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IELTS HIGHER

GENERAL TRAINING PRACTICE TESTS


TEST 02
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Practice Test 02
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Practice Test 02
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Practice Test 02






Listening
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Practice Test 02 / Listening
SECTION 1
Questions 1 - 5
Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD AND/OR A LETTER for each answer.
Questions 7 - 10
Questions 1 - 10
Public Speaking Course
Features
Price
Course A
Small group size
Max. 1 ........ people
Informal situations
e.g. internal meetings
Presentations
456
Course B
More formal settings
Larger group sizes
People who visit 2 ..........
High level meetings
4 ...............
Course C
Formal situations
Conference presentations
Large meetings
International situations
Speaking to people from
other 3 ..............
5 ...............
Best course for me:
- Probably 6 ............
Includes:
- Understanding your audience
- 7 ............ what you want to say
- Holding people's attention
- Speaking with 8 ............ and clarity
- Using visual aids
- 9 ............ Q & A sessions
Contact
- Penny 10 ....................
Man's Notes
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Practice Test 02 / Listening
SECTION 2
Questions 11 - 13
Choose THREE letters A - F.
Questions 14 - 16
Questions 11 - 20
Notes
- Te meaning of any message is what is understood by 14 ..............
- Miscommunication can happen when people understand words, word connotation or
15 .............. diferently
- Non-communicative factors are also important, for example if the speaker is:
Respected highly
16 ..............
Liked a lot
Efective Communication
Which of the following reasons for communication does the speaker mention?
A to negotiate with other people
B to infuence someone
C to get to know people
D to make a complaint about something
E for teaching or training purposes
F to tell people how we're feeling
11 ......
12 ......
13 ......
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
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Practice Test 02 / Listening
Questions 17 - 20
Choose A, B or C.
17 According to the speaker, 'active listening' involves
A stopping the speaker frequently to check you understand.
B being calm while you listen.
C keeping strong eye-contact at all times.
18 According to the speaker, 'active listening'
A can reduce the level of stress in a communication.
B takes longer but is worth it.
C helps to build relationships in the group
19 According to the speaker, to talk clearly you need to
A use words which are easily understood.
B watch, and listen, to other people.
C use the minimum number of words.
20 According to the speaker, to communicate efectively
A you need to share your feelings with others.
B you need to hide your feelings from others.
C you need to decide what is important.
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Practice Test 02 / Listening
SECTION 3
Questions 21 - 26
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
Questions 27 - 30
Questions 21 - 30
Choose FOUR letter, A - H.
Te Language lab
Te resources for Italian are in two sections: beginner - 21 ................. and intermediate to upper
intermediate.
Many 22 ................. level students fnd both sections of interest.
Te listening worksheets and audio fles have the same 23 ................. .
Te listening lab resources are outside the lab in order to reduce 24 ................. levels.
It is not possible to take 25 ................. out of the lab.
Graded readers must be returned every 26 ................. .
Which FOUR topics does the teacher say are included in the workshop?
A A schedule for self-study
B Linking self study with your course book
C Te students aims
D Studying with other students
E Common mistakes people make
F Te design of the language lab materials
G A chance to meet other students
H Te importance of taking breaks
27 ............
28 ............
29 ............
30 ............
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IELTS HIGHER
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Practice Test 02 / Listening
SECTION 4
Questions 31 - 35
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
Questions 36 - 40
Questions 31 - 40
Brief History of English
Notes
Definition of Grammar
A set of rules for the 31 ..................... of a language
This highlights the importance of the 32 .....................
Establishing a Language
1. Language became stable because the storytellers were 33 .....................
2. Formal grammar comes 34 .....................
Significant History
401 - 500 AD : Angles and Saxons in Britain - foundations of modern English
Turing point in 1066
- William of Normandy scored a 35 ..................... over Harold Godwinson
Brief History of English - Significant Dates
1268
37 .............
1292
1362
1343-1400
Robert of Gloucester: children should learn 36 .............
in their cradle
Mathew of Westminister: people unable to speak English were
'vile and contemptible'
Edward 1st - educated men needed French and English
Parliament opened in English, not French.
English became the official language in 37 .............
Geoffrey Chaucer: the '39 ............. of Modern English'
Stories in English of the 40 ............., not the 'official' English
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Practice Test 02 / Listening






Answers
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Practice Test 02 / Listening
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
SECTION 1
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
SECTION 2
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
SECTION 3
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
SECTION 4
B
C
F
the listener
intonation
trusted
B
A
C
B
12
clients
cultures
716
1,079
Course A
Organizing
confdence
Handling
Lawsons
pre-intermediate
intermediate
reference number
noise
CDs
14 days
A
C
F
G
communal use
user
popular
later / afer
victory
French
1273
the courts
father
common people
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Practice Test 02 / Listening






