected to?
(d) Use
0
6 x = to find one of the roots of this function to six decimal places. Did you get the
root you expected to?
(e) What can you conclude about choosing values of
0
x to find roots of equations using
Newtons Method.
15. Use
0
0 x = to find one of the roots of
5 3
2 7 3 1 0 x x x + = accurate to six decimal places.
Did we chose a good value of
0
x for this problem?
Business Applications
1. A company can produce a maximum of 2500 widgets in a year. If they sell x widgets during
the year then their profit, in dollars, is given by,
( )
2 3
1
3
500,000,000 1,540,000 1450 P x x x x = +
How many widgets should they try to sell in order to maximize their profit?
2. A company can produce a maximum of 25 widgets in a day. If they sell x widgets during the
day then their profit, in dollars, is given by,
( )
2 3
1
3
3000 40 11 P x x x x = +
How many widgets should they try to sell in order to maximize their profit?
3. A management company is going to build a new apartment complex. They know that if the
complex contains x apartments the maintenance costs for the building, landscaping etc. will be,
2007 Paul Dawkins 104 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
( )
2 3
2736 211 1
5 50 150
70,000 C x x x x = + +
The land they have purchased can hold a complex of at most 400 apartments. How many
apartments should the complex have in order to minimize the maintenance costs?
4. The production costs of producing x widgets is given by,
( )
90,000
2000 4 C x x
x
= + +
If the company can produce at most 200 widgets how many should they produce to minimize the
production costs?
5. The production costs, in dollars, per day of producing x widgets is given by,
( )
2 3
400 3 2 0.002 C x x x x = + +
What is the marginal cost when 20 x = and 75 x = ? What do your answers tell you about the
production costs?
6. The production costs, in dollars, per month of producing x widgets is given by,
( )
2
8,000,000
10,000 14 C x x
x
= +
What is the marginal cost when 80 x = and 150 x = ? What do your answers tell you about the
production costs?
7. The production costs, in dollars, per week of producing x widgets is given by,
( )
2 3
65,000 4 0.2 0.00002 C x x x x = + +
and the demand function for the widgets is given by,
( ) 5000 0.5 p x x =
What is the marginal cost, marginal revenue and marginal profit when 2000 x = and 4800 x = ?
What do these numbers tell you about the cost, revenue and profit?
8. The production costs, in dollars, per week of producing x widgets is given by,
2007 Paul Dawkins 105 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
( )
2
56,000
800 0.008 C x x
x
= + +
and the demand function for the widgets is given by,
( )
2
350 0.05 0.001 p x x x =
What is the marginal cost, marginal revenue and marginal profit when 175 x = and 325 x = ?
What do these numbers tell you about the cost, revenue and profit?
Integrals
Introduction
Here are a set of problems for which no solutions are available. The main intent of these
problems is to have a set of problems available for any instructors who are looking for some extra
problems.
Note that some sections will have more problems than others and some will have more or less of
a variety of problems. Most sections should have a range of difficulty levels in the problems
although this will vary from section to section.
Here is a list of topics in this chapter that have problems written for them.
Indefinite Integrals
Computing Indefinite Integrals
Substitution Rule for Indefinite Integrals
More Substitution Rule
Area Problem
Definition of the Definite Integral
Computing Definite Integrals
Substitution Rule for Definite Integrals
Indefinite Integrals
1. Evaluate each of the following indefinite integrals.
(a)
9 3
10 12 5 x x dx
2007 Paul Dawkins 106 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
(b)
9 3
10 12 5 x x dx
2. Evaluate each of the following indefinite integrals.
(a)
7 2
33 8 t t t dt + +
(b)
7 2
33 8 t dt t t + +
3. Evaluate each of the following indefinite integrals.
(a)
5 3 2
6 7 12 10 x x x dx +
(b)
5 3 2
6 7 12 10 x x dx x +
(c)
5 3 2
6 7 12 10 x dx x x +
4. Evaluate each of the following indefinite integrals.
(a)
6 5 3
21 9 x x x x dx
(b)
6 5 3
21 9 x x x dx x
(c)
6 5 3
21 9 x x dx x x
For problems 5 9 evaluate the indefinite integral.
5.
5 2
8 15 1 t t dt
6.
