PN
Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115
International Symposium on Opportunities in Underground
Physics
2427 May, 2013, Asilomar, California
Contents
Contents
Unication and proton decay
LHC data, high Higgs mass, and proton stability in SUSY
Possible conict of Higgs mass data and Brookhaven data on
muon anomalous magnetic moment and a resolution
consistent with p stability.
Implications of LHC13 for the supersymmetric decay of the
proton.
Unication and Proton decay
Grand unication leads to an explanation of the three coupling constants
1
,
2
,
3
in terms of a single coupling at the GUT scale.
Quantization of charge
1 +
Q
e
Q
p
 < O(10
21
).
Quark lepton unication
1
Proton decay is a consequence of quark lepton unication
1, 2
and is a common
feature of high scale models
3
.
4 D GUTs
5 D and 6D models
string and D brane models
1
JC Pati, A. Salam, PRL 31, 661(1973); PRD 10, 275 (1974).
2
H. Georgi and S. L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 438 (1974).
3
For a review on proton stability see
PN, P. Fileviez Perez, Phys. Report, Vol. 441, No.56,(2007).
Why proton decay is of great importance for fundamental physics.
The main points about proton decay are
Observation of proton decay will test the basic idea of quarklepton unication,
i.e., that they are members of the same common multiplet. This phenomenon is
not testable in any other low energy process.
It will probe length scales which are extraordinarily small, i.e., O(10
33
)m.
Proton decay can provide a test for supersymmtry: In supersymmetry the
dominant mode is typically p K
+
and its observation will give support to
the existence of SUSY at the fundamental level.
Proton decay in principle can provide clues to the existence of strings and
possibly of extra dimensions.
Proton decay can provide a clue to the possible origin of matter generations.
Classication of proton decay operators
The classication of p decay from higher dimensional operators consistent with
the SM gauge group was done early on by Weinberg and by Wilczek, Zee
4
.
There are two principle ways in which baryon and lepton number violating
dimension six operators can arise in grand unied theories and in unied models
based on strings and branes. These are
Via exchange of leptoquarks and diquarks: Valid for both
nonsupersymmetric as well as for supersymmetric grand unied theories.
Via exchange of Higgsino triplets. This is specic to SUSY models.
4
S. Weinberg, PRL 43, 1566(1979); F. Wilczek and A. Zee, PRL 43, 1571(1979).
Proton decay from Leptoquark exchange
For dim 6 operators arising from leptoquark exchange the dominant decay
mode is p e
+
0
and is predicted to have a lifetime
5
p
(p
0
e
+
) = C
p
1.6 10
36
yrs(
M
X
2 10
16
GeV
)
4
(1)
where C
p
is model dependent but O(1).
In Dbranes (KlebanovWitten) the decay lifetime is
st
(p e
+
0
) =
GUT
(p e
+
0
)C
st
M
4
G
M
4
X
where C
st
is the string enhancement factor and estimates give
C
st
= 0.5 1.2. The dominant process is p e
+
L
0
while the decay
p e
+
R
0
is suppressed.
The current experimental limit is
st
(p e
+
0
) > 1.4 10
34
yrs.
5
p lifetime is sensitive to fermion mixing: P. Fileviez Perez, PLB 595, 476 (2004).
(p e
+
0
) could be much shorter than 10
36
yr.
The lifetime of the proton in higher dimensional theories could be very dierent
than in 4D theories Thus compactication of higher dimensional theories gives
rise to Kaluza Klein modes whose inclusion can reduce the eective scale that
enters in p decay. This is the case for 5D orbifold GUTs
6
.
A similar situation occures for compactication of D=6 theory where
1
M
2
Xeff
4M
2
c
ln(
M
M
C
) + 2.3
.
Choosing M
c
M
G
2 10
16
GeV, and M
10
17
GeV, leads to
7
(p e
+
0
) 1 10
35
yr.
Certain classes of GUT models also lead to a shorter lifetime for p e
+
0 8
Proton decay is sensitive to extra matter which can modify the p e
+
0
prediction
9
.
6
S Rabys talk
7
See. e.g., Buchmuller, Covi, EmmanuelCosta, Wiesenfeldt, hepph/0407070
8
Babu, Pati, Tavarkiladze, JHEP 1006 (2010) 084 + Babus talk
9
Hisano, Kobayashi, Nagata, Phys.Lett. B716 (2012) 406412, arXiv:1204.6274 [hepph].
Next we focus on proton decay in SUSY
Brief intro to SUSY
SUSY is an extension of the space time symmetry. It is
primarily a high scale symmetry.