Tapescripts
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Practice Test 02 / Listening
SECTION 1
MAN: Good afternoon.
WOMAN: Oh hello. Can I help you?
MAN: Yes, I'm rather interested in the 'public speaking' courses you're running next month.
WOMAN: Oh yes.
MAN: Well, I have a few questions. Could you help me at all?
WOMAN: Well yes. I'll certainly try.
MAN: Thank you. First of all, according to your website, it seems there are three courses
opening?
WOMAN: Yes, that's right.
MAN: I'm not quite sure about the difference between them. I mean I'm not sure which one
would be best for me.
WOMAN: OK. Well, I'll just go over each course briefly and then you'll probably have a better idea.
MAN: OK, thank you.
WOMAN: The main differences are the context, the group size and the level of formality. So Course
A is really designed to help people in fairly small meetings, of say up to about 12 people,
and in quite informal situations ... so, for example internal meetings at work. This course
also aims to help people to give presentations, again to groups no larger than about 12
people, and again in fairly informal situations.
MAN: I see.
WOMAN: Course B is also aimed at meetings and presentations but in more formal settings. And
you also get into larger group sizes. So this is really for people who have to go outside
their company and make presentations to clients or potential clients. And who also have
to take part in quite high level meetings, again outside the company.
MAN: OK. I understand the difference between those two.
WOMAN: OK then, and the third course, Course C is also formal situations but the focus is on
much larger groups ... conference presentations and meetings involving very large
numbers of people, very often in international settings, so this course deals with
speaking to people from other cultures.
MAN: Oh, I see. So it's mainly for international business people?
WOMAN: Yes, I suppose it is really. If you'd like to know the price for each course ... Course A is
456, Course B is 716 and Course C is 1,079.
MAN: OK ... B, 716 and C, 1,079 ... Right. Thank you very much.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
WOMAN: So, what course do you think would be best for you? What's your situation, if you don't
mind me asking?
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Practice Test 02 / Listening
MAN: Well, to be honest I started a new job about 2 months ago and it does involve a lot more
meetings and well, I just get very nervous in the meetings and find it quite difficult to get
my point across.
WOMAN: I see. Well, don't worry. You're not on your own. Our courses are usually full so there are
a lot of people just like yourself. Perhaps we all spend so much time in front of
computers these days that we're forgetting how to communicate with each other!
MAN: Yes, maybe.
WOMAN: So it seems that Course A would probably be best for you.
MAN: Yes, it seems so. Do you have a course description for that one?
WOMAN: Yes, I do. Just a second ... yes, here we are. So you'll be covering 6 main areas:
understanding your audience, organizing what you want to say, holding people's
attention, speaking with confidence and clarity, using visual aids and handling Q & A
sessions.
MAN: ... speaking with confidence and clarity ... sorry I'm just making a note, and the last two,
sorry?
WOMAN: Using visual aids and handling Q & A, question and answer, sessions.
MAN: ... Q & A sessions ...OK thank you. Well, that sounds very interesting and just what I
need probably. I'd just like to think it over for a day or two ...
WOMAN: Of course. And if you have any more questions, call in or just give us a ring.
MAN: Right. Well, you've been very helpful. Could I take your name, please? Would that be
OK?
WOMAN: Of course. It's Penny Lawsons, L-A-W-S-O-N-S
MAN: Oh, with an 'S' at the end?
WOMAN: Yes, a little unusual.
MAN: OK, well thanks once again ....











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Practice Test 02 / Listening
SECTION 2
Good morning everyone. As part of our ongoing workshops on group work, we're going to look again
today at effective communication.
I'd like to begin with a fundamental question. Why do we communicate? It's important to remind
ourselves of this because, of course, all communication takes place for a reason. There is a purpose
behind every message we send. So what are some of these reasons? Well, perhaps the first reason
would be to become acquainted, 'Hello, I'm John, nice to meet you'. We perhaps then communicate in
order to build a relationship with someone, 'How do like to spend your weekends?', and perhaps later
to express emotions. 'I always feel so relaxed talking to you'. We may simply want to share
information with someone, or we may want to do something more complicated involving more
advanced communication skills, like for example, persuade someone - a skill we'll be returning to
again and again in these sessions.
How then can we ensure that we send these messages effectively? Communication can seem so
simple and yet it is often quite complex. It can seem so easy and yet how often do we get it wrong? It
can seem simple and easy because all we need to do is to say something or write something. But in
reality it is complex for many reasons ... not least of all, language itself ... we have to remember, in
verbal communication, that the meaning of any message is the message that is received by the
listener ... not the one sent by the speaker ... unfortunately, as we all know from experience, they're
not always the same ... miscommunication can occur as a result of different interpretations of the
words used, their connotation ... the intonation used and so on.
And, we should also remind ourselves that aside from how effectively we use language, there are
other non-communicative factors which have a very significant impact on communication ... here I'm
talking about, for example, how well respected a speaker is within the group he or she is talking to ...
how much trust people place in the speaker ... how well-liked the person is ... all these factors will
play an important role in how the messages are received ...
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
So moving on then to how we can improve our communication skills and become more effective ...
let's consider what is perhaps the single most important skill ... the starting point for everything else.
Ask most people what they think this skill is and often they'll suggest either: the way you speak, or
your body language. However, though these factors of course play an important role ... the starting
point has to be 'listening' and more specifically what is now referred to as 'active listening'.
So what exactly is active listening? Well, active listening requires relaxed attention ... and in order to
get relaxed attention you need to ... relax of course ... you need to listen with your whole body, if I can
put it that way. So you need to face the person, you need to maintain an acceptable level of
eye-contact ... and this can vary from culture to culture so we'll be returning to that point ..., and you
need to try not to interrupt ... but, you do need to test your interpretation of what the speaker is
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IELTS HIGHER
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Practice Test 02 / Listening
saying at appropriate intervals. Manage to do all of this, and you're engaged in active listening.
And I'm sure you can see that there are so many advantages to active listening. First of all it helps
everyone to get on the same page, secondly, communication doesn't take so long because you don't
have to repeat messages as often ... which probably also helps to reduce the level of frustration in the
group ... and thirdly, it provides the clarity which the group requires in order for them to move
forward.
Having listened actively and understood clearly the messages sent of course it's then our turn to talk
to the other members of the group. And here again, speaking is a little like doing sport, you need to
practice at it to get good ... it doesn't just happen ... not for most of us anyway. So later we will be
practising and observing each other in a range of different listening and speaking situations. The
basics however are firstly, to be very clear ... that's number one ... clarity comes from saying precisely
want you want to say, in as few words as you can, and in a logical, organised way ... so that the risk of
being misunderstood is minimised. This, by the way, includes avoiding digression.
Another point is that you also need to avoid becoming over emotional about what you're saying ...
perhaps this sounds obvious but quite often it can be quite difficult when the conversations are about
important issues ...




















