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: flow rate, cm

3

/s

: cross sectional area, cm

2

: system length, cm

: differential pressure in L-direction, atm

: permeability, Darcy

: fluid viscosity at system T, cp

Darcys Law:

eservoir roc! is typically composed of consolidated sand grains "sandstone# or

carbonate roc! with fissures$ The networ! of pores defines a complicated system of

varying pore shape, diameter and orientation$ %seful predictions about the flow within

dL

dP k

A

q

v $

= =

the reservoir can be obtained by modelling the networ! as an array of cylindrical pores of

fi&ed diameter$

'n the simplest situation we consider steady, one-dimensional flow within an

undersaturated oil reservoir$ The following assumptions can be made regarding the flow:

(# )ince the oil is undersaturated, a gas phase is not present$ *or this simplified

analysis, it is assumed that no water is present$ Therefore, the flow has a single-

phase$

2# The undersaturated oil is assumed to behave as an incompressible fluid$

3# *low occurs only in the radial direction and is therefore one-dimensional$ 'n

addition, the characteristics of reservoir roc! are assumed constant for all

orientations$

+# The flow is assumed to be at steady state$

,# The pore si-e is small such that the eynolds .umber is small and the flow is

laminar$ /onversely, the pore si-e is large compared to the mean free path of a

molecule such that the no-slip assumption applies$

0# The fluid e&hibits .ewtonian behavior$

/onsider the case of a one-dimensional "--wise# flow through a single pore:

1e can write the differential mechanical energy balance for this flow:

The wall shear stress for laminar flow with a .ewtonian fluid is:

/ombining the e2uations:

Darcy3s Law is typically e&pressed as a partial differential e2uation:

4ne dimensional in 567 direction

The superficial velocity, %

s

, is defined as the average fluid velocity over a unit cross-

sectional area perpendicular to the coordinate a&is of interest:

%

s

is not the physical velocity of the fluid$

't is only used to represent the velocity form of the volumetric flow rate$

8 relationship between the interstitial and superficial velocities can be obtained using the

porosity:

*inally, we can combine the 9echanical :nergy ;alance and Darcy3s Law e2uations to

obtain an e2uation for permeability:

Volumetric Flow equation for the Simplified System:

<olumetric flow towards the well will be considered positive by convention$ /onsider

the following simplified well:

*or this analysis, we assume that the variation in flow in the vertical and a-imuthal

direction is negligible compared to the radial direction:

Darcy3s law for a hori-ontal, one-dimensional flow in radial coordinates can be written

as:

/onsider the area defined by radius =r3:

;ased on our definition for positive flow:

/ombining with Darcy3s Law we obtain:

This e2uation can be integrated to give the volumetric flow e2uation:

*or pressure at any radius r based on r

w

"the well radius#:

8s discussed earlier, the typical oil field units are:

2

o

> )T;/day

! > md ?millidarcies@

r

e

, r

w

, h > ft

A

e

, A

wf

> psi

BC > cA ?centipoise@

%sing these units we obtain:

8nd in terms of the pressure e2uation:

:&le calculation:

Determine the drainage radius "r

e

# and the radius at which D of the pressure drop in the

reservoir occurs for the following data:

A

e

> 3EEE psi A

wf

> 0EE psi h > (E =

! > (EE md > ( cA r

w

> +7

2

o

> (F0E )T;/day ;

o

> ($2 ;/)T;

r

e

> 0FE ft

r

D

A

> (, ft

4bservations: The radius where half of the pressure drop occurs "here (, ft# is a

benchmar! used in industry$ *or the e&le considered, the remaining half of the

pressure drop occurs over a radial distance of 00, ft$ This emphasi-es the importance of

ensuring no damage occurs to the formation region closest to the well$ 't should be noted

that the entire flow from the reservoir is concentrated in the small area associated with

the wellbore region, ultimately increasing the magnitude of the pressure loss "where 2

l

is

constant but u

s

varies with cross-sectional area#$

Reservoir Pressure Curve for Example

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750

radius (ft)

R

e

s

e

r

v

o

i

r

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

(

p

s

i

)

r

e

P

wf

P

e

r

w

Reservoirs with on!"omo#eneous $ermea%ility:

<ertically .on-Gomogeneous Aermeability:

adially .on-Gomogeneous Aermeability:

$ermea%ility variation in the near well%ore re#ion:

The flow rate from reservoir is very sensitive to variation of permeabilities in the near

wellbore region$

Three approaches to address this point:

(# )!in effect

2# :ffective wellbore radius

3# Gaw!in3s formula

local permeability H natural reservoir permeability damaged formation

local permeability I natural reservoir permeability stimulated formation

S&in Effect:

)ince the pressure drop within the well is a logarithmic function of radial distance from

the well, the reservoir region closest to the well is a strong determinant of the magnitude

of the overall well pressure drop$ 1e can define an ideal pressure curve which is

associated with a uniform permeability throughout the reservoir$ Deviations from the

ideal radial pressure profile in the near well-bore region can be incorporated into the flow

e2uation using an additive =pressure drop3 term with a parameter !nown as the s!in

effect, )$

This term can be combined with the ideal pressure drop term to give the following

e2uations:

8t the drainage radius: "the limiting radius for the region of constant pressure boundary#

'n oilfield units:

The s!in effect pressure drop can have either a positive or negative value:

Aositive ) and A

s

: This is an undesirable effect since it reduces the flow from the well$

There are several causes that result in a positive s!in effect value:

partial well completion "perforation height less than reservoir height#

inade2uate number of perforations

generation of a gas fraction during flow through the well "causing a localised

restriction of the flow#

damage to the natural reservoir roc! in the near well-bore region

.egative ) and A

s

: .egative values are desirable and can be obtained through:

matri& stimulation in the near well-bore region resulting in higher permeability than

in the natural formation

induced fracturing in the reservoir with the effect of reducing the resistance to the

flow within the reservoir$

Typical <alues: ) > , "highly damaged well#

) > -, "highly stimulated well#

:ffective 1ellbore adius:

Areviously, we defined the concept of treating the pressure change associated with the

s!in effect as an additive pressure drop term giving the following e2uation for overall

reservoir pressure drop:

/onsider the group:

Then

8nd: r3

w

> effective wellbore radius

'n effect, we model the well such that the s!in effect pressure loss is incorporated into the

overall reservoir pressure drop e2uation by modifying the wellbore radius$ 't is important

to remember that this is a model which provides the correct overall pressure drop$ The

effective well diameter does not represent the actual diameter in the well$ ;ased on the

typical conditions we obtain the following effective wellbore diameters:

Damaged well r3

w

Hr

w

)timulated well r3

w I

r

w

Gaw!in3s *ormula:

Gaw!ins "(J,0# developed a formula which incorporated parameters more relevant to the

effected near well-bore region: r

s

represents the radius of the region, and !

s

represents the

average permeability of the effected region$

/onsider the following system with the associated pressure profile:

K # Lln"

2

s

r

r

hk

q

p p

w

e

wf e

+ =

s

r

r

w

e

+ # ln"

# ln"

s

e s =

s

w w

w

e

s

w

e s

w

e

w

e

e r r

r

r

e r

r

e

r

r

s

r

r

1e define two pressure drop values relative to the limiting s!in pressure A

s

:

'deal: based on the permeability of the natural reservoir roc!, !

eal: based on actual permeability in the near well-bore region, !

s

:

)ubtracting the real pressure loss from the ideal we obtain the s!in effect pressure drop:

)ubstituting with our previous e2uation for the s!in effect pressure drop:

This approach attempts to model the relative effects of permeability impairment and the

penetration of the damage$

# ln"

2

# ln"

2

# " # "

, ,

w

s

w

s

s

real wf s real wf s s

r

r

kh

q

r

r

h k

q

p p p p p

= =

s

kh

q

p

s

2

=

# ln" # ( "

w

s

s

r

r

k

k

s =

$roductivity 'ndex ()*:

8 !ey concern of the production engineer is to ma&imi-e the production rates "profit#

through the use of the minimum pressure drop "cost#$ This concept is captured in the

parameter called productivity inde&$

overall pressure drop > drawdown > driving force > A

e

M A

wf

> ?psi@

production rate > volumetric flow at surface > 2o ?)T;/day@

productivity inde&:

*or a fi&ed drainage pressure A

e

:

Alot p

wf

versus 2

o

, draw a straight line, the slope is "-(/N# and intercept is p

e

*or fi&ed fluid and reservoir characteristics, the inde& line is followed and the production

rate can be increased by reducing A

wf

, the pressure at the wellbore$ This can be

accomplished by incurring additional costs$ *or e&le, mechanical lift "pumping#

could be introduced$

*or a specific reservoir, N can be increased by:

- reducing the viscosity "e&$ miscible or thermal recovery methods# or

- reducing s "e&$ stimulation or fracturing#

K # / Lln" 2 $ (+( s r r B

hk

p p

q

J

w e wf e

o

+

=

e o wf

p q

J

p + = #

(

"

K # / Lln" 2 $ (+( s r r B

hk

J

w e

+

=

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