SUSY was discovered in the early seventies
10
However, SUSY is a global symmetry and dicult to break in
a phenomenologically viable fashion.
Gauging of SUSY brings in gravity
11
and leads to
supergravity
12
.
10
P Ramond, PRD 3, 2415 (1971); Y.A. Golfand and E. Likhtman, JETP
Lett. 13, 323 (1971); D.V. Volkov and V.P. Akulov, PLB 46, 109 (1973); J.
Wess and B.Zumino, PLB 49, 52 (1974).
11
PN, R. Arnowitt, Phys.Lett. B56, 177 (1975)
R. Arnowitt, PN, B. Zumino, Phys.Lett. B56, 81 (1975).
12
D Z Freedman, P. van Nieuwenhuizen, S. Ferrara, Phys.Rev. D13 (1976)
32143218.
SUGRA Unication, SUSY scale, proton decay
For the rest of the talk we will focus on SUGRA unication, the scale of SUSY and
the proton decay in light of the LHC data.
Supergravity grand unication (SUGRA) breaks SUSY via gravity mediation.
13
It depends on three arbitrary functions
K(z, z
), W(z), f
l
~
LEP2
LEP2
N
o
E
W
S
B
=
L
S
P
N
o
n

C
o
n
v
e
r
g
e
n
t R
G
E
's
) = 500
g
~
m(
) = 1000
g
~
m(
) = 1500
g
~
m(
) = 2000
g
~
m(
)
=
1
0
0
0
q
~
m
(
)
=
1
5
0
0
q
~ m
(
)
=
2
0
0
0
q
~
m
(
)
=
2
5
0
0
q
~
m
(
Median Expected Limit
1 Expected Limit
Observed Limit
(theory) 1 Observed
HAD Observed Limit
Leptons Observed Limit
1
L dt = 4.7 fb
= 7 TeV s CMS
Hybrid CLs 95% C.L. Limits
Razor Inclusive
N
o
E
W
S
B
N
o
n

C
o
n
v
e
r
g
e
n
t R
G
E
's
)=10 tan(
= 0 GeV
0
A
> 0
= 173.2 GeV
t
m
=
L
S
P
Natural SUSY and proton stability
Some versions of the so called natural SUSY advocate a stop mass in the very low
mass region which was not yet eliminated by experiment. However, proton stability
does not favor this region.
.
Higgs boson discovery
ATLAS and CMS Collaborations have measured the mass of a
new boson which lies between 125 and 126 GeV
17
. While
many properties of the new boson need still to be identied it
is the general belief that the particle seen is the Higgs boson
which enters in the electroweak symmetry breaking
It is quite remarkable that the observed Higgs boson mass lies
close to the upper limit predicted in grand unied supergravity
models which is roughly 130 GeV
18
,
19
,
20
.
17
CMS Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B, 716, (2012) 3061,arXiv:1207.7235
ATLAS Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B, 716 (2012) 129. arXiv:1207.7214.
18
S. Akula, B. Altunkaynak, D. Feldman, PN and G. Peim, PRD 85, 075001 (2012).
19
A. Arbey, M. Battaglia, A. Djouadi and F. Mahmoudi, JHEP 1209 (2012) 107,
arXiv:1207.1348 [hepph].
20
O. Buchmueller, R. Cavanaugh, A. De Roeck et al. Eur. Phys. J. C 72 (2012)
2020,arXiv:1112.3564.
A comparison of mSUGRA, mGMSB, mAMSB and others
A. Arbey, M. Battaglia, A. Djouadi and F. Mahmoudi, JHEP 1209 (2012) 107,
arXiv:1207.1348 [hepph].
Noscale: m
0
A
0
0
cNMSSM: m
0
0, A
0
1
4
m
1/2
VCMSSM: A
0
m
0
NUHM: mSUGRA + two more inputs.
A. Arbeya, M. Battaglia, A. Djouadi, F. Mahmoudi and J. Quevillon, Phys.Lett.
B708 (2012) 162169, arXiv:1112.3028.
Implications of the 125 GeV Higgs boson
SM: Within the standard model the Higgs is a bit too light.
SUSY: Within SUSY the Higgs is a bit too heavy.
125 GeV Higgs boson in SM
In the Standard Model vacuum stability puts a stringent constraint on the allowed
range of the Higgs mass.
With the inclusion of both the theoretical error in the evaluation of m
h
estimated at 1.0 GeV and the experimental errors on the top mass and
s
the analysis
21
m
h
> 129.4 1.8 GeV,
for the standard model to have vacuum stability up to the Planck scale. This
excludes the vacuum stability for the SM for m
h
0 < 126 GeV at the 2 level.