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Practice Test 02 / Listening
SECTION 3
TEACHER: Hello there. Can I help you?
STUDENT: Hello. I've just enrolled on one of your language courses and they told me I'd be able
to use this language lab.
TEACHER: I see. So, which language course are you going to do?
STUDENT: Italian, intermediate level ... the morning course.
TEACHER: I see. Intermediate Italian ... well the section you require is over there in the far corner.
Let me show you.
STUDENT: Oh, thank you very much.
TEACHER: You can see that we've actually divided the resource material into two sections. This is
section one here on the left, and this is section two on your right.
STUDENT: OK. So sorry, what's the difference between the two sections?
TEACHER: Well, section one is from beginner level up to the end or pre-intermediate. And
section two is from the start of intermediate to the end of upper intermediate. That's
as high as we go I'm afraid ... for Italian that is ... we don't yet have any study materials
for advanced levels.
STUDENT: OK, I see.
TEACHER: So for people at your level, you're going to be mainly interested in section two. But I
say 'mainly' because quite a few people like to go over language from lower levels
sometimes. You know, just to brush up a little. So you may find some of the materials
in section one useful as well.
STUDENT: OK. I can see a lot of worksheets here, but do you have listening material as well?
TEACHER: Yes, we do. These worksheets ... just here ... all of these link up to a listening ... to an
audio file. You can find the audios by their reference number ... you can see how the
number lines up with the worksheet.
STUDENT: Ok, I see. And where can I listen to them?
TEACHER: We have a listening lab just through the door over there. The reason we keep the CDs
here is that people can be noisy when they're looking for materials so we thought it
best to keep the materials outside of the listening lab.
STUDENT: That seems like a good idea.
TEACHER: Now to actually get into the CD cabinet you will need to ask the teacher on duty. They
have the key! Unfortunately, we've had a few CDs gone missing so we have to do it that
way.
STUDENT: I see. OK.
TEACHER: For the same reason, I'm afraid you can't take the CDs out. You can only listen to them
here. That also applies to all the worksheets.
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IELTS HIGHER
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Practice Test 02 / Listening
STUDENT: I see. Well, that's understandable.
TEACHER: We do also have some graded readers, you know easy novels you can read to build
your vocabulary. Now you can actually borrow these ... for a limited time.
STUDENT: I see. How long is that?
TEACHER: Two weeks. So you have to bring the book back every 14 days but as long as no one
else has requested the book you can take the book out for another 14 days.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STUDENT: Well, you certainly seem to have a lot of resources here ... It's going to take me a while
to find my way around.
TEACHER: Well, yes, we have built up quite a large bank over the years ... but actually if you're
interested, and you have the time, we do run workshops on using the language lab.
STUDENT: Oh, really. That could be interesting. When are they?
TEACHER: In the first two weeks of each term we have two workshops each week. The content is
the same ... we just offer different timetables. So this week for example there is one on
Thursday evening at 6:00pm and one on Saturday morning at 11. And next week the
evening session is on Wednesday at the same time and again on Saturday morning ...
that one actually starts a little earlier at 10:30.
STUDENT: I see. Well ... yes I am interested. What do they cover exactly?
TEACHER: Well, the teacher will start off by helping you set your objectives for the next 3 months
and then they will show you how to draw up a self-study plan.
STUDENT: Oh really. That could be very useful.
TEACHER: Yes ... then the teacher will go on to explain the layout of the language lab resources.
Then you will have an opportunity to answer any questions. All of that takes about an
hour and a half. Then we have a short break ... which is quite a good opportunity for a
social chat with the other students ...
STUDENT: OK. That sounds good.
TEACHER: And then after the break ... the workshop becomes very hands-on. So you will be
expected to go into the language lab, find what you think are the useful resources for
you and then report back. It's a great way of getting more familiar with the lab.
STUDENT: Well, that sounds really good. So when did you say ...






