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FEM-Heavy (41525)

Claus B. W. Pedersen and Ole Sigmund

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Solid Mechanics, Building 404

Technical University of Denmark

DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark

November 9, 2010

Abstract

These notes shall be seen as a supplement to the theory described in Sections 17.3-6

of the Cook book. We list the important equations for solving simple plasticity problems

explicitly and with isotropic hardening.

1 Force equilibrium

The principle of virtual work leads to the following result where the residual is dened by

{R}

n

={P}

n

{R

int

}

n

={0} where {R

int

}

n

=

V

0

[B]

T

{({},

p

)}

n

dV (1)

where the stress for load increment n is given by {}

n

={}

n1

+{}

n

. Note, that in (1) the

stress is also a function of the effective plastic strain

p

and not only the total strain {} as in the

elastic case. The vector {P} contains the external forces and {R

int

} contains the internal forces.

For solving (1) an explicit method will be applied, where the change in displacements {D}

n

for load increment n is determined using a Taylor expansion

[K]

T

{D}

n

={P}

n

and {D}

n

={D}

n

+{D}

n1

(2)

[K]

T

=

{R

int

}

n

{D}

n

=

{R

int

}

n

{}

n

{}

n

{D}

n

=

V

0

[B]

T

{}

n

{}

n

[B]dV =

V

0

[B]

T

[C

ep

][B]dV (3)

The important assumption in the explicit method when determining the elasto-plastic stiffness

[C

ep

] is that the following linear relation is valid if {

n

} is small enough,

{}

n

= [C

ep

(

n1

, (

p

)

n1

)]{}

n

and {}

n

={}

n

+{}

n1

(4)

where the stiffness [C

ep

(

n1

,

p n1

)] is determined based on the information from the previous

load increment n 1 and therefore independent upon the information in the load point n. For

obtaining a small {}

n

in (4) a small {P}

n

in (2) should be applied.

1

2 Constitutive law

For this 2D-continuum the stress and strain vectors are given by

{} =

_

_

_

11

22

2

12

_

_

_

and {} =

_

_

_

11

22

12

_

_

_

(5)

The relation between {} and {} will be shown in the next three sections.

2.1 Elastic constitutive law

The stresses can be determined using the elastic constitutive law

{d} = [C]{d}

e

= [C] ({d}{d}

p

) (6)

where the total {}, the elastic {}

e

and the plastic strains {}

p

are introduced. The plastic

strains are determined in section 2.2.

The elastic constitutive matrix for 2D "plane stress" law is given by

[C] =

E

1

2

_

_

1 0

1 0

0 0 (1)/2

_

_

(7)

In (7) it is assumed that d

13

= d

23

= 0.

2.2 Yield Function

The yield function F for 2D plane stress problems is given by (see also gure 1)

F({},

p

) =

e

y

(

p

) = 0

where

2

e

=

2

11

+

2

22

11

22

+

3

2

2

12

+

3

2

2

21

(8)

and

21

=

12

. There exists no solution outside F which means that F < 0 or F = 0.

Assuming that an associated ow rule is valid, then the plastic strains are given by the ow rule

{d}

p

=

_

_

_

d

11

d

22

2d

12

_

_

_

p

=

_

f

{}

_

T

d =

_

_

_

2

11

22

2

22

11

6

12

_

_

_

d

2

e

(9)

where is the plastic multiplier. If the material is elastic = 0 and if the material is elasto-

plastic > 0.

The effective plastic strain is dened as

d

p

= (

2

3

d

p

i j

d

p

i j

)

1

2

= (

2

3

(d

p

11

d

p

11

+d

p

22

d

p

22

+d

p

33

d

p

33

+2d

p

12

d

p

12

))

1

2

= d (10)

where the plastic strain {d}

p

33

is determined by {d}

p

11

+{d}

p

22

+{d}

p

33

= 0 because plastic

strains lead to no volume change of the structure.

2

11

22

d

E

E

t

y

Figure 1: Left: The yield surface and the expansion given d

y

. Right: Tensile test to determine the tangent modulus

E

t

so the hardening h can be found.

The above theory has to be complemented by appropriate loading and unloading conditions.

These are typically taken as

F < 0

or

F = 0 and = 0

_

_

- elastic material point

F = 0 and > 0 - elastoplastic material point

(11)

2.3 Isotropic Strain Hardening

The isotropic hardening of the yield stress

y

is assumed to be given by the following evolution

law (see also gure 1),

d

y

(

p

) = h d

p

= h d (12)

where the hardening h is constant and may be written as

d = d

e

+d

p

d

E

t

=

d

E

+

d

h

h =

E

t

E

E E

t

(13)

and the tangent modulus E

t

is assumed to be constant and can be found from a test curve, see

gure 1.

3 Solving the incremental system

In this section the equations for the plastic multiplier d and the matrix [E

ep

] in (3) will be

derived.