The Higgs mass of 125 GeV would give vacuum stability up to only scales
between 10
9
10
10
GeV and stability up to the Planck scale would require
new physics.
Vacuum stability is less problematic in supersymmetric theories
22
21
Degrassi, Di Vita, EliasMiro, Espinosa, Giudice et al. JHEP, 1208, 098 (2012).
22
J. Hisano and S. Sugiyama, Phys.Lett. B696, 92 (2011), arXiv:1011.0260
[hepph]; Carena, S. Gori, I. Low, N. R. Shah and C. E. Wagner, JHEP 1302, 114
(2013); T. Kitahara, JHEP 1211, 021 (2012), arXiv:1208.4792 [hepph].
A Higgs mass 125 GeV implies a high SUSY scale
In MSSM the Higgs boson mass obeys at the tree level
m
h
< M
Z
and a large loop correction is needed to pull it up to the experimental value.
The dominant one loop contribution arises from the top/stop sector and is given
by
m
2
h
3m
4
t
2
2
v
2
ln
M
2
S
m
2
t
+
3m
4
t
2
2
v
2
X
2
t
M
2
S
X
4
t
12M
4
S
+ .
v = 246 GeV (v is the Higgs VEV), M
S
is an average stop mass, and
X
t
A
t
cot .
An m
h
125 GeV implies M
S
in the several TeV region.
The large SUSY scale tends to stabilize p decay from B&L violating
dimension ve operators.
Proton decay via triplet Higgsino exchange: p K
+
mode
Operators arising from triplet Higgsino exchange must be dressed by charginos,
neutralinos and gluino exchanges to produce B&L violating dim 6 operators. All these
dressings have been computed fully
23
. The dim 5 proton decay has a signicant model
dependence. Both high energy and low energy physics aect this decay
24
. There is a
rich literature on dim 5 decay
25
Dressing loop diagrams for p K
+
decay from dimension ve operators via exchange of charginos, squarks
and Higgsino color triplets.
Very crudely
(p K
+
) C(m
4
q
/m
2
tan
2
)
For m
q
in the sub TeV region, this could lead to too short a lifetime for this mode. This is specically the case for
natural models which advocate M
s
300 500 GeV.
23
Arnowitt, Chamseddine, PN; Hisano, Murayama, Yanagida; Lucas, Raby; Goto, Nihei
24
See, e.g., PN, P Fileviez Perez, Phys. Report, Vol. 441, No.56,(2007).
25
Weinberg; Sakai, Yanagida; Dimopoulos, Raby Wilczek; Ellis, Nanopoulos, Rudaz; Arnowitt, PN; Babu,
Pati, Wilczek; Bajc, Fileviez Perez, Senjanovic; Dosner; Dermisek, Ma, Raby; EmmanuelCosta, Wiesenfeldt;
Dutta, Mimura, Mohapatra; Syed, PN; Babu, Pati, Tavartkiladze, .
Suppression of p K
+
by cancellation
A suppression of p K
+
decay mode can arise by cancellations
26
among
various contributions to dimension ve operators.
An example of this occurs from operators arising from a new class of SO(10)
models where the Higgs structure at the GUT scale is of the form
27
144 + 144.
In SU(5) U(1) decomposition of SO(10), 144 + 144 has higgsino triplets
coming from 5(3) +
5(3) and 45(3) + 45(3) and the cancellation occurs
among contributions arising from these.
In this class of models the SO(10) GUT symmetry breaks to the SM gauge
group at one scale and one does not need dierent Higgs representations for
rank reduction and for a complete breaking of the GUT symmetry.
26
PN, R. M. Syed, Phys. Rev. D 77, 015015 (2008) [arXiv:0707.1332 [hepph]].
27
K. S. Babu, I. Gogoladze, PN, R. M. Syed, Phys. Rev. D 72, 095011 (2005)
[hepph/0506312]; Phys. Rev. D 74, 075004 (2006) [hepph/0607244].
Implications of the high Higgs mass for proton stability
Mengxi Liu, PN: arXiv:1303.7472
Higgs boson mass m
h
0 (GeV)
P
r
o
t
o
n
L
i
f
e
t
i
m
e
(
y
r
s
)
115 120 125 130
10
33
10
34
10
35
10
36
Curve 1
Curve 2
Curve 3
Experiment(Lower Limit)
A 510 GeV shift in the Higgs boson mass can result in a shift in the proton decay life time for the mode K
+
by up to 2 orders of magnitude.
exp
(p K
+
) constraint on the SUGRA parameter space
Mengxi Liu, PN: arXiv:1303.7472
m
0
(TeV)
L
i
f
e
t
i
m
e
(
y
r
s
)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
10
30
10
35
10
40
Experiment(Lower Limit)
p K
+
lifetime constraint on mSUGRA/CMSSM (left panel) and on nonuniversal SUGRA model with
gaugino mass nonuniversalities (right panel) where M
eff
H
3
/M
G
= 50.