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Practice Test 02 / Listening
SECTION 4
Welcome to this, our second session, on the history of the English language. Let me lead in today by
first asking the question: 'What exactly is grammar?'
Well clearly, there are many definitions. One I'd like to introduce you to this morning is that
grammar can be seen as: 'a set of rules for the communal use of a language'. OK? So that's: ' a set ... of
rules ... for the ... communal use ... of a language'. Why would we define grammar in this way? Well,
the answer is because a language can never become a truly national language unless all users of that
language share common rules ... common rules for how words are invented, used, and strung
together in sentences. When, by some means, the users of a language no longer share these rules the
language fragments ... it fragments into dialects and eventually, possibly, into completely new
languages. So we can see that this is a useful way in which to think about grammar in general ... not
the only way of course ... and a useful way for us to think about it in this session today. Please note
that we are emphasising the role of the user of the language in this definition.
So, before a grammar can be 'formalised', the language must be stable and universal enough to
warrant a study by grammarians. That initial stability has, in the past, come not from formal teaching
but from the popularity of storytellers and their styles ... so, in fact, from the acceptance and use of
the language by the people. The language comes first, and the formal grammar, if the language is
accepted, will follow. We will see now how this mechanism is clearly shown in the history of the
English language itself.
It was in about the fifth century AD when the Angles and the Saxons settled in Britain. It is their
language that was the foundation of all variants of modern English ... a variant which thrived and
developed, and became the language of common people, the language of scholars and the language of
kings. English, at that time, was the English of Wessex, the English of King Alfred, and the English of
his court. That one dialect was the language of the people ... that is, until 1066.
Following the death of Edward the Confessor, a challenge arose between Harold Godwinson and
William of Normandy. Each claimed a right to the throne of England. While Harold was away in the
north fighting Harold Hardrada's invading army, William landed his forces on the south coast of
England near to Hastings. Harold's men, after defeating the Norsemen in the north, made a forced
march south and confronted the Normans. In the ensuing battle Harold's men were getting the best
of it until they broke ranks to pursue a group of fleeing Normans. William took advantage of that
brief indiscipline, and broke the defender's ranks ... and the rest, as they say, is history ... William was
victorious.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
So, the Normans then started to impose their language on the whole country. Before long there was
no opportunity for advancement for anyone who didn't speak Norman French. Soon French was
taught in the schools not as a foreign language but as a national language. English became mostly the
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language of the uneducated classes with few exceptions. Robert of Gloucester, writing in 1268,
suggested that children should be taught French from the time they were 'rocked in the cradle'.
Attempts to establish French as the national language however did not run so smoothly. It is often
found that rural people, and the poor, look down on the snobbery of those who insist on speaking
with what the lower classes consider to be a false accent. And so it was with the competition between
French and English. In 1273, Mathew of Westminster, wrote that whoever was unable to speak
English was considered 'vile and contemptible' by the common people. So, in a brief span of years,
there was a pressure, from the bottom ranks upwards, to restore English to its place as the national
language.
A few years later, in 1292, Edward 1st became the first English king since Harold to have a Saxon
English name. So within a comparatively short time, it became a matter worthy of note that an
educated man, like Edward, could travel widely and not meet anybody who could speak French. It
was then apparent that French had not spread as far as those in power had hoped. So at that point, it
was acknowledged by many of those in authority that educated men needed both French and English.
And so English was given a push forward at this time and began to be seen as a national language
once again from around 1350 onwards.
From there, things moved quickly. In 1362, Parliament was opened with the customary Chancellor's
address, but in English not French. In the same year, a law decreed that English was to be the official
language of the courts, and in the same brief period English replaced French in all the schools.
As we touched on then, at the beginning of this session, before a language can truly be said to be a
national language, it must, to a large degree, employ standards of choice of words, spelling, and word
order. Such standards in the English language can be attributed in a large part, as we all know, to a
gentleman by the name of Geoffrey Chaucer, 1343 to 1400. He has been well described, as the first
founder, of our fair language, and father of modern English. Here we have a storyteller writing in the
new national language English ... not the 'official' English of the court or the academic world ... but
rather the English of the common people. It is extraordinary that an author's caricature of the English
of ordinary people should then be adopted, as a standard and a model, by academics. Strange but
true.
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Reading
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SECTION 1 Questions 1 - 14
Read the text and answer Questions 1 - 7
Set Up Desktop Video Conferencing
Desktop Conferencing offers an easy, fun and practical way to see and talk to one another over the web, each
at your own desk! Here are instructions for what you need to get started, how to set it up, and how to use it.
You will need
A camera with a microphone (around $80), a computer with a USB port (standard on newer computers),
Internet access, MSN Messenger and NetMeeting conferencing software installed, a Microsoft Passport for
directory services to contact other users, a video-conferencing partner with all of the above.
Setting it Up
1. Purchase any H320 Standard camera such as a Logitech QuickCamWeb model. Note most popular
lower-priced cameras are H320s, more expensive ones are H323 standard. You will want to use the same
standard camera as your colleagues.
2. Install the driver from the CD that comes with your camera and plug your camera into your computers
USB port.
3. Install MSN Messenger if you dont have it already. This messaging tool offers a range of features
equivalent to AOL's Instant Messenger, with the value that it is integrated into Microsoft products and
services. Go to www.microsoft.com and search for Messenger. Download the program to your hard drive,
then double click on it to install. The MSN Messenger Window will open. Click on the link to sign in.
4. Set up a Microsoft Passport if you dont have one already. Click on the link that says Don't have a
Passport? Get one here. At the top of this window, it will say Dont want to create a Hotmail e-mail account?
Try this instead. Click on this link. We recommend using your uniqname@uni.edu mail address as a
standard so others in our community can easily locate you. Use whatever password you wish, and Agree to
the terms.
5. You will need to reply to the passport confirmation email before you can use the service. This is usually
sent to your email account immediately.
Adding Contacts
- Your contacts is a list you create of others with whom you want to video conference. They will also want to
add you as a contact. You will need to know their passport email address, and they will need to know your
passport email address (therefore, using the uniqname@uni.edu standard is valuable in facilitating this step.)
- Open Messenger and sign in with your passport login. Click on Messengers Add Contacts link on the
toolbar. Search for the email address of the person(s) you wish to add as contacts.


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Questions 1 - 7
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS and/or a NUMBER from the text for each answer.

1 You will need to install two pieces of __________ .
2 You will need to purchase an H320 or H323 __________ camera.
3 MSN messenger can be downloaded from the website to your computer's __________ .
4 It's a good idea to use your 'uni.edu' email address for your __________ .
5 Before you can use your passport you will need to ________ to an email you'll receive.
6 To add a contact you will have to have the person's _______ address.
7 You can find the 'add contacts' command on the ________ .

