9 5 3
120 24 4 y y y dy
7. dw
8.
9 6 3
14 10 13 x x x x dx + +
9.
6 4 2
8 7 11 12 x x x x dx +
10. Determine ( ) f x given that ( )
4 2
16 9 f x x x x = .
11. Determine ( ) g t given that ( )
5 2
4 16 18 72 g t t t t = + + .
12. Determine ( ) R z given that ( )
15 10 5
4 121 20 4 R z z z z z = + + + .
2007 Paul Dawkins 107 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
13. Determine ( ) f x given that ( )
3
8 12 3 f x x x = + .
Computing Indefinite Integrals
For problems 1 43 evaluate the given integral.
1.
5 4 2
7 5 6 14 3 x x x x dx + +
2.
4 3 2
9 12 7 t t t t dt +
3.
11 9 7 5
4 18 9 8 2 w w w w dw + +
4.
9 4 2
6 21 1 9 x x x x dx +
5. 7dz
6. 4dw
7.
6 5 2
10 8 1 z z z dz
+ +
8.
16 12 8 4
24 14 2 y y y y dy
+
9.
9 5 3 2
2 12 7 x x x x dx
+ +
10.
4 4
5 5 9 z z dz
11.
3 6 10
6 8 t t t dt
+ +
12.
3 2 8 12
9 11 7 x x x x dx
+ +
13.
7 3 2 7
3 9 w w dw +
14.
5 5 5
w w wdw +
2007 Paul Dawkins 108 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
15.
3 2 4
6 7 v v dv
16.
3 6 2
6 1 1
7
dy
y y y
+
17.
5
5 5
1 1
8
6
u du
u u
+ +
18.
5 8 2
12 1 6
4 7
dx
x x x
+ +
19.
3 5 4
9
1
t t dt
t
+
20.
6
7 8
2 1
9
5
dz
z
z
+
21.
3 3
3
1
x x dx
x
+
22.
( )
6 2 3
1 4 x x x dx +
23. ( )
2
6 2u du
24.
( )( )
3
2 3 4 y y dy +
25.
( )
3 4
w w w dw
26.
3 2 2
2
1
3
6
v v v dv
v
 
+

\ .
27.
5 3
2
8 2 7 x x
dx
x
+
2007 Paul Dawkins 109 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
28.
4 6
4
9 2 10 z z z
dz
z
+ +
29.
3
2
2 4 t t t
dt
t
+
30.
( )( ) 1 2 x x
dx
x
+
31.
( ) ( ) 6sin 2cos t t dt
32.
( ) ( ) ( )
2
sec 7sec tan u u u du +
33.
( ) ( )
2 2
csc sec y y dy
34.
( ) ( ) ( ) 8cos 3csc cot z z z dz
35.
( ) ( ) ( ) tan cot cos x x x dx (
36.
( ) ( )
( )
3
2
cos sin
cos
v v
dv
v
+
(
37.
2
2
w
w dw +
e
38.
2
t
dt
t
+
e
39.
2
14 3
dx
x x
40.
( )
2 u u u
du
e e e
41.
8
1 1 1
7 4
z
dz
z z
+ +
(
e
2007 Paul Dawkins 110 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
42.
2
2
6
1
1
w dw
w
+
+
43.
2
2
5 1
1
10 1
dt
t
t
+
+
44. Determine ( ) f x given that ( )
5 2
12 30 f x x x = + and ( ) 4 23 f = .
45. Determine ( ) h z given that ( )
3 2
12 14 10 h z z z = + and ( ) 1 8 h = .
46. Determine ( ) g v given that ( )
3 1
2 4 1 1
2 4
g v v v
= and ( ) 16 1 g = .
47. Determine ( ) P t given that ( ) 6 4 10
t
P t t = e and ( ) 0 6 P = .
48. Determine ( ) g x given that ( )
2
12 30 4 g x x x = + , ( ) 1 7 g = and ( ) 2 3 g = .
49. Determine ( ) f u given that ( )
4 2
60 60 f u u u = , ( ) 1 14 f = and ( ) 1 6 f = .
50. Determine ( ) h t given that ( ) 6 14 9
t
h t t = + e , ( ) 0 4 h = and ( )
3
3 9 8 h = + e .