The discovery of p K
+
mode could occur even with a modest increase in
sensitivity.
Projected sensitivities of HyperK
28
10
32
10
33
10
34
10
35
10
36
10
37
10
2
10
1
1 10 10
2
10
3
Exposure (Megaton year)
P
a
r
t
i
a
l
L
i
f
e
t
i
m
e
(
y
e
a
r
s
)
pK
+
sensitivity
with 20% coverage (90% CL)
SuperK limit
206ktyr
3.9 x 10
33
yrs (90%CL)
Sensitivities of the HyperKamiokande proton decay search as a function of detector exposure. Left Panel: for
p e
+
0
mode; Right Panel: for p K
+
mode.
MICA point taken from talk by Elisa Resconi (TU Munich): Aspen Winter Workshop New Directions in Neutrino
Physics. http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=224351
28
K. Abe, T. Abe, H. Aihara, Y. Fukuda, Y. Hayato, K. Huang, A. K. Ichikawa and M. Ikeda et al., Letter of
Intent: The HyperKamiokande Experiment Detector Design and Physics Potential , arXiv:1109.3262
[hepex].
Conicting evidence from muon anomalous moment
The Brookhaven experiment E821
29
which measures a
=
1
2
(g
2) shows
a deviation from the Standard Model prediction
30
at the 3 level.
a
= (287 80.) 10
11
. (2)
The SUSY contribution
31
arises from
and
0
1
loops.
A rough estimate of the supersymmetric correction is
a
sign()
130 10
11
100GeV
M
SUSY
2
tan . (3)
In order to obtain a SUSY correction of size indicated by the Brookhaven
experiment masses of sparticles in the loops, i.e., the masses of
,
0
1
,
must be only about a few hundred GeV.
29
Muon G2 Collaboration, Phys. Rev. D 73 (2006) 072003
30
K. Hagiwara, R. Liao, A. D. Martin et al. J. Phys. G, 38 (2011) 085003, M. Davier, A. Hoecker,
B. Malaescu et al. Eur. Phys. J. C, 71 (2011) 1515.
31
T. Yuan, R. L. Arnowitt, A. H. Chamseddine, P.N., Z. Phys. C, 26 (1984) 407; D. A. Kosower, L. M.
Krauss, and N. Sakai, Phys. Lett. B 133 (1983) 305; S. Heinemeyer, D. Stockinger, and G. Weiglein, Nucl. Phys.
B 690 (2004) 62 80.
SUGRA unication with unconventional boundary conditions at high scale
As mentioned the experimental evidence points to color particles being much heavier than the uncolored particles.
Thus we specify the boundary conditions for soft parameters by
32
m
0
, m
3
, A
0
, tan , sign()
while m
1
= m
2
<< m
3
. As illustrative example we choose m
3
/m
1
= 10, m
3
>> m
0
. The
renormalization group evolution of squarks is dominated by the gluino mass.
d
dt
_
_
_
m
2
H
2
m
2
U
m
2
Q
_
_ = Y
t
_
_
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
_
_
_
_
_
m
2
H
2
m
2
U
m
2
Q
_
_ Y
t
A
2
t
_
_
3
2
1
_
_
+
_
_
_
3
2
m
2
2
+
1
m
2
1
16
3
3
m
2
3
+
16
9
1
m
2
1
16
3
3
m
2
3
+ 3
2
m
2
2
+
1
9
1
m
2
1
_
_ .
32
S. Akula and PN., Gluinodriven Radiative Breaking, Higgs Boson Mass, Muon g 2, and the Higgs
Diphoton Decay in SUGRA Unication, arXiv:1304.5526 [hepph].
Split scale SUSY spectrum for
g
SUGRA.
10
5
10
10
10
15
10
2
10
3
10
4
RGE Scale Q (GeV)
M
a
s
s
(
G
e
V
)
H
1
H
2
q
M
1
M
2
M
3
m
0
m
1/2
m
2
0
+
2
1/2
S. Akula and PN., arXiv:1304.5526 [hepph].
Light and heavy spectrum of Split Scale SUSY
Particles with light masses
33
0
1
,
0
2
,
1
,
1
,
2
,
l
Particles with heavy masses
0
3
,
0
4
,
2
, H
0
, A
0
, H
, q, g
An observation of the p K
+
mode is possible in
improved p decay experiment in this Split Scale SUSY
model.This is in contrast to split SUSY case.