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Read the text and answer Questions 8 - 14
Tips For Using Language Efectively
If you want your words to have the greatest appeal and impact, you need to pay special attention to the
quality (versus quantity, i.e. word count) of your creative writings. Here, well look at seven valuable tips
for making your pieces pop by employing efective language usage and choices.
A Select your words with care.
If you want to pen the strongest, most meaningful works possible, youll need to be highly selective when it
comes to picking appropriate words and phrases. Even if youve been told that your novel, play, or short
story needs to be of a minimum length, dont allow yourself to fall into the trap of inserting bits of fufy
(and ultimately hollow) prose just to fll space.
B Use your thesaurus sparingly and with a dictionary in hand.
Your computers word processing sofware probably comes with a built-in thesaurus, which is a boon to
writers everywhere. However, though it can be a helpful guide, its not a foolproof method of fnding the
right word. Dont rely on the thesaurus every time youre searching for the perfect term, as not all the
synonyms listed mean exactly the same thing. Tat being said, theres nothing wrong with using the
thesaurus as a tool just make sure you have an old-fashioned dictionary on hand to ensure the properness
of the word you choose.
C Read, read and read some more!
One of the best methods of becoming more literarily confdent is to read others works. Even if you simply
pick up the local paper every morning and peruse the main section, youll be increasing your personal stash
of words and phrases. When you read a particularly captivating metaphor or a term with which you were
previously unfamiliar, take a moment and write it down in a notebook. Ten, the next time youre stumped
for something to say, open your personal dictionary and fnd some instant inspiration!
D Edit someone elses creative piece.
When you agree to look over another authors creative writings as a sharp-eyed editor, youll begin to
recognise some of the same traps that you might have fallen into yourself. Tese can include the
inclination to overuse fller words such as really and nice or reuse the same phrase in practically every
paragraph.
E Make sure youre saying what you think youre saying.
Another common problem that creative writers stumble upon is transferring an idea from the mind to paper
(or computer screen.) If youre not 100% certain that your reader will understand what youve written, ask
for some help from a friend, editor, or writing coach. Afer all, if your audience cant appreciate or follow
your story, you havent done your job.
F Verbosity doesnt equal greatness.
Many individuals falsely believe that complexity translates to superiority; however, thats ofen not the case.
Typically, simplicity is the key to making your creative writing sing. Otherwise, your pieces could become so
bogged down that no one will be able to plod through the pages or, in the case of poetry, verses.
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Last, but certainly not least, its important to keep in mind the people who will read your works. For example,
G Know your audience.
if youre putting together a childrens book, youll have to tone down your verbiage; otherwise, your young
audience might become bored or confused. Similarly, if youre working on a poem aimed at retirees, the
language you use will need to be relevant to your age group, possibly even referring to your readers shared
generational experiences.
Language is a beautiful thing and one of the cornerstones of civilisation. Use it wisely and reap the rewards.
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Questions 8 - 14
The text contains seven sections, A - G.
Which section contains the following information?

8 getting help from a friend
9 making a personal reference for yourself
10 writing for different age groups
11 the best kind of published reference books to use
12 avoid padding out the text
13 the power of keeping things simple
14 how to learn by giving feedback

































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SECTION 2 Questions 15 - 27
Read the text and answer Questions 15 - 21
Top tips on complaining
Before you complain
Be clear in your mind why you are dissatisfed. Was it the way you were treated? A wrong decision?
Defective goods? What exactly went wrong?
Be clear in your own mind what you want to happen as a result of making a complaint. Do you want an
apology? Do you want a diferent decision? Do you want the proper service that should have been provided
in the frst place? Do you want replaced goods? You should mention this to the organisation you are
complaining to and ask for prompt action.
Who to complain to
Tis will be diferent depending on what type of organisation you are complaining to and the scale of your
complaint. Te following four steps are a general guideline. For more specifc complaint procedures see the
Information Section where you can fnd the specifc steps for each organisation;
1. You should attempt to resolve your complaint directly with the parties involved: i.e. take the product
purchased back to the shop, or attempt to have the service redone.
2. You should contact the relevant senior management or customer services department. It may be necessary
to communicate with them several times before taking the next step. Most good organisations will have
internal complaints procedures and complaints are ofen resolved using these. However sometimes they
aren't and that's when you should consider the third step. It is worth mentioning that you are considering or
have decided to take your complaint to the relevant authorities, sometimes this may provoke more serious
consideration of a complaint
3. You should contact the relevant authority or overseer who will be able to give advice on how to exacerbate
your complaint if you are still not satisfed. Ask the institution which is the relevant independent
ombudsman to whom you can take your complaint. Alternatively you can contact your local Citizens Advice
Bureau or Trading Standards Ofce who will be able to help and give you advice on who you should contact
next. Some Ombudsman or executive agencies such as Ofel or Ofgem may take complaints up for you.
4. Finally, if all else has failed then court or arbitration services maybe the fnal choice. Te Legal Section on
this site contains information regarding legal options. Small claims court proceedings are inexpensive but
time consuming and arbitration is available for many industries and services.
What to Remember
Various valuable hints which should help you to get the result you are looking for:
Keep a record of events. If you speak to someone on the phone make a note of who you speak to, when
and what was said. If you use 'snail mail' then keep a copy of your letter and any replies you receive.
Keep the evidence. Retain all receipts/invoices, letters and e-mails regarding products and services that
you may have purchased/received. If you are asked to present these at any stage then present copies and keep
the originals yourself.
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Stay Calm. If you have confronted someone directly then don't let the emotion of the moment get to you.
If you are clearly not getting an adequate response then simply take the next step in the procedure as advised
above. Don't be shy to use a bit of humour.
Write clearly and concisely. Be polite and courteous but don't be afraid to convey the detail of any
incident and to articulate your disappointment. Be clear about what you think would resolve your
complaint.
You should make an attempt to know your rights. See the Know Your Rights Section of this site if you are
unsure.
Don't give up.
Praise where praise is deserved. Organisations welcome complaints but most certainly praise too!
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Questions 15 - 21
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.

