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# Notes on Plasticity for the Course:

FEM-Heavy (41525)
Claus B. W. Pedersen and Ole Sigmund
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Solid Mechanics, Building 404
Technical University of Denmark
DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark
November 9, 2010
Abstract
These notes shall be seen as a supplement to the theory described in Sections 17.3-6
of the Cook book. We list the important equations for solving simple plasticity problems
explicitly and with isotropic hardening.
1 Force equilibrium
The principle of virtual work leads to the following result where the residual is dened by
{R}
n
={P}
n
{R
int
}
n
={0} where {R
int
}
n
=

V
0
[B]
T
{({},
p
)}
n
dV (1)
where the stress for load increment n is given by {}
n
={}
n1
+{}
n
. Note, that in (1) the
stress is also a function of the effective plastic strain
p
and not only the total strain {} as in the
elastic case. The vector {P} contains the external forces and {R
int
} contains the internal forces.
For solving (1) an explicit method will be applied, where the change in displacements {D}
n
for load increment n is determined using a Taylor expansion
[K]
T
{D}
n
={P}
n
and {D}
n
={D}
n
+{D}
n1
(2)
[K]
T
=
{R
int
}
n
{D}
n
=
{R
int
}
n
{}
n
{}
n
{D}
n
=

V
0
[B]
T
{}
n
{}
n
[B]dV =

V
0
[B]
T
[C
ep
][B]dV (3)
The important assumption in the explicit method when determining the elasto-plastic stiffness
[C
ep
] is that the following linear relation is valid if {
n
} is small enough,
{}
n
= [C
ep
(
n1
, (
p
)
n1
)]{}
n
and {}
n
={}
n
+{}
n1
(4)
where the stiffness [C
ep
(
n1
,
p n1
)] is determined based on the information from the previous
load increment n 1 and therefore independent upon the information in the load point n. For
obtaining a small {}
n
in (4) a small {P}
n
in (2) should be applied.
1
2 Constitutive law
For this 2D-continuum the stress and strain vectors are given by
{} =
_
_
_

11

22
2
12
_
_
_
and {} =
_
_
_

11

22

12
_
_
_
(5)
The relation between {} and {} will be shown in the next three sections.
2.1 Elastic constitutive law
The stresses can be determined using the elastic constitutive law
{d} = [C]{d}
e
= [C] ({d}{d}
p
) (6)
where the total {}, the elastic {}
e
and the plastic strains {}
p
are introduced. The plastic
strains are determined in section 2.2.
The elastic constitutive matrix for 2D "plane stress" law is given by
[C] =
E
1
2
_

_
1 0
1 0
0 0 (1)/2
_

_
(7)
In (7) it is assumed that d
13
= d
23
= 0.
2.2 Yield Function
The yield function F for 2D plane stress problems is given by (see also gure 1)
F({},
p
) =
e

y
(
p
) = 0
where
2
e
=
2
11
+
2
22

11

22
+
3
2

2
12
+
3
2

2
21
(8)
and
21
=
12
. There exists no solution outside F which means that F < 0 or F = 0.
Assuming that an associated ow rule is valid, then the plastic strains are given by the ow rule
{d}
p
=
_
_
_
d
11
d
22
2d
12
_
_
_
p
=
_
f
{}
_
T
d =
_
_
_
2
11

22
2
22

11
6
12
_
_
_
d
2
e
(9)
where is the plastic multiplier. If the material is elastic = 0 and if the material is elasto-
plastic > 0.
The effective plastic strain is dened as
d
p
= (
2
3
d
p
i j
d
p
i j
)
1
2
= (
2
3
(d
p
11
d
p
11
+d
p
22
d
p
22
+d
p
33
d
p
33
+2d
p
12
d
p
12
))
1
2
= d (10)
where the plastic strain {d}
p
33
is determined by {d}
p
11
+{d}
p
22
+{d}
p
33
= 0 because plastic
strains lead to no volume change of the structure.
2

11

22
d
E
E
t

y
Figure 1: Left: The yield surface and the expansion given d
y
. Right: Tensile test to determine the tangent modulus
E
t
so the hardening h can be found.
These are typically taken as
F < 0
or
F = 0 and = 0
_

_
- elastic material point
F = 0 and > 0 - elastoplastic material point
(11)
2.3 Isotropic Strain Hardening
The isotropic hardening of the yield stress
y
is assumed to be given by the following evolution
d
y
(
p
) = h d
p
= h d (12)
where the hardening h is constant and may be written as
d = d
e
+d
p

d
E
t
=
d
E
+
d
h
h =
E
t
E
E E
t
(13)
and the tangent modulus E
t
is assumed to be constant and can be found from a test curve, see
gure 1.
3 Solving the incremental system
In this section the equations for the plastic multiplier d and the matrix [E
ep
] in (3) will be
derived.
For a plastic increment dF must be equal to 0 in order to stay on the yield surface. The variation
in the yield function in (8) gives (by use of (12))
dF =
F
{}
{d}+
F
d
p
d
p
=
F
{}
{d}+
F

d =
F
{}
{d}h d = 0 (14)
3
Substituting (9) into (6) and then pre-multiplying this equation with
F
{}
gives
{d} = [C] ({d}{d}
p
) = [C]
_
{d}
_
F
{}
_
T
d
_