33
As a comparison the light spectrum of split susy (ArkaniHamed, Dimopoulos,
JHEP 0506, 073 (2005)) consists of light Higgsinos
H
u,d
,
B,
W, g and one Higgs
doublet but does not have light sfermions.
A high scale solution
M
a
s
s
(
G
e
V
)
2
1
1
0
1
Posterior Mean
1 Credible Interval
2 Credible Interval
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
M
a
s
s
(
T
e
V
)
g q
t
1
2
H
0
Posterior Mean
1 Credible Interval
2 Credible Interval
5
10
15
20
Figure: Split scale SUSY spectrum for
g
SUGRA.
Implications of LHC13 for the supersymmetric decay of the
proton
We have already seen that the measurement of the Higgs
boson mass has led to our revision of the proton decay
lifetime predictions. LHC13 would put further severe
constraints on the SUGRA parameter space (see the exclusion
plot in m
0
m
1/2
at LHC13.)
The observation of sparticles, specically squarks at the LHC
would give a strong hint that supersymmetric decay of the
proton should be seen. The observation of some of the
sparticles should allow us to estimate values of
m
0
, m
1/2
, A
0
, tan .
These estimates would allow us to make much more precise
predictions on the proton lifetime arising from dimension ve
operators.
Thus there are strong direct implications of LHC13 for
the observation of SUSY decays of the proton.
Projected discovery reach in m
0
m
1/2
at
s = 14 TeV
for mSUGRA
(GeV)
0
m
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
(
G
e
V
)
1
/
2
m
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
=
4
T
e
V
q
~
m
=
6
T
e
V
q ~
m
=
2
T
e
V
q
~
m
= 2 TeV g
~ m
= 1.2 TeV g
~ m
= 3 TeV g
~ m
= 4 TeV g
~ m
=
1
2
3
G
e
V
h
m
=
1
2
7
G
e
V
h
m
1
3000 fb
1
1000 fb
1
300 fb
1
100 fb
L
H
C
7
e
x
c
lu
d
e
d
= 172.6 GeV
t
> 0, m ! = 10, , tan
0
= 2m
0
A
LHC14
From H. Baer, V. Barger, A. Lessa and X. Tata, Phys.Rev. D86 (2012) 117701,
arXiv:1207.4846 [hepph].
Conclusion
Search for proton decay is central to understanding the nature of fundamental physics.
It will do many things
Provide test of quarklepton unication.
Probe length scales of O(10
33
) m which are inaccessible to any other
experiment.
Provide a test of supersymmetry.
Opens a window to observing possible eects of strings and branes and of extra
dimensions.
Could throw light on the possible origin of matter generations.
In summary there are overwhelming theoretical reasons
for making a strong push for proton decay searches.
What about ne tuning?
Fine tuning is a rather subjective issue and it depends on how you dene ne tuning and also depends on what
phenomena are included in ne tuning. Generally, one considers just REWSB. But one should also incude other
phonomena such as FCNC, CP and proton decay. Here we consider REWSB and proton decay.
REWSB: Fine tuning in REWSB arises from the equation that determines the Z boson mass
1
2
M
2
Z
=
2
+m
H
u

2
+
If or m
H
u
 get too large, one needs a ne tuning to get the Z mass. An obvious ways to dene
dene ne tuning in REWSB is
F
2m
H
u

2
M
2
Z
Low soft masses are then preferred as large soft masses appear to lead to a large ne tuning.
Proton decay: Here we dene ne tuning as
F
pd
=
4 10
33
yr
(p K
+
)yr
. (4)
A more appropriate object to consider then is
F =
_
_
n
i=i
F
i
_
_
1
n
. (5)
In this circumstance a smaller ne tuning occurs at large m
0
.
Fine tunings with inclusion of p decay
Mengxi Liu, PN: arXiv:1303.7472
m
0
(TeV)
F
i
n
e
T
u
n
i
n
g
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
10
4
10
2
10
0
10
2
10
4
10
6
F
F
pd
F
Top left: Fine tuning constraint from REWSB and from proton stability for the mode p K
+
and the mean
as a function of m
0
for mSUGRA. Right: A smooth curve through the averages
34
.
The combined ne tuning appears to favor larger m
0
.
34
The analysis is similar in spirit to a recent work (Jaeckel, Khoze, arXiv:1205.7091 [hepph]) where FCNC
and CP violation were included along with REWSB in the analysis of ne tuning.