15 It's important to be sure about what you would like the end __________ to be.
16 Make your complaint initially to the __________ .
17 An organisation may give your complaint more _________ if you mention that you are prepared to take
it further.
18 The Citizens Advice Bureau will be able to tell you which __________ to take your complaint to.
19 The problem with the Small Claims courts is that they can be __________ .
20 If you are asked to show evidence, never present _______ .
21 If you do get a satisfactory result, give the organisation some __________ .
































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Practice Test 02 / Reading
Read the text and answer Questions 22 - 27
The Generation Language Gap
As America changes, the English language changes, too. Some words have vanished and others have
appeared to replace them. Words and phrases that mean completely different things. This was illustrated
pretty vividly a couple of days ago when we were having our daily budget meeting - thats the meeting when
we decide which stories will go on which pages the next day.
Naturally, weve joined the Internet age. We offer morning, afternoon and late afternoon updates as well as
Twitter alerts. Since you can use only so many words in a Twitter message, we try to Twitter a story thats
especially important. We have to find something that is tweet worthy. Managing Editor Samantha Perry
wondered how we would have reacted just a few years ago if any of us had suggested that a story was tweet
worthy. My guess is that person would have gotten a lot of stares.
Then sports writer Tom Bone remarked that a World War II soldier who had just come home would think
that were all a bit nutty if he overheard us complaining about the spam in our mailbox. We think of
messages while the soldier thinks of hundreds of rectangular cans of Spam overflowing the kind of mailbox
we see along the side of the road; in fact, I think a Vietnam soldier from back in the 1960s would have the
same vision. Who could imagine that a name for canned meat could become a word that means electronic
junk mail?
Terms like PC, Internet and laptop are fairly new, too. Folks who suddenly time traveled here from 30 or 40
years in the past wouldnt understand what we were talking about. To them, a virus is only something that
makes you sick. Complaining that your computer has a virus would earn you some stares. A pop up would
be something that comes from a toaster and a tweet would be that sound a bird makes. Frankly, our
language wouldnt make much sense.
Even my favorite literary character, Sherlock Holmes, is used in a creative way. If somebody makes a
painfully obvious observation - somebody comes into your house soaking wet and you deduce that its
raining outside - your observation is likely to be greeted with something like No kidding, Sherlock.
Coping with this new, growing vocabulary isnt easy. Sometimes I try to use new words and, again, get
stares. Reporter Kate Coil told us the story of an aunt who thought LOL, Laugh Out Loud, meant Lots of
Love. She commented on a web page about a relative who had died of cancer, ending her message with LOL.
Naturally, a younger person interpreted this a bit differently. Dude, you aunt is harsh! he told his friend.
This generation language gap was harsh on me when I tried the teaching profession. A few years ago I was
teaching English Composition at a Virginia high school, and my kids often didnt understand my vocabulary.
Another teacher told me that I often spoke over the head of the students. Frankly, I thought they had a
pretty poor vocabulary. Most of them rarely read anything longer than a text message - another term I
wouldnt have understood 20 years ago - so their vocabulary is pretty limited.
Im not the only person who has these feelings. I sometimes visit YouTube and watch programs like The
Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. Naturally, fellow Holmes fans and myself will comment about the shows
and talk about related subjects. One time we started lamenting the fact that our language seems downright
crude compared to the flowing phrases used in Victorian England.
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I said that Holmes and his friend and colleague, Dr. Watson, might as well be speaking Russian as far as my
students were concerned. However, one person argued that kids vocabularies are more about English
changing than decaying. They have different priorities and different needs, so they need new words to go
with them. Im fine with that as long as I dont get compositions written in texting language, a habit that
dropped more than one grade under my control. I insist on real words, not text slang or text abbreviations.
My students thought I was harsh.






































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Practice Test 02 / Reading
Questions 22 - 27
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

22 At the budget meetings the publishing team
A discuss the impact of the Internet on their business
B joke about the way language is changing
C talk about how to organise their content

23 Tom Bone thinks that World War II soldiers
A would probably disapprove of the use of the term SPAM
B would be happy to receive 'spam' in their mail box
C would think the people of today to be a bit crazy

24 The reporter Kate Coil
A tells a funny story
B gives an example of how young people can misinterpret language
C describes how her aunt misinterpreted LOL

25 When teaching English composition
A the writer's colleague was impressed with the writer's teaching
B the writer's students were not interested in learning
C the writer perhaps used the wrong kind of language

26 The writer feels that
A Victorian English was more sophisticated than today's English
B young people could learn a lot from Victorian English
C in some ways Victorian English was more effective than today's English

27 Some people believe that
A the English used by young people reflects changing times
B the English language is being decayed by young people
C young people prefer to use a simpler language