Substitution Rule for Indefinite Integrals
For problems 1 31 evaluate the given integral.
1.
( )
9
2
12 7 6 v v dv +
2.
( )( )
3
3 4 2
4 12 6 x x x x dx
3.
( )( )
4
2 3
4 12 z z z dz
4.
( )
5
2 3
7 14 8 z z dz
5.
( )( )
6
6 3 7 2
3 4 14 7 y y y y dy
+
2007 Paul Dawkins 111 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
6.
( )
3 4
1
2
1 8 x x x dx
7.
( )
4 7 3 6 4
6 12 w w w w dw
+ +
8.
( ) cos 7t dt
9.
( ) ( )
3 2 4
2 cos v v v v dv
10.
( )
3
sin 1 z z dz +
11.
( )
2
csc 1 2x dx +
12.
( ) ( )
5 4 4
7 sec tan w w w dw
13.
( )
3
2 6
3
t t
t dt
e
14.
1
2 4
12
z
z dz
e
15.
1
4 9
dw
w
16.
2
9
3
y
dy
y +
17.
2 4
5 3
6 10 x x
dx
x x
18. ( ) ( )
1
sin 1 ln t dt
t
19. ( ) ( )
2
5
6 18sin 6 cos 6 v v v v dv + (
20.
( ) ( )
3 3 3
sec tan
z z z
dz
e e e
2007 Paul Dawkins 112 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
21.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) sin cos
cos sin
x x
x x dx
e
22.
( )
4
2
ln w
dw
w
(
23.
( ) ( ) ( )
cos cos 1 sin v v dv +
24.
( )
( )
2
sin 2
cos 2
y y
dy
y y
+
25.
( ) ( )
7
sec tan t t dt
26.
( ) ( )
3
2
sec 1 tan
z z z
dz
(
+
e e e
27.
2
7
1 5
dx
x +
28.
2
2
3 4
dt
t +
29.
2
1
16
dy
y
30.
2
3
7 4
dv
v +
31.
2
4
1
x
dx
x +
32. Evaluate each of the following integrals.
(a)
1
3
dx
x +
(b)
2
3
x
dx
x +
2007 Paul Dawkins 113 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
(c)
( )
7
3
x
dx
x +
(d)
2
1
3
dx
x +
33. Evaluate each of the following integrals.
(a)
2
4
25 9
w
dw
w +
(b)
( )
3
2
4
25 9
w
dw
w +
(c)
2
4
25 9
dw
w +
More Substitution Rule
Evaluate each of the following integrals.
1.
( )
2 2
3 cos 4 8 4 x x x x dx
2.
( )
5
4 13
9 6
9 6
dt
t
t
+
+
+
3. ( ) ( ) ( )
2
12 5 2 2
6 5 20 24 sec 12 5
w w
w w w w dw
e
4.
( ) ( ) ( ) sin 1 ln 2 1 ln 2 x x
dx
x
+ +
5.
( ) ( ) ( ) 17 sin 14sin
x x x
x x x dx +
e e e
6. ( ) ( )
( ) sec 9
1
sec 9 tan 9
3
t
t t dt
t
+
e
2007 Paul Dawkins 114 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
7.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
sin cos
8
sin cos
w w
w dw
w w
+
+
8.
( ) ( )
6 7 2
8 3 cos 21 9 4 2 x x x x dx + + + +
9. ( ) ( ) ( )
2
sin cos 3 sin 5
y
y y y dy + +
e
10.
( ) ( )
3
sin 2 8cos 5
t
t t dt +
e
11.
2
2
3 4
4 1
9
6 8
x
x
x dx
x x
e
12.
( ) ( )
3
4 3 4sec 8 tan 8 z z z z dz +
13. ( ) ( )
17
sin sin 1 cos
6
w w dw
w
+ + (
14.
( )
3
4
1 2ln 7
10
9
x
x
dx
x x
+
+
+
15.
( ) ( ) ( )
2 4 2 2 2
cos cos 8cos 10 x x x x dx
(
+
16.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
6 4
2 2 2 2 2
csc cot csc 3csc 8csc
t t t t t
dt ( +
17.
2
3 7
3
y
dy
y
+
+
18.