F
{}
{d} =
F
{}
[C]
_
{d}
_
F
{}
_
T
d
_
(15)
By inserting the result of (15) in (14) the plastic multiplier can be determined in the following
way
dF =
F
{}
[C]
_
{d}
_
F
{}
_
T
d
_
h d = 0

F
{}
[C]{d} =
_
F
{}
[C]
_
F
{}
_
T
+h
_
d
d =
F
{}
[C]
F
{}
[C]
_
F
{}
_
T
+h
{d}
(16)
Then the result of d in (16) is inserted into (15)
{d} = [C]
_
{d}
_
F
{}
_
T
d
_
= [C
ep
]{d} =
_
_
_
[C]
[C]
_
F
{}
_
T
F
{}
[C]
F
{}
[C]
_
F
{}
_
T
+h
_
_
_
{d}
(17)
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5
4 Flowchart
Probably the simplest possible owchart for plasticity problems with isotropic hardening is
Stiffness matrix:
[K]
n
T
= [0]
For e = 1,ne
[k
e
]
n
T
= 0
For i = 1,ngauss
For j = 1,ngauss
If F({}
n1
,
n1
y
) < 0, [k
e
]
n
T
= [k
e
]
n
T
+W
i
W
j
t[B]
T
[C][B]|[J]|
If F({}
n1
,
n1
y
) 0, [k
e
]
n
T
= [k
e
]
n
T
+W
i
W
j
t[B]
T
[C
ep
({}
n1
,
n1
y
)][B]|[J]| using (17)
End loop
End loop
[K]
n
T
= [K]
n
T
+[k
e
]
n
T
End loop
Calculate change in displacements:
[K]
n
T
{D}
n
={P}
n
or optionally: [K]
n
T
{D}
n
={P}
n
+{P}
n1
correc
{D}
n
={D}
n
+{D}
n1
Updating the stresses and forces:
Optionally: {R
int
}
n
= 0
For e = 1,ne
Optionally: {r
e
int
}
n
= 0
For i = 1,ngauss
For j = 1,ngauss
{}
n
= [B]{d}
n
If F({}
n1
,
n1
y
) < 0 elastic: {}
n
= [C]{}
n
,
n
y
=
n1
y
If F({}
n1
,
n1
y
) 0 plastic:
n
({}
n1
, {}
n
) using (16)
{}
n
= [C]({}
n

_
F({}
n1
)
{}
_
T

n
),
If
n
0 :
n
y
=
n1
y
+h
n
using (12)
Endif
{}
n
={}
n
+{}
n1
Optionally: {r
e
int
}
n
={r
e
int
}
n
+W
i
W
j
t[B]
T
{}
n
|[J]|
End loop
End loop
Optionally: {R
int
}
n
={R
int
}
n
+{r
e
int
}
n
End loop
Optional correction term: {P}
n
correc
={P}
n
{R
int
}
n
End loop
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Note that the "optional" residual terms in the ow chart only will make a difference if one
uses the advanced plastic update scheme described below.
Alternatively, the stress can be updated using the plastic increment scheme described on
page 614 in the Cook book:
Updating the stresses and forces using plastic increment scheme:
For e = 1,ne
For i = 1,ngauss
For j = 1,ngauss
{}
n
= [B]{d}
n
and {}
trial
={}
n1
+[C]{}
n
If F({}
trial
,
n1
y
) < 0 elastic: {}
n
= [C]{}
n
,
n
y
=
n1
y
,
n
= 0
If F({}
trial
,
n1
y
) 0 :
n
({}
n1
, {}
n
) using (16)
If
n
({}
n1
, {}
n
) 0 elastic: {}
n
= [C]{}
n
,
n
y
=
n1
y
,
n
= 0
If
n
({}
n1
, {}
n
) > 0 plastic: {}
n
= [C]({}
n

_
F({}
n1
)
{}
_
T

n
),

n
y
=
n1
y
+h
n
using (12)
Endif
{}
n
={}
n
+{}
n1
End loop
End loop
End loop
and the stiffness matrix is then updated as on the previous page except that the lines
If F({}
n1
,
n1
y
) < 0, [k
e
]
n
T
= [k
e
]
n
T
+W
i
W
j
t[B]
T
[C][B]|[J]|
If F({}
n1
,
n1
y
) 0, [k
e
]
n
T
= [k
e
]
n
T
+W
i
W
j
t[B]
T
[C
ep
({}
n1
,
n1
y
)][B]|[J]| using (17)
are substituted with
If
n1
= 0, [k
e
]
n
T
= [k
e
]
n
T
+W
i
W
j
t[B]
T
[C][B]|[J]|
If
n1
> 0, [k
e
]
n
T
= [k
e
]
n
T
+W
i
W
j
t[B]
T
[C
ep
({}
n1
,
n1
y
)][B]|[J]| using (17)
You may also try to implement some of the more advanced schemes and/or kinematic hard-
ening as described in Chapter 17 of the Cook book.
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