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Practice Test 02 / Reading
SECTION 3 Questions 28 - 40
Read the text and answer Questions 28 - 40
Languages around the world are dying off at a tremendous rate. Linguists estimate that between 20 per cent
and 50 per cent of the 6000 languages now spoken are no longer being taught to children, and will become
extinct in the next century. According to linguists at the AAAS, the loss of language is bad not only for
linguists but for all humanity. "The world would be less beautiful and less interesting without linguistic
diversity," said Michael Krauss of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. "I challenge anyone to prove to me we
are better off without linguistic diversity."
Languages are dying as improved transport and telecommunications bring different peoples into closer
contact, and speakers of minority tongues abandon them for the languages of more dominant cultures.
Sometimes the switch is voluntary, but often it is forced. Earlier this century, for example, American Indian
schoolchildren were punished for speaking their native tongue.
The most basic reason why linguistic diversity should be preserved is that language helps people to retain
their culture. But speakers cited several other good reasons too. "As linguists we need linguistic diversity,"
said Kenneth Hale of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "We wouldn't even know what questions to
ask with only one language."
Linguists are especially interested in the rules of grammar that seem common to all languages, because they
provide important clues to how the mind works. As an example, Hale pointed to the distinction between
singular and plural forms, such as "cat" and "cats". Trying to figure out the deeper rule that allows this
distinction, a linguist who knew only English might come up with two possible explanations. One is that
built into the brain there is a basic binary distinction between "one" and "more than one". Alternatively,
there might be in-built distinctions between one subject, two, three or more. In English, it is impossible to
tell which of these processes is at work. But by studying many different languages, linguists find the
common factor is the binary distinction.
Hale also argued that language should be seen as "the product of human intellectual toil" rather than
something that evolves unaided. For example, he studied a language called Damin, an offshoot of Lardil, an
Australian Aboriginal tongue. Damin was a special language spoken only by young men in the first few
years after their initiation. It was an extremely abstract, simplified form of Lardil, which could be taught to
initiates in a few hours. Hale said the genius of Damin was the way it broke Lardil down into its most basic
concepts. Lardil, for example, has many words for "fish" while Damin has only two - one meaning "bony
fish", and one meaning "cartilaginous fish". This shows that for Lardil speakers, there is a fundamental
distinction between the two.
In a similar vein, Lardil has about 90 words to cover pronouns such as "me" and "you" and determiners such
as "this" and "that". But in Damin, these are boiled down to two words, "niaa" and "niuu", meaning "I" and
"not-I". "I hope you'll realise this is a very big invention," said Hale. "It's not just joking around." It is as if an
expert linguist had sat down to make a basic study of the Lardil language, he said. Unfortunately, Damin is
no longer spoken, and Lardil is dying out.


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Practice Test 02 / Reading
Questions 28 - 40
Do the following statements agree witht the information given in the text?

TRUE - if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE - if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN - if there is no information on this

28 Michael Krauss feels the world does not need so many languages.
29 American Indian schoolchildren prefer to speak that mother tongue.
30 Kenneth Hale believes we need to keep different languages to maintain different cultures.
31 The rules of grammar can help us to understand how people think.
32 Lardil is a simplified version of Damin.
33 Lardil is now used less than Damin.







Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.

The (34 __________ ) Kenneth Hale believes that a language develops as a result of (35 __________ ) effort
to understand the world, and is not something which simply (36 ________ ). In his work, he shows how
breaking a language down to its fundamental (37 _______ ) reveals how its speakers make a (38 ________ )
related things. He gives another very clear example of, what he claims to be a huge (39 ___________ ), by
pointing to how numerous (40 __________ ) in Lardil are reduced to just two words in Damin.
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Practice Test 02 / Reading






Answers
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Practice Test 02 / Reading
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
standard
hard drive
Passport
reply
passport email
toolbar
E
C
G
B
A
F
D
result
parties involved
consideration
ombudsman
time consuming
the originals
praise
C
C
A
C
A
A
F
NG
NG
T
F
F
linguist
human
evolves
concepts
distinction between
invention
pronouns
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
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Practice Test 02 / Reading






Writing
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Practice Test 02 / Writing
WRITING TASK 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
Youve got a new job in Germany and want to improve your German. A friend of yours went to a
language school last year also to study German.
Write a letter to your friend asking them about their experience. In your letter
give your friend your news
ask them if they would recommend the school
invite them to Germany
Write at least 150 words.
You do NOT need to write any addresses.
Begin your letter as follows:

Dear ..................... ,

















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Practice Test 02 / Writing
WRITING TASK 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
With more and more people communicating via computers and mobile telephones there is a real
danger that we are losing the ability to communicate with others face to face.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
experience.
Write at least 250 words.
















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Practice Test 02 / Writing






Model Answers
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IELTS HIGHER
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Practice Test 02 / Writing
WRITING TASK 1 Model Answer
Dear Simon,
How are you? Sorry, I havent been in touch for a while. Ive been pretty busy. Youll no doubt
remember I was job hunting last time we spoke.
Well, I have some good news. Last week, I received an offer from a company in Munich. They want
me to start in September. That means Ive got just 3 months to brush up on my German! I
remembered you went to that language school just on the edge of town. I cant remember the name
but I think you said it was quite good. Would you recommend it at all? And do you know if their
intensive programs are any good?
Of course, Im sure well find time to meet up before I go but I will be quite busy (as always!) sorting
everything out before I go. Anyway, I hope you wont be too busy to come over and visit me. Have you
ever been to Munich? Just give me a couple of months to get settled in and then book your flight!
Well, we can talk about it when we meet.
Hope everythings going well for you. Looking forward to meeting up soon.
Best wishes,
John
