2
15 27
100 11
z
dz
z
+
+
19.
2
8 1
16
x
dx
x
+
20.
2
2
25 2
w
dw
w
2007 Paul Dawkins 115 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
21.
5
3
9
2 3
z
dz
z +
22.
15 8
4 1 t t dt
23.
( ) cot x dx
24.
( ) csc x dx
25.
4
1
x
dx
x +
26.
( )
3
8 4
4
t t
dt
e e
27.
8 3
2 x x dx
Area Problem
For problems 1 3 estimate the area of the region between the function and the xaxis on the
given interval using 6 n = and using,
(a) the right end points of the subintervals for the height of the rectangles,
(b) the left end points of the subintervals for the height of the rectangles and,
(c) the midpoints of the subintervals for the height of the rectangles.
1. ( )
3
15 4 f x x x = + on   1,3
2. ( )
2
3 2 1 g x x x = + on   4,0
3. ( ) ( ) 8ln h x x x = on   2,6
4. ( ) ( )
2
2
sin
x
f x = on   0,3
5. ( ) ( ) ( ) sin cos 1 g x x x = on   2,1
2007 Paul Dawkins 116 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
For problems 6 8 estimate the net area between the function and the xaxis on the given interval
using 8 n = and the midpoints of the subintervals for the height of the rectangles. Without
looking at a graph of the function on the interval does it appear that more of the area is above or
below the xaxis?
6. ( ) 8 4 h x x x = + on   3,2
7. ( )
2
5 g x x x = + on   0,4
8. ( )
2
x
f x x
= e on   1,1
The Definition of the Definite Integral
For problems 1 4 use the definition of the definite integral to evaluate the integral. Use the right
end point of each interval for
*
i
x .
1.
1
2
7 4x dx
2.
2
2
0
3 4 x x dx +
3. ( )
1
2
1
3 x dx
4.
3
3
0
8 3 2 x x dx +
5. Evaluate :
( ) ( )
123
6 8
123
cos 2 sin 4 x x dx
For problems 6 8 determine the value of the given integral given that ( )
5
2
1 f x dx
and
( )
5
2
8 g x dx
.
6. ( )
5
2
3g x dx
2007 Paul Dawkins 117 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
7. ( ) ( )
5
1
4
2
7f x g x dx
8. ( ) ( )
2
5
12 3 g x f x dx
9. Determine the value of ( )
1
7
f x dx
given that ( )
7
13
9 f x dx =
and ( )
1
13
12 f x dx
.
10. Determine the value of ( )
6
0
4f x dx
given that ( )
5
0
10 f x dx =
and ( )
6
5
3 f x dx =
.
11. Determine the value of ( )
10
2
f x dx
given that ( )
4
2
1 f x dx =
, ( )
7
4
3 f x dx =
and
( )
7
10
8 f x dx =
.
12. Determine the value of ( )
1
5
f x dx
given that ( )
5
2
56 f x dx
, ( )
2
7
90 f x dx =
and
( )
7
1
45 f x dx
.
For problems 13 17 sketch the graph of the integrand and use the area interpretation of the
definite integral to determine the value of the integral.
13.
1
2
12 5x dx
14.
4
2
0
16 x dx
15.
3
2
3
5 9 x dx
16.
3
1
8 3 x dx
17.
6
1
3 x dx
For problems 18 23 differentiate each of the following integrals with respect to x.
18.
( ) cos
8
x
t
dt
e
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Calculus I
19.
( )
2
2
cos 3
x
t dt +
20.
3
4 2
0
1
1
x
dt
t t + +
e
21.
( )
8
9 sin
7
x
t
dt
t
e
22. ( ) ( )
3
4 2
cos sin
x
x
t t dt
23.
( )
( )
( ) tan
9
cos 2
sin 4
x
x
t
dt
t
+
+
Computing Definite Integrals
1. Evaluate each of the following integrals.
a.
2
2
4
3 4 z dz
z
+
b.
4
2
2
1
4
3 4 z dz
z
+
c.
1
2
2
2
4
3 4 z dz
z
2. Evaluate each of the following integrals.
a.
1
6
3
x dx
x
+
b.
7
0
1
6
3
x dx
x
+
c.