For a plastic increment dF must be equal to 0 in order to stay on the yield surface. The variation

in the yield function in (8) gives (by use of (12))

dF =

F

{}

{d}+

F

d

p

d

p

=

F

{}

{d}+

F

d =

F

{}

{d}h d = 0 (14)

3

Substituting (9) into (6) and then pre-multiplying this equation with

F

{}

gives

{d} = [C] ({d}{d}

p

) = [C]

_

{d}

_

F

{}

_

T

d

_

F

{}

{d} =

F

{}

[C]

_

{d}

_

F

{}

_

T

d

_

(15)

By inserting the result of (15) in (14) the plastic multiplier can be determined in the following

way

dF =

F

{}

[C]

_

{d}

_

F

{}

_

T

d

_

h d = 0

F

{}

[C]{d} =

_

F

{}

[C]

_

F

{}

_

T

+h

_

d

d =

F

{}

[C]

F

{}

[C]

_

F

{}

_

T

+h

{d}

(16)

Then the result of d in (16) is inserted into (15)

{d} = [C]

_

{d}

_

F

{}

_

T

d

_

= [C

ep

]{d} =

_

_

_

[C]

[C]

_

F

{}

_

T

F

{}

[C]

F

{}

[C]

_

F

{}

_

T

+h

_

_

_

{d}

(17)

4

5

4 Flowchart

Probably the simplest possible owchart for plasticity problems with isotropic hardening is

For load increment n = 1,nloads

Stiffness matrix:

[K]

n

T

= [0]

For e = 1,ne

[k

e

]

n

T

= 0

For i = 1,ngauss

For j = 1,ngauss

If F({}

n1

,

n1

y

) < 0, [k

e

]

n

T

= [k

e

]

n

T

+W

i

W

j

t[B]

T

[C][B]|[J]|

If F({}

n1

,

n1

y

) 0, [k

e

]

n

T

= [k

e

]

n

T

+W

i

W

j

t[B]

T

[C

ep

({}

n1

,

n1

y

)][B]|[J]| using (17)

End loop

End loop

[K]

n

T

= [K]

n

T

+[k

e

]

n

T

End loop

Calculate change in displacements:

[K]

n

T

{D}

n

={P}

n

or optionally: [K]

n

T

{D}

n

={P}

n

+{P}

n1

correc

{D}

n

={D}

n

+{D}

n1

Updating the stresses and forces:

Optionally: {R

int

}

n

= 0

For e = 1,ne

Optionally: {r

e

int

}

n

= 0

For i = 1,ngauss

For j = 1,ngauss

{}

n

= [B]{d}

n

If F({}

n1

,

n1

y

) < 0 elastic: {}

n

= [C]{}

n

,

n

y

=

n1

y

If F({}

n1

,

n1

y

) 0 plastic:

n

({}

n1

, {}

n

) using (16)

{}

n

= [C]({}

n

_

F({}

n1

)

{}

_

T

n

),

If

n

0 :

n

y

=

n1

y

+h

n

using (12)

Endif

{}

n

={}

n

+{}

n1

Optionally: {r

e

int

}

n

={r

e

int

}

n

+W

i

W

j

t[B]

T

{}

n

|[J]|

End loop

End loop

Optionally: {R

int

}

n

={R

int

}

n

+{r

e

int

}

n

End loop

Optional correction term: {P}

n

correc

={P}

n

{R

int

}

n

End loop

6

Note that the "optional" residual terms in the ow chart only will make a difference if one

uses the advanced plastic update scheme described below.

Alternatively, the stress can be updated using the plastic increment scheme described on

page 614 in the Cook book:

Updating the stresses and forces using plastic increment scheme:

For e = 1,ne

For i = 1,ngauss

For j = 1,ngauss

{}

n

= [B]{d}

n

and {}

trial

={}

n1

+[C]{}

n

If F({}

trial

,

n1

y

) < 0 elastic: {}

n

= [C]{}

n

,

n

y

=

n1

y

,

n

= 0

If F({}

trial

,

n1

y

) 0 :

n

({}

n1

, {}

n

) using (16)

If

n

({}

n1

, {}

n

) 0 elastic: {}

n

= [C]{}

n

,

n

y

=

n1

y

,

n

= 0

If

n

({}

n1

, {}

n

) > 0 plastic: {}

n

= [C]({}

n

_

F({}

n1

)

{}

_

T

n

),

n

y

=

n1

y

+h

n

using (12)

Endif

{}

n

={}

n

+{}

n1

End loop

End loop

End loop

and the stiffness matrix is then updated as on the previous page except that the lines

If F({}

n1

,

n1

y

) < 0, [k

e

]

n

T

= [k

e

]

n

T

+W

i

W

j

t[B]

T

[C][B]|[J]|

If F({}

n1

,

n1

y

) 0, [k

e

]

n

T

= [k

e

]

n

T

+W

i

W

j

t[B]

T

[C

ep

({}

n1

,

n1

y

)][B]|[J]| using (17)

are substituted with

If

n1

= 0, [k

e

]

n

T

= [k

e

]

n

T

+W

i

W

j

t[B]

T

[C][B]|[J]|

If

n1

> 0, [k

e

]

n

T

= [k

e

]

n

T

+W

i

W

j

t[B]

T

[C

ep

({}

n1

,

n1

y

)][B]|[J]| using (17)

You may also try to implement some of the more advanced schemes and/or kinematic hard-

ening as described in Chapter 17 of the Cook book.

7

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