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IELTS HIGHER
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Practice Test 02 / Writing
WRITING TASK 2 Model Answer
Due to technology we are losing the ability to communicate face to face.
In the last decade, the growth in the number of channels of communication, and their use has grown
probably beyond everyone's previous expectations. Though some people believe that this phenomena
has led to a deterioration of our ability to communicate in person, this may not be the case.
The number of devices and channels we now use to communicate with others is indeed astonishing.
Not only can we now email on the move from our mobile phones but we can also communicate, for
example, by text messaging, via online chat or by using social networking sites such as Facebook. It
would seem that if we really do not wish to communicate with others face to face, it has never been
easier to do so.
The fact that this new technology is widely available and frequently used does not however mean that
we are necessarily losing our face to face communication skills. Even if many of us are spending less
time communicating in person than we have done previously, and there would seem to be little
evidence in support of this, we cannot conclude that we are losing our ability to communicate in
person. Face to face communication is as important today as it has always been and these days there
exists a plethora of information and training on this topic. To succeed in work and in life in general
we must be able to communicate in person effectively and most of us realise this. Therefore, many
people are becoming more highly skilled in the art of face to face communication than they were
in the past, despite the emergence of the new technology. The need for this skill is unlikely to
diminish in the future.
To sum up, although many people may spend more time using new technological devices and
channels to communicate, this does not equate to most people losing their ability to communicate
face to face. The very fact that face to face communication is so necessary in our lives will ensure that
most of us will continue to develop the skills required to do so.
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Practice Test 02 / Writing






Speaking
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Practice Test 02 / Speaking
PART 1
Languages
Do you enjoy communicating in other languages? (Why / Why not?)
What are the most difficult things to learn in a foreign language? (Why / Why not?)
Other than English, are there any languages you would like to speak well? (Why?)



















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Practice Test 02 / Speaking

Describe the kind of conversations you enjoy most.
You should say:
what you like to talk about
who you like to talk with
the last time you had a good conversation
and explain why you like this kind of conversation so much.
PART 2























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Practice Test 02 / Speaking
PART 3
Discussion Topics:
World Languages
Do you think it would be better if everyone in the world spoke a common language?
(Why / Why not?)
What do you think might prevent people from using just one language?
How closely linked are language and culture do you think?


















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Practice Test 02 / Speaking






Model Answers
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Practice Test 02 / Speaking
PART 1 Model Answers
Languages
Do you enjoy communicating in other languages? (Why / Why not?)
Yes, I do. I really enjoy it actually. I think maybe for several reasons. First of all there's a great
satisfaction in being able to communicate effectively with people even in your own language ... but
being able to do so in a 'foreign' language is even better! And secondly you are learning about other
cultures and ideas directly from other people ... and that is really, really interesting. Yes, I really enjoy
it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
What are the most difficult things to learn in a foreign language? (Why / Why not?)
The most difficult things. Well, I think it depends. I mean it depends on the language and it depends
on the person who is learning it. But for me personally I think the grammar can be difficult if it's very
different from your first language ... and of course it's hard work building your vocabulary ... but I
think the most difficult thing is getting a really deep understanding of what is being said to you ...
particularly when you're listening.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Other than English, are there any languages you would like to speak well? (Why?)
I think it would be great to speak many languages well ... maybe every language! Then I could travel
easily and communicate with everyone in the world directly!! But seriously, I would like to get a
higher level in Spanish ... I love Spanish culture and I'd like to travel to South America ... so yes, I
would like to improve my Spanish.






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Practice Test 02 / Speaking
PART 2 Model Answer
Describe the kind of conversations you enjoy most.
OK, the kind of conversations I enjoy ... well, I think the most enjoyable conversations are the ones
which make you really think ... I mean, the ones which are mentally challenging and stimulating. I
really enjoy talking about the future actually ... I mean, my plans for the future ... it's very interesting
to talk about what you'd like to do with your life and also why you'd like to do it. My best friend is a
great person to talk to about this kind of thing because well, first of all, she's a very good listener and
secondly, she's very honest and direct with me. So she makes me justify things and she makes me
analyse my dreams ... and that's very helpful. We have these conversations quite often actually ... I
think the last time was just two days ago. And the reason I enjoy them so much is because ... well, as I
said, they are very thought-provoking and of course very personal.
















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Practice Test 02 / Speaking
PART 3 / Discussion Topics / World Languages Model Answers
Do you think it would be better if everyone in the world spoke a common language?
(Why / Why not?)
A common language ... um ... well it's an interesting question I think ... perhaps some people would
say that we already have a common language because we have English ... but that's not the same.
Um ... I think it might be better and it might not be better. I mean yes, it would seem like a good idea
because we could all communicate with each other quite easily ... but I think we might also lose
something ... I mean people say language is culture ... through language we express our different
cultures and I don't think the world would be better if we all had a common culture ... quite boring
really. Perhaps ... it would be better if we all had at least two languages, our first language and then a
second common language but ... we nearly have that already.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
What do you think might prevent people from using just one language?
Well, the world is getting smaller. People are moving around more and more, and people expect to do
so and I'm sure the kind of mobility we are seeing now will continue in the future ... so if people want
to do that, one language is not going to be enough for most people. So I think people's desire to live in
other countries will mean they will often need more than one language but also I think people's
curiosity about people from other countries also means that we will continue to want to learn other
languages.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
How closely linked are language and culture do you think?
Well, I'm no expert on this but I think they are linked quite closely. I read for example that the
Japanese have many different words for the word 'rice' because it's so important in their culture and
in the UK people have many words for different kinds of potatoes ... so I think there we can see a very
simple example of how culture and language are linked ... also in the UK, look at how often people
talk about the weather and how many different words and expressions they have to talk about the
rain.... so I would say there's a very close link.
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The contents are for your own individual study only and may not be shared or transmitted in any form. If you breach this copyright you could face legal action against you.
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Practice Test 02 / Speaking