7
3
1
6
3
x dx
x
+
3. Evaluate each of the following integrals.
a. ( ) ( )
2
sin sec y y dy +
b. ( ) ( )
4 2
0
sin sec y y dy
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Calculus I
c. ( ) ( )
2
3 2
0
sin sec y y dy
Evaluate each of the following integrals, if possible. If it is not possible clearly explain why it is
not possible to evaluate the integral.
4.
3
2
0
10 6 9 t t dt +
5.
4
2 4
1
24 5 z z dz
6.
0
2 3
1
9 3 4 w w w dw +
7.
1
2
3
15 10 2 t t dt
8.
4
3 2
2
7 3 v v v dv
9.
16
4
0
9 10 x x dx +
10.
2
3 5
1
8 12 z z dz
11.
4
5
3
1
1
y dy
y
12.
4
2 2
1
6 1
3
dx
x x
13.
3
3 4
5
6
4
8 25
3
w w dw
w
14.
3
2 3
1
4 6
3
dz
z z
15. ( )( )
6
2
0
3 2 3 t t dt +
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Calculus I
16.
( )
1
2
4
8 9 25 1 x x x dx +
17.
5 5 4 2
4
2
6 8 2 z z z
dz
z
+
18.
4
4 3
2
2
9 8
3
x x x
dx
x
19.
2
10 6 2
5
8
7 4 3 v v v
dv
v
20.
( )( )
2
2
1
2 2 y y
dy
y
+
21. ( ) ( ) ( )
4 2
0
8sec 2sec tan t t t dt
22. ( ) ( )
6
3
3cos sin w w dw
23. ( ) ( )
4
4
2 2
12sec 9csc y y dy
24. ( ) ( ) ( )
4
2
3
3sin 8csc cot v v v dv
25.
1
3
4 7
x
x dx
e
26.
1
2
2
4 4
w w
w
w
dw
e e
e
27.
1
2
2
2
0
3 7
1
1
dx
x
x
+
+
28. ( )
3
2
2
1
5sin
1
t dt
t
+
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Calculus I
29.
10
2
6
4 1
2
dz
z z
+
30.
6
3
1
3
2
8
x dx
x
+
31. ( )
1
4
f t dt
where ( )
2
9 6 3
8 3
t t
f t
t t
+ >
=
32. ( )
4
2
g x dx
where ( )
( )
9 2 0
8sin 0
x
x
g x
x x
>
e
33. ( )
9
4
h w dw
where ( )
4 6
3 1 6
w
h w
w w
>
=
+
34. ( )
7
1
f x dx
where
( )
2
9 5
7 1 5
3 8 1
x x
f x x
x x
>
= <
35.
1
3
8 4x dx
36.
8
2
3 12 v dv
37.
6
0
10 2z dz
38.
6
2
3
4 t dt
Substitution Rule for Definite Integrals
Evaluate each of the following integrals, if possible. If it is not possible clearly explain why it is
not possible to evaluate the integral.
1.
( )
3
3
2
4
5 2
dx
x
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Calculus I
2.
( )
0
2 3 4
1
10 1 2 7 3 2 w w w dw +
3. ( )
2 4
4
1
2
t t
t dt
e
4.
( ) ( ) ( )
6 5
2 2
1
7cos 4 sin
z z
dz
+
5.
1
3
4
0
6 3
w
dw
w +
6.
( )
3 1
2 3 2 2
1
cos 2
x
x x x dx
+
e
7.
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
2
0
4sin 3 7sin 3
2 cos 3
2 cos 3
t t
dt
t
t
+
+
+
8. ( ) ( )
2
0
sec 2 tan y y dy
9.
( )
9
5
1
sin x
x dx
x
+
10.
( )
1
2
2
0
2
sec
4 1
w dw
w
11.
0
4 4
3
2 8
t t t
dt
+ +
e e e
12.
( )
2
7
3
ln 2
9
4
x
x
x
dx
x
(
+
+
e
e
13.
( ) ( ) ( )
2 4
2 2 2
0
sin 6 3cos 4cos
v v v
dv
( +
14.
2 2
5
1
3
t t
t dt
+
e e
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Calculus I
15.
6
3
4 2
0
8 7
2 1 9
t t
dt
t t
16. ( )( )
6 4
2
2
1 2 4 8 5 y y y y dy + + +
17.
( ) ( )
( )
1
2 2 2
0
cos
sin 1 sin
z z z
z dz
e e e
Applications of Integrals
Introduction
Here are a set of problems for which no solutions are available. The main intent of these
problems is to have a set of problems available for any instructors who are looking for some extra
problems.
Note that some sections will have more problems than others and some will have more or less of
a variety of problems. Most sections should have a range of difficulty levels in the problems
although this will vary from section to section.
Here is a list of topics in this chapter that have problems written for them.
Average Function Value
Area Between Two Curves
Volumes of Solids of Revolution / Method of Rings
Volumes of Solids of Revolution / Method of Cylinders
More Volume Problems
Work
Average Function Value
For problems 1 4 determine
avg
f for the function on the given interval.
1. ( )
4 3
8 7 2 f x x x = + on   2,1
2. ( ) ( )
2
8
4
x x
f x x
= e on   1,4
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Calculus I
3. ( )
2
4
6
1
x
f x x
x
=
+
on   3,0
4. ( ) ( ) ( )
4
cos 3 2 sin 3 f x x x = + (
on
6
0,
(
For problems 5 8 find
avg
f for the function on the given interval and determine the value of c in
the given interval for which ( )
avg
f c f = .
5. ( )
2
10 4 6 f x x x = on   2,6
6. ( )
2
7 2 3 f x x x = + on   1,1
7. ( )
4 1
9 2
x
f x
+
= e on   1,2
8. ( ) ( )
4
8 cos
x
f x = on   0,4
Area Between Curves
1. Determine the area below ( )
2
8 2 f x x x = and above the xaxis.
2. Determine the area above ( )
2
3 6 9 f x x x = + and below the xaxis.
3. Determine the area to the right of ( )
2
4 5 g y y y = + and to the left of the yaxis.
4. Determine the area to the left of ( )
2
4 24 20 g y y y = + and to the right of the yaxis.
5. Determine the area below ( )
2
10 2 f x x = and above the line 3 y = .
6. Determine the area above ( )
2
2 3 f x x x = + + and below the line 11 y = .
7. Determine the area to the right of ( )
2
2 4 g y y y = + and to the left of the line 1 x = .
8. Determine the area to the left of ( )
2
2 4 g y y y = + and to the right of the line 1 x = .
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Calculus I
For problems 9 26 determine the area of the region bounded by the given set of curves.
9.
3
2 y x = + , 1 y = and 2 x = .
10.
2
6 10 y x x = + and 5 y = .
11.
2
6 10 y x x = + , 1 x = , 5 x = and the xaxis.
12.
2
2 4 x y y = + + and 4 x = .
13. 5 y x = , 1 x = , 4 x = and the xaxis.
14.
y
x = e , 1 x = , 1 y = and 2 y = .
15.
2
4 x y y = and the yaxis.
16.
2
2 4 y x x = + + , 3 6 y x = + , 3 x = and 3 x = .
17.
2
6 x y y = , 2 x y = , 2 y = and 5 y = .
18.
2
8 y x = + ,
2
3 y x = , 3 x = and 4 x = .
19.
2
x y = ,
3
x y = and 2 x = .
20.
7
y
x
= ,
1
3 y
x
= , 1 x = and 4 x = .
21.
2
2 1 y x = + , 7 y x = , 4 x = and the yaxis.
22. ( )
1
2
sin y x = , ( ) 3 cos 2 y x = + , 0 x = and
4
x
= .
23. 2 6 x y = + , 1 x y = , 1 y = and 6 y = .
24.
2
2
x
y
= e ,
2
4 7 y x x = + , 3 x = and the yaxis. Note : These functions do not intersect.
25.
2 1 x
y
= e ,
5 x
y
= e , 0 x = and 3 x = .
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Calculus I
26. ( ) cos x y = , 3 x = , 0 y = and 4 y = .
Volumes of Solids of Revolution / Method of Rings
For problems 1 16 use the method disks/rings to determine the volume of the solid obtained by
rotating the region bounded by the given curves about the given axis.
1. Rotate the region bounded by
2
2 y x = , 8 y = and the yaxis about the yaxis.
2. Rotate the region bounded by
2
2 y x = , 8 y = and the yaxis about the xaxis.
3. Rotate the region bounded by
2
2 y x = , 2 x = and the xaxis about the xaxis.
4. Rotate the region bounded by
2
2 y x = , 2 x = and the xaxis about the yaxis.
5. Rotate the region bounded by
3
x y = , 8 x = and the xaxis about the xaxis.
6. Rotate the region bounded by
3
x y = , 8 x = and the xaxis about the yaxis.
7. Rotate the region bounded by
3
x y = , 2 y = and the yaxis about the xaxis.
8. Rotate the region bounded by
3
x y = , 2 y = and the yaxis about the yaxis.
9. Rotate the region bounded by
2
1
y
x
= , 9 y = , 2 x = ,
1
10
x = and the xaxis about the y
axis.
10. Rotate the region bounded by
2
1
y
x
= , 9 y = , 2 x = ,
1
10
x = and the xaxis about the x
axis.
11. Rotate the region bounded by 4 3
x
y
= + e , 2 y = ,
1
2
x = and 3 x = about the xaxis.
12. Rotate the region bounded by
2
5 x y = and 4 x = about the yaxis.
13. Rotate the region bounded by 6 2 y x = , 3 y x = + and 3 x = about the xaxis.
14. Rotate the region bounded by 6 2 y x = , 3 y x = + and 6 y = about the yaxis.
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Calculus I
15. Rotate the region bounded by
2
2 4 y x x = + and 14 y x = + about the xaxis.
16. Rotate the region bounded by ( )
2
3 x y = and 16 x = about the yaxis.
17. Use the method of disks/rings to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
2
2 y x = , 8 y = and the yaxis about the
(a) line 3 x = (b) line 2 x =
(c) line 11 y = (d) line 4 y =
18. Use the method of disks/rings to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
2
6 9 x y y = + and
2
6 1 x y y = + about the
(a) line 10 x = (b) line 3 x =
19. Use the method of disks/rings to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
triangle with vertices ( ) 3,2 , ( ) 7,2 and ( ) 7,14 about the
(a) line 12 x = (b) line 2 x = (c) line 1 x = (d) line
14 y = (e) line 1 y = (f) line 3 y =
20. Use the method of disks/rings to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by 4 3
x
y
= + e , 2 y = ,
1
2
x = and 3 x = about the
(a) line 7 y = (b) line 1 y = (c) line 3 y =
21. Use the method of disks/rings to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
2
3 x y = + and 2 11 x y = + about the
(a) line 23 x = (b) line 2 x = (c) line 1 x =
22. Use the method of disks/rings to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by 5 y x = + , 5 y = and 4 x = about the
(a) line 8 y = (b) line 2 y = (c) line 2 y =
23. Use the method of disks/rings to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by 10 2 y x = , 1 y x = + and 7 y = about the
(a) line 8 x = (b) line 1 x = (c) line 4 x =
24. Use the method of disks/rings to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
2
2 5 y x x = and 2 17 y x = about the
(a) line 3 y = (b) line 1 y = (c) line 34 y =
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Calculus I
25. Use the method of disks/rings to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
2
2 3 x y = and 5 x = about the
(a) line 4 x = (b) line 2 x = (c) line 9 x =
Volumes of Solids of Revolution / Method of Cylinders
For problems 1 8 use the method cylinders to determine the volume of the solid obtained by
rotating the region bounded by the given curves about the given axis.
1. Rotate the region bounded by
2
2 y x = , 8 y = and the yaxis about the yaxis.
2. Rotate the region bounded by
2
2 y x = , 8 y = and the yaxis about the xaxis.
3. Rotate the region bounded by
2
2 y x = , 2 x = and the xaxis about the xaxis.
4. Rotate the region bounded by
2
2 y x = , 2 x = and the xaxis about the yaxis.
5. Rotate the region bounded by
3
x y = , 8 x = and the xaxis about the xaxis.
6. Rotate the region bounded by
3
x y = , 8 x = and the xaxis about the yaxis.
7. Rotate the region bounded by
3
x y = , 2 y = and the yaxis about the xaxis.
8. Rotate the region bounded by
3
x y = , 2 y = and the yaxis about the yaxis.
9. Rotate the region bounded by
1
y
x
= ,
1
3
y = and
1
2
x = about the yaxis.
10. Rotate the region bounded by
1
y
x
= ,
1
3
y = and
1
2
x = about the xaxis.
11. Rotate the region bounded by 6 2 y x = , 3 y x = + and 3 x = about the yaxis.
12. Rotate the region bounded by 6 2 y x = , 3 y x = + and 6 y = about the xaxis.
13. Rotate the region bounded by
2
6 11 y x x = + and 6 y = about the yaxis.
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Calculus I
14. Rotate the region bounded by
2
8 19 x y y = + and 2 3 x y = + about the xaxis.
15. Use the method of cylinders to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
2
2 y x = , 8 y = and the yaxis about the
(a) line 3 x = (b) line 2 x =
(c) line 11 y = (d) line 4 y =
16. Use the method of cylinders to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
3
x y = , 8 x = and the xaxis about the
(a) line 10 x = (b) line 3 x =
(c) line 3 y = (d) line 4 y =
17. Use the method of cylinders to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
2
6 9 x y y = + and
2
6 1 x y y = + about the
(a) line 7 y = (b) line 2 y =
18. Use the method of cylinders to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
triangle with vertices ( ) 3,2 , ( ) 7,2 and ( ) 7,14 about the
(a) line 12 x = (b) line 2 x = (c) line 1 x = (d) line
14 y = (e) line 1 y = (f) line 3 y =
19. Use the method of cylinders to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by 4 3
x
y
= + e , 2 y = ,
1
2
x = and 3 x = about the
(a) line 5 x = (b) line
1
4
x = (c) line 1 x =
20. Use the method of cylinders to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
2
8 19 x y y = + and 2 3 x y = + about the
(a) line 9 y = (b) line 1 y = (c) line 3 y =
21. Use the method of cylinders to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by 5 3 y x = + , 5 y = and 4 x = about the
(a) line 9 x = (b) line 2 x = (c) line 1 x =
22. Use the method of cylinders to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
2
10 6 y x x = + and 2 26 y x = + about the
(a) line 2 x = (b) line 1 x = (c) line 14 x =
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Calculus I
23. Use the method of cylinders to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
2
10 27 x y y = + and 11 x = about the
(a) line 10 y = (b) line 1 y = (c) line 3 y =
24. Use the method of cylinders to determine the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the
region bounded by
2
2 1 y x = + , 7 y x = , 3 x = and
3
2
x = about the
(a) line 6 x = (b) line 1 x = (c) line 2 x =
More Volume Problems
1. Use the method of finding volume from this section to determine the volume of a sphere of
radius r.
2. Find the volume of the solid whose base is the region bounded by
2
2 x y = and
2
2 x y =
and whose crosssections are squares with the base perpendicular to the yaxis. See figure below
to see a sketch of the crosssections.
3. Find the volume of the solid whose base is a disk of radius r and whose crosssections are
rectangles whose height is half the length of the base and whose base is perpendicular to the x
axis. See figure below to see a sketch of the crosssections (the positive xaxis and positive yaxis
are shown in the sketch).
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Calculus I
4. Find the volume of the solid whose base is the region bounded by
2
1 y x = and 3 y = and
whose crosssections are equilateral triangles with the base perpendicular to the yaxis. See
figure below to see a sketch of the crosssections.
5. Find the volume of the solid whose base is the region bounded by
2
2 x y = and
2
2 x y =
and whose crosssections are the upper half of the circle centered on the yaxis. See figure below
to see a sketch of the crosssections.
6. Find the volume of a wedge cut out of a cylinder whose base is the region bounded by
( ) cos y x = and the xaxis between
2 2
x
. The angle between the top and bottom of the
2007 Paul Dawkins 132 http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/terms.aspx
Calculus I
wedge is
4
. See the figure below for a sketch of the cylinder and the wedge (the positive x
axis and positive yaxis are shown in the sketch).
7. For a sphere of radius r find the volume of the cap which is defined by the angle where
is the angle formed by the yaxis and the line from the origin to the bottom of the cap. See the
figure below for an illustration of the angle .
Work
1. A force of ( )
2
2
6 2
x
F x x x